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Secondary Cycle Two

Year One

Grammar Activity Book

JARET

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Year One

THROUGH ENGLISH

These activity books focus on useful notions designed to help students reinvest their new learning in oral interactions, as well as reading and writing activities in class.

Respecter l’officiel. Régie de la sécurité dans les sports du Québec

Benoit Jaret

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

The grammar activity books in the Connecting Through English series are designed to help Secondary Cycle 2 students acquire and practise grammar basics.

Secondary Cycle 2

Year 1

Grammar Activity Book

Secondary Cycle Two

À bicyclette, moi, je ne me laisse pas distraire.

1 800 567-7902

PRODUCT CODE 3615 ISBN 978-2-7655-0127-5

www.grandducenligne.com Éditions Grand Duc Groupe Éducalivres inc. InfoService : 1 800 567-3671

Éditions Grand Duc


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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

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Secondary Cycle 2

Year 1

Grammar Activity Book


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The publisher wishes to thank the following people for their comments and suggestions during the development of the project: Ms. Dominique Le Bot Mr. Steve Michaud Ms. Doris Rainha Ms. Christine l’Gallagher Scientific revision: Jane Davey, translator/revisor/writer

© 2007, Éditions Grand Duc, a division of Groupe Éducalivres Inc. 955, rue Bergar, Laval (Québec) H7L 4Z6 Telephone: 514 334-8466 Fax: 514 334-8387 www.grandduc.com All rights reserved. PHOTOGRAPHIC CREDITS: The Art Archive/Handel Museum Halle/Dagli Orti (p. 7); Ken Welsh, Private Collection/The Bridgeman Art Library (p. 21); Bettmann/Corbis (p. 54); Presse canadienne (p. 78); Michael Ochs Archives/Corbis (p. 78); Rex Features [2005] all rights reserved/Presse canadienne (p. 79); PA Photos Limited [2001] All rights reserved/Presse canadienne (p. 79). ILLUSTRATIONS: Volta Création We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Book Publishing Industry Development Program (BPIDP) for our publishing activities.

It is illegal to reproduce this publication, in full or in part, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photographic, recording, magnetic, or other) without first obtaining written permission from the publisher. By respecting this request, you will encourage the authors in the pursuit of their careers.

PRODUCT CODE 3615 ISBN 978-2-7655-0127-5 Legal Deposit Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2007 Library and Archives Canada, 2007

Printed in Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 S 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7


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Contents

 Letter to Students .......................................................................................................  Grammar Basics ................................................................................................................

1

Adjectives ................................................................................................................................ .............. Adverbs ................................................................................................................................ ................... Articles, prepositions ...................................................................................................................... Nouns ................................................................................................................................ ....................... Pronouns ................................................................................................................................ ................ Verbs ................................................................................................................................ ........................ Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

....................................................................................................

10

CHAPTER 1 S IMPLE P RESENT T ENSE ................................................................................................ The third person singular ............................................................................................................. Creating the negative form using to do .............................................................................. Yes/no questions with do/does ............................................................................................. Tag questions ................................................................................................................................ ...... Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

10 12 15 17 18 20

CHAPTER 2 S IMPLE P AST T ENSE ........................................................................................................ The simple past tense of regular verbs ............................................................................... The simple past tense of irregular verbs ............................................................................ Using to do in the negative form ............................................................................................ Yes/no questions with did ......................................................................................................... Tag questions ................................................................................................................................ ...... Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

24 26 28 30 32 33 35

CHAPTER 3 S IMPLE F UTURE T ENSE .................................................................................................. Using the modal auxiliary will .................................................................................................. Using to be going to ....................................................................................................................... Yes/no questions with will ........................................................................................................ Yes/no questions with to be going to ................................................................................. Tag questions ................................................................................................................................ ...... Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

38 40 41 42 43 44 45

CHAPTER 4 N OUNS , A RTICLES AND D EMONSTRATIVES ....................................................... The plural forms of nouns ........................................................................................................... Non-count nouns ................................................................................................................................ Quantifiers ................................................................................................................................ ............ Using a and an: indefinite articles ......................................................................................... Using the: definite article ............................................................................................................ Using this/that and these/those: demonstratives ....................................................... Using there is and there are ...................................................................................................... Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

46 47 49 51 52 53 55 56 57

CHAPTER 5 P RONOUNS ........................................................................................................................... Subject and object pronouns ...................................................................................................... Reflexive pronouns .......................................................................................................................... Indefinite pronouns ......................................................................................................................... Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

60 60 62 63 65

 Learning Activities


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CHAPTER 6 A DJECTIVES , C OMPARATIVES AND S UPERLATIVES ........................................... The order of adjectives .................................................................................................................. Adjectives with -ing endings ....................................................................................................... Comparatives and superlatives ................................................................................................. Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

68 70 72 73 77

CHAPTER 7 A DVERBS AND P REPOSITIONS .................................................................................... Adverbs of frequency ...................................................................................................................... Adverbs of time ................................................................................................................................ .. Adverbs of manner ........................................................................................................................... Prepositions of time ........................................................................................................................ Prepositions of place ...................................................................................................................... Prepositions of manner ................................................................................................................. Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

80 81 82 83 85 87 88 89

CHAPTER 8 I NFORMATION Q UESTIONS .......................................................................................... Who? Where? Why? When? What? .................................................................................... Which? ................................................................................................................................ .................... Whose? ................................................................................................................................ .................. How + adjective? ............................................................................................................................ How + adverb? ................................................................................................................................ . Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ ..................

92 93 94 95 96 97 98

CHAPTER 9 P RESENT AND P AST P ROGRESSIVE T ENSES ........................................................ 102 The past progressive tense ......................................................................................................... 104 Forming the present and past progressive tenses ......................................................... 106 Contractions in the present and past progressive tenses .......................................... 109 Yes/no questions ............................................................................................................................. 110 Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ .................. 111 CHAPTER 10 M ODAL A UXILIARIES ...................................................................................................... 112 Using can (to be able to) ............................................................................................................ 113 Using could (past tense of can) .............................................................................................. 114 Using can and may .......................................................................................................................... 115 Using must ................................................................................................................................ ............ 116 Using should ................................................................................................................................ ........ 117 Using could and would .................................................................................................................. 118 Using might and must (probability) ...................................................................................... 119 Yes/no questions using modal auxiliaries ........................................................................ 120 Wrap-up ................................................................................................................................ .................. 121

 Reference Section A. B. C. D. E.

126 Punctuation ................................................................................................................................ ... 126 Capitalization ............................................................................................................................... 130 Table of common phrasal verbs ........................................................................................ 132 Idiomatic expressions (idioms) ......................................................................................... 135 Table of common irregular verbs ...................................................................................... 137 ........................................................................................................


