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This second edition of the Between the Lines series helps students acquire knowledge in order to develop ESL competencies. This text-based activity book proposes a variety of text types and topics. The response process for each text is divided in four phases.

Before Reading

This section encourages students to explore the texts and interact orally with the class about open-ended questions.

While Reading

This section directs students to use reading strategies, which are designed to help them understand the texts.

After Reading

This section reinvests understanding of texts and looks into their literal meaning before providing comprehension activities.

A Step Forward

This section reinvests understanding of texts and delves into their underlying meaning. Further questions establish personal connections and then generalize beyond the texts. They prepare students to interact orally and to write and produce texts. This section also provides enrichment questions.

The Between the Lines Activity Book is completed by the Teacher’s Toolkit, which proposes : • grammar exercises • support in the form of learning materials • consolidation and enrichment activities – and more

PRODUCT CODE 4503 ISBN 978-2-7655-3071-8

English as a Second Language | Secondary 1

Between the Lines

Edit

Bruno Gattuso Maria Lee-Arpino

Between the Lines English as a Second Language

2nd

Between the Lines

2nd

Text-Based Activity Book Secondary 1

Gattuso • Lee-Arpino

English as a Second Language - Secondary 1

Éditions Grand Duc 6

Untitled-1 1-3

20728 45030

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Text-Based Activity Book Secondary 1

Bruno Gattuso Maria Lee-Arpino

Between the Lines English as a Second Language

2nd

Éditions Grand Duc

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The publisher wishes to thank the following people for their comments and suggestions during the development of this project: Mr. Stavros Antoniadis, Collège Notre-Dame de Lourdes Mrs. Nathalie Gauvin, École secondaire La Rencontre, Commission scolaire Côte-du-sud Mrs. Patti McCurdy, Collège Durocher Mrs. Michelle Moreau, Collège Notre-Dame de Lourdes Mrs. Caroline Ramsay, Polyvalente de Disraeli, Commission scolaire Des Appalaches Mrs. Dany St-Pierre, Commission scolaire Harricana

Between the Lines

Secondary 1 © 2016, Éditions Grand Duc, a division of Groupe Éducalivres Inc. 955 Bergar, Laval (Québec), H7L 4Z6 Telephone: 514 334-8466 – Fax: 514 334-8387 www.grandduc.com All rights reserved. Iconographic references: Legend - r: right, l: left, u: up, d: down, c: centre, e: extreme p. 7u: © wwf/Splash News/Corbis • p. 54cl: © andrewgenn_ www.Fotosearch.fr • p. 59cr: © Gilbert Iundt; Jean-Yves Ruszniewski/TempSport/Corbis • p. 60tl: “Jeanson 0206 266” by © James F. Perry _Wikipedia.org • p. 62r: © Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Canada #e000943076, col. • p. 64d: “Chantal Petitclerc” par 5 of 7 - Chantal Petitclerc (1)_ Wikipedia.org Illustrations (p. 26, 27, 82, 83, 136 and 137): Sacha Lefebvre Graphic design: Lichen Funded by the Government of Canada Government of Québec – tax credit for book publishing – administered by SODEC.

It is illegal to reproduce this publication, in full or in part, in any form by any means (electronic, mechanical, photographic, recording, magnetic or other) without first obtaining permission from the publisher. By respecting this request, you will encourage the authors in the pursuit of their careers. PRODUCT CODE 4503 ISBN 978-2-7655-3071-8 Legal deposit Bibliothèque et Archives nationale du Québec, 2016 Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, 2016

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© Éditions Grand Duc  Thank you for not photocopying

Table of Contents UNIT 1 The World of Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Platypus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Spotted on the Savannah.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Amazing New Animal Discoveries.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Turning Back the Hands of Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 On the Edge of Extinction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 The Dodo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Miniature Donkey FAQs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 UNIT 2 Medieval Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Knights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Historical Portrait: King Richard I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 New Order Created. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 An Interview with the Knights of the Round Table.. . . . . . . 26 Black Death Spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Medieval Medecine.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Letter to the Editor of The Medieval Times. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 UNIT 3 Unsolved Mysteries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Stonehenge: A Wonderful Mystery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Fact or Fable?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanov: Mystery Solved . . . . . . . . 41 The Bermuda Triangle.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 The Lines of Peru. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Resurrection Mary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 The Mummy’s Curse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 UNIT 4 The World of Sports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Golf Etiquette.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Olympic Disciplines That No Longer Exist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 A Brief History of Doping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 A Legend. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 The Paralympic Games. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Lacrosse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Wingsuiting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

