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TZINEVRAKIS

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Secondary V

CONNECTING

The collection integrates grammar, vocabulary, listening and speaking tasks in an easy-to-use format. Connecting Doors covers the complete Diversified Basic Education program for ESL courses for adult education.

ANG-5102-1

FOR THE SECONDARY V COURSES, THE SERIES INCLUDES THREE WORKBOOKS.

SUGGESTIONS AND ADVICE

The Connecting Doors series is specially designed for the new English as a Second Language program for adult education. This innovative material proposes a variety of well-structured activities that will capture students’ attention and maintain motivation as they progress in English.

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Student Workbook

GIBBS

oors

ANG-5102-1

ANG-5103-1

Examining Issues

Suggestions and Advice

Influencing Others

PRODUCT CODE 4367 ISBN 978-2-7655-2211-9

CONNECTING

ANG-5101-2

www.grandduc.com Éditions Grand Duc

Groupe Éducalivres inc. 955, rue Bergar, Laval (Québec) H7L 4Z6 Téléphone : 514 334-8466 ■ Télécopie : 514 334-8387 InfoService : 1 800 567-3671

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Secondary V

Student Workbook COMPLIES WITH THE PROGRAM IN THE NEW CURRICULUM

ANG-5102-1 Project Supervisor

Charles Gibbs Antonia Tzinevrakis

Suggestions and Advice


Secondary V

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

CONNECTING

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Student Workbook COMPLIES WITH THE PROGRAM IN THE NEW CURRICULUM

ANG-5102-1 Project Supervisor

Charles Gibbs Antonia Tzinevrakis

Suggestions and Advice

SCHEDULE

Length of course ANG-5102-1: 25 hours

START DATE EXPECTED END DATE STUDENT’S SIGNATURE TEACHER’S SIGNATURE

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Groupe Éducalivres inc. 955, rue Bergar, Laval (Québec) H7L 4Z6 Téléphone : 514 334-8466 ■ Télécopie : 514 334-8387 InfoService : 1 800 567-3671


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The publisher wishes to thank the following people for their comments and suggestions during the development of this project: Mrs. Terri Charchuk, teacher, Maison des Adultes, C.s. des Premières-Seigneuries Mrs. Sylvie Anne Croteau, teacher, Centre l’Escale, C.s. des Draveurs Mr. Giuseppe Fiorella, teacher, Centre Louis-Fréchette, C.s. de la Pointe-de-l’Île Mrs. Danielle Gendron, teacher, Centre Odilon-Gauthier, C.s. des Premières-Seigneuries Mrs. Caroline Levasseur, teacher, Centre Odilon-Gauthier, C.s. des Premières-Seigneuries Mrs. Roxanne Roy, teacher, Centre du Nouvel-Envol, C.s. de la Vallée-des-Tisserands

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© 2014, Éditions Grand Duc, a division of Groupe Éducalivres Inc. 955 Bergar, Laval (Québec) H7L 4Z6 Telephone: 514-334-8466 ■ Fax: 514-334-8387 www.grandduc.com All rights reserved. COVER AND GRAPHIC DESIGN: Gisèle H IMAGES REFERENCES: Legend − r: right, l: left, t: top, b: bottom, c: centre page 2 rt: © Elizabeth (1837–98), Empress of Austria, 1865 (oil on canvas), Winterhalter, Franz Xaver (1805–73)/ Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria/The Bridgeman Art Library; page 3lb: © Bettmann/Corbis; page 7: © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/Corbis We acknowledge the financial support of the Government of Canada through the Canada Book Fund (CBF) for our publishing activities. It is illegal to reproduce this publication, in full or in part, in any form or by any means (electronic, mechanical, photographic, recording, magnetic or other) without first obtaining written permission from the publisher. By respecting this request, you will encourage the authors in the pursuit of their careers. PRODUCT CODE 4367 ISBN 978-2-7655-2211-9 Legal deposit Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2014 Library and Archives Canada, 2014

Printed in Canada 1234567890F3210987654


Table of Contents Structure of the Student Book..........................................................................

IV

chapter 1 Risks and Rewards .. ....................................................

2

Making Suggestions Using Should.......................................................................... Review of Adjectives in the Comparative Form ........................................................... Past Perfect Tense ............................................................................................. Chapter Review and Self-Evaluation........................................................................

