Page 1

Secondary 4

LONGSTAFF

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Secondary 4

9 782765 541301 >

CD-couvert-close-Heart-fev2020-Final.indd Toutes les pages

Alison Longstaff

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to My Heart

Charles Gibbs

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ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Student Workbook

PRODUCT CODE 4649 ISBN 978-2-7655-4130-1

Project Supervisor

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Course Giving Supplementary Credits in a Second Language

CONNECTING

In this course, students will engage in reading, listening and speaking activities on a wide variety of themes that will provoke reflection and interaction on personally relevant issues. While participating in oral communication activities such as discussions and podcasts, and writing original texts such as pamphlets, blog posts and magazine articles, students will share their thoughts and opinions, as well as listen to the ideas of their classmates. Discussion topics include aspects of personal appearance, the impact of marketing and the elements of healthy relationships.

ANG-4104-2

An Issue Close

AN ISSUE CLOSE TO MY HEART

to My Heart

The An Issue Close to My Heart supplementary course meets the needs of teachers and students following the Diversified Basic Education Program for English as a Second Language, even in the context of multilevel classrooms.

ANG-4104-2

An Issue Close

CONNECTING

GIBBS

CONNECTING

Student Workbook

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COMPLIES WITH THE PROGRAM IN THE NEW CURRICULUM

2020-02-27 15:56


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Secondary 4

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Student Workbook

CONNECTING ANG-4104-2

An Issue Close

Project Supervisor

Charles Gibbs

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to My Heart

Alison Longstaff

Course Giving Supplementary Credits in a Second Language

SCHEDULE

Length of course ANG-4104-2: 50 hours START DATE

EXPECTED END DATE

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STUDENT’S SIGNATURE TEACHER’S SIGNATURE

COMPLIES WITH THE PROGRAM IN THE NEW CURRICULUM


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The publisher wishes to thank the following people for their comments and suggestions during the development of this project: Mr. Giuseppe Fiorella, Centre Louis-Fréchette, Commission scolaire de la Pointe-de-l’Île Mrs. Antonia Tzinevrakis, Centre Saint-Paul, Commission scolaire de Montréal

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CONNECTING

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Mrs. Barbara Mann, Centre le Phénix, Commission scolaire des Découvreurs

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© 2020, Éditions Grand Duc, a division of Groupe Éducalivres inc. 1699, boulevard Le Corbusier, bureau 350, Laval (Québec) H7S 1Z3 Telephone: 514 334-8466 www.grandducenligne.com All rights reserved.

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COVER AND GRAPHIC DESIGN: Caméléon Designer inc. COMPUTER GRAPHICS: Pixailes Design Graphique

It is illegal to reproduce this publication, in full or in part, in any form by any means (electronic, mechanical, photographic, recording, magnetic or other) without first obtaining permission from the publisher. By respecting this request, you will encourage the authors in the pursuit of their careers. PRODUCT CODE 4649 ISBN 978-2-7655-4130-1 Legal deposit Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2020 Library and Archives Canada, 2020

Printed in Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 MI 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0


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LEARNING SITUATION 1

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Table of Contents

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Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus on Strategies – Planning Steps Related to a Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: The Power of Appearance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Phrasal Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: The Influence of the Fashion Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Giving a Reason with Because and Because Of . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Appearance at School and in the Workplace. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Writing Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Oral Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2 4 6 10 12 15 17 22 24 27

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Our Appearance and its Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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LEARNING SITUATION 2

Are we Victims of Marketing? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus on Strategies – Self-Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: Online Advertising: Pros and Cons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oral Practice – The Influence of Online Advertising on You. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Past Progressive Tense. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: Online Advertising: Some Facts, Some Myths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Simple Past Tense Versus Past Tense of Use to +Verb . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Beware of Advertising Techniques! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Writing Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Oral Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Table of Contents

III


LEARNING SITUATION 3 57

Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Focus on Strategies – Practising to Improve Skills. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 1: Words Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Using I Wish and I Hope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 2: Civility in Online Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Simple Past Tense or Present Perfect Tense? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Activity 3: Raising Awareness About the Importance of Civility . . . . . . . . . . . . Oral Practice – Building Bridges with Others . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grammar – Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Writing Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Oral Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Building Constructive Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . . .

LEARNING SITUATION 4

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Healthy Communities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Focus on Strategies – Asking for and Giving Constructive Feedback . . . . . . . . 88 Activity 1: Should We Invest in Recreation or Mental Health Services? . . . . . . 90 Oral Practice – Physical Activity and You . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Grammar – Using One or Ones to Avoid Repetition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Activity 2: Public Transport and Teen Health: What Is the Link? . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Grammar – Using By or With to Express Means . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Activity 3: Direct Aid in Times of Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Final Oral Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Final Writing Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

GRAMMAR REVIEW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 GLOSSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 IV

Table of Contents

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Presentation of the Student Workbook In this course, students will engage in reading, listening and speaking activities on a wide variety of themes that will provoke reflection and interaction on personally relevant issues. While participating in oral communication activities, such discussions and podcasts, and writing original texts, such as pamphlets, blog posts and magazine articles, students will share their thoughts and opinions as well as listen to the ideas of their classmates. Discussion topics include aspects of personal appearance, the impact of marketing and the elements of healthy relationships. This workbook has four learning situations. In Learning Situation 1, students discuss themes related to personal appearance, the impact of one’s appearance and personal choice. They explore how they themselves and others react to people’s appearance.

In Learning Situation 2, students learn about certain issues raised by advertising. They discover how people feel about online publicity, how advertising can affect us and how companies use certain techniques to influence us.

In Learning Situation 3, students express their points of view and feelings about getting along with the people around them, and prepare an action plan to promote change for the better.

In Learning Situation 4, students learn about the important issue of teen health. They examine information on how a community can promote teen health, why action is needed, what can be done and who can support it.

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Learning Situation 1

The first few pages of each learning situation contain the expected learning outcomes, provide real-life situations and offer a sample text. Subsequent learning activities are organized in a similar fashion to previous workbooks in the Connecting Doors series.

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ACTIVITIES

reading

listening

writing

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In the Plan section, students think about the situation, try to remember past experiences, give their opinions on a topic or practise the vocabulary needed for the activity. © Éditions Grand Duc

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Read people’s opinions about their impressions about clothing and grooming choices Read about issues related to personal freedom in choices regarding appearance

The proposed dress code frustrates many students at our centre. So, I’m asking you, readers, do you feel as strongly as I do about these issues? To start off, can you suggest a few arguments to use to oppose the dress code? Are there any dress rules at your training centre? If so, are they reasonable? Do you approve or disapprove of dress codes in general? Do you think appearance communicates anything about a person? Does it contribute to creating a first impression? And finally, what do you think of this idea that some students are slaves to the fashion industry?

Listen to viewpoints on the influence of the fashion industry Practise using the learning strategy Planning Steps Related to a Task

Try to persuade others by defending your point of view

We’d love to hear your viewpoints. Please produce blog posts and vlogs with your ideas and opinions on the proposed dress code and other related issues. All members of our online community can participate!

Review the use of certain phrasal verbs Review the use of because and because of

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ARTICLES

I totally disagree with this proposed policy. I believe we should be free to make our own choices about our appearance. In a training centre, my look is part of who I am and expresses my identity. My tattoo has personal meaning for me. It is an art form. It celebrates my originality. The same goes for my choice of clothing.

Summary of learning outcomes:

Give your point of view on appearance and whether freedom of choice is limitless

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ABOUT

CONTACT

Today, I’m writing about a proposal in our education centre. Our principal is planning to implement a new dress code for all students. Not a uniform – just rules about what we can and can’t wear. For example, no jeans with holes. Students would need to cover up certain tattoos and wear “decent” clothing. The principal says that a dress code is necessary because first impressions count. He believes that appearance communicates things about our centre and about each student (if you are serious, if you are pro-violence). He believes that students need to learn to dress “appropriately.” He also says he doesn’t want students to be “slaves” to fashion.

Our Appearance and Its Impact – Learning Situation 1

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Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

Note Issue A question, problem or debate of personal or public interest. Example: The new dress code is a big issue for many students at our training centre.

Note Policy Basic principles used to guide what people do in a business organization, educational institution, government office, etc.

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Audio tracks accompanying the listening activities can be accessed using the numeric code provided.

PROCEDURE 1. Go to the Classe numérique: laclasse.grandducenligne.com. 2. Enter the C O D E associated with each listening activity. 3. Listen carefully to the text, then answer the questions in the workbook.

B

PLAN

You will discuss themes related to personal appearance, the impact of one’s appearance and personal choice. You will explore how you and others react to people’s appearance. As a final task, you will write a blog post and prepare for a vlog expressing your point of view and feelings on appearance and freedom of choice.

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

The activities have one or more symbols that show what action students will undertake during that activity.