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Table of Contents

UNIT 6 Music and Rock and Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Rockin’ Names.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Arcade Fire (Made in Montreal). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 “Hallelujah”.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 The History of Rock – The 50s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 The History of Rock – The 60s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Metal? No, Music!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Rock and Roll Meets Opera and the Classics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 UNIT 7 Hoaxes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 What Is a Hoax? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 The War of the Worlds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 The Cottingley Fairies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Alien Autopsy 1995. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Paul Is Dead. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 The Cardiff Giant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 The Great Moon Hoax. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 UNIT 8 Cartoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Caricatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 A Short History of Comic Strips and Animated Cartoons. . . 128 Walt Disney's Short Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Asterix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Portraits of Superheroes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Stan Lee: The Father of Superheroes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 The Simpsons.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

© Éditions Grand Duc  Thank you for not photocopying

UNIT 5 The World of Cinema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Anecdotes in the Life and Death of Charlie Chaplin. . . . . . 7 1 The Daily Movie Mirror Classifieds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 A Short History of Cinema. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 The Stunt Double. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 James Bond: Secret Agent 007.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 The Dog Who Stopped the War. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

UNIT 9 Amazing Facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Astonishing Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Trademark Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Food Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Cigarettes and Smoking Facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Prehistoric Facts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Space Facts.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Facts About a Wonderful Machine: Your Body . . . . . . . . . . . 159

Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

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Structure of the Text-based Activity Book This second edition of the Between the Lines series helps students acquire knowledge in order to develop ESL competencies. This text-based activity book proposes nine units with seven texts, for a total of 63 texts.

The World of Animals

Unit Opening Page

Did you know that scientists brought back to life two species of animals that were extinct? Did you know that an enormous variety of animals will soon become extinct? See pages 8 and 11 to learn more about it.

Platypus

2

Structure of Each Text

Spotted on the Savannah

4

Amazing New Animal Discoveries

6

Turning Back the Hands of Time

8

On the Edge of Extinction

11

The Dodo

14

The response process for each text is divided into four phases.

Miniature Donkey FAQs

16

UNIT 1

Platypus Before Reading While Reading

Animals that lay eggs are classified as oviparous. „„ What other animals do you know that lay eggs?

See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

What are animals that give milk to their babies „„

Which paragraph is „„

called?

about how strange the platypus is?

Male platypuses are poisonous. How would you „„

This section directs students to use reading strategies that are designed to help them understand the texts. Students must work through this section before reading the whole text. By answering the questions mentally, they will be practising the reading strategies.

What is the main idea in „„ the fourth paragraph?

Which paragraphs „„

describe the platypus?

The platypus is very often regarded as one of nature’s weirdest animals. It is a semi-aquatic mammal that lives in Australia. It is one of the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth. The other mammal that does this is the echidna. When you look at it, you have the impression that a crazy taxidermist put a bunch of leftover animal parts together. It has a bill like a duck, a tail like a beaver and feet like an otter. It’s so strange that when travellers returning from Australia first described it to their friends, they thought it was a joke.

taxidermist a person who stuffs and mounts the skins of animals for display

Platypuses have dense, thick fur that helps them stay warm underwater. Most of the fur is dark brown, except for a patch of lighter fur near each eye, and fur on the underside.

rubbery has the texture of rubber

The bill of this animal, sometimes called a duck-billed platypus, has a smooth texture that feels like suede. It is also flexible and rubbery. The skin of the bill holds thousands of receptors that help the platypus navigate underwater and detect movement of potential food, such as shrimp. The male platypus has a spur on its hind foot containing venom that can cause severe pain in humans, making it one of the few venomous mammals. 2 Platypuses live in only one, small area of the world. These creatures make their homes in the freshwater areas that flow throughout the island of Tasmania and the eastern and southeastern coast of Australia.

