Page 1

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

TZINEVRAKIS

Secondary 5

Skills 2

The writing courses meet the needs of teachers and students following the Diversified Basic Education Program for English as a Second Language, even in the context of multilevel classrooms.

THE SUPPLEMENTARY WRITING COURSES INCLUDE TWO WORKBOOKS ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Secondary 5

WRITING SKILLS IIÂ ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Writing

Through a variety of real-life situations, the supplementary writing courses in the Connecting Doors series lead students to explore the features, purposes and target audiences of different text types. While integrating grammar, listening, speaking and vocabulary-building activities, students are guided through a process that allows them to write realistic, well-organized texts, such as formal letters, personal journals, instructions, notes, emails and blogs.

Student Workbook

GIBBS

CONNECTING

Secondary 5

Student Workbook

CONNECTING

Writing

ANG-5105-1 Project Supervisor

Charles Gibbs

Skills 2

Antonia Tzinevrakis

Course Giving Supplementary Credits in a Second Language

Student Workbook

CONNECTING

Writing

ANG-5104-1 Project Supervisor

Charles Gibbs

ANG-5105-1

Skills 1

Alison Longstaff

Course Giving Supplementary Credits in a Second Language

PRODUCT CODE 4625 ISBN 978-2-7655-4106-6

ANG-5104-1

ANG-5105-1

Writing Skills I

Writing Skills II

CONNECTING

COMPLIES WITH THE PROGRAM IN THE NEW CURRICULUM

www.grandducenligne.com

COMPLIES WITH THE PROGRAM IN THE NEW CURRICULUM


Table of Contents

LEARNING SITUATION 1

Here’s How to Do It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

Scenario 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus on Strategies – Planning Steps Related to Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: A Sample Insurance Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Verbs Followed by Gerunds and Infinitives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: Understanding the Description of an Incident . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Writing Task 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scenario 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Understanding Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Writing Task 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 3 4 8 10 12 13 14 16 17

LEARNING SITUATION 2

It Was Memorable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus on Strategies – Rephrasing and Simplifying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: Summarizing a Movie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Review of Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: Understanding and Supporting Points of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Review of Capitalization Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Writing Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20 22 24 27 29 31 32 33 35

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Table of Contents

III


LEARNING SITUATION 3

The Digital Public Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus on Strategies – Making Transfers to New Contexts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: Understanding and Supporting Points of View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Active and Passive Voices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: Writing a Persuasive Essay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Understanding Reasons and Convincing Others . . . . . . . . . . Final Writing Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

38 39 41 43 45 47 51 53

LEARNING SITUATION 4

IV

Applying for a Small Business Grant . . . . . . . . . . .

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Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus on Strategies – Reorganizing Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: Evaluating Cover Letters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Pronoun-Gender Agreement with Antecedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: The Demands of Starting Your Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Subordinating Conjunctions of Cause/Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Adverbs of Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Getting Help to Finance a Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Writing Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

52 47 58 61 64 67 68 69 71 73

GRAMMAR REVIEW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Learning Situation 3

THE DIGITAL PUBLIC FORUM IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION… You will read about some environmental issues facing our society and our world – in particular, the problem of food waste, the loss of animal wildlife habitat and the overuse of plastics. The information you gather will help you form and voice your opinion on these issues. You will then write a persuasive essay informing people about an issue and encouraging them to take action in some way.

Summary of learning outcomes: understand and respond to oral and written reports on environmental issues understand and respond to different viewpoints expressed orally and in writing write a persuasive essay identifying and supporting a point of view on an issue practise the strategy Making Transfers to New Contexts review the active and passive voices review words that connect ideas

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Scenario You are interested in the idea of digital citizenship: how Internet users can create online communi-ties with the goal of raising awareness about various issues and promoting civic action. You have been following a few online groups devoted to environmental issues from around the world. This has inspired you to write and submit an essay of your own.

After doing some research on a subject of your choice, you will participate in this Digital Public Forum by expressing your opinion and supporting it with factual information. You will also try to persuade others to act in a way that you think is necessary for our collective future.

WRITING TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE  As you go through the activities in this learning situation, you can add notes (important points, in-formation, keywords, etc.) to this chart to help you organize your ideas. These notes will be useful when you write your persuasive essay on page x. a) Issue: (problem or situation)

b) Summary of my opinion on the issue:

c) Facts supporting my opinion

d) Examples supporting my opinion:

e) Counter argument: (The opposing viewpoint and why you don’t agree) f) Call to action: (What people can do)

g) Useful words or expressions:

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Making Transfers to New Contexts The strategy Making Transfers to New Contexts involves transferring knowledge you have gained from one task to a new and different situation. For example, the vocabulary, grammar and writing skills you developed while writing an article on one topic can be transferred to writing an essay on a different topic. Similar techniques can be used in both types of texts, such as:

Focus on Strategie

• brainstorming ideas before choosing a topic • doing research to find information • taking a position on an issue • organizing your ideas • using persuasive language • using transitional words to connect ideas • revising and proofreading your text

STRATEGY PRACTICE Read both texts on the next page. They were written by the same author. She used the strategy Making Transfers to New Contexts by modeling her text about eating meat on a previous text she had written about dog owners. For each writing technique listed in the chart below, put a checkmark ( ) under the Yes column if you think the author used this technique in both texts. If not, put a checkmark under the No column. WRITING TECHNIQUE

YES

NO

a) The structure is similar (beginning – middle – end). b) The author clearly states an opinion. c) Facts (such as statistics) are used to support an opinion. d) Examples are used to support an opinion. e) Transitional words and expressions are used to connect ideas. f) Modals (could, should) are used to encourage action.