4 8 13 22

chapter 2 Career Paths . .................................................. 24 Review of Adjectives in the Superlative Form............................................................. Past Perfect Progressive Tense.............................................................................. Relaxed Pronunciation: Linking + Blending. .............................................................. Chapter Review and Self-Evaluation........................................................................

26 32 38 44

chapter 3 Making Financial Decisions................................ 46 Transitional Expressions...................................................................................... Review of the First Conditional .............................................................................. Review of the Second Conditional .......................................................................... Third Conditional (Could Have, Would Have, Might Have) . ............................................ Chapter Review and Self-Evaluation........................................................................

48 53 55 59 66

Final Review .. ................................................................................................... 68 Grammar.......................................................................................................... 74 Glossary........................................................................................................... 82


Structure of the Student Book Learning a new language can be fun. We hope you will find the activities in this book interesting and that you enjoy learning English. In this course, you will be discussing a number of issues related to personal choices. Do you have a tattoo or would you like to get one? Do you often go suntanning? How do you feel about the way our society sees body image? Is fashion important to you? Have you noticed that people in different cultures see the idea of beauty differently? All of these questions require you to think about your opinions and values, give and receive suggestions, and make decisions. During the activities in this book, you will also try to persuade, encourage or discourage other people from making certain choices as you improve your skills in reading, writing, understanding and speaking English.

CHAPTER STRUCTURE At the beginning of each chapter, you will find two pages with illustrations or pictures. These pages will allow you to talk about the theme with your teacher and classmates. This will help you remember what you already know about the theme. Each chapter has pages for learning activities, grammar and vocabulary. The grammar and vocabulary pages will help you complete the activities that follow.

ACTIVITIES The activities have one or more symbols that show what you have to do in that activity: interacting

reading

listening

writing

The instructions for each activity are clearly numbered (1, 2, 3…). You should follow the instructions in the correct order so you can maximize the benefit of each activity. The activities are divided into three sections:

A Plan In the Plan section, you will think about the situation, try to remember past experiences, give your opinion and practise the vocabulary you need for the activity.

IV

B Use In the Use section, you will complete the activity using strategies and resources.

C Reinvest In the Reinvest section, you will apply what you learned to a new situation. You may have to answer a question or complete a small task. You will see that you have progressed in English.

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THE CHAPTERS HAVE THE FOLLOWING FEATURES:

Ways to Say It The Ways to Say It box helps you complete a speaking activity. This will give you ideas for how to say something.

This text is simply for you to learn unique aspects of culture in Québec and around the world.

Strategies Used Learning strategies will help you learn better and faster. Each activity has suggestions for the learning strategies you could use in that activity.

Word Bank The Word Bank is a short list of words that are useful to complete an activity, such as talking with someone on a certain topic. You can follow the structure in the examples and replace some words from the Word Bank or with different words you know.

Parts of Speech The Parts of Speech box is placed where you start learning a new aspect of English grammar. It will help you compare the different parts of speech so you can see how they all work together to form sentences.

iCT Challenge These are activities that will require you to use Information and Communication Technologies, such as computers or recording equipment. Ready for the challenge?

SELF-EVALUATION At the end of each chapter, there is a page where you can evaluate your own progress. You can also give your opinion about what you liked or did not like about the chapter.

THE END OF THE BOOK HAS THE FOLLOWING SECTIONS: Grammar Phrasal verbs are verbs followed by a preposition. They often replace the verb. They are conjugated like verbs.

Grammar

a) Julie

c) We

76

Phrasal Verbs

d) You

Meaning

try to get more exercise than they do now. always obey the law.

add up

add or include together

hear from

receive news from someone

back out

change a decision

help out

assist in doing a task

f)

g) I phoned my friend yesterday. I felt I

bring up

introduce a topic

hold off

wait before doing something

return a telephone call

keep in mind

not forget

call off

cancel

keep in touch

stay in contact

call up

use the telephone

keep on

continue doing something

check out

look at; examine

keep up

continue

come up

happen; occur

leave out

omit

do over

complete again

look forward to

anticipate

quit; abandon a program

look over

review for errors

eat out

eat in a restaurant

look up

search for information

end up

finish in a certain way

make sure

verify

fill in

write missing information

make up

invent; imagine

mix up

change the position of things

move up

progress; get a promotion

fix up

repair; arrange; organize

pass on

hand over something to someone else

get along

be friendly with someone

pick out

choose

get back

have an object returned to you

put off

postpone; delay

get in

arrive at home; enter a car

put on

add clothing read again; revise arrive

get into

enjoy participating in

get off

exit a bus or train; dismount from a bicycle

show up sign up

register

get on

enter a bus or train; mount a bicycle

start over

start again from the beginning

take off

leave the ground (in an airplane); leave quickly

give away

donate

take on

ahead of time – en avance

go out so much.