The text-based activity book proposes a variety of text types. The length of the texts varies from half a page to two pages. The words highlighted in the text are defined in a Vocabulary section in the page margin to facilitate students’ understanding.

After Reading

Platypus

spur

venom

bony outgrowth

poison

Vocabulary

While Reading

react if you came face to face with a platypus while swimming?

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

This section encourages students to explore the texts and interact orally with the class about open-ended questions. There are also questions in this section pertaining to pre-reading strategies.

Vocabulary

Before Reading

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence. Example: Where would you find a platypus? I would find a platypus on the island of Tasmania or the eastern and southeastern coast of Australia. © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

© Éditions Grand Duc  Thank you for not photocopying

Each unit begins with a one-page presentation. The title of the unit is accompanied by a related picture. There are also questions in the “Did you know that...?” form to capture students’ interest and give them examples of information they will learn by reading the texts. The contents of the unit are also on this page.

1 What does a platypus do that most other mammals don’t? 2 What is the purpose of its fur? 3 What is another name given to the platypus and why? 4 What is the physical difference between the male and female platypus? 5 What was the reaction of people when they first heard about or saw a platypus?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 Where could you find this type of information?

After Reading

a) A science magazine

b) On the Internet

c) Both A and B

2 Find one simile in the text. 3 When you look at the picture of the platypus in the text, what is the first thing that surprises you? 4 When you look at the picture of the platypus, which part of its body looks like a duck? a) the tail

This section reinvests understanding of texts and looks into their literal meaning, before providing comprehension activities.

b) the mouth

c) the chest

5 Does the author give an opinion about the platypus? Explain. 6 Do you think a platypus would make a good pet? Why? 7 What is particular about a platypus bill? 8 The word aquatic comes from the Latin word for water: aqua. Other words with the root aqua are aqueduct, aquarium, aquaplane, aquaculture, etc. What does semi-aquatic mean (line 2)?  

3

A Step Forward This section reinvests understanding of texts and delves into their underlying meaning. Further questions establish personal connections and then generalize beyond the texts. They prepare students to interact orally and to write and produce texts. This section also provides enrichment questions.

Toolkit

Toolkit At the end of the text-based activity book, a Toolkit provides lots of helpful information, including tables and summaries of grammar rules to help students with written and oral productions.

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Irregular Verbs

162

Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

164

Verb Tenses

165

Spelling Rules for the 3rd Person Singular of Simple Present Tense

166

Spelling Rules for the Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs

166

Spelling Rules for the Present Progressive Tense Negative Forms

TOOLKIT

Spelling Rules for the Plural Forms of Nouns

172

Spelling Rules for Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

173

Common English Verbal Adjectives

174

167

Common English Prepositions

175

167

Common English Adverbs

176

Interrogative Forms

168

Common English Homophones

177

Articles a – an – the

169

Common Non-Count Nouns

177

Modal Verbs

170

Phrasal Verbs

171

Common English Discourse Markers

178

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Reading Strategies To help you understand a text, you can use reading strategies. In the texts you read in this textbased activity book, you will experiment with the following reading strategies:

Infer with visual and/or contextual cues When you look at the visual and contextual cues in a text, you may make more intelligent guesses about the content of the text and the events in a story, or about important information in an informative text.

Pay attention to cognates and/or words you already know

When you focus on cognates and words you already know, you may realize that you already understand a lot of the words. If there remains only one or two words you don’t understand in a sentence, you may then be able to guess the meaning more easily. Cognates are English words that share similar spellings and meanings with French words.

Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph When you stop at the end of a section to restate the essential information in a few words, you may be in a better position to understand the text. It will also help you find the information needed to answer the “After Reading” questions.

Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words When you retain the relevant information in each sentence of a text by ignoring the details, it is easier to understand long sentences or texts with detailed information.

© Éditions Grand Duc  Thank you for not photocopying

Visual cues are illustrations and photos, while contextual cues are titles, subtitles, fonts and text formats.