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STRATEGY PRACTICE (continued)

Text #1 Every day, we see dogs being walked by their owners. It is a great joy to own a dog and a pleasure to see them playing. It is evident that many dog owners are very responsible and always clean up after their pets. However, not all dog owners are as respectful of public spaces. New research has demonstrated that 40% of dog walkers do not clean up after their pets. Clearly, we need to take action in order to maintain the cleanliness of our streets and parks. Some cities have imposed fines of up to $500 every time a person is caught not cleaning up their dog’s mess. This has proven to be effective in controlling the problem. Therefore, the same law should be enacted in our city. We would all be better for it.

Text #2 People must stop eating meat. New research has demonstrated that the widespread adoption of vegetarian and vegan diets could save millions of lives as well as billions of dollars. Clearly, we need to act now. Although it is evident that not everyone is ready to make this change, studies have shown that reducing meat consumption could help avoid more than eight million deaths by 2050. It is a fact that livestock account for 14% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Experts say a vegetarian or vegan diet could cut those emissions by 70%. Therefore, the environmentally responsible thing to do is to eliminate, or at least reduce, our consumption of meat.

VOCABULARY demonstrate cleanliness  clean

40

BOX to show state of being

Learning Situation 3 – The Digital Public Forum

fines to pay money as punishment enact 

enforce, impose

widespread common

popular,

livestock animals for meat consumption

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Activity 1 UNDERSTANDING AND SUPPORTING POINTS OF VIEW In an age in which many people do not have enough to eat, people are becoming more aware of the problem of wasting food. You would like to convince others to make more of an effort to avoid wasting food.

A

PLAN

1. Is food waste something you think about? Why or why not?

2. What do you think are some reasons why people throw food out?

3. What kinds of food do you think people waste most?

4. Can you think of any solutions to this problem?

B

La classe numérique

USE

8

Johanna Wright is host of a radio talk show. Today, she is interviewing her guest, Robin Deschamps, who is an authority on the subject of food waste.

s

j

r

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

1. Listen to the radio interview. 2. Summarize the guest’s opinion on the topic of food waste.

3. Listen to the radio program again. Fill in the table on the next page with the guest’s suggestions and the radio host’s reactions to each suggestion.

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Radio Program Recording SUGGESTIONS FOR REDUCING FOOD WASTE:

VOCABULARY to waste aware 

BOX

to discard/throw out

to be conscious

wrapping a cover (in paper, plastic, etc.)

C

THE RADIO HOST’S OPINION OR REACTION:

decay spoil 

to decompose

stem

to go bad (food)

tip

expiry date day after which food may not be fit to eat

ripe

he trunk or stalk of a plant advice/suggestion ready to eat

to overuse

to use excessively

REINVEST

Do a web search to find more information about the problem of food waste and suggestions on how to reduce it. You could take notes about: •

The best types of containers to preserve food

Foods that do not need refrigeration

The advantage of freezing food

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GRAMMAR

Active and Passive Voices Sentences can have a passive or active form. The difference is the agent of action. Who or what is doing the action? Who or what is receiving the action?

ACTIVE FORM In an active sentence, the subject (the person or thing doing the action) goes before the verb. The object (receiving the action) goes after the verb. Most sentences are structured in the active form (subject + verb + object). (person or thing doing the action)

The restaurant donates food.

(person or thing receiving the action)

subject + verb + object (S + V + O)

PASSIVE FORM In a passive sentence, the subject goes after the verb. The sentence begins with the object receiving the action, followed by the verb to be and the main verb in the past participle form, and the preposition by. (verb to be)

(past participle of the main verb donate + by)

(object: person or thing receiving the action)

Food was donated by the restaurant.

(subject: person or thing doing the action)

object + to be + main verb (past participle) + by + subject (O + to be + past participle + by + S) The passive form is used to emphasize the action. It is often more polite to use the passive voice in a sentence (for example, if you don’t want to blame someone for a situation). Tons of food is thrown out! more emphasis on the action of throwing out food People throw out tons of food! more emphasis on the people who are responsible

A past participle is formed by adding –ed to the base form of a regular verb. See page x for a list of past participles of irregular verbs. It is not always necessary to mention the person or thing doing the action (if this information is already known or is not important). You could say:

The passive voice can be formed using all verb tenses and modals. The following table shows how it is formed in the simple present, present perfect, present progressive, simple past and future tenses, as well as using modals. Only the verb to be is conjugated in the sentence. The main verb is always a past participle. Modals do not change form, either. ACTIVE VOICE (S + V + O)

VERB TENSE simple present

Alain

modals (can, could, would, should)

People

present perfect

She

present progressive

The journalist

simple past

They

future

He

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Food was donated.