alone – seul(e) although – même si always – toujours amazing – incroyable amount – montant

, last week he went to a restaurant that serves

ancestors – ancêtres

deep-fried rattlesnake.

angry (to be) – être fâché(e)

, I bring

c) I have many hobbies. I collect stamps. hockey cards.

ankle – cheville annoying – dérangeant(e)

, I collect

another – un(e) autre answer – réponse

d) I really don’t feel like going to work today. I have a headache.

anti-aging – anti-vieillissement anxiety attack – crise d’anxiété

, I have muscle aches and I feel dizzy.

anyone – n’importe qui

e) Pizza should not be placed on the menu, because it has a high fat content.

anything – n’importe quoi

, it does not contain a lot of protein.

give back

return something

take over

take control

distribute something

talk over

discuss

give up

quit; abandon an activity

try out

try something new

apologize (to) – s’excuser

f) Sonia has an exciting life. She has met many famous people.

appear (to) – paraître

, she travels all over the world.

go over

review

turn down

refuse; lower the volume

hand in

submit an assignment

turn out

result in a particular situation

hang up

suspend clothes on a hanger; end a telephone conversation

turn up

arrive; increase the volume

write down

write information on paper

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ago – how long ago – il y a combien de temps agree (to) – se mettre d’accord

a) My father loves going to restaurants that serve exotic foods.

employ

give out

Grammar

aging – vieillissement

worry about it.

b) When I go camping, I bring lots of things. a fishing rod, matches and a sleeping bag.

read over

exit a car

talk to her boss about taking

for example, in addition, moreover, besides, furthermore, for instance. There may be more than one possible answer.

complete in writing

finish

i) Alice works very long hours. She a few days off.

allow (to) – permettre

locate information

get out

afford (to) – se permettre de payer afraid (to be) – avoir peur

 Transitional expressions. Fill in the blanks with one of the following transitional expressions:

fill out

get through

advice – conseil

take a few days off.

k) You never have enough money. You

find out

g) When I visit Korea, I want to see everything. I want to visit cities such as Seoul and Taegu.

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, I want to see as many historic sites as possible. h) John is not the right person for the job. He hasn’t studied many Asian languages. , his passport has expired.

68

Final Review

clever – intelligent(e)

B

advertisements – annonces

help her in some way.

j) You have an English test tomorrow, but you

drop out

cleansing – nettoyage

breakfast – déjeuner breath – souffle

advantages – avantages

I reply to his letter?

h) You look tired. I think you

classmates – camarades de classe clean (to) – nettoyer; clean – propre

break (to) – casser, se casser; to break into – entrer par effraction; break – pause

attribute (to) – attribuer

acts of kindness – gestes de générosité

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82

breakouts – boutons (sur le visage)

brighten (to) – blanchir bring (to) – amener

barking – aboiement

broken – participe passé du verbe to break

coat – manteau

basically – en général

budget cuts – compressions budgétaires

BCE,

bulk shopping – achats en vrac

beach – plage

bunch (a) – beaucoup

beat (to) – surmonter

burn off calories (to) – brûler des calories

beautiful – beau, belle

busy – occupé(e)

beauty – beauté

buy (to) – acheter

collect (to) – ramasser columns – colonnes come across (to) – trouver, rencontrer come up with (to) – penser, inventer comment (to) – émettre un commentaire commercials – annonces publicitaires complain (to) – se plaindre computer systems analyst – analyste en systèmes informatiques

became – forme passée du verbe to become become (to) – devenir

close (to) – fermer clothing – vêtements

back – dos bargains – bons achats, aubaines

Before Common Era – Avant J-C

clear (steer clear) – éviter; to clear away – nettoyer

clothes – vêtements

breathing – respiration

C

concern (to) – s’appliquer à; concern – préoccupation

calm (to) – calmer

concerned (to be) – s’inquiéter, être inquiet, inquiète

beholder – la personne qui regarde

care – to care about – être concerné(e) par; to take care of – prendre soin de; skin care – soins de la peau

conscious – conscient(e)