Activate prior knowledge When you think of what you already know about the subject of a text, you may be able to make intelligent guesses about its content, and about the meaning of unknown words. Also, understanding new information will be easier if you connect it to something you already know.

Scan the text When you take a quick look at a text, you may already be able to get a good idea of its subject. It is then easier to search for specific information. This strategy is useful when answering “After Reading” questions about names, dates and numbers.

Compare When you focus on similarities and differences between elements in a text, or between different texts, you gain a stronger understanding of the text as a whole. This strategy helps to make the various pieces of information more orderly and memorable.

Predict When you make hypotheses based on what you already know and on the contextual cues, you may be able to guess the subject of the text. You may also guess what will happen in a narrative text or what information you will learn in an informative text.

VI

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it

The World of Animals

tra

Did you know that scientists brought back to life two species of

animals that were extinct?

Did you know that an enormous variety of animals will soon become extinct?

Ex

See pages 8 and 11 to learn more about it.

Platypus 2

UNIT 1

Spotted on the Savannah 4

Amazing New Animal Discoveries 6 Turning Back the Hands of Time 8 On the Edge of Extinction 11

The Dodo 14 Miniature Donkey FAQs 16

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Platypus Before Reading Animals that lay eggs are classified as oviparous. „„ What other animals do you know that lay eggs?

What are animals that give milk to their babies „„ called?

Male platypuses are poisonous. How would you „„ react if you came face to face with a platypus while swimming?

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Which paragraph is „„ about how strange the platypus is?

What is the main idea in „„

it

the fourth paragraph?

© Éditions Grand Duc  Thank you for not photocopying

Which paragraphs „„

tra

describe the platypus?

Platypuses have dense, thick fur that helps them stay warm underwater. Most of the fur is dark brown, except for a patch of lighter fur near each eye, and fur on the underside.

taxidermist a person who stuffs and mounts the skins of animals for display

rubbery has the texture of rubber

Vocabulary

Ex

The platypus is very often regarded as one of nature’s weirdest animals. It is a semi-aquatic mammal that lives in Australia. It is one of the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth. The other mammal that does this is the echidna. When you look at it, you have the impression that a crazy taxidermist put a bunch of leftover animal parts together. It has a bill like a duck, a tail like a beaver and feet like an otter. It’s so strange that when travellers returning from Australia first described it to their friends, they thought it was a joke.

The bill of this animal, sometimes called a duck-billed platypus, has a smooth texture that feels like suede. It is also flexible and rubbery. The skin of the bill holds thousands of receptors that help the platypus navigate underwater and detect movement of potential food, such as shrimp. 2

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The male platypus has a spur on its hind foot containing venom that can cause severe pain in humans, making it one of the few venomous mammals. Platypuses live in only one, small area of the world. These creatures make their homes in the freshwater areas that flow throughout the island of Tasmania and the eastern and southeastern coast of Australia.

After Reading

spur

venom

bony outgrowth

poison

Vocabulary

Platypus

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

it

Example: Where would you find a platypus? I would find a platypus on the island of Tasmania or the

1 What does a platypus do that most other mammals don’t? It lays eggs.

2 What is the purpose of its fur? The purpose of its fur is to keep it warm underwater.

3 What is another name given to the platypus and why? Another name is the duck-billed platypus

tra

© Éditions Grand Duc  Thank you for not photocopying

eastern and southeastern coast of Australia.

because of the shape of its bill.

4 What is the physical difference between the male and female platypus? The male platypus has a venomous spur on its hind foot.

5 What was the reaction of people when they first heard about or saw a platypus? They thought it was a joke.

A Step Forward

Ex

Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 Where could you find this type of information? a)  A science magazine

b)  On the Internet

c)  Both A and B

2 Find one simile in the text. 3 When you look at the picture of the platypus in the text, what is the first thing that surprises you? 4 When you look at the picture of the platypus, which part of its body looks like a duck? a)  the tail

b)  the mouth

c)  the chest

5 Does the author give an opinion about the platypus? Explain. 6 Do you think a platypus would make a good pet? Why? 7 What is particular about a platypus bill? 8 The word aquatic comes from the Latin word for water: aqua. Other words with the root aqua

are aqueduct, aquarium, aquaplane, aquaculture, etc. What does semi-aquatic mean (line 2)? 1  c)  2  A bill like a duck/a tail like a beaver/feet like an otter.  3  Answers will vary.  4   b)  5  Answers will vary.  6  Answers will vary.  7  The skin of the bill holds thousands of receptors that help the platypus navigate underwater and detect movement of potential food, such as shrimp.  8  It means to live both on land and in water.