PASSIVE VOICE (O + TO BE + PAST PARTICIPLE + BY + S)

food.

Food

the practice. a suggestion.

the news. it tomorrow.

by Alain.

The practice should A suggestion

a great article. A great article

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Note

The news It

by people. by her. by the journalist. by them. by him tomorrow.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1. Read the text below. Circle all the verbs in the passive voice. Food Waste It is estimated that one-third of the food that is grown annually for human consumption is never eaten. At best, it’s composted, but for one reason or another, it often ends up in the garbage. In Canada, 170 kg per person (or 3.5 million tonnes) of food is dumped every year. At the same time, there are millions of people around the world who do not have enough to eat. Solving the problem of food waste requires a change in the way food is bought, how it is cooked and what is recycled. A lot of food is being sent to landfills, a practice that must be stopped. When food ends up in landfill sites, it decomposes and, in the process, methane is produced. Studies have been conducted by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization on the links between food waste and methane. These studies indicate that spoiled food is responsible for 8% of yearly greenhouse gas emissions. If food cannot be recycled to feed people or livestock, it can be used to generate energy through a process called anaerobic digestion.

2. Identify the verb tense used in the following sentences (simple present, present perfect, present progressive, simple past or future). Then, change each sentence from the active to the passive voice using the same verb tense.

Example

Many chefs use all the food.

Simple Present

All the food is used by many chefs.

a) In the past, farmers conserved much of their crop.

b) They have changed their plans due to weather conditions.

c) My mother will make apple sauce.

d) The company sent the proposal yesterday.

e) The food bank receives many baskets every year.

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Activity 2 WRITING A PERSUASIVE ESSAY A great persuasive essay convinces the reader that your opinion on a given topic is correct. In this activity, you will read an example of a persuasive essay on the topic of drilling for oil in the Arctic.

A

PLAN

Read the following features of a persuasive essay. In what order do you think they should appear in the text? Write numbers 1 to 5 beside each feature.   Provide evidence for your opinion.   Conclude with a call to action.   Introduce the subject and state your opinion.   Identify and refute opposing views.   Choose a title.

B

USE

1. Read the persuasive essay on the next page. 2. Label each square in the text with one of the five text features listed in Part A above. 3. Highlight (le mot est surligné) the information that allows you to identify the text feature in each paragraph.

4. Answer the following questions: a) What are some animals that reside in the Arctic?

b) Why are oil companies interested in drilling in the area?

c) According to the companies, what are some benefits of drilling for oil in the area?

d) What are some concerns among environmentalists?

e) What does the author of this essay think is the best solution?

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To Drill or Not to Drill The Arctic is an expansive area home to polar bears, wolves, moose, caribou, foxes, grizzlies, musk oxen and migratory birds, both in Canada and northern Alaska of the United States. Some people would like to explore for oil reserves in the Arctic. That should not be allowed in this area of the world. Environmentalists are afraid that drilling would negatively affect the habitat of diverse animal species. In particular, it would disturb the migration of more than 130,000 caribou. Every spring, the caribou travel 400 miles to get to the coastal plain in order to give birth because there are fewer predators in this area. Some leaders in the oil industry are certain that this area is the perfect location for the extraction of oil. They believe that everyone will benefit from oil development. In their opinion, it will help reduce fuel prices and decrease our need for oil from other countries. Unfortunately, they have not taken the wildlife into consideration. In addition, experts also say that the oil available in this area represents no more than a six-month supply. Is it really worth risking what will happen to this wildlife for such a small amount of oil? Instead of drilling for more oil, I believe we should aim at decreasing our need for oil altogether, by becoming less dependent on fossil fuels. We must all work together to develop the renewable resources that can be used to produce energy. By relying on renewable energy, we will be able to preserve wildlife around the world, including that of the Arctic.

VOCABULARY

animals

miwildlife in nature reduce 

BOX

decrease

drilling digging (in ground) to be worth  advantageous

C

to be

REINVEST

Do more research on the topic of oil drilling and its consequences in the Arctic or elsewhere. Then, write a summary of your thoughts and ideas below. You could use this topic for your final writing task on page x.

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Activity 3 UNDERSTANDING REASONS AND CONVINCING OTHERS Our society uses plastic everywhere. We have become dependent on plastic as a convenient and safe way of packaging food and other products. However, plastic materials are also responsible for polluting the world’s oceans and causing significant harm to wildlife. In this activity, you will gather information in order to form an opinion, and then justify your viewpoint on the subject.