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Letter to Students As one of the most frequently used languages on Earth, English is an essential communications tool for the world of today. Grammar is an essential part of communication because it allows speakers to understand each other more clearly. Improving your grammar skills can help you communicate more effectively, especially when writing or producing texts in different contexts – and not only at school. The Connecting Through English grammar activity book is specially designed to help you improve your English skills as autonomously as possible. • When addressing new or unfamiliar grammar notions, you should read the presentations and focus on what the characters are saying. • Look at examples when learning a new notion or carrying out an activity. • Watch for Focus on and Pay Attention boxes, which provide additional information about certain notions or difficulties commonly encountered by students. • Take advantage of the Word Banks and web diagrams when carrying out activities. You should also use this activity book when preparing to produce or write a text. When using the Writing or Production processes, you need to pay close attention to language conventions and specific grammar notions. Consult the Contents to find out what you need in order to revise your text. Have a brilliant year in English! The Author


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NAME

DATE

GROUP

Grammar Basics

Grammar is to language what skeleton is to body: it holds it up and gives it a recognizable shape. Without grammar to set rules on how to put words together, nobody would ever understand anyone. An important strategy to use when reading or writing is learning how to identify words found in sentences. This section will help you practise this strategy.

Fo

 ADJECTIVES

on… cus

Adjectives are words that describe, limit or identify nouns and pronouns. Adjectives are invariable. 1

5

Adjectives

quality or description

how close or far

modify nouns and pronouns by indicating… 2

possession

4

3

quantity

rank

ACTIVITY

1 Indicate the number of the adjective type next to the sentence. Example: This is my pencil.

2

a) We prefer the red car.

c) We got the third one.

b) She has five classes.

d) I brought this binder.

ACTIVITY

2 a) Read the text. b) Underline or highlight all the adjectives in the text (8).

Encyclopedia Entry #5619: Pirates Pirates were above all robbers of the high seas who attacked the merchant and valuable ships they encountered. Myths and legends about pirates are numerous . There are plenty of incredible stories that include terrible men and women with wooden legs, eye patches, metal hooks instead of hands, etc.

2

GRAMMAR BASICS

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

Fo

 ADVERBS on… cus

Adverbs are words that describe or give more detail about a verb, adjective or another adverb. Generally, adverbs are formed using an adjective and adding -ly to it. However, there are exceptions. 1

5

Adverbs

where (place)

how often (frequency)

describe by showing… 2

4

3

how (means)

degree or intensity (measure)

when (time)

ACTIVITY

3 Indicate the number of the type of adverb next to the sentence. Example: Walk there.

1

a) The water is too cold.

c) I usually take the bus.

b) Drive safely.

d) He needs you now!

ACTIVITY

4 a) Read the text. b) Underline or highlight all the adverbs in the text (16).

Rush Hour Tips Here are some tricks to help you get through morning and afternoon rush hours without quickly losing your temper. In the morning, take it easy . Have breakfast but don’t waste too much time or you’ll have to move rapidly afterwards. Carefully pack your lunch – you don’t want a smashed sandwich when you get to school later. Always bring a good book or your music player, sit comfortably on the bus and relax. If you don’t have a book, a magazine or newspaper will do nicely . You will get there eventually . Don’t forget that bus rides are noisy and hot, but constantly nagging won’t help. Finally , simply repeat the same method on the way home... without the lunch and breakfast parts of course! © Éditions Grand Duc

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GRAMMAR BASICS

3


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NAME

DATE

GROUP

Fo

 ARTICLES

on… cus

The articles a, an and the are often placed in front of nouns. A and an refer to something not specific (indefinite) and the refers to something specific (definite).

Fo

 PREPOSITIONS

on… cus

A preposition is used to show the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to other words in a sentence. 1

Prepositions

when something happens

3

show…

how something happens (manner)

2

where something happens

ACTIVITY

5 Indicate the number of the type of preposition next to the sentence. a) They’re talking with each other. b) He’s hiding behind the sofa. c) He played the game before tonight.

ACTIVITY

6 a) Read the text. b) Highlight all the articles (9) in the text.

The Flying Machine – A Satirical Fable by Ambrose Bierce (1842–1914) A resourceful man who had built a flying machine invited a great number of people to see it go up. He boarded the car and turned on the power. The machine immediately broke and disappeared out of sight into a brick wall, the pilot jumping out barely in time to save himself. “Well,” said he, “I have done enough to demonstrate the precision and details of my work. The defects are simply basic and elemental.”

4

GRAMMAR BASICS

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

Fo

 NOUNS on… cus

A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, state or quality. There are several kinds of nouns: KINDS OF NOUNS

EXAMPLES

Common Nouns Many common nouns have one of these endings: -ance, -dom, -eer, -er, -ful, -ism, -ist, -ity, -ment, -ness, -ship, -sion and -tion.

Proper Nouns Proper nouns always start with a capital letter: the City of Montreal. Possessive Nouns Possessive nouns are formed by adding ’s to nouns. With words that end in an s sound, they are formed by adding ’s or just ’. Compound Nouns Compound nouns are made up of two or more nouns expressing one idea. Some compound nouns are joined together, some are joined by a hyphen and some are separate words.

• • • • • • • • • • • •

nurse tree houses hope kingdom painter Aunt Eva Niagara Falls Nobel Prize Sandy’s hat cat’s owner cats’ owner

• doghouse • mountaintop • mother-in-law

• • • • •

friendship kindness freedom pacifist treatment

• Buddhism • Daniel

• city-state • tennis match • television show

ACTIVITY

7 a) Read the text. b) Underline or highlight all the nouns in the text (17).

The Mermaid Myth Mermaids are represented most of the time as women with fishtails. Manatees: the real mermaids? There are many stories about mermaids . In some, they are nice; in others, however, they are not. The great Ulysses even had to tie himself up to the mast of his ship so as not to be lured to his death by their song. Other more recent stories tell us that some sailors were following the chanting and beautiful voices of mermaids when they discovered huge marine animals that did not exactly look like the mythical creatures. They were manatees! © Éditions Grand Duc

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

Fo

 PRONOUNS on… cus

Pronouns take the place of nouns and are used like nouns. 1

7

Personal

Relative

2

6

Kinds of Pronouns

Interrogative

Indefinite

3

5

Impersonal

Possessive 4

Reflexive

ACTIVITY

8

ACTIVITY

9

Indicate the number of the type of pronoun next to the sentence. Example: He likes to dance.

1

a) Everybody enjoyed the show.

e) It is a beautiful day.

b) Alicia hurt herself.

f) Choose whoever you want.

c) Who is talking?

g) The cat really liked her.

d) Leave mine alone! a) Read the text. b) Underline or highlight all the pronouns in the text (12).

The Apothecary “More potions to make tonight,” he thought to himself . “ I’d better hurry and get these ingredients before it’s too dark outside.” He lifted his head and then his whole body; the years were beginning to press heavily on his shoulders – that was the burden of experience he thought. And experience he had; at 135 years of age, the apothecary was the eldest man in the village. People would go to him every night to get various remedies and potions for their troubles and problems. They knew that if anyone could help them, the old apothecary could. Stroking his long white beard, he looked up at the hundreds of rows of shelves and cabinets filled with glass bottles, metal cans, porcelain vases and other pots containing almost magical ingredients, mentally making his list. He took his walking stick and headed out the door.