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BLOG POST

Krish Devi, Delta Adult Education Centre, British Columbia

IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION…

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This year, your English teacher has set up a website to connect students in your class with students in vocational and adult education centres in other provinces. This online community will exchange viewpoints by creating blog posts (written texts) and vlogs (videos in which people film themselves talking about their own experience or voicing opinions on a subject). This week, the issue under discussion is personal appearance. Read Krish’s blog. He is launching a debate on your online community’s website.

OUR APPEARANCE AND ITS IMPACT

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Structure

Scenario

USE

In the Use section, students will mobilize strategies and resources to complete the activity, such as responding to a text.

C

REINVEST

In the Reinvest section, students will apply what they have learned to a new situation by completing a short task or reflecting on the topic in a new way. Presentation of the Student Workbook

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Focus on Strategies

Planning Steps Related to a Task Strategies are helpful when you are learning something new, such as cooking, construction work or another language. Communication and learning strategies help you find solutions to problems, attain goals, learn and progress. They can be…

FOCUS ON STRATEGIES

Each learning situation focuses on one particular communication or learning strategy. This section allows students to further their understanding of the strategy and provides them with practice using the strategy in a specific context.

• Actions • Attitudes • Steps • Techniques Using strategies will help make learning easier, less stressful, more fun and long-lasting. We will focus on one very helpful strategy in this learning situation: Planning Steps Related to a Task.

When you plan steps in a task, you use your experience and knowledge to organize your work and follow a procedure. For example, to make a video in English in response to Krish’s blog post, you need to: 1. Read instructions on how to make a vlog. 2. Check your equipment. 3. Prepare what you will say. 4. Practise speaking. 5. Film the vlog. To help you work strategically in this book, activities are divided into three groups:

GRAMMAR

A

B

PLAN

C

USE

Get information on the subject.

Start thinking about a subject.

REINVEST

Phrasal Verbs

Use information you gathered in a writing or speaking task.

When using a phrasal verb (such as take off or get up), we combine a verb with a preposition or an adverb, or both. The combination functions as a verb. The combined meaning is different from the meaning of the individual words. Some phrasal verbs may have more than one meaning.

Some phrasal verbs are separable, meaning that the object of the sentence can be placed between the verb and the proposition. Take off is an example of a separable phrasal verb: Example

I am too warm, so I will take off my coat. I am too warm, so I will take my coat off. Object of the sentence

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Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

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© Éditions Grand Duc PHRASAL VERBS

MEANING

EXAMPLE

Grammar Advanced grammar notions followed by exercises are introduced or reviewed throughout the workbook.

To put on

to dress yourself in something

Jack put on his coat and walked out the door.

To take off

to remove a piece of clothing

It was hot in the bus, so I took off my jacket.

To dress up

to wear your best clothes

Everyone dressed up for Sharon’s birthday party.

To dress down

to wear clothes that are more informal than usual

I’m dressing down for work today because it’s Friday.

To have on

to wear an item of clothing

Jack: “Why do you have boots on?”

To do up

to attach a piece of clothing (e.g. with a button or zipper)

The shirt looks nice, but it’s not necessary to do up the top button.

ORAL PRACTICE

To go with

to look good in combination with another item

That blue shirt really goes with your new pants.

1.

Indicate if you agree or disagree with the viewpoints expressed in the previous blog posts and the podcast.

To wrap up

to put warm clothing on

It’s rainy and windy today. I suggest you wrap up to walk to school.

2.

Explain your point of view on the first line, giving reasons or using examples.

To look like

to appear similar to something or someone

Your flowered Hawaiian shirt makes you look like a tourist.

Oral Practice

Sharing Opinions

Joe: “Because it’s supposed to snow this afternoon.”

3. 4.

Work with a classmate or your teacher.

In preparation for the final task, students are invited to share their ideas and experiences in a guided oral interaction with other students or the teacher.

Discuss the issue with a classmate or your teacher. Take note of your partner’s opinions on the second line.

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Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

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My opinion:

 Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

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a) Appearance (e.g. clothing, grooming, tattoos, piercings) indicates something about a person.

b) Your appearance is an expression of your individuality and creativity.

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My opinion:

 Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

c) In general, it is helpful for certain categories of employees to wear uniforms or to adopt a particular manner of dress. My opinion:

 Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

My opinion:

 Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

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d) Appearance can indicate that a person belongs to a particular group or community.

e) Appearance can indicate that a person rejects certain stereotypes.

In the following tasks, use the strategy Planning Steps Related to a Task to help you organize information and prepare.

Don’t forget to use the notes you wrote in the charts in this learning situation.

As appearance is an issue of personal relevance to you, you decide to respond to Krish’s invitation to share personal experiences related to the subject.

The subject of your blog: A personal experience related to appearance This experience can be something that you or a friend had at work, at school, in your family, at a party, a school activity, etc. It could be funny, embarrassing, strange, something you condemn or commend, etc. It could be about personal injustice experienced because of appearance or a lesson you learned about your own appearance.

In your blog, explain: The incident (e.g. what happened, where, why, when, who was involved) How it made you feel and why

What you learned from the experience

Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

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review

1. PHRASAL VERBS

In each of the following sentences, insert an appropriate phrasal verb from the list below. Use each phrasal verb only once. Using cues from the sentence, decide if you need to conjugate the verb (simple present tense or simple past tense) or use the infinitive form.

a) One of the requirements of Jake’s new job is

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in a suit and tie.

b) Alana bought a beautiful dress for her graduation. She c) I

a movie star.

a new white shirt. I was very disappointed when I got spaghetti sauce

on it.

d) Zoé is not accustomed to our cold Canadian climate. She

when it starts to

get a little cool out.

e) Mike was extremely tired when he got home from work. He had a shower, his pajamas and watched TV.

f) Don’t

your boots. I want you to come to the store with me to get

some milk.

g) That jacket looks nicer if you don’t

the buttons.

h) A flowered blouse doesn’t

striped pants, in my opinion.

i) They decided to

because they were going to a football game and

it was raining.

2. BECAUSE AND BECAUSE OF

In the following sentences, circle the correct structure:

because or because of.

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Your text should be 100–150 words. You may look back on the ideas in this learning situation and in your notes for inspiration, but what is important is to express your own experience, ideas and feelings.

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 Disagrees

After developing skills, vocabulary and knowledge related to the activities presented, students complete a final task at the end of each learning situation.

Your writing will take the form of a blog to share with your online community.

 Agrees

REVIEW

to put on • to take off • to dress up • to dress down • to have on • to wrap up • to look like • to go with • to do up

You want to answer some of the questions about appearance that Krish asks about in his blog post. You will present your viewpoints orally and in writing on your shared website.

 Disagree

My partner:

Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

FINAL ORAL OR WRITING TASK

final writing task Important reminder: Before beginning this task, refer to the scenario at the beginning of this learning situation (page 2). •

 Agree

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My opinion:

a) (Because/Because of) inflation, prices will rise this year. b) I will study at home tonight (because/because of) I don’t have time to go to your house. c) The students took a long time to finish their project (because/because of) they couldn’t agree on what to present. d) Manfred isn’t attending school at the moment (because/because of) his poor health. e) I am looking after Janet’s dog (because/because of) she is in South Carolina. f) I don’t want to buy new clothes (because/because of) I have enough. I don’t need more. g) Brian was angry and went home (because/because of) a conflict with another student.

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Our Appearance and Its Impact – Learning Situation 1

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The Review section provides an additional opportunity for students to practise and confirm their understanding of the grammar and vocabulary presented in the learning situation.

The Learning Situations Include the Following Features: The Ways to Say It box helps students complete a speaking activity. It provides ideas on how to say something.

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Ways

to Say It

VOCABULARY

BOX

The Word Bank is a short list of words or expressions that provides options for students as they complete the writing activities.

Word Bank

The Vocabulary Box helps students understand a word in a text.

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Self-Evaluation

To conclude, there is a section in which students can evaluate their progress and comment on the learning situation.

The End of the Book Includes the Following Sections:

grammar review

grammar review Phonology HOW TO PRONOUNCE –th For French-speaking students learning English, it can sometimes take a lot of practice to pronounce the –th sound correctly. It doesn’t help matters that there are actually two ways of pronouncing this combination of letters. They are called the voiced and the voiceless interdental fricatives. In both cases, you put the tip of your tongue between the top and bottom teeth. This is why it is called interdental – your tongue goes between your teeth.

VOICED FRICATIVE With the voiced fricative, your vocal cords vibrate to make a sound. The linguistic symbol for this sound is [∂]. This is the sound we hear in the following words. Listen as you read the words. than • then • this • weather • smooth • other

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VOICELESS FRICATIVE With the voiceless fricative, the tongue is in the same position, but there is no vibration of the vocal cords, so it makes a different sound. The linguistic symbol for this sound is: [0] This is the sound we hear in the following words. Listen as you read the words. thank • think • therapy • moth • path • youth

PHONOLOGY Practice

math

them

cloth

though

with

clothes

path teeth

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rb

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La classe numérique

Listen to the following words. If you hear the [∂] sound, write voiced. If you hear the [0] sound, write voiceless. Repeat the words after you hear them.

thought

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thud bathe bath

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8b

s7

j3

rd

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theft their think

Grammar Review

113

The Grammar Review section is for reference and practice only. It helps students find and use the correct word, expression or verb tense, as required in the writing task.