A

PLAN

1. What are some personal items you use daily that are made of plastic?

2. Do you try to reduce your use of plastic? How?

3. Do you think it’s possible for our society to stop using plastic, completely? Why or why not?

B

USE

1. Read the articles The Advantages of Plastic and No More Plastic on the next two pages.

2. Complete the chart on page x with information from the articles.

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The Advantages of Plastic Plastic is now everywhere you look. Have you ever wondered why it has become such a popular material? Let’s explore some reasons for the widespread use of plastic. One of the biggest advantages of plastic is that it is lightweight and malleable. For instance, it’s very easy to carry your purchased items in a plastic bag after you have finished shopping. Another benefit is that it’s inexpensive to make. While there are surely other materials that are as strong and as versatile as plastic, they are costly to produce. Because plastic is so inexpensive to make, it is widely produced. The durability of plastic is another of its advantages. It’s tough, resistant and has excellent shock absorption qualities. Cars are safer than before thanks to plastic. For instance, plastic bumpers absorb shock, plastic fuel tanks minimize the risk of explosion and plastic dashboards and door panels are more resistant to impact. Plastic containers or plates, cups and bowls can be used over and over. Many plastics can be recycled. They can be melted down to oil or fuel, but scientists are still working on a process to make this more efficient. Plastic can be easily transformed by applying heat and pressure. Plastic is almost completely odorless and is quite resistant to odor absorption from food and drinks. Some people, however, object to drinking or eating from plastic dishes because of a slight odor it gives out, or because of negative associations they make with plastic in general. Plastic is also heatresistant. Picking up your pot or pan is much less dangerous thanks to the plastic handle. It can also be transparent, making it easier to see what’s inside your bag or container. Furthermore, plastic is a great material to use in electronic devices, because it doesn’t conduct electricity. This is why many kitchen appliances, computers, TVs and other items are partly made of plastic. The many positive attributes of plastic explain its popularity as a multi-purpose material.

VOCABULARY malleable lightweight  costly 

48

BOX

can bend easily not heavy

expensive

Learning Situation 3 – The Digital Public Forum

inexpensive tough  fuel 

not expensive

resistant gas

over and over odorless 

again and again

without odor

conduct electricity to allow the flow of electrical current

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No More Plastic Though you may not be ready to live without plastic just yet, there are some things you can do to substantially reduce the amount of disposable plastic you use in everyday life. Recycling can help reduce the amount of garbage that ends up in landfills, waterways and ecosystems. However, not all plastic can be recycled by all municipal governments. Only a small amount does get recycled, and the process requires a lot of energy and water. Plastic garbage that ends up in landfills and oceans takes hundreds of years to biodegrade. There is also great concern about the toxins it releases into the environment. The use of plastic has become so widespread that cutting it out completely might seem impossible, yet people are more and more aware of the environmental issues surrounding the use of plastic. There are some very simple ways of doing our share to reduce the use of plastic. You can start by bringing your own reusable bag when you go shopping. Somewhere between five hundred billion and one trillion plastic bags are used around the world each year, creating a huge environmental impact. Some governments have implemented policies to encourage people to stop using disposable plastic bags. Additionally, to dissuade the public from using plastic bags, some retailers charge a fee for them. When it comes to drinks, you can reduce your reliance on plastic water bottles by simply keeping a refillable bottle handy. Bringing your own cup for coffee is another way you can reduce your plastic footprint. Even though some disposable cups might look like paper, they are lined with polyethylene, a type of plastic. You have to consider the plastic lids and stir sticks as well. Another example is the single-use plastic straw that is not even necessary for drinking, most of the time. Most household plastic waste comes from the kitchen. Plastic baggies, wrap and storage containers can be eliminated. Instead of using sandwich baggies, why not pack your lunch in a reusable container? Another good way to reduce packaging waste is to bring your own jars and containers to bulk stores. Some food distributors have even started to offer bulk filling stations. As far as recycling goes, cardboard and other paper products are preferable to plastic, as they biodegrade more quickly. So, choosing pasta in a box rather than in a bag or detergent in a box instead of a bottle shows more environmental awareness.

VOCABULARY require degrade 

BOX

to need to decompose

release

to let go

policies

regulations

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retailer

store

refillable can be filled many times disposable 

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single usage

lined

covered on the inside

polyethylene lid 

type of plastic

cover

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Complete the following chart with information from the two texts. POSITIVE ASPECTS OF PLASTIC

NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF PLASTIC

Initial production:

During use:

After use:

Government policies to control the use of plastics: Retailers’ efforts to control the use of plastics: Personal actions to control the use of plastics:

C

REINVEST

Do a web search and take notes on the topic of plastic. This could be your topic for the final writing task. Here are some ideas for notes: a) Suggest how we could replace commonly used items made of plastic. b) Find government policies that could be introduced to reduce the use of plastic. c) Identify what happens to disposable plastic that is not recycled.