3

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Spotted on the Savannah Before Reading Look at the picture. What animal „„ is that?

What are the main differences „„

Guess where cheetahs live. „„ What other animals are on „„ the endangered list?

between a tiger and a cheetah?

it

While Reading

© Éditions Grand Duc  Thank you for not photocopying

See Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words, p. VI

Look at the title. What „„

tra

can you learn from the title?

What amazing things „„

can cheetahs do? Find the verbs in the second paragraph.

savannah

retractable

can be pulled back inside

glare brightness

Vocabulary

Ex

The cheetah can be found in the Middle East, Africa and anywhere from a savannah to a semi-desert region. Although it resembles a big cat like a lion or tiger, it does not roar but makes a high-pitched chirping sound instead. The other characteristic that makes it different from the big cats is that it does not have retractable claws like cats. It has non-retractable claws like a dog.

A plain characterized by thick grass and only a few trees

Its fur is covered with round black spots of all sizes. It has long thin legs, a delicate skull and a relatively slight build. That is to say it is not very big (it weighs between 39 and 65 kg). Even though it is not very big, it is extremely muscular. It is the fastest land animal and can run 110 km/h, reaching its top speed in just three seconds! Cheetahs have “tear marks” that run from the inside corners of their eyes down to the outside edges of their mouth. These marks help reflect the glare of the sun since they do their hunting during the day. 4

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Spotted on the Savannah After a gestation period of 90 to 95 days, a mother cheetah usually gives birth to two to eight cubs per litter, but cubs are often the target of other predators and many do not survive their first year. There are only 10,000 cheetahs left in the wild, making it Africa’s most endangered big cat.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

it

1 What is the fastest land animal in the world? The cheetah is the fastest land animal.

3 How much does a cheetah weigh? It weighs from 39 to 65 kg.

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2 What characteristic does the cheetah have in common with a dog? Its claws are not retractable.

4 What does a cheetah do during the day? It hunts during the day.

5 How many of these cats exist around the world? An estimated 10,000 of these cats exist. 6 How long does it take for a female to have its litter? It takes about 90 to 95 days.

Ex

7 How many cubs are born at one time? Two to eight cubs are born at one time.

A Step Forward

Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates. 1  like a lion or a tiger  2  To instruct.  3  The answer can be a

brochure, a magazine article, etc., as long as the student gives an 1 Find a simile in the text. adequate explanation. 4  They are waiting to hunt. 5  A noun. 2 What is the purpose of this text? Because it cannot be conjugated.  6  Answers will vary. 3 Where can you find such a text? Explain your answer. 4 Look at the picture at the beginning of the text. What do you think the cheetahs are waiting for? 5 Look at the words not roar … makes a high-pitched chirping sound (lines 4 and 5). In this

phrase, a keyword is sound. The word sound is sometimes a verb and sometimes a noun. In the text, is sound a verb or a noun? Explain why.

6 After reading the text, what aspect of the cheetah do you find most interesting?

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Amazing New Animal Discoveries Before Reading Which strange animals do you know about? „„ What do you like about animals? „„ Where would you find texts about unusual animals? „„

See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the „„

illustrations. Which animal do you think is the most unusual? Which animal is the worm? Which one is the piranha?

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Every year, scientists make new and amazing discoveries in the animal world. In the 1930s, a fish that was supposed to have become extinct millions of years ago was fished out of the Indian Ocean. In last few years, many more such discoveries have been made. Here are two of them.

While Reading

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What can the velvet „„ worm do? What can the vegetarian piranha do?

Remember Spider-Man? He immobilizes bad guys by throwing a very resistant spider web at them. Well, nature has created its own type of Spider-Man. It’s called Eoperipatus totoros. It is a new species of velvet worm. This little guy spits an immobilizing, glue-like net onto its prey then injects it with saliva and eats it.