6

GRAMMAR BASICS

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

Fo

 VERBS on… cus

Verbs are words that indicate actions or states of being. They also indicate what the subject does or has done to it. Verbs are used in different tenses depending on the situation. 1

5

action

states of being Verbs express…

2

4

feelings

requests 3

motion

ACTIVITY

10 Indicate the number of the verb type next to the sentence. Example: He wrote a book. a) Can you help me?

1

b) I am glad.

c) She likes you!

d) The boat is gliding.

ACTIVITY

11 a) Read the text. b) Underline or highlight all the verbs in the text (15). Wipe those days off!

Changing Calendars If you ever look at the calendar found in England back in 1752, you will see that the month of September is quite bizarre. 1752 was the year in which King George II decided that the British Empire would stop using the Roman Julian calendar and start using the Gregorian calendar, because the Julian year was considered too long. So 11 days were wiped off the month of September in order to synchronize the Empire’s days with the Gregorian calendar. While some people were confused about September 14 following September 2, most workers were very happy about the whole thing. They worked 11 fewer days but were paid for the full month. How would you like us to change calendars again?

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King George II

GRAMMAR BASICS

7


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NAME

DATE

GROUP

W R A P - UP

ACTIVITY

A a) Fill in this crossword puzzle by answering the clues on the next page. b) Use the letters in green to compose the secret message.

13 14 1 Q U A L

I

15

T Y

16

2

3 17 4 18

19

20

5

21 6

22 7 23 24 8

9 10 11 12

The secret message is:

8

GRAMMAR BASICS

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

ACROSS

Crossword Puzzle Clues PAY ATTENTION!

quality

1. Blue, big and long express a 2. I, you and they are

.

Use Grammar Basics in this activity book and a dictionary to look up some of these clues.

pronouns.

3. Myself, yourself and ourselves are

pronouns.

4. “May I have one?” uses a modal auxiliary to express a . 5. Adjectives modify

and

.

6. “You are happy.” uses a verb that expresses a

.

7. Five, three and numerous are adjectives that express 8. A and an are

.

articles.

9. Grammar is to language what

is to body.

10. “Sit here.” uses an adverb that indicates a

.

11. “He is running.” uses a verb that expresses

.

DOWN

12. “See you later!” uses an adverb that indicates

.

13. My, your and their indicate a

.

14. “Who is there?” uses an

pronoun.

15. Bill, Canada and Sarah are

.

16. Never, often and rarely are adverbs of 17. House, tree and planet are

. nouns.

18. Family, group and team are

nouns.

19. To show the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to other words, use . 20. Second, third and seventh are adjectives that give a rank or . 21. “She likes him.” uses a verb that expresses 22. Friendship, health and patience are 23. Whatever, whoever and whenever are 24. The is a

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. nouns. pronouns.

article.

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Learning Activities S

CHAPTER 1

imple Present Tense

1

Do you suppose, students know how to use the simple present tense?

2 Good question. It is rather important to master. Do you think they do?

3

Fo

Hmm. I think they prefer sports and other activities. But grammar is still important! on… cus

Simple Present Tense

Habits and Usual Activities • I take the bus every day. • Every July 7th, we celebrate my birthday. • He sometimes rents DVDs. • My mother always talks.

General Facts • Ducks quack and swim. • Water boils at 100°C. • The moon is a natural satellite.

Preferences, Likes and Dislikes • She loves singing. • He dislikes coffee. • They prefer the blue room. • I hate maggots.

 Words or expressions like every day, sometimes, always, often, each weekend, each week, every week, etc. are used to talk about habits and usual activities.

PAY ATTENTION!

Use the present progressive tense (see p. 102).

10

CHAPTER 1 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

DO NOT use the simple present tense to express an action that you are doing right now. am watching Example: Right now, I watch TV.

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

1 a) Underline the verb in each sentence. b) Check the correct column. HABIT OR USUAL PREFERENCE, ACTIVITY LIKE OR DISLIKE

SENTENCE Example: I love to eat in restaurants.

GENERAL FACT

1) Horror movies scare me a lot. 2) The sun is a star. 3) My father jogs every morning. 4) I don’t like to lift weights. 5) They scream every time they see that monster. 6) Glass and mirrors are made from sand. 7) Yuck! I really hate that kind of soup. 8) I prefer riding my new bike rather than

my old one. 9) In Canada, there are animals and people

on our money. 10) She rarely goes out of her house. 11) The kids really enjoy that CD. 12) Every Tuesday evening, they never miss

that show.

PAY ATTENTION! Use the simple present tense for the following: Identification: This is my project. — She is my sister. Agreement, disagreement, opinion: I agree with you. — He believes it is correct. Feelings, interests, tastes, preferences: I like this. — They prefer red ones. Decision/indecision: We’re not sure about this. — Let’s choose that one.

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • CHAPTER 1

11


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NAME

DATE

GROUP

 THE THIRD PERSON SINGULAR 2

1

Well, my father works all the time. He wants me to work hard too.

You know my mother worries about me.

3

Fo

That’s what my mom fears. She thinks I don’t work hard enough in school.

4 Yeah, and my little brother just watches TV all day. It’s not fair!

on… cus

In the simple present tense, we use verbs in their base form (e.g., to have, to drink, to run, to eat, etc.). The 3rd person singular (a proper name or a 3rd person singular pronoun like he, she, it, this, that, etc.) of the simple present tense ends in -s or -es. There are rules for using -s or -es: -S OR -ES ENDING General Rule 1. For most verbs, a final -s is added. 2. For verbs that end in -ch, -sh, -s, -x or -z, a final -es is added.

3. With the verbs to do and to go, a final -es is added. 4. The verb to have has a form of its own that ends in -s. 5. For verbs ending in a consonant and a -y, the -y changes to an -i and -es is added. 6. For verbs ending in a vowel and a -y, only a final -s is added.

12

CHAPTER 1 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

Examples

Examples

(base form)

(simple present – 3rd person singular)

beat love climb pass cash tax buzz do go have

The drummer beats the drums. She loves that song. My brother climbs trees. That river passes through the city. He cashes cheques. The government taxes people. The fly buzzes around the fruit. This team does its best. Where his mother goes, he goes. This truck has four-wheel drive.

apply worry cry pay buy

He applies the rules. She worries too much. He cries all the time. He pays well. She buys her fruits at the market.