below – en-dessous

before – avant begin (to) – commencer behaviour – comportement

confident – sûr(e) de soi

career – carrière; career path – carrière

consistently – de manière constante

bend (to) – tordre, plier

carefree – insouciant(e)

consonant – consonne

beneficial – bénéfique

carefully – soigneusement

constructive feedback – rétroaction constructive

benefits – bénéfices

careless – négligent(e)

contain (to) – contenir

besides – d’ailleurs

cash – argent comptant

contests – concours

betray (to) – trahir

ceiling – plafond

convince (to) – convaincre

bills – factures

centre on (to) – être centré(e) sur

correct (to) – corriger

bite – bouchée

chair – chaise

cosmetic industry – industrie cosmétique

blanks – espaces

challenges – défis

costly – coûteux, coûteuse

blood flow – circulation sanguine

challenging – exigeant(e)

counter – comptoir

blueberries – bleuets

cheap – peu cher, peu chère

cover (to) – couvrir

bodies of water – bassins d’eau

check (to) – vérifier

covers (of magazines) – couvertures (de magazines)

checkups – vérifications

cow – vache

cheesecake – gâteau au fromage

co-workers – collègues de travail

apply (to) – appliquer, s’appliquer, correspondre

body – corps; body image – image corporelle; body mass – poids

appointment – rendez-vous

bones – os

Arabic – arabe

booming (to be) – être en croissance rapide

arm – bras

boredom – ennui

arrows – flèches

boring – ennuyant(e)

as well as – et, ainsi que

boss – patron(ne)

Glossary

clasp (to) – se joindre

bought – forme passée du verbe to buy boundaries – frontières

attractive – attirant(e) avoid (to) – éviter

addition – in addition to – en plus de

have said that. My sister got quite angry.

bother (to) – déranger

attend (to) – assister attracted – attiré(e)

accountant – comptable accumulate (to) – cumuler acquire (to) – acquérir

give up smoking because it’s really not good for you.

e) I

call back

account – compte; past-due accounts – les paiements en retard

see a dermatologist before deciding to get a tattoo.

b) Most people

ate – forme passée du verbe to eat

according to – selon

should or shouldn’t

List of Popular Phrasal Verbs Meaning

A

 Auxiliary should. Complete the most logical form of each statement below by using

The band might call off their concert tonight. call + off = cancel verb + preposition

Phrasal Verbs

Glossary

FINAL REVIEW

PHRASAL VERBS

Example:

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chemicals – produits chimiques

crazy – fou, folle

choices – choix

creams – crèmes create (to) – créer

choose (to) – choisir

credit rating – évaluation du crédit

chunk – morceau

criteria – critères

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Glossary

83

Grammar and Final Review

Glossary

These sections are for practice and reference. Not only will they help you increase your vocabulary, they will also help you find the correct word when you need it. The Final Review section provides a review of all the grammar notions covered in the course.

Most of the difficult words in the book are explained in French in the glossary. This will help you understand the instructions and texts. Words that are the same in English and French (cognates) are not included in the glossary.

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V


chapter

1 R isks

& Rewards IN THIS CHAPTER,

YOU WILL… •

discuss issues of aesthetics, such as body image, suntanning and tattoos

give suggestions and advice concerning certain practices

encourage and discourage people with regard to particular choices

use the Past Perfect tense

review the comparative form

practise the pronunciation of contractions (’d)

Vocabulary Box piercing metal object placed through the skin plastic surgery cosmetic surgery dermatologist skin specialist wrinkles lines in face body image how one sees his or her own body tattoo design on skin parasol an umbrella used for protection from the sun

Élisabeth de Wittelsbach (Princess Sissi)


Chapter Scenario People of all ages think about how they look and how they change. In this chapter, you will examine the risks and rewards of trying to stay healthy and look attractive. You will discuss how beauty techniques have evolved over time in various cultures. a) Which photos represent beauties of past generations? b) Which photos represent beauty in other parts of the world? Can you guess where these places might be? c) What beauty techniques would you practise? d) What is the most expensive option? e) What is the healthiest way to maintain or improve your image? f) Are there any beauty techniques you consider dangerous?