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final writing task Now it’s your turn to contribute to the Digital Public Forum. Write a persuasive essay of 200-250 words. You can write about one of the topics presented in this learning situation – the problems surrounding food waste, loss of animal habitat or overuse of plastics – or do research on another topic. Remember to: •

Use the structure of a persuasive essay: – Choose a title – Introduce the subject and state your opinion – Support your opinion with facts – Identify and refute opposing views – End with a call to action

Use information from the texts in this learning situation, as well as from your own web searches. Review the notes you took on page x to help organize your ideas.

Be persuasive. Your goal is to convince people that your contribution to the Digital Public Forum is valid.

Use transitional words to connect ideas (see the chart below and page x for more examples)

Revise and proofread your text for correct spelling, grammar and vocabulary. TRANSITIONAL WORD

MEANING AND PLACEMENT

PLACEMENT IN A SENTENCE

EXAMPLE

besides

adds a new fact to an argument

is often the first word

Besides, you want to go as well.

however

introduces a contrasting fact

can be the first word or in the middle, separated by commas

The government, however, doesn’t agree.

whereas

contrasts one fact with another

is often placed in the middle

The chairperson voted in favour, whereas most committee members voted against the proposal.

furthermore

introduces a new idea that supports an argument

is often the first word

Furthermore, Arctic drilling could endanger wildlife in the area.

therefore

shows a logical connection between ideas

is often the first word

Therefore, we should ban the use of plastic straws.

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your text

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review 1. PASSIVE AND ACTIVE VOICE

  Change each of the following sentences from the active to the passive voice. First, identify the verb tense in the original sentence: the present, past, present perfect or future tense. Then, change the sentence to the passive voice using the same verb tense. a) Many organizations deliver food to food banks.

b) That company has recycled a lot of plastic.

c) Most people understood the seriousness of the situation.

d) Food banks will help many families.

e) Plastic has filled our oceans and landfills.

f) Many restaurants toss food out every day.

g) Some retailers sell bags to customers.

h) My neighbours compost leftover food.

i) Chefs will prepare meals for people in need.

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The Digital Public Forum – Learning Situation 3

53


2. In the following sentences, add the appropriate transition word (besides, however, whereas, furthermore, therefore) to connect the ideas. a) Microplastics are polluting our lakes, rivers and oceans.

,

we must try to reduce our use of plastic. b) Food waste is a big issue in today’s society.

, there is some

good news: people are becoming more aware of the problem every day. c) Drilling for oil in the Arctic is likely to create habitat loss for many animal species. , increased emissions will contribute to climate change. d) We should ban plastic straws because they are polluting the oceans. , they are not necessary. e) The municipality is responsible for small local parks,

other

governments are responsible for larger parks.

Self-Evaluation 1 Read the following statements. Check ( ) the box that shows how you feel.

YES NO

a) I can understand informative texts on environmental issues.

b) I can express my opinion on different issues.

c) I can write a persuasive essay in English.

d) I can use the active and passive voice.

e) I can use transitional words to connect ideas.

2 Did the strategy Making Transfers to New Contexts help me accomplish the final task?  Yes

 No

 Sometimes

How can I improve on this strategy?

3 What did I enjoy most about this learning situation?

4 What was difficult about this learning situation?

54

Learning Situation 3 – The Digital Public Forum

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glossary A

as far as (recycling) goes

en ce qui concerne (le recyclage)

above

au-dessus

assertive

de manière assurée

accomplish (to)

accomplir

assess (to)

évaluer

according to

selon

asset

atout

accurately

précisément

assigned (to be)

être désigné(e)

achieve (to)

accomplir

attract (to)

attire

act (to)

agir

attribute

caractéristique

activist

militant(e)

avoid (to)

éviter

add (to)

ajouter

aware (to be)

être averti(e) ; conscient(e)

additionally

de plus

awful

terrible

advance (in)

à l’avance

advantage

avantage

advertised (to be)

être annoncé(e)

advice

conseil

age (an)

une époque

agree (to)

se mettre d’accord

aim (to)

viser

allow (to)

permettre

ally

allié(e)

almost

presque

altogether

complètement

always

toujours

among

parmi

amount

montant

annually

B Bachelor’s degree

baccalauréat

baggie

sac pour sandwich

bakery

boulangerie

barely

à peine

basement

sous-sol

basket

panier

bass sound

son de basse

beautiful

beau, belle

beauty care

soins de la beauté

become (to)

devenir

bedding

linge de lit

begin (to)

commencer

annuellement

behalf (on his or her behalf)

en son nom

another

un(e) autre

behind

derrière

anytime

n’importe quand

belongings

objets personnels

appliance

appareil électroménager

below

en-dessous

application

demande

benefit ; to benefit

avantage ; profiter

apply (to)

faire une demande

beside

à côté de

area

domaine ; région

besides

de toute façon

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Glossary

81


best-seller list

meilleur vendeur

circle (to)

encercler

better (we would all be better for it)

ce serait mieux pour tout le monde

citizenship (digital citizenship)

citoyenneté numérique

billion

milliard

civic action

action civique

bin (compost bin)

bac à compost

claim

réclamation

biodegrade (to)

biodégrader

claimant

demandeur

boring

ennuyant(e)

classmate

camarade de classe

bottle

bouteille

clause

proposition

bottom

en bas

clean up after (to)

ramasser

bowl

bol

cleanliness

propreté

box-office hit

succès commercial

clear up (to)