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

2 Write the verbs in the third person singular. Consult the chart on page 12 if necessary.

tells

Example: to tell .........he a) to kick ..................he

f) to want ............Bob

b) to believe ...........she

g) to patch .........Mary

c) to growl ........the dog

h) to require ...........he

d) to suffer .............she

i) to go .................he

e) to enjoy ...............he

j) to lay ................he

ACTIVITY

3 Write the verbs in the appropriate form.

flies

Example: The bird

in the sky.

to fly

a) Ralph

high school.

j) My sister

well. to dress

to teach

b) My brother and I

everything.

k) John always

c) That chef

for cash. to wish

to lose

badly.

l) The sprinter

fast. to run

to cook

d) He usually

good movies.

m)They

what they see. to destroy

to choose

e) This road

to Memphis.

n) Those fish

f) Debra

all the time.

o) They seldom

p) This man

too much.

me that we are late. to inform

to work

h) It

their problems. to discuss

to laugh

g) He

together. to swim

to lead

to every surface. to stick

i) The dog always

at the mailman. to bark

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SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE • CHAPTER 1

13


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NAME

DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

4 a) Write the verbs in the appropriate form. b) Circle the subjects.

The Aquarium have

In our living room, we

a huge water tank that

to have

to contain

lots of colourful tropical fish. My father

the one who to be

care of the tank. He

the fish, to feed

and

to take

the sides of the tank to clean

sure that the water temperature

adequate.

to make

to be

I don’t really

to help my father with the tank but when to like

I

tired, I

watching the fish

to be

to enjoy

to swim

peacefully behind those huge windows. My father

countless hours to spend

on his hobby. He always

all my friends how great his fish to tell

and if he

to be

to catch anyone’s attention, he to manage

going on to keep

forever. He really

his fish! My mom doesn’t really to love

that he

to care

so much time scrubbing the tank and studying his fish. to spend

She also

to watch the fish. to like

My brother always

to catch the fish to feed them to the cat. to try

He actually

this is funny. If my father ever to think

to catch

him red-handed, he will be in deep trouble.

14

CHAPTER 1 • SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

Fo

 CREATING THE NEGATIVE FORM USING TO DO on… cus

To create the negative forms of verbs (except for to be), you need the auxiliary verb to do. Affirmative

Negative

Subject + main verb

Subject + do/does not + main verb

fast.

You

do not

learn

fast.

Gary

cooks

very well.

Gary

does not

cook

very well.

Affirmative

Negative

Singular

learn

I like You like He likes She likes It likes

I You He She It

Plural

You

Contracted form

We like You like They like

We do not You do not They do not

do not do not does not does not does not

like like like like like

I You He She It

don’t don’t doesn’t doesn’t doesn’t

like like like

We don’t You don’t They don’t

like like like like like like like like

ACTIVITY

5 a) Write the verbs in the contracted negative form. b) Use “don’t” or “doesn’t” when appropriate. PAY ATTENTION!

Example: Beavers don’t build towers. to build 1) He

When using does not with the 3rd person singular, remember to keep your main verb in its base form.

Example: base form (no -s or -es ending) He love s video games. He does not love video games.

our cause. to support

Simple present

2) That company

me.

Simple present

to own 3) That actor

well. to perform

4) They

other people. to hurt

5) I

anything by not studying. to gain

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GROUP

ACTIVITY

6 a) Look at the pictures. b) Write things you like to do (your likes) and things you don’t like to do (your dislikes).

Likes Example:

I like to play with bugs.

1)

.

2)

.

3)

.

Dislikes Example:

16

I don’t like to miss the bus.

4)

.

5)

.

6)

.

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

 YES/NO QUESTIONS WITH DO/DOES Question

Answers

Do you need my help with the assignment?

Yes, I do! No, I don’t!

Short

Yes, I need your help! No, I don’t need your help.

Long

When you use a yes/no question with a verb other than to be, build your question with the auxiliary verb to do.

ACTIVITY

7 a) Write the questions or answers. b) Use long answers. You may use the affirmative or negative form. Example: Question

Long answer

Do you have long hair?

Yes, I have long hair. No, I don’t often play on a computer.

1) 2) Do you like to watch drama movies?

No, my father doesn’t play the piano.

3) 4) Do you have an exotic pet at home?

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

 TAG QUESTIONS Question

Answers

You don’t want to see that movie, do you?

Yes, I do! No, I don’t!

Short

Yes, I do want to see it.

Fo

No, I don’t want to see that movie.

Long

on… cus

Tag questions are a grammatical structure in which a declarative statement or an imperative is turned into a question by adding an interrogative section (the “tag”). Tag questions are usually used in spoken conversations and very rarely in texts. Contractions are always used with tag questions. Tag Questions

Affirmative Statement

Negative Statement

4

• This is boring, isn’t it? • He still works at the coffee shop, doesn’t he? • You like beans, don’t you?

• He’s not from here, is he? • I’m not terribly sick, am I? • You’re not really serious, are you?

When there is no special emphasis, this rule of thumb applies: an affirmative sentence has a negative tag and vice versa.

Intonation When you really mean to ask a question, your voice rises when saying the tag . When you actually make a statement, your voice falls .

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

8 Write the correct tags for the statements. Example: He needs to drive two hours to get there,

doesn’t he

?

a) Your math results aren’t as good as they could be,

?

b) The team is doing well this year,

?

PAY ATTENTION!

c) This doctor isn’t a bad one,

?

d) She’s not coming,

?

e) The car isn’t ready yet,

?

f) The dog is all right,

?

Be careful about the pronouns you use in tag questions. Make sure you’re using the right one depending on the context.

g) He notices every little detail,

?

h) The gang is not in trouble,

?

ACTIVITY

9 Match the tag question to the picture. Example: This album is good, isn’t it? 1

2

1 3

4

5

6

a) This tree isn’t dead, is it? b) The dog is dangerous, isn’t it? c) It’s hot outside, isn’t it? d) She isn’t mad, is she? e) The cat isn’t dangerous, is it?

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DATE

GROUP

W R A P - UP

ACTIVITY

A Underline the correct verb forms.

Thunderstorms Thunderstorms or electrical storms (occur/occurs) when there (are/is) shifts in temperature at high altitudes. They often (happen/happens) throughout the world, even in polar regions. However, they (are/is) more frequent in hot, humid places, such as the tropics. They (are/is) sometimes very violent and when lightning (strike/ strikes ), the great big booming noise you (hear/hears) immediately afterwards (are/is) the sound of thunder. When a storm (unleash/unleashes) its power, there (are/is) rain, sometimes hail and on rare occasions, snow. Some people (are/is) very afraid of thunderstorms and (feel/feels) uneasy when they (happen/happens). At least most people no longer (believe/ believes ) that it (are/is) Zeus, the Greek god who (are/is) angry and throwing bolts of lightning at us. Thunderstorms and lightning (are/is) normal meteorological events, even if they (are/is) quite impressive. One thing (are/is) for sure, ( don’t hide /doesn’t hide) under a tree when there (are/is) a thunderstorm – you (don’t want/doesn’t want) lightning to strike you, (do/does) you?

ACTIVITY

B Answer the following yes/no questions about the Activity A text with short answers. Examples: Do thunderstorms occur in polar regions? Are thunderstorms rare?

Yes, they do. No, they’re not. .

a) Are people scared of thunderstorms? b) Does thunder come before lightning? c) Are thunderstorms impressive? d) Do thunderstorms often come with snow?

.

e) Is it Zeus throwing the bolts of lightning?