Presentation of the Student Workbook

glossary

glossary A

attract (to)

attirer

attractive

attirant(e)

able to (to be)

être capable

abolished (to be)

être aboli(e)

B

absolutely

absolument

background

les origines

accomplishment

réussite

balance a budget (to)

équilibrer un budget

according to

selon

bank manager

ad blocker

logiciel qui empêche la diffusion des publicités

directeur/directrice de banque

beard

barbe

add (to)

ajouter

behaviour

comportement

address (to); to address an audience

se mettre à une tâche ; parler devant un public

beliefs; popular beliefs

croyances; croyances populaires

ads

annonces

believable

croyable

advertiser

annonceur

believe (to)

croire

advertising

publicité

benefits

avantages

advice

conseil

biased (to be)

être biaisé(e)

binge-shopper

une personne qui fait des dépenses excessives

affordable

abordable

against

contre

agenda

intentions cachées

ages; through the ages

époques; d’une époque à l’autre

bit (a)

un peu

blame (to)

blâmer

blank space

espace vide

ago; two days ago

depuis; il y a deux jours

blasphemous

blasphématoire

agree (to)

se mettre d’accord

blasted (to be)

être bombardé(e)

ailment

maladie

alike; parents and students à la fois; à la fois les élèves alike les parents

block (to)

bloquer

body shape

forme corporelle

boost (to)

augmenter

all over (to be)

être partout

boots

bottes

allow (to)

permettre

boredom

ennui

alteration

modification

boring

ennuyant(e)

altered (to be)

être modifié(e)

boss

patron, patronne

both

les deux

although

même si

angry

fâché(e)

bought

another

un autre, une autre

verbe to buy au passé

bountiful

abondant(e)

anxious

anxieux, anxieuse

brainstorm (to)

faire un remue-méninge

appeal (the)

intérêt

brainwash (to)

faire un lavage de cerveau

appeal (to)

être attirant(e); faire appel

brewed coffee

café-filtre

appear (to)

apparaître

bring (to); bring on (to)

apply for (to)

faire une demande

amener; mener à quelque chose

attend (to)

assister

bring down (to)

réduire

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Glossary

121

Most of the difficult words in the book are explained in French in the Glossary. This will help students understand the instructions and texts. Words that are English and French cognates are not included in the Glossary.

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Learning Situation 1

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IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION…

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OUR APPEARANCE AND ITS IMPACT

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You will discuss themes related to personal appearance, the impact of one’s appearance and personal choice. You will explore how you and others react to people’s appearance. As a final task, you will write a blog post and prepare for a vlog expressing your point of view and feelings on appearance and freedom of choice.

Summary of learning outcomes: Read people’s opinions about their impressions about clothing and grooming choices Read about issues related to personal freedom in choices regarding appearance Listen to viewpoints on the influence of the fashion industry Practise using the learning strategy Planning Steps Related to a Task Give your point of view on appearance and whether freedom of choice is limitless Try to persuade others by defending your point of view Review the use of certain phrasal verbs Review the use of because and because of

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Scenario

ABOUT

ARTICLES

Krish Devi, Delta Adult Education Centre, British Columbia

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Today, I’m writing about a proposal in our education centre. Our principal is planning to implement a new dress code for all students. Not a uniform – just rules about what we can and can’t wear. For example, no jeans with holes. Students would need to cover up certain tattoos and wear “decent” clothing. The principal says that a dress code is necessary because first impressions count. He believes that appearance communicates things about our centre and about each student (if you are serious, if you are pro-violence). He believes that students need to learn to dress “appropriately.” He also says he doesn’t want students to be “slaves” to fashion.

CONTACT

D

BLOG POST

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This year, your English teacher has set up a website to connect students in your class with students in vocational and adult education centres in other provinces. This online community will exchange viewpoints by creating blog posts (written texts) and vlogs (videos in which people film themselves talking about their own experience or voicing opinions on a subject). This week, the issue under discussion is personal appearance. Read Krish’s blog. He is launching a debate on your online community’s website.

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I totally disagree with this proposed policy. I believe we should be free to make our own choices about our appearance. In a training centre, my look is part of who I am and expresses my identity. My tattoo has personal meaning for me. It is an art form. It celebrates my originality. The same goes for my choice of clothing.

Issue A question, problem or debate of personal or public interest. Example: The new dress code is a big issue for many students at our training centre.

©

The proposed dress code frustrates many students at our centre. So, I’m asking you, readers, do you feel as strongly as I do about these issues? To start off, can you suggest a few arguments to use to oppose the dress code? Are there any dress rules at your training centre? If so, are they reasonable? Do you approve or disapprove of dress codes in general? Do you think appearance communicates anything about a person? Does it contribute to creating a first impression? And finally, what do you think of this idea that some students are slaves to the fashion industry?

Note

We’d love to hear your viewpoints. Please produce blog posts and vlogs with your ideas and opinions on the proposed dress code and other related issues. All members of our online community can participate!

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Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

Note Policy Basic principles used to guide what people do in a business organization, educational institution, government office, etc.

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Final TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE Reread Krish’s blog post on page 2.

2.

Complete the left-hand column in the chart below with issues and questions Krish wants students to react and respond to.

3.

Then, as you go through this learning situation, add relevant information to the chart on the righthand side, in the column titled “Information/Opinions.” These notes will help you organize your ideas about appearance in order to present them, orally and in writing, to Krish and other students in your online community.

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1.

INFORMATION/OPINIONS

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THINGS KRISH WANTS TO KNOW

Other ideas for the final task

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Planning Steps Related to a Task Strategies are helpful when you are learning something new, such as cooking, construction work or another language. Communication and learning strategies help you find solutions to problems, attain goals, learn and progress. They can be…

FOCUS ON STRATEGIES

• Actions • Attitudes • Steps

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Using strategies will help make learning easier, less stressful, more fun and long-lasting. We will focus on one very helpful strategy in this learning situation: Planning Steps Related to a Task.

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• Techniques

When you plan steps in a task, you use your experience and knowledge to organize your work and follow a procedure. For example, to make a video in English in response to Krish’s blog post, you need to:

2. Check your equipment. 3. Prepare what you will say. 4. Practise speaking. 5. Film the vlog.

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1. Read instructions on how to make a vlog.

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To help you work strategically in this book, activities are divided into three groups:

A

PLAN

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Start thinking about a subject.

4

Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

B

USE

Get information on the subject.

C

REINVEST

Use information you gathered in a writing or speaking task.

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STRATEGY PRACTICE 1.

Using the strategy Planning Steps Related to a Task, indicate the correct order of the steps required to write a letter of complaint using the numbers 1 to 4. ORDER (1-4)

STEPS Write the final copy of the letter. Establish a list or sequence of problems that you will use as an outline.

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Write a draft of your letter, preferably in pencil so that you can correct mistakes or change words.

2.

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Reflect on what you want to say and compile information needed to explain the situation or the problem.

a) Read the following story about Jerome’s English exam. Then, answer the question that follows. b) Did Jerome use the strategy Planning Steps Related to a Task adequately? Explain your answer.  No

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 Yes

Jerome’s English Exam

Yesterday, Jerome had an appointment to write his English exam. In the days and weeks before the exam, his teacher informed him about the task: writing a letter requesting tourist information. Jerome was confident. He had practised this type of writing before.

©

His teacher said his letters were very good. Jerome sat down in the exam room. He took note of one thing only: the number of words he needed to write. He didn’t read the other instructions on page 1. He didn’t take time to read the two texts on pages 2 and 3. He decided it was not necessary to organize information from the reading texts on page 4. He started writing his letter. He was careful to include a greeting and a final salutation in his letter. He added the date. He counted the words. “Fine,” he thought, “my letter is long enough.” He looked at the clock. His time was up. He handed his exam in and returned to class.

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Activity 1 THE POWER OF APPEARANCE In this section, you will explore some of the functions of our appearance and what your appearance can communicate to people around you.

A

PLAN

Police officer

Student

Rapper

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Teacher

Bank manager

Pilot

School principal

Farm worker

Olympic athlete Tourist Electrician

Travel agent Plumber

Hairdresser

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USE

Store clerk/employee

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Graphic artist

B

GROUP

( ✓)

D

GROUP

(✓)

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Which of the following people do you associate with a particular type of clothing or appearance? Put a check mark (✓) beside your choices.

1.

Read the blog posts on the next two pages posted by students in your online community.

2.

Answer the questions below and fill out the chart on page 9 with information from the blog posts.

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a) According to Molly (Blog Post1), judging from people’s appearance, what conclusions do we sometimes make about them?

b) In Molly’s opinion, what impressions can a person’s appearance create?

c) According to Anisha (Blog Post 2), what impact should a person’s appearance have on other people?

d) What did Jonathan (Blog Post 3) learn about the impact of his style of dress and grooming?