Ex

It is about 5 cm long, lives in Vietnam and can move about very slowly on very tiny legs.

Why are these „„

animals strange?

spider web

to spit to eject something from the mouth

Vocabulary

Glue-Spitting Velvet Worm

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Amazing New Animal Discoveries

Vegetarian Piranha

After Reading

Vocabulary

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Scientists have now discovered a new species of piranha, called Tometes camunani, in the Amazon River. It only eats water plants. It can grow up to 50 cm long and weigh up to 4 kg. It lives among the rocky rapids of the river where seedlings of plants sprout between the rocks.

to sprout to begin to grow

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When you hear the name piranha, you automatically imagine a small fish with sharp teeth eating any animal that happens to fall into its path.

Answer the questions with a complete sentence.

1 How does the velvet worm capture its prey? The velvet worm captures its prey by spitting an immobilizing glue-like net.

2 Where does the velvet worm live? It lives in Vietnam.

3 Besides the way it captures its prey, what makes the velvet worm different from other worms? It can move about slowly on its very tiny legs.

4 What image does the word “piranha” evoke? It evokes a flesh-eating fish.

Ex

5 Why does it live among the rapids of the river? Because that is where it finds its food.

A Step Forward

Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 What is the main idea of the text? 2 If I write “The glue-spitting velvet worm spits a net that is like glue,” what is the underlined section called?

3 What irregular noun (a plural noun that doesn’t take an “s”) appears in the first sentence of the Vegetarian Piranha paragraph? What is the singular form of that word?

4 Where do you think the vegetarian piranha lives? 5 If you had a choice between the two animals mentioned in the text, which one would you like to have as a pet and why? 1  The main idea is about discoveries being made in the animal world.  2  It is a simile.  3  teeth/tooth  4  Answers will vary but must make mention of either Brazil, South America or the Amazon.  5  Answers will vary.

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Turning Back the Hands of Time Before Reading If you could go back or forward in time, „„ which period would you choose?

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Who would you like to meet in that „„

period? What would you like to see?

How were the extinct tarpan „„

Does the idea of recreating extinct „„

and auroch recreated? In which paragraph did you find this information?

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animals through their DNA remind you of something?

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What is the main idea in the last „„ paragraph?

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What is the main idea in this text? „„

Reproduction of aurochs in the Lascaux Cave

Heinz and Lutz Heck were German zoologists. Heinz Heck was the director of the Munich Zoo. In the 1930s, Heinz and Lutz decided to try to bring two species of extinct animals back to life: the wild tarpan horse and the auroch. The last tarpan horse died in captivity in 1876 and the last auroch disappeared from Poland around 1632.

gene hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA on a chromosome

Vocabulary

Reproduction of tarpans in the Lascaux Cave

Ex

You may have heard people say they would like to turn back the hands of time. Of course, this is impossible. Or is it? Not really. Heinz and Lutz Heck did just that.

How did Heinz and Lutz do it? It seems no animal is really extinct if a genetic trail exists. They rearranged the genes like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. They took living animals of a related breed with the same characteristics and used their genetic material. It took them five generations to recreate the tarpan and 10 for the auroch. Today there are some 50 tarpans in North America and about 100 in the world.

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Turning Back the Hands of Time Can this be done with any extinct animal? Yes, as long as there are living descendants, because those living breeds can be used as a source for genetic material. (Remember the movie Jurassic Park?) There is talk of eventually recreating a mammoth. Who knows what else can be brought back from extinction.

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After Reading

Recreated auroch

Answer the following questions with a complete sentence.

1 “Turning back the hands of time” is an expression. What does it mean? It means to go back

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Recreated tarpans

in time.

2 What was Heinz Heck’s profession? He was a zoologist and director of the Munich Zoo. 3 Which animals did the Heck brothers recreate? They recreated the tarpan horse and the auroch. 4 What is a tarpan? A tarpan is a prehistoric wild horse.

Ex

5 When did the last genuine tarpan die? It died in 1876.

6 How did the Heck brothers recreate tarpans and aurochs? They recreated them by using genetic material from animals of a related breed.