20

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DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

C a) Put an “X” only on the verbs with mistakes. b) Write the correct form of the verbs with mistakes.

A Posthumous Interview with Ambrose Bierce (1842–1914) Journalist: Ambrose Bierce is

X

is

author who are

a great American known for writing cynical literary

works such as satirical fables, short horror stories and a very interesting dictionary called The Devil’s Dictionary in which he give

definitions of common words with

a cynical twist he is He is

famous for creating. also a renowned critic who can either

make a young writer’s career soar or crash, depending on whether he like

the writing or not.

Journalist: Good afternoon, Mr. Bierce.

Ambrose Bierce

A. Bierce: Good afternoon. Journalist: Let’s starts cause are

with a simple question: Your first important against slavery, isn’t

A. Bierce: Actually, yes it is

. My uncle taught me never to let

inequalities remains

silent. I strongly believe

every man have

that

the right to be free and treated as an equal,

doesn’t

you?

Journalist: Yes, of course I don’t army as well, are

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. You are

in the

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A Posthumous Interview with Ambrose Bierce (1842–1914) (continued) A. Bierce: No. I am not

in the army anymore. My battlefield

experience during the American Civil War, which occurred between 1861 and 1865, changed me forever. I don’t really feel if you don’t minds

like talking about it,

.

Journalist: Sure, no problem. Are

you a cynic today because

of your army experience? A. Bierce: In my writings, I likes

to point out the negative or

ridiculous aspects of human behaviour. My fables don’t really have any lessons. I feel

life teach

as it is

us enough lessons

.

Journalist: How does the fact that people call makes

you feel

A. Bierce: I don’t feel

you “Bitter Bierce” ?

one way or the other about it.

I just do

my reviews to make sure people knows

what are

worth reading and what is not

Books aren’t

expensive enough as it is

we don’t want don’t

so

people to buy the bad ones, we?

Journalist: No we don’t like

.

. But it seem

anything at all. Tell

they are

like you don’t us about your final days –

still a mystery today.

A. Bierce: Well, you know

it happened in Mexico.

But, I’m not going to reveal my best kept secret today, either, am I? Journalist: No, I guess

not.

Thank you, Mr. Bierce.

22

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DATE

D

Challenge Me!

ACTIVITY

NAME

a) Read the definitions.

GROUP

b) Change the definitions into complete sentences using verbs in the simple present tense.

Excerpts from The Devil’s Dictionary by Ambrose Bierce ADMIRATION, n. Our polite recognition of another’s resemblance to ourselves. Example: Admiration is when we recognize in other people, character traits

that are like our own. 1) BRAIN, n. An apparatus with which we think that we think.

2) FRIENDSHIP, n. A ship big enough to carry two in fair weather, but only one

in foul.

3) LANGUAGE, n. The music with which we charm the serpents guarding another’s

treasure.

4) MONKEY, n. An arboreal animal at home in genealogical trees.

5) OCEAN, n. A body of water occupying about two-thirds of a world made for man

– who has no gills.

V OCABULARY Gills: breathing apparatus of fish.

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GROUP

Fo

 USING CAN (TO BE ABLE TO) on… cus

Use can to express a capacity or a possibility. In that context, can has the same meaning as to be able to. Examples: I have eyes and I can see with them. The cat can jump very high. Affirmative I can see very far.

Negative I cannot see very far.

She can sing beautifully. The cheetah can run up to 97 km/h. Contraction of cannot I can’t see very far.

ACTIVITY

1 a) Look at the pictures. b) Write which of the activities you can or can’t do. Example:

I can kick that ball very far.

1) 2) 3) 4)

1

2

4

3

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DATE

GROUP

Fo

 USING COULD (PAST OF CAN) on… cus

Use could to express a capacity or possibility that was taking place in the past (or one that is no longer true). Could is the past tense of can and, in this context, it has the same meaning as was/were able to. Examples: When I was young, I could run a 50 km race. Last year, she could sleep longer. Affirmative I could hear very well.

Negative I could not hear very well.

When he had time, he could help a lot of people. Ten years ago, they could eat what they wanted. Contraction of could not I couldn’t hear very well.

PAY ATTENTION!

Can = present; Could = past When using could, as with any other modal, the main verb remains in its base form. Examples: I could drink a tall glass of milk. We could manage the people. Incorrect form: I could drank a tall glass of milk. We could managed the people. ACTIVITY

2 a) Circle any key expressions that show whether the actions in each paragraph are in the present or the past. b) Write the correct form of can or could. c) Use the following code: A = affirmative and N = negative .

The Good Old Days

I

could do a lot more things and activities than today. A jump higher than my friends. I run faster than my brother, but

I

work harder and longer than anyone else. Today, I

A few years ago, I

do anything right. My friend

easily do things better than I.

My teachers keep telling me that they

help me if I

help myself first. A good friend of mine told me, “You

give up so easily.

You’re not that old yet!” She was right, of course. Being 15 years old isn’t the end the world. I

114

still perform well in many things.

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 USING CAN AND MAY Can and may sometimes have the same meaning. Both are used to ask and give permission. The difference between using may or can depends on the context: • Can is informal. • May is formal (more polite).

PAY ATTENTION! The negative form of may is may not. This form does not have a contraction. Example: You may not use a cell phone in a restaurant. Incorrect form: You mayn’t use a cell phone in a restaurant.

ACTIVITY

3 a) Fill in the blank with may or can depending on the context. b) Write which sentence is formal or informal. Formal/Informal 1) Mother dearest,

we watch TV?

2) Mr. Principal,

I leave now? I got the message.

3) Daddy,

you give me some money?

4) “Bro,”

you stop hassling me about my new hair?

5) Ladies and gentlemen, 6) Martin,

I have your attention, please? I pick them up at 5 p.m.?

7) Excuse me, Mrs. Green,

we join you?

8) Your Highness, 9) Hey, Vince, 10)

we ask for your blessing? I borrow your MP3 player tonight? I take your daughter to the dance?

V OCABULARY Highness: title used to address kings, queens and royalty in general.

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Fo

 USING MUST on… cus

Use must to express an obligation. Must then has the same meaning as to have to in the affirmative. Examples: Tonight, I must babysit my little brother. Please, I must speak to him before the school closes. Affirmative She must see her teacher.

Negative She must not see her teacher.

Contraction of must not She mustn’t see her teacher.

ACTIVITY

4 a) Look at the signs. EXPLOSIVE

b) Write what people must and must not do. Example:

DO NOT PUSH THAT BUTTON!

People must not/mustn’t push that button.

WARNING 1)

DO NOT DRINK FROM THESE BOTTLES

BE SAFE! 2)

ALWAYS WEAR A HELMET WITH A LAMP WHEN POTHOLING

BEWARE! 3)

DO NOT PUT YOUR HAND IN ACID.

THINK FIRST 4)

116

ALWAYS KEEP YOUR LOCKER LOCKED.