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Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

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BLOG POST 1

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

Molly Ortiz, Maple Creek Vocational Centre, Ontario When we meet people, we have just a few seconds to create a positive impression. Our first impressions are often based on our senses. We judge from what we see, hear (the person’s voice and accent) and smell. Strangely, we use what we can see to evaluate what we can’t see. Using appearance, we rapidly make judgements about social status, personality, competence and even values. If a first impression is negative, it is hard to change that perception.

D

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Appearance sends a message about a person’s lifestyle and habits. For example, clothing that is clean and appropriate for the occasion will generate positive feelings. Clothing that is dirty can leave a bad impression. Grooming or accessories that are aggressive (some piercing, tattoos and images on T-shirts) can create negative associations for some people. I admit this is true for me.

BLOG POST 2

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Because of the importance of appearance, some schools have dress codes. At our centre, students are sent home if they are not dressed appropriately (e.g. clothing that is too revealing or that has violent or indecent messages). Some students think that all dress codes are intrusive and infringe on their freedom of expression. Personally, I think that some rules help control excesses. Some students go too far, so I believe a few rules should exist but they shouldn’t be too strict. However, I don’t think you should judge people by their looks. Clothing, tattoos or grooming (e.g. hairstyles, beards) may create an impression, but we should resist the temptation to judge. We should try to be respectful of diversity.

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

Anisha Thurston, Shores Adult Education Centre, New Brunswick

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In my opinion, our appearance doesn’t – or shouldn’t – have much impact on other people. The way we dress is 100% personal. How can a choice of hairstyle or hair colour, a tattoo, piercing, clothing or beard indicate what we are like inside? It can’t.

©

However, in society, our appearance may indicate our social role or function. I’m thinking of police officers, store clerks, bus drivers, etc. In general, their uniforms or special way of dressing is helpful – it allows us to rapidly detect certain categories of people. In my view, except for people who wear special clothing to identify their role, a person’s look is not important. Appearance is just an exterior “shell.” That’s all. I disagree with the idea that anyone – a boss, teacher, principal, etc. – should tell you how to dress or if you can have a piercing or not. The issue here is freedom. Your style of dress and appearance is entirely a personal choice. Let’s not forget another aspect of the debate about dress codes – they are really gender-biased. Most restrictions affect women much more than men. I know that dress codes have been abolished in some schools for this reason. This is a big step in the right direction!

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Our Appearance and Its Impact – Learning Situation 1

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BLOG POST 3

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

Jonathan Manoua, Mountain Vocational Centre, Alberta

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You may think that appearance is not important, but this is not true. A few years ago, I had a particular look I really liked: I shaved my head and wore black clothes and boots. I also got a couple of tattoos and facial piercing. For me, it was just a style, nothing more. Then, one day, I met a girl, Meagan. She said I looked scary. Me, scary? I couldn’t believe it! I am a very peace-loving and compassionate person. I love animals. I do a lot of charity work. I have never been aggressive or violent. Meagan told me that my appearance was offensive to some people. “They associate your look with certain marginal, violent groups,” she said.

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For the first time in my life, I realized that my look could be sending negative signals. That is NOT what I wanted to project! The lesson I learned is this: your appearance says something about you. Appearance can associate you with a group. It has the power to communicate positive or negative messages. This is true in school, at work and in your social life.

VOCABULARY

BOX

BLOG POST 1

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I am not in favour of rules and dress codes in schools. Friends (like Meagan) are the ones who can help you learn important lessons about appearance. Rules cannot. Rules just oblige you to conform. They don’t make you reflect on your appearance. I’m glad I had Meagan to help me learn this lesson.

BLOG POST 2

way of dressing to wear

dress code an imposed standard of what you can wear in a school or workplace

shell

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grooming making your appearance clean and neat; caring for your hair, beard, etc.

revealing clothing that leaves too much uncovered, that is indecent to infringe on freedom  your liberty but

the exterior part of a sea creature

BLOG POST 3 to shave

scary

something that makes you afraid

offensive to project  rules 

to use a razor to remove hair unpleasant or repulsive to show, to display

things you can and cannot do

©

however

to reduce or limit

style/type of clothing we choose

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Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

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3.

Fill in the chart below using information from the three blog posts. ARGUMENTS AGAINST DRESS CODES

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ARGUMENTS IN SUPPORT OF DRESS CODES

With your teacher or classmates, discuss your personal perceptions about clothing, grooming and appearance in general.

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TALKING POINTS

BRIEF NOTES

1. What makes you decide what clothing to buy and wear (e.g. budget, comfort, fashion)? 2. Do you make suggestions to your friends about their appearance? Do they give you suggestions?

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3. Do you have a tattoo? What does it mean to you?

4. How old were you when you started making your own choices about your appearance? Was this an important step for you? Explain.

©

5. When you were a kid, did you care about your appearance? Have you changed? How? 6. Are there any types of clothing you dislike (e.g. because it is too aggressive or suggestive)? Explain. 7. When choosing a partner, is their appearance (e.g. clothing, grooming) an important factor? Why? 8. Estimate the percentage of your budget that goes into your appearance (e.g. clothing, shoes, tattoos, haircuts/colouring).

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Our Appearance and Its Impact – Learning Situation 1

9


GRAMMAR

Phrasal Verbs When using a phrasal verb (such as take off or get up), we combine a verb with a preposition or an adverb, or both. The combination functions as a verb. The combined meaning is different from the meaning of the individual words. Some phrasal verbs may have more than one meaning.

Some phrasal verbs are separable, meaning that the object of the sentence can be placed between the verb and the proposition. Take off is an example of a separable phrasal verb: I am too warm, so I will take off my coat. I am too warm, so I will take my coat off.

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Example

EXAMPLE

To put on

to dress yourself in something

To take off

to remove a piece of clothing

To dress up

to wear your best clothes

Everyone dressed up for Sharon’s birthday party.

To dress down

to wear clothes that are more informal than usual

I’m dressing down for work today because it’s Friday.

To have on

to wear an item of clothing

Jack: “Why do you have boots on?”

Jack put on his coat and walked out the door.

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It was hot in the bus, so I took off my jacket.

Joe: “Because it’s supposed to snow this afternoon.”

to attach a piece of clothing (e.g. with a button or zipper)

The shirt looks nice, but it’s not necessary to do up the top button.

To go with

to look good in combination with another item

That blue shirt really goes with your new pants.

To wrap up

to put warm clothing on

It’s rainy and windy today. I suggest you wrap up to walk to school.

To look like

to appear similar to something or someone

Your flowered Hawaiian shirt makes you look like a tourist.

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To do up

10

MEANING

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PHRASAL VERBS

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Object of the sentence

Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1.

For each sentence, choose the most logical phrasal verb from the list in the column above. Use the cues in the sentence to choose between the infinitive form or the simple present tense. a) In my opinion, that bright blue T-shirt does not

those green pants.

b) Today is Friday, and I am wearing jeans and running shoes to work. This is typical at my workplace. Everyone

on Fridays.

c) My sister is the girl on the bench over there. She’s the one that .

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a green coat

d) When I wear big gold jewellery, I have the impression that I e) It’s a beautiful day!

a rapper.

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your running shoes. We’ll go for a walk in the park.

f) It’s very windy. I suggest that you g) I forgot to

your coat. You’ll feel warmer.

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my boots when I went into the house and I got the

floor dirty.

h) The electricity has been off for hours and it’s getting cold in here. I think we need in warmer clothing.

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to

i) Jack decided to take Juanita out for her birthday. He chose a really fancy restaurant and made reservations. Then he said, “Juanita,

tonight! We’re going to a really

nice restaurant. We need to look our best!”

Complete the sentences using one of the following phrasal verbs: get along, eat out, check out, go over, keep on, take over

Éd iti

2.

a) Hey!

this cool article on artificial intelligence!

b) I can’t drive any more tonight. Can you

?

c) Thiago enjoys playing tennis. He’s going to

practising until he’s

©

a professional.

d) Please try to

with your parents during the trip. We don’t want

any conflicts.

e) Do you want to

tonight? We could go to that new Italian restaurant.

f) The lawyer asked us to

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the documents before we sign them.

Our Appearance and Its Impact – Learning Situation 1

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Activity 2 THE INFLUENCE OF THE FASHION INDUSTRY Nadia and Kamal, two students from Shores Adult Education Centre in New Brunswick, have posted a podcast on your shared website. They are discussing the influence of the fashion industry.

In the chart below, match the words on the left to the correct meaning on the right. You will hear these words in the audio activity that follows. WORDS

MEANING 1. the most popular or dominant trends

b) print media

2. to support and actively encourage

c) mainstream

3. to create and produce a collection for a particular season or time period

d) to care about

4. to attract

e) to appeal

5. newspapers, magazines, etc.

f) to come up with a line

6. a recent style or tendency

g) to promote

7. publicity

h) trendy

8. to like or to be interested in something

USE

Fashion trends new or different tendencies; changes or developments in clothing styles

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La classe numérique

8v

sy

Listen to the podcast.