7 How many generations did it take to recreate the tarpan and the auroch? It took five generations for the tarpan and 10 for the auroch.

A Step Forward

Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates. 1  Answers will vary. 2  to inform/to instruct/

1 Which animal would you like to see recreated? Why? to explain 3  That those animals existed prehistoric times.  4  track, path, route, etc. 2 What is the purpose of this text? 3 Look at the pictures on p. 8. What does the prehistoric painting tell you? 4 The word trail (line 12), in this context, means trace. What is another synonym for trail?

in

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Turning Back the Hands of Time

Crossword Puzzle Complete the crossword below. 1

m

2

a

e

m

i

m

3

z

o

4

o

o

l

o

g

i

s

6

g

e

8

9

a

p

u

g

h

e

j

u

r

n

e

s

s

s

b

r

e

e

m

r

x

a

a

i

n

t

a

7

t

i

c

n c

o

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Ex

10

t

tra

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5

11

t

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g

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p

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n

it

h

n

h

Down

Across

1. Prehistoric elephant.

3. Someone who studies or practises zoology.

2. One of the Heck brothers.

6. What makes you who you are.

4. All the people that are about the same age.

7. A species.

5. A European country where the Heck brothers lived.

xample: E 9. A representation of something using colours.

7. When a species no longer exists, it is…

10. The name of a dinosaur park in a movie.

8. Prehistoric cattle.

11. Prehistoric horse.

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On the Edge of Extinction Before Reading Many animals are in danger of becoming extinct. What other animals „„

are on the extinction list? How do you feel about animal extinctions?

What type of world would it be following the extinction of all animals? „„ Look at the pictures of the animals, then name „„ While Reading

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See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI

The world has lost many of its animals, some through natural selection, others because of humans. Here are a few examples of endangered species.

How many animals are „„ described in this text?

How many of these „„

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animals do you know?

Okapi

The okapi is a relative of the giraffe. It has zebra-like stripes on its legs and lives in equatorial forests in Africa. It is a solitary animal with a slow reproductive rate. It faces real danger from habitat loss and destruction, as well as from accidental capture in traps set for smaller game. There are a total of 88 okapis living in captivity in all the world.

Why are so many „„

animals becoming extinct?

Ex

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them.

Fewer than 1,000 giant pandas are left in the wild today. They are losing their habitat. Humans are destroying the bamboo forests. This is the main source of food for the panda. The illegal hunting of animals is called poaching. It is bringing the panda close to extinction. rate degree of speed

Vocabulary

Giant Panda

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On the Edge of Extinction

Goliath frog The goliath frog is the world’s largest frog. It is found in dense rainforests in western Africa. This habitat is rapidly disappearing through deforestation and dam building across rivers. Wilderness is being replaced by villages. These frogs are victims of their own giant size. Private collectors and zoos are collecting them. Wild populations must be preserved so this frog can survive.

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Kagu

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The kagu is a secretive bird. It prowls the forest in New Caledonia, an island east of Australia. It eats worms, insects and snails. This bird is now almost extinct. The mountains of New Caledonia are now used for mining and agriculture. Food is more difficult for the kagu to find. In addition, the kagu has to deal with introduced predators. This includes dogs, pigs, cats and rats, which eat the kagus or their eggs.

Kakapo

dam barrier to prowl to hunt flightless cannot fly

Vocabulary

Ex

The kakapo is the world’s rarest parrot. It is flightless, nocturnal and very heavy. It can weigh up to 3.5 kg. The kakapo lives in New Zealand. Since New Zealand had no mammals for millions of years, the kakapo did not learn the necessary skills to combat or escape from predators. This, unfortunately made the kakapo very vulnerable when mammals started showing up in New Zealand. The arrival of humans and their livestock further reduced the kakapo population. Today there are only about 62 kakapo left. To protect them, they have been relocated to an island that is free of predators.

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On the Edge of Extinction

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1 Where does the okapi live? It lives in the equatorial forests of Africa. 2 Which animal feeds on bamboo? The giant panda feeds on bamboo. 3 Of the animals listed above, which one is active at night? The kakapo is mostly nocturnal.