Marilyn Monroe

3


Parts of Speech

Grammar

MAKING SUGGESTIONS USING SHOULD

Pronoun

a word that replaces a name or thing

Verb

a word that shows an action or state

Adverb

a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Modal auxiliary Adjective Preposition/Conjunction

a word that adds meaning to a verb a word that describes a noun words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

Should is a modal auxiliary. It is often used when we want to give an opinion, offer advice or make a suggestion about something, or when we want to persuade someone to do something. The negative form is shouldn’t. In a question, should is placed before the subject. In a statement, should is placed after the subject and before the verb.

Questions

Affirmative Statement

Negative Statement

Should I get a tattoo?

You should ask your dermatologist.

You shouldn’t get one if you have sensitive skin.

Shouldn’t I ask for an appointment in advance?

You should ask for an appointment because the clinic is very busy.

You shouldn’t show up without an appointment.

NOTE

shouldn’t When someone uses asking in a question, they are . on you to give your opini thing Shouldn’t I bring some to the party?

Grammar Practice Example: She should talk to her parents first so they know how she feels.

Complete the most logical form of each statement below using should or shouldn’t.

1 You 2 He

eat oily foods, because it causes breakouts. do his workouts with a trainer who can show him how to do

the exercises properly.

3

he ask for an appointment at the reception desk? (asking opinion)

4 People today 5 They

be more concerned about what they eat. eat all that fast food; they

prepare healthier

food at home.

6 A: B: I think you

4

Chapter 1 – Risks and Rewards

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NAME:

DATE:

ACTIVITY 1

Understanding and Offering Suggestions In today’s society, more and more people are trying to stay healthy and younger-looking for as long as possible. They have different ways of going about it.

A Plan Do you agree or disagree with the statements below? Provide a short explanation for your opinion. a) Men and women in their 50s looked older in the past than they do today.

b) If you smoke, you will look older later in life.

B Use 1 Look at the questions below and the Vocabulary Box on the next page. 2 Read the suggestions on the next page about how to stay healthy and look younger. 3 Answer the questions. a) What are four suggestions given for taking care of your skin?

b) What kinds of natural foods can have a positive impact on your health as well as your looks? Try to find five examples.

c) What kind of activities can you do in order to help you stay young?

d) What are some things you should avoid?

e) What should you do or not do in order to maintain healthy teeth?

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Risks and Rewards – Chapter 1

5


Tips for Staying Young and Healthy

Vocabulary Box

1. The earlier you begin taking care of yourself, the more possibilities you will have of looking younger as you age. You should never abuse alcohol, do drugs or smoke. You should also avoid second-hand smoke. 2. Don’t allow your weight to fluctuate too much over your lifetime. Losing or gaining weight can make your skin stretch, which will cause hanging and wrinkled skin as you age. 3. Maintain a diet high in protein. Eat green vegetables and fruit, blueberries, flaxseed oil and salmon. Try to consume many naturally grown foods in order to avoid pesticides and chemicals. If you think you are missing some of these daily essentials, a multivitamin can be a good supplement. 4. Your teeth are a sign of youth. Try to keep them healthy and white by avoiding soda, coffee and tea as well as other drinks that can stain them. Don’t forget to get regular checkups and cleanings. 5. Drinking about 64 ounces of water every day is essential in for keeping your skin hydrated and young-looking.

avoid stay away from second-hand smoke smoke inhaled from other people’s cigarettes fluctuate change consume eat missing something absent or lacking rays sunlight sunscreen protective cream or lotion aging getting older

6. Protecting your skin from the sun’s rays isn’t only a beach activity. Avoid suntanning and always wear sunscreen whenever you go out. Sun damage is the number one cause of premature aging. 7. Anti-aging skin care products can help keep your face young, but you should not ignore the importance of taking special care of your eyes and lips. These areas tend to become dry and wrinkled more quickly, because they are thinner than the surrounding skin. 8. Make sure you put sunscreen on your hands and reapply it as often as possible. Always wear gloves when doing dishes or using chemicals to clean. 9. As for your hair, get regular trims and conditioning treatments. Use good, professional products. Also consider taking vitamins if you begin to notice any sudden thinning or loss of hair. 10. Reduce your stress by doing yoga, meditation or any form of exercise. In doing so, you will increase blood flow, muscle tone and endurance, leading to a more youthful appearance.

6

Chapter 1 – Risks and Rewards

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NAME:

DATE:

C Reinvest 1 Find a partner. Discuss the text Tips for Staying Young and Healthy.