2.

According to Kamal, how does the fashion industry influence the public? Name at least two strategies they use.

To pull the strings to secretly use your influence to control someone or something

Read the blog post on page 13.

4.

Fill in the chart on the next page with information from the podcast and the blog post.

Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

rd

Note

3.

12

je

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

1.

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Note

Peer pressure strong, often unspoken influence from your friends to imitate what they do

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B

Note

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a) advertising

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PLAN

D

A

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BLOG POST

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

Terry Blair, Big River Vocational Centre, British Columbia I have something to add to the conversation about appearance. Have you heard the expression “Clothes don’t make the man”? It means we should not judge a person by appearance only. Following contemporary fashion trends in moderation can help make a good impression at work, at school, etc. But so many people exaggerate and pay too much attention to fashion. Go to any shopping mall and count all the clothing stores. Most of these shops sell women’s clothing.

REINVEST

©

C

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(Try to identify at least three)

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From Terry’s blog post

From the podcast

DISADVANTAGES OF FOLLOWING FASHION

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ADVANTAGES OF FOLLOWING FASHION

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I’d love to hear what you have to say about this!

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I have some questions for you: In your area, are many of the stores in the shopping centres clothing shops? Are there more clothing shops for women than men? Why do you think this is the case?

Write a short blog post of about 50 words. Answer the questions Terry asks at the end of his blog post.

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Our Appearance and Its Impact – Learning Situation 1

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Sharing Opinions

ORAL PRACTICE

Work with a classmate or your teacher.

Indicate if you agree or disagree with the viewpoints expressed in the previous blog posts and the podcast.

2.

Explain your point of view on the first line, giving reasons or using examples.

3.

Discuss the issue with a classmate or your teacher.

4.

Take note of your partner’s opinions on the second line.

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1.

 Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

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My opinion:

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a) Appearance (e.g. clothing, grooming, tattoos, piercings) indicates something about a person.

b) Your appearance is an expression of your individuality and creativity.  Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

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My opinion:

c) In general, it is helpful for certain categories of employees to wear uniforms or to adopt a particular manner of dress.  Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

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My opinion:

d) Appearance can indicate that a person belongs to a particular group or community.  Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

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My opinion:

e) Appearance can indicate that a person rejects certain stereotypes.

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My opinion:

 Agree

 Disagree

My partner:

 Agrees

 Disagrees

Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

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GRAMMAR

Giving a Reason with Because and Because Of When we want to indicate the reason for something, we use because or because of. The structure of the sentence dictates which to use.

Because is followed by an independent clause that has a subject and a verb. Examples

I didn’t go biking yesterday because it rained. Subject of the clause

Verb

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She’s going in to work early because it’s the holiday season. Subject of the clause Verb

D

It’s possible you weren’t selected for the job because the employer misinterpreted your answers. Subject of the clause

Verb

Examples

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Because of is generally followed by a noun.

I didn’t go biking yesterday because of the rain.

Noun (object of the sentence)

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She’s going in to work early because of the holiday season.

Noun (object of the sentence)

It’s possible you weren’t selected for the job because of a misinterpretation of your answers. Noun (object of the sentence)

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Notice that the three pairs of examples above communicate the same idea. The structure of the sentence is the only difference.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE In the following sentences, choose between because and because of. Then, indicate the reason for your choice.

1.

In the second column, check (✓) the correct answer (because or because of).

2.

In the fourth column, check (✓) the correct explanation for your choice. EXPLANATION FOR YOUR CHOICE The reason is expressed as… he has family there.

 a subject followed by a verb

 because of b) I like to wear jeans

 because

 a noun (object) they are comfortable.

 because of  because

d) Kevin was sick

 because

 because of

 a noun (object) the medication she is taking.

 a subject followed by a verb

he caught a virus.

 a subject followed by a verb

 because

you were late?

 because of f) I stayed home

 because

the snowstorm.

 because of  because

h) The bus driver lost his job

 because

i) Have you ever been sick

 because

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 because of

Learning Situation 1 – Our Appearance and Its Impact

 a noun (object)  a subject followed by a verb  a noun (object)  a subject followed by a verb

his dangerous driving.

 a subject followed by a verb

 because of

 because of

 a subject followed by a verb

the team’s poor work methods.

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g) The manager was angry

 a noun (object)

 a noun (object)

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 because of e) Did you feel bad

 a subject followed by a verb

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c) Sara is feeling better

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 because

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a) Ken went to Havana

you ate too much?

 a noun (object)

 a noun (object)  a subject followed by a verb  a noun (object)

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Activity 3 APPEARANCE AT SCHOOL AND IN THE WORKPLACE In this section, you will reflect on the issue of appearance in social contexts such as at schools and in our professional lives. Do we need to conform to certain standards or a dress code, or should we be entirely free to make our own choices in regards to our appearance?

PLAN

Did You Know?

In the Canadian military, offensive tattoos (visible or not) are banned. “Offensive” means images or messages that are racist, sexist, misogynistic, xenophobic, homophobic, discriminatory against the disabled, sexually explicit, blasphemous, containing vulgar language or design, or connected to criminal activities by gangs.

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Answer the following questions, then discuss them with a classmate or your teacher. Have you attended a school that required you to follow a dress code? Explain.

2.

Have you had a job that required you to follow a dress code? Explain.

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1.

Indicate what you see as positive and negative aspects of having a dress code at school or at work.

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3.

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A

Note

The objective is to maintain the military’s positive reputation and promote diversity, respect and inclusion.

Positive:

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Negative:

B

USE

1.

Read the blog post on the next page. Jason, a student from Green River Adult Education Centre in Ontario, has posted it on your shared blog.

2.

Complete the chart and vocabulary exercise on pages 18 and 19 using information from the blog post.

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Our Appearance and Its Impact – Learning Situation 1

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Complete the chart below with information from Jason’s blog post. JASON’S ARGUMENTS AGAINST

THE DIRECTOR’S REASONS FOR IMPOSING

A DRESS CODE

A DRESS CODE

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

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BLOG POST

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3.

Jason Pelley, Green River Adult Education Centre, Ontario My opinion: Dictating rules on appearance is unfair! I have just been accepted for a training program at a

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business college. I will start next semester. Yesterday, I attended my first information session at the college.

I was shocked when they presented their strict rules about appearance (clothing and grooming). They have a list of

what is “permitted” and “not permitted.” You need to know

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that I have a beard, piercings and a very prominent tattoo. So, I feel targeted by the rules. They are really unfair.

To protest, I asked to meet with the program director. I told her that I disagree with their dress code because it infringes on my liberty. My look is part of who I am. My look reflects my individuality, creativity and values. The director’s explanation for their rules was this: in the

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business world, appearance is not always a question of choice. Employees are representatives of the company. Appearance can be part of a company’s culture, so your look may need to correspond to a certain style. Employees need to project a positive message about the company. I understand, but I don’t think that lessons on appearance should be included in a training program. Isn’t it preferable to wait until we’re on the job market? When we start working, we can adapt our appearance to the norm, if necessary. Do you agree with me? What are your opinions on this, fellow students out there? Should a school or business have the right to dictate what I wear? Can they tell me if I can keep my beard and have tattoos or not?

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4.

Read Jason’s blog post again. a) Find the following 10 words in the text and underline them. b) Then, using the context and/or a dictionary, check (✓) the correct meaning of each word. 1.

3.

unfair

2.

 good for everyone

rules

attended

 waited

 inequitable, unjust

 presented

 too difficult

 disliked 4.

 a list of recommendations

grooming

 making your appearance neat

 a list of requirements to be

 a place to get a haircut

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admissible for a course

 a list of what you can or

 the cost of clothing

5.

beard

6.

 a mustache  hair on a man’s head

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can’t do

prominent

 very visible

targeted (a person)

 to give a gift  to be encouraged

 very beautiful

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 hair on a man’s face 7.

8.

dress code

infringes on my liberty

 a place to try clothes on

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9.

10. fellow students

 gives me more freedom  violates my freedom

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to Say It

students

 part-time students

I think/believe that…

I don’t think/believe that…

My opinion is that…

I agree/disagree with… My view is that…

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Expressing your opinion

 associates who are also  new students

 frees me from an obligation

Ways

 a place to buy clothes  a required manner of dress

 to intentionally select someone

 very discreet

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C

REINVEST

What do you think about the questions Jason raises in his blog post? Write a short text of 50–70 words. State your views on the issues Jason is writing about. Explain your position and give examples on the following questions: Should learning about the importance of appearance be part of a training program?

Do you think it’s true that in some workplaces your appearance needs to correspond to certain standards? Do you think this is a good or bad thing?

Personally, would you accept or refuse to conform to a dress code if it were a job requirement? Why?