éclaircir

brainstorm (to)

faire un remue-méninge

closing

conclusion

breeze (a)

chose facile

coastal plain

la plaine littorale

bring awareness (to) attire l’attention sur

collect (to)

ramasser

build (to)

construire

column

colonne

bulk

en vrac

commonly

souvent

bumper

pare-chocs

compost (to)

faire du compost

burn (to)

brûler

programmation informatique

business

entreprise

computer programming concern

préoccupation

concerned (to be)

être préoccupé(e) par

C call to action

appel à l’action

conduct (to)

diriger

caller

commentateur, commentatrice (à une émission de radio)

conductor

chef d’orchestre

confident

confident(e)

capitalize (to)

utiliser une lettre majuscule

conscious

consciencieux, consciencieuse

cardboard

carton

consistently

de manière régulière

carpet

tapis

contact information

coordonnées personnelles

catch (to)

arrêter (une personne)

container

contenant

caught

forme passée du verbe to catch

continued growth

croissante continue

character

personnage

charming

charmant(e)

convenience (at your à votre convenance earliest convenience)

chart

grille

convenient

commode

checkmark

coche

convey (to)

exprimer

choose (to)

choisir

convince (to)

convaincre

chose

forme passée du verbe to choose

cookware

batterie de cuisine

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correct (to)

corriger

digital citizenship

citoyenneté numérique

costly

coûteux, coûteuse

directions

indications

counter argument

opinion contraire

metteur en scène

countryside

paysage

director (film or theatre)

cover letter

lettre de présentation

disappointing

décevant(e)

coverage

couverture

disaster recovery

plan de reconstruction

crazy

fou, folle

discard (to)

jeter

create (to)

créer

discover (to)

découvrir

creepy

étrange, bizarre

disease-infected

infecté(e)

crop

récolte

dishware

vaisselle

cup

tasse

disposable

jetable

customer

client(e)

dispose (to)

se débarrasser

cut out (to)

éliminer

disruptive

dérangeant(e)

distorted

déformé(e)

disturb (to)

déranger

D daily

quotidien, quotidienne

downpour

déluge

damaged

endommagé(e)

drain

tuyau d’évacuation

damages

dommages

dream (to)

rêver

dark

sombre, sinistre

drill (to)

percer

dashboard

panneau de bord

drilling

forage

data

accès au réseau Internet

drive (to)

conduire

deadline

date limite

drive

motivation

dealing (for dealing with)

pour s’occuper de

dye (to)

teindre

decay (to)

se décomposer

decrease (to)

diminuer

eaten

participe passé du verbe to eat

defective

défectueux, défectueuse

effective

efficace

degree (college degree)

diplôme collégial

elsewhere

ailleurs

emerging

en émergence

deliver (to)

livrer

emphasis

l’emphase

demonstrate (to)

démontrer

emphasize (to)

mettre de l’emphase

device (electronic device)

appareil électronique

enacted (to be)

être appliqué(e)

devoted (to be)

être dévoué(e) à

end up (to)

finir par

diet

régime alimentaire

ending (happy ending)

fin heureuse

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E

Glossary

83


enhance (to)

augmenter

featured

choisi(e)

enjoyable

amusant(e)

fee

coût

enormous

énorme

feed (to)

nourrir

enough

assez

field

domaine

entertaining

divertissant(e)

fierce

féroce

enthusiastically

de manière enthousiaste

filling station

station-service

entitled

intitulé(e)

financial support

appui financier

environmentally

écologique

fines

amendes

essay

texte argumentatif, d’opinion, etc.

fire

feu, incendie

estimate (repair estimate)

estimation des coûts de réparation

flood

inondation

focus

emphase

event

événement

follow (to)

suivre

every

chaque

footprint

empreinte

everyone

tout le monde

forest fire

incendie de forêt

everywhere

partout

forget (to)

oublier

evidence

preuve

form (to)

formuler

excitedly

de manière excité(e)

fossil fuel

combustible fossile

exciting

excitant(e)

freeze (to)

geler

exhilarating

exaltant(e)

frequently

fréquemment

expand (to)

étendre

expect (to)

s’attendre à

fuel ; fuel prices ; fuel pétrole ; prix de l’essence ; tank réservoir d’essence

explain (to)

expliquer

furniture

meubles

explanation

explication

furthermore

de plus

express (to)

exprimer

F

G gain (to)

obtenir

face (to)

faire face

garbage

déchets

fact

fait

gather (to)

ramasser

fairly

de manière juste

give birth (to)

donner naissance à

familiar (to be)