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GROUP

Fo

 USING SHOULD on… cus

Use should when asking for or giving advice. Examples: Should I wait or call the police? We should wait until you are ready to speak. They should be more respectful to their classmates. Affirmative She should be more respectful.

You should come home before 9 p.m. You should buy that CD.

Negative She should not be less respectful.

Contraction of should not She shouldn’t be less respectful.

ACTIVITY

5 a) Look at the pictures.

WORD BANK

b) Write a piece of advice (tip) for each picture using affirmative or negative forms where appropriate.

• • • • •

c) Use the Word Bank for clues.

to wash your hair to walk with untied shoelaces to pet a sleeping grizzly bear to wear a winter hat to ask for help

Example:

You should wash 3

your hair.

Tip 3)

1

Tip 1)

4

Tip 4)

2

Tip 2)

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DATE

GROUP

Fo

 USING COULD AND WOULD on… cus

Could and would are often used to ask for help formally (politely). For such requests, both can be used the same way with the same meaning. Examples: Could you help me with this problem? Would you like some help with that?

Could you pass the salt please? Would you like to change seats?

ACTIVITY

6 Write questions using could or would. Example: Lend me your laptop. (could):

Could you lend me your laptop?

a) Buy me a sandwich on your way back. (would): b) Repair my wristwatch. (could): c) Give me a hand with those boxes. (would): d) Stop singing that song. (could): e) Draw a picture of a futuristic house. (would):

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 USING MIGHT AND MUST (PROBABILITY) 1 Where is Billy? He’s never this late.

2 He must be lost or something. Did you give him the right directions?

3

Fo

Yes, I did. I wrote them down for him. He might not have them with him.

4 Well, then, he must have lost the paper.

on… cus

Use might to express a possibility. Use must to express a probability.

ACTIVITY

7 Write must or might depending on the context. Example: I always pay my bills; this

must

be a mistake!

a) We shouldn’t cancel our picnic just because it

rain tomorrow.

b) John would never miss the card game; he

be sick.

c) This group is going on a world tour; they

stop in Montreal.

d) By the way she looked at you, she

be interested.

e) I will have some time off next week; I if the weather is fine.

go camping

PAY ATTENTION! Use modal auxiliary verbs to express: Capabilities: I can read this text. Permission: May I go to the bathroom? Advice: You should use a blue pen for this. Requests for help: Could you help me? Suggestions: Maybe we could work on Olympic sports.

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She can’t write this word. Can we leave now? What should we do now? Would you show me how to do it? We can always go to the movies.

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DATE

GROUP

Fo

 YES/NO QUESTIONS USING MODAL AUXILIARIES on… cus

Yes/no questions that use modal auxiliaries are built the same way as those that use the auxiliary verb to do. MODAL + SUBJECT + VERB

SUBJECT + MODAL + VERB

Asking

Answering

Should

we

call

them tomorrow?

Can

she

open

the window?

Yes, No, Yes, No,

we we she she

should call shouldn’t call can open can’t open

them tomorrow. them tomorrow. the window. the window.

Base form

ACTIVITY

8 Write the appropriate question or short answer. Example: Can you bring the book over here? a)

Yes, I can. Yes, we must take the train.

b) May I talk to him alone? c)

No, I couldn’t find another solution.

d) Can she make it in time? e)

No, he shouldn’t.

f)

Yes, they could really play that well.

g) Must you always yell like this? h)

120

Yes, you should buy her flowers.

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

W R A P - UP

ACTIVITY

A a) Underline the modal verb in each sentence. b) Identify what the modal verb expresses using the following code: “C” for capability, “D” for desirable actions, “PE” for permission, “O” for obligation, “A” for advice, “H” for help, “PO” for possibility and “PR” for probability. Example: You must wear your safety goggles.

O

1) I would love to see that new movie. 2) She might be absent for the whole week. 3) Can you carry these boxes with me? 4) You should write a letter of complaint. 5) May we eat the last pieces of cake? 6) It can stay underwater for one hour. 7) I must complete this task before 5 p.m. 8) Would you like me to open the door for you? 9) Can I sleep over at Kate’s place tonight? 10) They must have lost the key to the program. 11) They should fix this old wall. 12) You could bring me this nice blue plate. 13) I could work for several hours straight. 14) Could you assist me in the presentation? 15) You can accomplish anything you want.

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DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

B a) Circle the mistake in each sentence. b) Rewrite each sentence correctly. Corrections Example: Julie can swims really fast.

Julie can swim really fast.

1) He should leave not money. 2) We can’t not go any faster. 3) I must doing my work well. 4) He could played the guitar nicely. 5) We can not stand this noise anymore! 6) Jerry might was lost in the forest. 7) Could it barked like that for a long time? 8) Yes, she may leaves the house. 9) Anna mayn’t like this surprise at all. 10) Can it stands on one foot?

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NAME

DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

C a) Look at the signs. b) Decide whether it refers to an obligation or is merely offering advice. c) Write the advice or state the obligation for each sign using the appropriate modal verb. Example:

NOTICE USE HOOKS FOR FISHING.

To go fishing, you should use hooks.

BE AWARE 1) GOSSIP IS NOT NICE.

NOTICE 2) KEEP DOGS ON A LEASH.

BEWARE 3) SEA MONSTER IN LAKE

DANGER 4) HOT SURFACE

X HARMFUL X 5)

PUSH THIS BUTTON AT YOUR OWN RISK AND PERIL.

6)

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STEEL CAP AND SOLE BOOTS MANDATORY

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DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

D a) Read the text. b) Choose the appropriate modal auxiliary.

Email Etiquette or “Netiquette” When using email to send messages to family,

must

friends or teachers, you

may/must

remember these guidelines: First of all, you

make sure might/should

your message is necessary. Then, make it as concise (short) as you

. can/could

You

write about anything you like, but think about the recipient: may/must

will he/she be interested in your email? You

use the BCC field should/shouldn’t

when you send a message to a lot of people; that way, they

see cannot/mustn’t

the other recipients and

use the addresses to send spam. cannot/may

You never know, some of your contacts

be spammers! might/must

You

attach huge files to your messages. should/mustn’t

If you do so, you

fill up people’s mailboxes and might/might not

prevent them from receiving important email.

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DATE

GROUP

Email Etiquette or “Netiquette” (continued) If you need to send a file attachment, you

send it without warning shouldn’t/may

the person first. Also, you really use exclamation marks can’t/mustn’t

or CAPITAL letters all the time. It feels like you’re always shouting at people. The same goes for emoticons; you

think they’re fun, might/should

but you

abuse them either should/shouldn’t

because they’re not always clear to your recipients. Finally, remember this: email messages are not private! Technology makes it easy for other people to read your messages, so you

only write in an email can/should

what you would write on the back of a postcard.

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NAME

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GROUP

Reference Section REFERENCE SECTION A

Fo

unctuation on… cus

Period (.) Indicates the end of a complete sentence. Comma (,) Separates items in a list. Separates two phrases (parts of sentences). Note: There are many situations in which commas can be placed in a sentence. They generally show where a natural pause occurs in a sentence. Apostrophe (’) Used in contractions of verbs.