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In this learning situation, you have covered a lot of new vocabulary and some new phrasal verbs. Practise using the new words in the two following texts. Use words from the Word Bank. In the case of verbs, use the infinitive or conjugate in the simple present tense or simple past tense.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

You can use each word only once. Be careful! There is one extra word in the Word Bank.

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Word Bank to perceive (verb)

beard (noun)

clothing (noun)

offensive (adjective)

mainstream (noun)

looks (noun)

to project (verb)

to look like (phrasal verb)

appearance (noun)

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to dress (verb)

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grooming (noun)

Learning an Important Lesson

or when a

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I always find it remarkable when a student’s appearance diverges from the or

,

style shows that the student

wants to be different. I admit, I have a tendency to judge people by what they wear. I tend some tattoos and piercings as offensive.

However, last year I learned an important lesson. I learned to question my rigid stereotyping of people due to their

. It happened in biology class. The teacher asked me

to work with a student I’ll call Joe. I didn’t know Joe personally. I had seen him in the cafeteria

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and in the hallways, that’s all. At the time, he looked scary to me. He’s a very big guy. He all in black, has a

He also wears big boots. To me, his look

, and lots of tattoos and piercings. rebellion and aggression. This is

due to my past experience with boys who looked like Joe. They terrorized me when I was younger. In the end, working with Joe was great. Although he

a scary person at

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first, he turned out to be a big teddy bear. For the duration of the biology project, he was very cooperative and generous with his time. I learned that he is smart and really good on the computer. Because of his hard work (and mine, too!), the teacher gave us an A+ for our project! The lesson I learned: Never judge people by their

Note

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.

To be a teddy bear A teddy bear is a toy for children. If you say, “Joe is a teddy bear,” it means that Joe is gentle, helpful and good-natured.

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final writing task Important reminder: Before beginning this task, refer to the scenario at the beginning of this learning situation (page 2). •

In the following tasks, use the strategy Planning Steps Related to a Task to help you organize information and prepare.

Don’t forget to use the notes you wrote in the charts in this learning situation.

Your writing will take the form of a blog to share with your online community.

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You want to answer some of the questions about appearance that Krish asks about in his blog post. You will present your viewpoints orally and in writing on your shared website.

The subject of your blog: A personal experience related to appearance

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As appearance is an issue of personal relevance to you, you decide to respond to Krish’s invitation to share personal experiences related to the subject.

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This experience can be something that you or a friend had at work, at school, in your family, at a party, a school activity, etc. It could be funny, embarrassing, strange, something you condemn or commend, etc. It could be about personal injustice experienced because of appearance or a lesson you learned about your own appearance.

In your blog, explain:

The incident (e.g. what happened, where, why, when, who was involved)

How it made you feel and why

What you learned from the experience

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Your text should be 100–150 words. You may look back on the ideas in this learning situation and in your notes for inspiration, but what is important is to express your own experience, ideas and feelings.

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your text

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final oral task Preparing for your vlog As you have personal feelings regarding a person’s appearance, you decide to post a vlog on your online community’s blog in response to Krish’s request.

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You want to respond to Krish’s questions about how to react to the dress code proposed by the principal of his education centre.

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Before posting your vlog, you decide to prepare for it by giving an oral presentation followed by a question period in front of your classmates and/or your teacher.

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Use the chart titled “Final Task Organization Page” on page 3 to help you focus on Krish’s situation and his questions. To organize your ideas, prepare point-form notes on the next page (not complete sentences). Your presentation should last 2 to 3 minutes. You may use your notes during the presentation. You must be prepared to answer questions afterwards.

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The points you convey will be based on information from this learning situation and your personal ideas.

You can talk about the following points in your presentation: Why schools have rules on appearance

If you think rules are justified or not

What should or shouldn’t be permitted and why

If one’s appearance communicates anything or not

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Remember to be persuasive when presenting your arguments.

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Notes Sheet Oral Task Organization

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Making a presentation A presentation can be made by simply speaking to a group of classmates. A presentation is often followed by a question and answer period. You might also think of preparing a multimedia presentation. This allows you to use a combination of images, audio and video to make your point or present your ideas. In the case of an online audience, here is another idea:

Why not actually produce your own vlog? Making a vlog is relatively easy and lots of fun. You don’t need to buy expensive equipment. Your smartphone, tablet or PC will be enough to get you started.

NOTES: HOW TO MAKE A VLOG

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Pre-production (planning what to say)

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Lighting/location

Equipment needed

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Do a web search using keywords such as “how to produce a vlog” or “making a vlog.” You will find practical information and videos on making your first vlog. Take notes as you research. You may use the following chart to organize information on making vlogs.

Audio:

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Video:

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Post-production software

Other information

Remember your first vlog does not need to be a Hollywood production! It should be simple but effective. Watch a few examples on the Internet by searching for “my first vlog” or using other keywords on a topic of your choice, such as “how to make pizza.” You could also search for “YouTube opinions on dress codes” or “YouTube dress codes in schools.” You’ll see some vlogs that inspire you and help you make your own simple but powerful vlog!

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review 1. PHRASAL VERBS

  In each of the following sentences, insert an appropriate phrasal verb from the list below. Use each phrasal verb only once. Using cues from the sentence, decide if you need to conjugate the verb (simple present tense or simple past tense) or use the infinitive form. to put on  •  to take off  •  to dress up  •  to dress down  •  to have on  • to wrap up  •  to look like  •  to go with  •  to do up a) One of the requirements of Jake’s new job is

a movie star.

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b) Alana bought a beautiful dress for her graduation. She

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in a suit and tie.

c) I

a new white shirt. I was very disappointed when I got spaghetti sauce

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on it. d) Zoé is not accustomed to our cold Canadian climate. She get a little cool out.

when it starts to

e) Mike was extremely tired when he got home from work. He had a shower,

f) Don’t

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his pajamas and watched TV.

your boots. I want you to come to the store with me to get

some milk.

g) That jacket looks nicer if you don’t h) A flowered blouse doesn’t

striped pants, in my opinion.

because they were going to a football game and

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i) They decided to

the buttons.

it was raining.

2. BECAUSE AND BECAUSE OF

  In the following sentences, circle the correct structure:

because or because of.

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a) (Because/Because of) inflation, prices will rise this year. b) I will study at home tonight (because/because of) I don’t have time to go to your house.

c) The students took a long time to finish their project (because/because of) they couldn’t agree on what to present. d) Manfred isn’t attending school at the moment (because/because of) his poor health. e) I am looking after Janet’s dog (because/because of) she is in South Carolina. f) I don’t want to buy new clothes (because/because of) I have enough. I don’t need more. g) Brian was angry and went home (because/because of) a conflict with another student.

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27


3.

La classe numérique

Listen to the recording and fill in the blanks with new words you have seen in this learning situation.

sa

85

jc

rn

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

I don’t like to

like everybody else. People may think I’m weird, but I don’t

mind. I use

to express my individuality. I have

and a few

that I really like because they have meaning for me. They are part

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of who I am. When I go to the shopping mall, I see so many shops that

the latest

, but this type of clothing does not they are

on many young people. Do they realize that

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troubles me to see the effects of

to me. It

by the fashion industry? I don’t think they see it that way, but I do. in schools or at

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So you won’t be surprised to learn that I disapprove of

seem useless to me. Also, they

workplaces. These on a person’s

. I understand that some employees need to in certain places of work, such as banks. But people do this naturally.

They don’t need someone to tell them how to dress.

is personal and it’s

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for bosses and teachers to tell others what

or

styles to adopt.

Self-Evaluation

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1 Did the strategy Planning Steps Related to a Task help me accomplish the final task?  Yes  No  Sometimes How can I improve this skill?

2 Did I keep the scenario in mind as I was going through the activities?

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 Yes  No  Sometimes How can I improve on this aspect?

3 Was I able to use new vocabulary I found in this learning situation in the writing and oral tasks? If not, why?  Yes  No  Sometimes How can I improve on this aspect?

4 How will the skills I gained in this learning situation be useful for my future?

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IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION…

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You will learn about certain issues related to advertising. You will discover how people feel about online publicity, how advertising can affect us and how companies use certain techniques to influence us. This information will help you clarify your own opinion about online advertising and how to react to it. Throughout this learning situation, you will have various opportunities to express your point of view and feelings about online advertising.

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ARE WE VICTIMS OF MARKETING?

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Learning Situation 2

Summary of learning outcomes: Read and respond to texts about online advertising and its impact on individuals Read about a variety of advertising techniques used to influence consumers Listen to a discussion about facts and myths regarding online advertising Practise using the learning strategy Self-Evaluation Give your point of view and persuade others on various issues related to advertising Review the use of the past progressive tense Review the use of used to + infinitive

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Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

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Scenario You have moved to Ontario for a year and are attending an adult education centre there. This centre has a school resource website. On this site, you can find helpful information and interactive activities for many of your courses. There is also a section devoted to student interaction (student blogs), where students can express opinions, propose ideas and exchange information about school activities. Until now, no advertising has been allowed on this site. This morning, the Student Council posted the following message on your school blog site: ARTICLES

Hi to one and all,

Note

An advertisement (or “ad”) is a message in the form of a picture, short film, song, TV commercial, printed message, etc. that tries to persuade people to buy a particular product or service.