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4 Which animal is a victim of its size? It is the goliath frog. The arrival of humans and their livestock. / The arrival of mammals in New Zealand.

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Matching Activity

Match the animal in column A to the reason for the apparent extinction in column B. Use the information found in the text.

Column A

Answer

Column B

Example: Okapi

2

1.  Loss of habitat and illegal hunting.

a)  Giant panda

1

2.  Loss and destruction of habitat and illegal capture.

b)  Goliath frog

5

3.  No skills to escape from predators and arrival of humans.

c)  Kagu

4

4.  Loss of habitat and predators.

d)  Kakapo

3

5.  Deforestation and dam building/collectors.

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5 Give one reason for the decline of the kakapo. The kakapo did not learn to defend itself. /

A Step Forward

Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 What is the purpose of this text? 2 Do you know of any other animal that is close to extinction? Which one? 3 Who or what is the main reason for the decline in animal populations? 4 In the last line of the text on the giant panda, what does “it” replace? 5 In the text, find an expression that means “it is a good sign.” 6 Which of the animals do you find most bizarre or interesting? Why? 7 Referring to the animal you selected in question 6, what would you suggest in order to help it

make a comeback? Its purpose is to inform us about animals in danger of becoming extinct.  2  Answers will vary.  3  Humans 1  and human activities are the main reason.  4  It replaces illegal hunting or poaching.  5  These numbers are promising.  6  Answers will vary.  7  Answers will vary.

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The Dodo Wooden dodo bird, typical souvenir from Mauritius

Before Reading What do you know about the bird known as the dodo? „„ Why do you think people thought the dodo was not very intelligent? „„ Why has the dodo become extinct? „„

While Reading See Infer with cognates and/or words you already know, p. VI

Focus on words that „„

look similar in French. These are called cognates. How many cognates did you find in the first paragraph?

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The dodo was a descendant of a type of pigeon. It lived on Mauritius, an island off the coast of Africa, in the Indian Ocean. The bird lost its need and ability to fly because it had no predators. It lived and nested on the ground and ate fruit.

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How many cognates „„ In the 1600s, Portuguese sailors were the first did you find in the whole text? humans to visit Mauritius. The dodos were a welcome source of fresh meat for the sailors. The birds had no natural enemies and were apparently quite friendly. The sailors mistook this trust for stupidity and named them dodos. This is a Portuguese word that means “stupid”. Naturally, it was easy for the sailors to kill and eat them.

A stuffed dodo was put on display in a British museum and people were astonished. After a while, that last specimen of the dodo began to decompose. The museum threw it away. The head and one foot were kept because they were still intact. That head and foot are all that is left of the dodo today.

to stuff to fill the preserved skin of a dead animal with material for display

Vocabulary

Ex

Later, the Dutch used the island for prisoners. They brought rats, pigs and monkeys with them. These all attacked the dodos. By the 1700s, there were none left.

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ion

This second edition of the Between the Lines series helps students acquire knowledge in order to develop ESL competencies. This text-based activity book proposes a variety of text types and topics. The response process for each text is divided in four phases.

Before Reading

This section encourages students to explore the texts and interact orally with the class about open-ended questions.

While Reading

This section directs students to use reading strategies, which are designed to help them understand the texts.

After Reading

This section reinvests understanding of texts and looks into their literal meaning before providing comprehension activities.

A Step Forward

This section reinvests understanding of texts and delves into their underlying meaning. Further questions establish personal connections and then generalize beyond the texts. They prepare students to interact orally and to write and produce texts. This section also provides enrichment questions.

The Between the Lines Activity Book is completed by the Teacher’s Toolkit, which proposes : • grammar exercises • support in the form of learning materials • consolidation and enrichment activities – and more

PRODUCT CODE 4503 ISBN 978-2-7655-3071-8

English as a Second Language | Secondary 1

Between the Lines

Edit

Bruno Gattuso Maria Lee-Arpino

Between the Lines English as a Second Language

2nd

Between the Lines

2nd

Text-Based Activity Book Secondary 1

Gattuso • Lee-Arpino

English as a Second Language - Secondary 1

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