Strategies Used

2 Which tips do you and your partner find easier to follow? Explain why.

Asking for help Activating prior knowledge Encouraging self and others

3 Which tips do you find more difficult or unrealistic to follow? Explain why.

4 Find one recommendation that your partner finds difficult or unrealistic to follow. Give him or her suggestions on how to follow that advice. Write the suggestions here.

iCT Challenge Do some research on the Internet to find some other things people consider physically beautiful in women and men in other countries and cultures. Prepare a one-page summary using word processing software of the information you found.

The History of the Suntan Even though acquiring a suntan has been popular for many years, in the past it was regarded as a sign of low social status. In ancient Rome and Greece, women used heavy white powder and makeup containing lead and arsenic to brighten their faces. Unfortunately, this led to their untimely deaths from poisoning. They never went outside without hats or parasols, and they wore floor-length dresses with long sleeves.

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The original trendsetters started in the 1920s. A woman noted for being a “style icon,” Coco Chanel, got sunburned while taking a holiday in the South of France and returned home with a tan! Hats became fashion statements instead of protective clothing. In the 1930s, Hollywood movies began to use colour film and soon rosy cheeks became an absolute necessity. Soon a carefree youth culture was demanding a year-round tan so they could appear

Coco Chanel

to have just returned from vacation. This spawned the development of indoor tanning beds in 1975. Mattel, the company that made Barbie and Ken dolls, developed a Malibu Barbie. George Hamilton was the first-ever tanned Dracula in the movie Love at First Bite.

Risks and Rewards – Chapter 1

7


Parts of Speech

Grammar

REVIEW OF ADJECTIVES IN THE COMPARATIVE FORM

Pronoun

a word that replaces a name or thing

Verb

a word that shows an action or state

Adverb

a word that describes a verb

Article

a word that identifies a noun

Noun

a person, place, thing or idea

Modal auxiliary

a word that adds meaning to a verb

Adjective

a word that describes a noun

Preposition/Conjunction

words that show the relationship between nouns or sentences

Comparative Form We use the comparative form to compare and contrast the differences between things or people.

Example: His skin is soft. Her skin is softer.

Using the comparative form: 1. For most one-syllable adjectives, the adjective is modified. We add -er to the end, sometimes followed by the word than. The adjective strong has one syllable. strong + -er = stronger She feels stronger than last year because she goes to the gym. The adjective strong followed by than is used to compare the strength she had last year to the strength she has this year. If the person understands what you are comparing, you can drop the word than.

NOTE

tions There are some excep to this rule: good ➜ better r than My hair stylist is bette r. se res ird my sister’s ha bad ➜ worse The medication I’m my taking is worse than . ion ipt scr pre al origin r far ➜ farther/furthe

She feels stronger.

farther The swimming pool is . ility fac ic than the athlet

2. For most adjectives with two or more syllables, the adjective is preceded by the words more (+) or less (–) and can be followed by than. The adjectives effective and expensive have three syllables (ef-fec-tive, ex-pen-sive). My new hand cream is more effective than my old hand cream.

8

Chapter 1 – Risks and Rewards

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NAME:

REVIEW OF ADJECTIVES IN THE COMPARATIVE FORM (continued )

DATE:

Grammar

3. For two-syllable adjectives ending in -y, change the y to an i and add -er, sometimes followed by than. The adjective healthy ends in the letter -y. It becomes healthier (health-i-er). The adjective healthy can be used to compare food that is baked and food that is fried. The adjectives easy and heavy also end in the letter -y. Baked food is healthier than fried food. Sometimes, English can be easier than French. People who lift weights are usually heavier than people who don’t. 4. The comparative form of some two-syllable adjectives (gentle, friendly, simple, quiet, clever) can be created in both ways. more gentle = gentler

more quiet = quieter

more friendly = friendlier

more clever = cleverer

more simple = simpler

Spelling Tip If a one-syllable adjective ends in a consonant and is preceded by a vowel, you must double the last letter before adding -er, as in the case of the adjectives big, hot and sad. Her problem is bigger than mine. The sun feels hotter today than yesterday. She feels sadder this month than last month. This rule doesn’t apply to words ending in a consonant preceded by two vowels, such as the adjectives clean, cheap and clear. Is your skin cleaner since you started using that toner? This product is cheaper than that one. I prefer this recipe because it is clearer than the one you followed.

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Risks and Rewards – Chapter 1

9


Grammar

REVIEW OF ADJECTIVES IN THE COMPARATIVE FORM (continued )

Grammar Practice Choose the correct adjective for each sentence from the following list. Then change the adjectives to the comparative form.