être familier/ière avec

global warming

réchauffement climatique

far

loin

go through (to)

passer à travers

farmer

fermier, fermière

goal

objectif

fear

peur

grant

subvention

fearfully

craintivement

émissions de gaz à effet de serre

feature

caractéristique

greenhouse gas emissions

84

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growth (continued growth)

croissance continue

instance (for instance)

par exemple

guidance counsellor

conseiller, conseillère d’orientation

insurance claim

réclamation d’assurances

introduce (to)

présenter

involvement

implication

issue

enjeux

item (personal item)

objet personnel

H handle

manche

handle pressure (to)

tolérer le stress

handy

habile

happily

heureusement

hard time (to have a) avoir de la difficulté

J jar

bocal

jewellery

bijoux

joy

joie

harm

mal

heat

chaleur

here

ici

highlight (to)

surligner

keep (to)

garder, conserver

hiring manager

gérant d’embauche

keywords

mots importants

hold up (to)

cambrioler

knowledge

connaissance

host (radio host)

animateur, animatrice de radio

household

foyer

however

cependant

landfill

site d’enfouissement des déchets

HR (Human Resources)

ressources humaines

law

loi

leader

chef de file

learning outcomes

buts d’apprentissage

leftover

restant(e)

lesser-known

moins connu(e)

lid

couvercle

I

K

L

ice

glace

impact (resistant to impact)

résistant aux chocs

implement (to)

mettre en place

lie (to)

s’étaler

impressive

impressionnant(e)

lightweight

léger

improve (to)

améliorer

lined (to be lined)

avoir une doublure

in front of

devant

link

lien

in order to

afin de

livestock

bétail

incoming

entrant(e)

loan

prêt

incorrectly

de manière erronée

location

endroit

inexpensive

abordable

loss

perte

injured (to be)

être blessé(e)

loudly

bruyamment

injuries

blessures

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85


M

oil industry

industrie pétrolière

online

enligne

maintain (to)

maintenir

operate (to)

faire marcher

make up (to)

inventer

opposing

opposant(e)

manager

gérant(e)

order (in order to)

afin de

management

gestion

other ; others

autre ; les autres

masked

masqué(e)

otherwise

sinon

master (to)

maîtriser

outcome

fin

matter ; as a matter of fact

situation ; en fait

outgoing

sortant(e)

meaning

sens

outlaws

hors-la-loi

meantime (in the meantime)

en attendant

outlet electrical outlet

prise électrique

melted down (to be)

être fondu(e)

outlined (as)

tel qu’indiqué(e)

memory

souvenir

over and over

encore et encore

microplastics

petits morceaux de plastique

overall

en général

mistake

erreur

overcome (to)

surmonter

modals

auxiliaires tels que can, should, would, etc.

overuse

surutilisation

owner

propriétaire

move forward (to)

avancer

multi-purpose

multi-usage

N near

proche

nearly

presque

necessarily

nécessairement

neighbour

voisin(e)

never

jamais

nowadays

aujourd’hui

O

P package (to)

emballer

packaging

emballage

pain (lower back pain)

douleur au bas du dos

painting

peinture

pan

poêle

panel (door panel)

panneau (d’une porte de voiture)

part-comedy

en partie comédie

part-crime

en partie histoire de crime

particularly

particulièrement

object (to)

émettre une objection

partner

partenaire

occur (to)

se passer

pay attention (to)

porter attention à

odourless

sans odeur

un portrait plus clair

office

bureau

picture (clearer picture)

often

souvent

piece

œuvre (musicale ou littéraire)

plates

assiettes

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pleasure

plaisir

plentiful

abondant(e)

plot

intrigue

quickly

rapidement

plugged drain

drain bouché

quietly

calmement

plumbing

plomberie

plural

pluriel

podcast

baladodiffusion

pointlessly

sans raison

policies

politiques

reach (to) ; to be reached

atteindre, contacter ; être contacté(e)

policy

police (d’assurance)

receipt

reçu

pollute (to)

polluer

receive (to)

recevoir

position

poste

reduce (to)

réduire

blog post

article de blogue

refillable

réutilisable (bouteille)

post (to)

publier (sur Internet)

refute (to)

démentir

posting

publication de message (sur Internet)

registered (to be)

être inscrit(e)

postpone (to)

remettre à

relate to (to)

en lien avec

pot

casserole

release (to)

relâcher

power supply

alimentation électrique

relevant

pertinent(e)

predictable

prévisible

reliance

dépendance

pressure

pression, stress

relief

soulagement

prevent (to)

prévenir

rely (to)

dépendre sur

process

processus

remember (to)

se rappeler de

produce (to)

produire

removed (to be)

être enlevé(e)

product

produit

promise (to)

promettre

proof

preuve

proofread (to)

corriger

proposal

proposition

proven (to be)