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As you know, the Student Council encourages students to persevere in their studies and also take part in social activities. This year, we are thinking of organizing trips, excursions or sports competitions with other centres. These activities will be fun, enriching and help students stay motivated.

CONTACT

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ABOUT

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BLOG POST

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To help pay for these initiatives, the Student Council is now proposing that we accept advertising on our centre’s resource website. Profits from advertising would be used for the benefit of all. As students are generally big users of technology, we are already used to seeing a lot of advertising on the Internet. Most members of the Student Council do not think that advertising has any negative impact or influence on students, anyway – you can just ignore it. Do you agree with this point?

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Some members of the Council strongly disagree. They don’t want any advertising on the website at all. They say that advertising is irritating and causes many social problems. What do think of that idea? If you agree, can you give some examples?

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A third group believes that some forms of advertising may be acceptable, but not all. They want to establish guidelines and limits to advertising. We would like to know what you think of this plan. Should guidelines be established and limits imposed upon advertisers? If we accept advertising, what type of advertising should it be? Could you give us arguments that would help us persuade the principal and teachers that it would be a good thing to accept ads on our site? Finally, if any of you are opposed to allowing advertising, could you explain your reasons? So, the debate is open. We welcome your ideas for or against allowing advertising on our school website. Hoping to hear from you soon! Your Student Council

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Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

Note Advertising is publicity in general. Advertising relies on various strategies and messages to encourage customers to buy products, services or ideas.

VOCABULARY

BOX

the benefit of all for everyone negative impact harmful effect irritating bothersome, unpleasant, annoying for or against or disapprove

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to approve

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FINAL TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE 1.

Read the Student Council’s message on page 30.

2.

In the chart below, write the questions the Student Council wants answers to in the left-hand column.

3.

Add relevant information to the chart in the column “Information and Opinions on the Subject.”

THE STUDENT COUNCIL’S QUESTIONS

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As you go through this learning situation, you will need to understand and compare the different points of view expressed, and then develop your own views on the questions posed by the Student Council. Your final task will be to choose sides (for or against) and explain why. YOUR OWN VIEWS ON THE QUESTIONS

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a)

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b)

c)

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e)

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d)

f)

Other important information/personal ideas:

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Self-Evaluation FOCUS ON STRATEGIES

Self-evaluation involves looking at your progress, development and learning to analyze your performance.

Self-evaluation is similar to self-monitoring. Here is the difference: STRATEGY

WHEN?

REASON

EXAMPLE

after completing a task

to analyze or evaluate a completed task

You analyze strong and weak aspects of your talk after an oral exam.

Self-monitoring

during a task

to modify what you are doing

You immediately correct your pronunciation when you realize you have made a mistake.

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Self-evaluation

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From time to time, your teacher will give you feedback on your work. This helps you improve your learning. But even before your teacher gives you feedback, you can be your own teacher by giving feedback to yourself. You can analyze yourself by asking questions such as: What parts of the task did I do well? On what do I need to improve? What aspects of the task were difficult? Why? How can I be better prepared next time?

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Self-evaluation helps you stay engaged and focused on your learning. In addition, it has the advantage of being transferable to any task in life, not just learning English!

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Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

Note You will notice that the last page of each learning situation in this book presents a section titled “Self-Evaluation.” This section is important because it confronts you with questions that help you think about your performance, identify what is easy or difficult and establish new goals. Make sure you complete this section at the end of each learning situation!

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STRATEGY PRACTICE 1.

Using the learning strategy Self-Evaluation, think of your performance in the English courses you have taken in the past, before starting at adult education. Listen to your inner voice and answer the following questions honestly. Write short answers. a) In the past, was I a good learner? Why?

b) How did I solve problems related to learning English?

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c) What techniques helped me learn English in class?

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d) What techniques helped me learn English outside of class?

2.

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e) Was I engaged as a learner? Why?

Using the strategy Self-Evaluation, think of your performance in English now, since you started at adult education. Listen to your inner voice and answer the following questions honestly. Write short answers.

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a) Am I learning more English now than at my former school? Why?

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b) What do I do now to solve problems related to learning English?

c) What techniques do I use to help me with English in the classroom?

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d) What techniques do I use to help me with English outside of class?

e) Do I activate my inner voice to give myself feedback on what I am learning? Explain.

f) What else can I do to improve my English?

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Activity 1 ONLINE ADVERTISING: PROS AND CONS In this section, you will explore opinions touching on some of the positive and negative aspects of online advertising.

Read one student’s reaction to the Student Council’s proposal below. BLOG POST

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

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Jung

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1.

PLAN

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A

I say a big yes to advertising on the student website. For me, there is only one question here: freedom of expression. As a young entrepreneur, I have the right to express my message in the form of advertising. You have the right to listen to my message or to refuse to listen to it. Limiting advertising is equivalent to suffocating freedom of speech. That would be wrong.

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In a democracy, we all need to be free to say what we believe. This democratic right extends to advertisers – like me.

Identify the issue Jung raises about advertising:

3.

In the chart below, make a list of products that you often see advertised when you go online.

4.

Which products do you sometimes buy because of advertising?

5.

Think of your online purchases in the last year. How much was due to good advertising? Estimate the percentage.

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 0%

 1%–20%

 21%–40%

 41%–60%

 61%–80%

 81%–100%

Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

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B

USE

Reactions to Online Advertising Students are reacting to the Student Council’s proposal to allow advertising on their school resource website. They have a variety of opinions. Read the three following blog posts.

2.

Use the Vocabulary Box to help you.

3.

As you read, identify the main issue raised by each blogger. Check (✓) one choice for each blogger: Blog Post 1 (Keven)

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1.

 Students should have the right to see all advertising.

Blog Post 2 (Alexia)

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 A student website is not the place for an abundance of advertising.  Students should have access to information from online advertising.  Advertising is too invasive on a student website.

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Blog Post 3 (Ricardo)  Advertising should be allowed on all Internet platforms.  Students should be protected from advertising on their school website. Fill in the chart on the page 37 using information from the blog posts. BLOG POST 1

Keven

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

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4.

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I am in favour of allowing advertising on our school resource site, but there needs to be a lot of restrictions. I am not a big fan of online advertising. There is just too much of it. An ad from time to time is OK. But the reality is that we are continually blasted by too many ads. This is very distracting, especially when doing research. The constant feed of pop-up ads can slow access to sites. Sometimes they are hard to close.

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Also, advertising creates false needs. Recently, I started looking online for a new winter coat. Immediately, I started receiving ads. Finally, I ordered a coat and boots, but I realize now I didn’t need the boots. I was tempted by the good price and free shipping. The moral of the story: Advertising can make you buy things you don’t need. It is true that there are good things about online advertising. For one, it helps keep prices competitive. If a company is offering a product at a low price, other companies will notice and bring their prices down. A second positive point is that advertising informs us about innovative new products or improvements to existing products. However, on a school website, advertising should be limited and there shouldn’t be too much.

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VOCABULARY

BOX

abundance very large quantity of something blasted

bombarded

constant feed non-stop accumulation of new information ordered requested an item be sent or shipped to you to bring their prices down to reduce the cost improvements actions to make something better

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BLOG POST 2

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

Alexia I absolutely think advertising should be allowed on our school resource site. Freedom of speech is a basic right for everyone, including online advertisers. And, remember, it’s also my right to receive their messages. I think people should stop complaining about advertising. In my opinion, it is good for everyone. Because of advertising, useful information circulates freely.

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Online advertising can really help reduce shopping time because companies target you using your search history. As a consequence, the advertising they send you corresponds to what you like. So, you invest less time researching. Also, remember that the customer is always in control. You can look at all the advertising you receive or skip the ads you don’t want. You can turn on an ad blocker. It’s your choice.

BLOG POST 3

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Online advertising makes my life better because it allows me to ignore irrelevant information. So, a big YES to advertising on our school website.

ABOUT

ARTICLES

Ricardo

CONTACT

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I’m totally opposed to advertising on our school resource website. Frankly, advertising is dangerous. It aims at your vulnerable spot – your desires. When you constantly see ads for products that appeal to you, you have more temptation to buy. A school resource site should not allow students to be coaxed into buying stuff. Students don’t have a lot of experience balancing a budget and can overspend. Carrying credit card debt is a really bad thing for a student.

Éd iti

Personally, I spend a lot of time on the Internet and am in deep trouble because of online advertising. Whatever you want, you can find it online: jewellery, clothing, sports equipment, car parts. You name it, someone is selling it. Sites offer user-friendly shopping. Visual ads allow you to see merchandise from many angles. Ads are tailored to your interests. Choice is limitless. Prices are reasonable. Delivery is rapid. So, I buy and buy and I can’t stop. As a result, I have become a binge-shopper. Buying is a compulsion for me. For the last six months, I have maxed out my credit card. I know it’s mostly my fault, but I feel online advertising is also to blame.