Used in possessive nouns. Exclamation mark (!) Indicates great surprise or strong emotion. Question mark (?) Indicates that the sentence is a question. Colon (:) Indicates the beginning of a list. Indicates who is talking in a dialogue. Used when writing the time in numbers.

126

REFERENCE SECTION A

Examples: They visited Boston last week . Jenny is a lovely girl . Examples: I like to read, to listen to music, to sleep and to shop. To complete this project, you will need to work as a team. The situation was bad , and even though we worked very hard to correct our mistakes , it got worse and worse. Examples: He’s my best friend. They aren’t ready to play. She doesn’t like maple syrup. It is my sister’s MP3 player. Please, do not forget the dog’s bone. Examples: Wow, this is unexpected! I can’t believe my eyes! Examples: What is your name? Are you happy? Examples: Here’s what you need : a book, a pen and an eraser. This is what he said : “Get out!” Brian : “Hello? Anyone here?” Ghost : “Yeeeeeesssss…..” It’s 10 : 30 a.m. The time is 6 : 49 p.m.

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DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

1 Write the periods (5) in the following text.

The Terror Bird The Phorusrhacid, the biggest bird that ever lived on our planet, could measure up to three metres high and weigh up to half a ton It couldn’t fly, but it ran very quickly Its head was as big as a horse’s and it could eat animals the size of dogs These ancient birds were carnivorous and would have been deadly to anyone foolish enough to get close Don’t worry though; they have been extinct for more than 2 million years

ACTIVITY

2 Write the exclamation marks (5) and colons (7) in the following dialogue.

Relatively Funny A pregnant woman asked her brother what names he would choose for her twin babies. The brother “One of them is a girl?” The sister “Yes, what do you want to name her?” The brother “Denise ” The sister “Oh Wow That’s not bad What about the other one?” The brother “The other one is a boy?” The sister “Yes, and what would you name him?” The brother “Denephew ”

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DATE

GROUP

ACTIVITY

3 Write the apostrophes (6) in the text.

“Elementary, My Dear Watson” Although it seems Sherlock Holmes never actually said this line, it s one of the most recognizable quotes out there. Arthur Conan Doyle s creation from around 1887 is one of the most popular literary characters of all time. Holmes’ s sharp sense of deduction and his multiple adventures have always fascinated readers and moviegoers alike. The stories are usually narrated by Dr. Watson, Holmes s faithful companion. They ve had so many adventures that it would be impossible to name them all here. Why don t you look them up at your local library or on the Internet?

ACTIVITY

4 Write the question marks (5), periods (9) and colons (13) in the following dialogue. Man “Hey! What time is it ” Woman “It’s 10 15 Why do you ask ” Man “I’m meeting someone here later ” Woman “When is the person supposed to come by ” Man “I’m not sure Maybe around 11 00 ” Woman “OK Would you like a cup of coffee while you wait ” Man “Sure ” Woman “How do you take it ” Man “Pretty well actually, I’m a patient man ” Woman “No, I meant your coffee ” Man “Oh! Sorry, I’ll take it black, please ”

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ACTIVITY

5

DATE

GROUP

Write the commas in the two texts below (8 + 2).

A Turtle Joke Deep within a forest a little turtle began to climb a tree. After hours of effort he reached the top jumped into the air waving his front legs and crashed to the ground. After recovering he slowly climbed the tree again jumped and fell to the ground. The turtle tried again and again while a couple of birds sitting on a branch watched his sad efforts. Finally the female bird turned to her mate. “Dear ” she chirped “I think it’s time to tell him he’s adopted.”

A Snake Joke Two snakes were talking together… First snake: “Sidney are we that wraps itself around its and crushes until it’s dead? of snake that ambushes its thus poisons it to death?”

the type of snake prey and squeezes Or are we the type prey bites it and

Second snake: “Why do you ask?” First snake: “Because I just bit my lip!”

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apitalization

on… cus

Capital letters are used in the following places: 1. The first word in any sentence Where are we going now? 2. People’s names and other proper nouns • People: Sir John A. Macdonald; Dennis Lee • Place names: Nova Scotia; the Canadian Rockies; Winnipeg • Events: the World Series; the Calgary Stampede • Days and months: Sunday; Monday; January; February • Holidays: Thanksgiving; New Year’s Day; Canada Day • Organizations: the National Hockey League; the United Nations • Trade names: Roller Blades; Jell-O • Nationalities, races, tribes and cultural groups: Chinese; African-American; Cree; First Nations; Europeans • Titles of books, magazines, films, songs, plays and poems: Underground to Canada; The Wreck of the Edmund Fitzgerald • Titles when they are included with the person’s name: Councillor Quon 3. The pronoun “I” I can’t believe what I just did. 4. The first word of a direct quotation Sylvie asked, “Where did you leave the keys?” 5. Lists, when the elements are on separate lines The activities planned are: Swimming Bike riding Volleyball

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ACTIVITY

1 Write the appropriate capital letters following rule #1.

N /night had fallen very quickly. it is always like that in December. frank wanted to go out sooner, but he was stopped by the old lady. she told him she needed help and he couldn’t refuse. so , there he was, walking in the cold winter night...

ACTIVITY

2 Write the appropriate capital letters following rules #2 and #3.

I E Last week, /i read a very good english book. It was called the hound of the baskervilles . / It’s a sherlock holmes story. It’s a murder mystery that was written by sir arthur conan doyle . It’s about a rich family that is cursed – or so they believe – by a huge, ghostly dog that hunts them down and kills them. holmes investigates with dr. watson to uncover the truth about these strange events. i really liked it.

ACTIVITY

3 Write the appropriate capital letters following rules #1, #3 and #4.

K Lancelot: “ king Arthur. we need to go back. we’ll never find the Holy Grail.” / King Arthur: “ this is getting hard on all our men. i’m starting to think that we should go home.” Lancelot: “ your goal was to reunite the country and you did. i say we go back.” King Arthur: “ i’ll think about it tonight.” Lancelot: “ please be quick. the men need an answer soon.” King Arthur: “ i will have made my decision before dawn. i promise.” Lancelot: “ very well, my King; all for one and one for all.” King Arthur: “ goodnight, Sir Lancelot.”

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able of Common Phrasal Verbs

on… cus

A phrasal verb is composed of a verb and a particle (a preposition). Adding this preposition to the verb gives a new meaning to the original verb. Examples: To look: to use the eyes to see. To look after: to take care of someone, something. To break: to make something come apart in pieces; to smash, to crack or to split. To break up: to end a relationship. Here is a list of common phrasal verbs. Phrasal Verb (verb + particle)

Meaning

to ask out

to ask someone to go on a date

to ask over

to invite someone for a visit

to break up

to end a relationship

to bring up

to raise children; to mention a topic

to call back

to return a telephone call

to call off

to cancel

to call up

to make a telephone call

*to catch up

to reach the same position or level

to check out

to take a book from the library

to cross out

to draw a line through

to do over

to do again

*to drop out

to quit school or classes

to figure out

to find the solution to a problem

to fill in

to complete a sentence by writing in a blank

to fill out

to write information on a form

to fill up

to fill completely with gas, water, coffee, etc.

to find out

to discover information

to get along

to have a good relationship

to get in

to enter a vehicle

*These phrasal verbs are non-separable; the object of the verb must appear after the particle.