[

fat, old, simple, cheap, good, bad, successful, promising, wealthy, sad, gentle, painful, heavy, difficult, long, wrinkled, conscious

1 Her options have been much

Example: She feels younger at 40 than when she was 20.

]

since she obtained a certificate

in aesthetics.

2 The injections were

than she had imagined.

3 My aunt’s skin is

than my uncle’s, because she has had

too much sun in her life.

4 Famous actors can afford to pay any price to maintain a youthful appearance, since they are often

than the general public.

5 Had Alana looked

before she began using natural products?

6 Dr. Trottier is a

plastic surgeon than many others.

7 Our ancestors’ lives were

than our lives today. They weren’t

so concerned with body image.

8 Is it

to get a tattoo or remove it?

9 The no-name shampoo I used was

and a lot

.

Look how soft and shiny my hair is!

0 When we have sensitive skin, we should buy products that are

.

 Wow! You’ve lost so much weight! You were

when I saw you

two years ago.

 She was  Young people are

last week because she heard someone say she was fat. of their body image.

 This product is bad for your skin, but that one is even  I’m too skinny, so I’d like to be a little  Someone over 30 must work out

10

Chapter 1 – Risks and Rewards

. . in order to burn off calories.

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CHAPTER R EVIEW

Grammar 1 Comparative adjectives. Choose the correct adjective for each sentence from the following list: attractive, dark, big, wrinkled, interested, stable, shiny, confident, dangerous, soft, independent, easy. Then, change the adjectives to the comparative form. a) I ate a

breakfast today than yesterday.

b) He has been

since a girl he likes accepted his invitation to go out.

c) She’s she was 18.

than her sister because she has lived alone since

d) She didn’t like her hair colour, so she decided to go a shade e) The patient’s health is a few days ago.

.

than when he entered the hospital

f) Some people like to tan because they feel g) What’s

.

, sitting in the sun or lying on a tanning bed?

h) It’s much

to remove a henna tattoo than a real one.

i) Young people often feel that others will be they dress and look a certain way. j) Skin often looks

in them only if after many years of tanning.

k) If you use that shampoo and conditioner, the commercial promises that your hair will feel and look

.

2 Past Perfect and Simple Past tenses. Complete the sentences. Change the verbs in the parentheses to the Past Perfect or the Simple Past tense. Use the contracted form if possible. If you see (neg.), use the negative form. Use the question form in sentences ending in a question. a) We a place to sleep. b)

(drive) for hours before we you

you c) Do you wish you d) She (lose) 35 kilos. e) The authorities they f) The girls

(find) (start) that diet because

(hear) about it from someone you know? (become) a famous actress or singer? (give) away all her clothes after she (open) the beach to the public after (test) the water to see if it was safe to swim. (apply) a homemade facial mask after they (watch) a program on natural beauty tips.

g) She wishes she

(listen) to her mother’s advice.

h) He (have) a headache because he (drink, neg.) enough water the night before.

22

Chapter 1 – Risks and Rewards

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NAME:

DATE:

Expressing Personal Opinions A friend is asking you some questions. Respond to the questions giving your own opinion. a) Do you think I should get a piercing?

b) I want to get a tattoo. Where should I go?

c) I often get headaches whenever I sit in the sun. What should I do?

Speaking Work with another student or your teacher. Give your opinion on the following statements. Support your opinion with reasons. a) We concentrate more on our looks than other societies. b) We shouldn’t try to change our appearance for the sake of others. c) Tattoos are only a fashion statement. d) We should accept all the signs of aging and not try to look younger.

SELF-EVALUATION 1 How much progress have you made during this chapter? Read the following statements. Check the box that shows how you feel.

Yes

No

a) I can discuss and give my opinion on issues such as body image, suntanning and tattoos. ........................................

b) I can give suggestions and advice concerning certain practices............

c) I can encourage and discourage people with regard to particular choices. ..................................................................................

d) I can use the Past Perfect tense................................................................

e) I can use the comparative form.................................................................

Maybe

2 What do you like best about this chapter? Why?

3 What do you not like about this chapter? Why?

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Risks and Rewards – Chapter 1

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SUGGESTIONS AND ADVICE

The Connecting Doors series is specially designed for the new English as a Second Language program for adult education. This innovative material proposes a variety of well-structured activities that will capture students’ attention and maintain motivation as they progress in English.

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