être prouvé(e)

provide (to)

fournir, donner

purchase (to)

acheter

purpose

raison, but

pursued (to be)

être poursuivi(e)

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Q

R rainstorm

tempête de pluie

raise awareness (to) éveiller la conscience

renewable resources ressources renouvelables repair (to)

réparer

repeat (to)

répéter

rephrase (to)

reformuler

report

rapport

report (to)

signaler

reporter

journaliste

request (to)

demander

required

requis(e)

requirement

exigence

reread (to)

relire

Glossary

87


research

recherche

shaker

mélangeur

reside (to)

vivre

shame

honte

resistant to impact

résistant(e) aux chocs

partager son amour de

resolve conflict (to)

résoudre des conflits

share one’s appreciation for (to)

resulting from

causé par

shine

lustre

resumé

curriculum vitae

show (radio show)

émission de radio

retail store

magasin au détail

shred (to)

déchiqueter

retailer

commerçant(e)

shredding machine

machine de déchiquetage

return

rendement

silk

soie

return (to)

demander un remboursement

silly

bête

reusable

réutilisable

similar

semblable

rewarded (to be)

être récompensé(e)

since

puisque

ripe

mûre

singular

singulier

romance

histoire romantique

skill

habileté

rub (to)

frotter

skill set

les habiletés

ruined (to be)

être détruit(e)

slight odour

petite odeur

slow and steady

lentement mais sûrement

slowly

lentement

S safe

sécuritaire

snowstorm

tempête de neige

safer

plus sécuritaire

so ; so that

alors ; pour que

safety procedures

mesures de sécurité

software developer

programmeur informatique

salvage

sauvegarder

solve problems (to)

résoudre des problèmes

sample

modèle

sometimes

parfois

save (to)

sauver

spellbinding

captivant(e)

schooling

éducation

spelling

orthographe

screen

écran

spoil (to)

pourrir

seeker (job seeker)

chercheur, chercheuse d’emploi

staff

personnel

sell (to)

vendre

starve (to)

mourir de faim

sentence

phrase

state (to)

identifier

sequel

suite

lentement mais sûrement

set a goal (to)

établir un objectif

steady slow and steady

set in (to be)

être situé(e)

stem

tronc

set up (to)

établir

step

étape

set out (to)

partir

stir sticks

bâtonnets

set in motion (to)

entamer

storage containers

contenants de conservation

88

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straw

paille

thrilling

palpitant(e)

strike (to)

frapper

throw out (to)

jeter

studies

études, recherches

thump (to)

frapper

submit (to)

soumettre

en même temps

succeed (to)

réussir à

time (at the same time)

summarize (to)

faire un résumé

tip

suggestion

summary

résumé

tip-top shape

condition parfaite

supply (power supply)

alimentation électrique

tire

pneu

tone-deaf

qui n’a pas l’oreille musicale

support (to)

appuyer, soutenir

tons of

beaucoup de

surely

sûrement

tool

outils

surgery

chirurgie

topic

sujet

surround (to)

s’entourer

toss out (to)

jeter

Swedish

suédois(e)

tough

dur(e)

sweep through (to)

passer rapidement

training

formation

swept

forme passée du verbe to sweep

travel (to)

voyager

switches

prises électriques

trick

astuce

trillion

billion

T take ; to take a position ; to take action

prendre ; prendre position ; poser un geste

tank (fuel tank)

U ultimately

ultimement

récipient d’essence

unclog (to)

déboucher

target audience

public cible

uncommon

rare

task

tâche

understanding

compréhension

technology-related

en lien avec la technologie

undoubtedly

sans doute

tendency

tendance

unfortunately

malheureusement

text message

texto

unit (as a unit)

ensemble

thanks to

grâce à

upgrade (to)

mettre à niveau

there ; there is

là-bas ; il y a

urge

recommander avec insistance, exhorter

therefore

donc

useful

utile

third ; one third

troisième, troisièmement ; un tiers

user

usager

thread

discussion

usually

d’habitude

threaten (to)

menacer

thriller

film à suspense

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89


V

Y

valuable

de grande valeur

yearly

annuellement

valued (to be)

valorisé(e)

yesterday

hier

vegan

végétalien(ne)

yet

pourtant

viewing

visionnement

viewpoint

point de vue

voice an opinion (to) exprimer une opinion volunteer (to)

faire du bénévolat

volunteer (a)

bénévole

W wage war (to)

se mettre en guerre

warranty

garantie

waste

perte

waterways

cours d’eau

weather conditions

conditions météorologiques

weight

poids

well-written

bien-écrit

whereas

tandis que

widely

couramment

widespread

courant, répandu

wildlife

faune

without necessarily

sans nécessairement

wonder (to)

se demander

worse

pire

worth (to be)

valoir

wrap

emballer

wrapped (to be)

être emballé(e)

wrapping

emballage

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