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Phrasal Verb (verb + particle)

Meaning

to hand out

to distribute something, usually to a group of people

to hang up

to end a telephone call

to keep up

to continue

*to look after

to take care of something or somebody

to look up

to search for information in a reference book

to make up

to invent; to patch up an argument

*to pass away

to die

to pick up

to lift

to put away

to put something in its usual or proper place

to put back

to return something to its original place

to put down

to stop holding or carrying something

to put off

to postpone or delay

to put on

to put clothes on one’s body

to put out

to extinguish (stop) a fire, a cigarette, a cigar

*to put up with

to tolerate

*to run into

to meet someone by chance

to shut off

to stop a machine or turn off a light

to start over

to start again from the beginning

*to take after

to resemble

to take off

to remove something, especially clothes from one’s body

to take up

to start a new activity

to tear down

to destroy a structure, like a building

to tear off

to detach something; to tear along a dotted or perforated line

to tear up

to tear into small pieces

to throw away/out to put in the trash to try on

to put on clothing to see if it fits

to turn down

to decrease the volume; to decline an offer

to turn off

to stop a machine or shut off a light

to turn on

to start a machine or flick on a light

to turn up

to increase the volume; to appear somewhere

to write down

to write a note on a piece of paper

*These phrasal verbs are non-separable; the object of the verb must appear after the particle.

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ACTIVITY

1 a) Write the appropriate phrasal verbs in the sentences. b) Use the Word Bank. Example: Mark and Jill really

get along

1) We should try to

with each other.

how it works from a book.

2) My cousin is having trouble in school; I hope he doesn’t 3) You guys go ahead; I’ll

WORD BANK • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

to catch up to check out to drop out to find out to get along to get off to get on to keep up to look after to pass away to put up with to tear up to turn on to turn up to write down

.

with you later.

4) Hurry! We have to

that bus!

5) I really need this book. Is it possible to

it

of the library? 6) Pay attention, we need to

at the next station.

7) She’s so mad; she might

her whole project.

8) You’re doing great!

it

9) Oh, I love this song!

!

it

!

10) He’s sad because his grandfather is sick and might 11) Could you

soon.

the lights, please? We can’t see anything.

12) You do not want to forget anything, so 13) I can’t go out tonight. I have to

the dates. my little brother.

14) James is so annoying; I always have to

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his bad jokes.

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diomatic Expressions (Idioms)

Idioms are expressions often linked to an image that is used to express something figuratively. There are far too many idioms in the English language to list them all, but here are a few.

ACTIVITY

1 a) Look at the pictures. b) Match the pictures to the idioms and to the meanings. A

B

C

D

F

G

H

2–9 E

Idioms Blow off steam A piece of cake An ace in the hole Bury the hatchet Back to square one (To have) bigger fish to fry 7. Bull in a china shop 8. Apple of one’s eye 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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Meanings 9. Something easily done. 10. To make peace or end hostilities. 11. A tactless person who upsets others or upsets plans; a physically 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

or socially clumsy person. A hidden advantage or resource kept in reserve until needed. To have more important things to do. Being forced to start over at the beginning. To express anger and frustration in a harmless way. Something or someone that is very dear to another person.

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1 (CONTINUED ) I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Idioms 1. Put one’s foot in

one’s mouth 2. (To have) cold feet 3. Castle in the air (sky) 4. Eleventh hour 5. Couch potato 6. (To) draw a line 7. Fish out of water 8. Chip off the old block

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Meanings Uncourageous, cowardly; reluctant to act. A plan that is impractical, illogical and unlikely to work. To set a limit or take a stand as if it were an ultimatum. The last minute. A person who is highly similar to a direct ancestor or predecessor. An idle or lazy person who chooses to spend most of their leisure time in front of a television. 15. To say something that is quickly regretted and that may be offensive to someone else. 16. A person in uncharted territory; in a confused state due to lack of experience. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

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able of Common Irregular Verbs

Use this colour code to highlight or colour the table of irregular verbs. You already have four examples at the beginning of the table.

Base Form awake be beat become begin bend bet bite bleed blow break bring build burn buy catch choose come cost creep cut deal

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Simple Past awoken was, were beat became began bent bet bit bled blew broke brought built burnt bought caught chose came cost crept cut dealt

Colour code A–A–A

bet – bet – bet

A–B–A

become – became – become

A–B–B

bend – bent – bent

A–B–C

awake – awoke – awoken

Past Participle awoken been beaten become begun bent bet bitten bled blown broken brought built burned bought caught chosen come cost crept cut dealt

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Examples:

Base Form dig do draw dream drink drive eat fall feed feel fight find fly forbid forget forgive freeze get give go grow

Simple Past dug did drew dreamed, dreamt drank drove ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forgot forgave froze got gave went grew

Past Participle dug done drawn dreamed, dreamt drunk driven eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen gotten given gone grown

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Base Form hang (suspend) hang (execute) have hear hide hold hurt keep know lead leave lend let (allow) light lose make mean meet pay put quit read ride ring rise (get up) run say see sell send set shake shine

138

DATE

Simple Past hung hanged had heard hid held hurt kept knew led left lent let lit lost made meant met paid put quit read rode rang rose ran said saw sold sent set shook shone

REFERENCE SECTION E

Past Participle hung hanged had heard hidden held hurt kept known led left lent let lit lost made meant met paid put quit read ridden rung risen run said seen sold sent set shaken shone

Base Form shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit sleep slide speak spend stand steal stick sting stink strike swear sweep swim swing take teach tear tell think throw understand wake wear win write

Simple Past shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slept slid spoke spent stood stole stuck stung stank struck swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought threw understood woke wore won wrote

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GROUP

Past Participle shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slept slid spoken spent stood stolen stuck stung stunk struck sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown understood woken worn won written

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3615_ConnCv_Cahier-F_3615_ConnCv_Cahier 2020-04-14 09:58 Page 1

Secondary Cycle Two

Year One

Grammar Activity Book

JARET

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Year One

THROUGH ENGLISH

These activity books focus on useful notions designed to help students reinvest their new learning in oral interactions, as well as reading and writing activities in class.

Respecter l’officiel. Régie de la sécurité dans les sports du Québec

Benoit Jaret

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

The grammar activity books in the Connecting Through English series are designed to help Secondary Cycle 2 students acquire and practise grammar basics.

Secondary Cycle 2

Year 1

Grammar Activity Book

Secondary Cycle Two

À bicyclette, moi, je ne me laisse pas distraire.

1 800 567-7902

PRODUCT CODE 3615 ISBN 978-2-7655-0127-5

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