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I hope you can see that advertising victimizes some students. It can be a huge trap. So, in my opinion, it is unacceptable to allow advertising on our centre’s resource website.

VOCABULARY

BOX

to complain to make negative comments to target to direct or intend for a particular person or group search history you visit online

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history of sites

irrelevant spot

not important

binge-shopper someone who shops compulsively

place

maxed out spent the maximum amount available on the credit card

to appeal to please, to be attractive stuff

Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

various objects of all kinds

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5.

Fill in the chart with information from the three blog posts. OPINIONS ON ONLINE ADVERTISING NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF ONLINE ADVERTISING

REINVEST

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POSITIVE ASPECTS OF ONLINE ADVERTISING

Does advertising promote certain social values? Do some online research using the keywords “videos old coffee ads,” “videos vintage coffee ads,” “videos sexist coffee ads” or other similar combinations. Watch a few of the videos you find. Then, write a short text of 50–75 words about sexism in advertising. In your text, include: A brief description of the ads and the action that takes place;

What values the ads promote or what images of women they promote;

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Would this type of advertising be shown today? Why/Why not?

Do you think sexism still exists in advertising? Give reasons for your opinion.

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The Influence of Online Advertising on You

ORAL PRACTICE

Prepare to discuss the questions in the following chart with a classmate or your teacher on the topic of the influence of online advertising on you. Use the Notes Sheet to organize your ideas. You may use your point-form notes below (not complete sentences) during your discussion.

THE INFLUENCE OF ONLINE ADVERTISING ON ME

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b) What characteristics of an ad will make you want to buy? Explain.

c) Do you frequently buy things online? Do you buy strictly out of need? Explain.

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a) You’re online and ads pop up. What makes you decide to click on an ad?

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Notes Sheet

d) How would you evaluate the influence of online advertising on you? Explain.

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e) What strategies can you use to resist online advertising? Explain.

f) Other questions/information/ personal ideas

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GRAMMAR

Past Progressive Tense

continual, repeated action “I was walking the dog…”

time reference “…at 9:00 p.m.”

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We use the past progressive tense to refer to a continual, repeated action (e.g. walking the dog) that was happening at a specific time in the past (e.g. at 9:00 p.m.).

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The specific time reference may also be indicated by referring to another action in the simple past tense (e.g. I was walking the dog…when I saw the stranger).

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Structure

The past progressive tense is formed with the auxiliary to be in the past tense, plus the present participle of the verb (–ing ending). AFFIRMATIVE You

were

He

was

She

was

It

was

We

were

You

were

They

were

+ infinitive + –ing

INTERROGATIVE

I

was not/wasn’t

Was

I

You

were not/weren’t

Were

you

He

was not/wasn’t

Was

he

She

was not/wasn’t

Was

she

It

was not/wasn’t

Was

it

We

were not/weren’t

Were

we

You

were not/weren’t

Were

you

They

were not/weren’t

Were

they

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was

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I

NEGATIVE

+ infinitive + –ing

+ infinitive + –ing?

Examples

CONTINUED ACTION IN THE PAST (Past progressive tense)

TIME REFERENCE (SHORT ACTION) (Simple past tense)

…at 6:15 yesterday.

Mark was turning the corner…

…when he got a flat tire.

The students were studying in the library…

…when the bell rang.

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I was eating supper…

TIME REFERENCE (SHORT ACTION) (Simple past tense)

Note

CONTINUED ACTION IN THE PAST (Past progressive tense)

At 6:15 yesterday, …

… I was eating supper.

When he got a flat tire, …

… Mark was turning the corner.

When the bell rang, …

… the students were studying in the library.

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It is possible to inverse the order of the two actions. This does not change the meaning.

Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

39


GRAMMAR PRACTICE Use the past progressive tense of the verb in parentheses in the following sentences. Use the cues in parentheses for the affirmative, negative or interrogative form. a) When Karen called her friends, they

monopoly. (to play, affirm.)

b) Yesterday at 7 a.m., I

the children’s breakfast. (to prepare, affirm.)

c) Mary

when the teacher gave instructions for the project. (to listen, neg.)

d) What

you

when I called last night? (to do, int.)

e) When you called, I

a shower. (to take, affirm.)

f) They

when the boss went into their office. (to work, neg.)

g)

Mary

h)

the children

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when they had the accident? (to drive, int.) at midnight? (to sleep, int., neg.)

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i) I

on the computer when I heard the explosion next door. (to work, affirm.)

j) When I went to the clinic this afternoon, they

patients. (to accept, neg.)

There are two verbs (two actions) in each of the following sentences. One verb will be in the simple past tense. The other verb will be in the past progressive tense. Choose the correct form of the verbs in each sentence. All the sentences are affirmative. Remember

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2.

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1.

Use the simple past tense for a short, sudden action that indicates when the action happened.

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Use the past progressive tense for a longer, continued action still in progress.

a) The teacher (to finish) the last page.

(to interrupt) us just as we

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b) As I (to cross) the street, two cars (to race) by me at full speed. c) Bill (to have) breakfast. d) I (to go off).

(to stop) by my house while I (to chat) with a colleague when the alarm

e) When I (to discuss) the project.

40

Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

(to go) into the room, the two women

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Activity 2 ONLINE ADVERTISING: SOME FACTS, SOME MYTHS In this activity, you will explore opinions and popular beliefs on issues related to online advertising. Some media experts will help by giving their viewpoints on what is true and what is false.

A

PLAN Read the two students’ reactions to the Student Council’s proposal to allow online advertising below.

2.

Identify Christa’s issues with advertising.

3.

Identify Luke’s two concerns with advertising.

4.

What personal issues do you sometimes have with advertising? Check (✓) your answers:

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 is invasive

 makes me spend

 does not reflect my reality

BLOG POST

 does not respect my privacy

 is bad for my self-esteem

 is a danger to confidentiality

 creates false needs

 slows Internet navigation

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

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Christa

D

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Advertising…

Others: (specify)

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1.

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I oppose advertising on the student website. I object to online advertising because it makes me feel inadequate. The reason? I am heavy. I am trying to accept my body shape, but it’s not easy and online advertising is not helping. People I see in ads do not reflect me or my reality. I find it insulting that I never see people who look like me. I am sick and tired of seeing perfect bodies in ads! It is really bad for my self-esteem. I’m sure there are many other people who feel the same as me. Let’s be frank – most of us do not have perfect bodies. BLOG POST

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

Luke I don’t think allowing advertising on our school resource website is a good idea. First, I am troubled by the lack of representation in advertising. As an Indigenous man, I feel frustrated that I never see First Nations people in ads. We see perfect Caucasian models all the time – this is not representative of students at our school. Like me, many students come from a wide variety of backgrounds. Some originate from Africa, Asia, South America and many other countries. Second, I have concerns about the real cost of advertising. People say that advertising costs nothing to the consumer. But is it really “free”? Is anything “free”? I’m not so sure.

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Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

41


B

La classe numérique

USE

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Experts’ Opinions on Online Advertising

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je

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laclasse.grandducenligne.com

Review the 10 words or expressions listed in the left-hand column of the chart below. You will hear these in the podcast. Match the words on the left to their correct definition on the right. Write your answers in the middle column.

2.

Listen to the podcast. It deals with some of Christa and Luke’s personal issues with online advertising. In the podcast, the host is asking three media experts about some facts and myths regarding online advertising. NEW VOCABULARY

DEFINITIONS

a) abbreviation for information technology (computing technology)

2. IT

b) to indicate, to identify

3. search engine

c) to encourage

4. search terms

d) publicity aimed at specific consumers

5. targeted ads

e) to appear, superficially

6. to browse a site

f) displeasing in appearance

7. to point out

g) to spend time looking at a website

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9. to seem

D

1. data point

8. to promote

h) keywords used for online research i) digital destination for information

10. ugly

j) computer software used to explore the Internet for specific information

After listening, check (✓) the answers that correspond to each media expert’s comments:

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3.

ANSWERS

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1.

Jenna…

 gives several reasons for her opinion.  has an opinion but does not explain the reasons for her opinion.

Harry…

 is very hesitant when he answers the question.  seems sure of his opinion.  says online advertising is harmful.

©

Salima…

 does not say if she thinks online advertising is harmful or beneficial.

Note

42

Fact

information for which there is evidence or proof

Myth a fable or an illusion; information that people may believe, but for which there is no proof

Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

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4.

Fill in the chart below with information from the podcast. MEDIA EXPERTS’ OPINIONS: FACTS AND MYTHS ABOUT ONLINE ADVERTISING

Popular beliefs/issues mentioned in the podcast

Fact or myth? Check (✓) one.

a) Jenna

 Fact

Explanations provided for the opinion

b) Harry

 Fact

c) Salima

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 Myth

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 Myth

 Fact

C

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 Myth

REINVEST

©

Using the notes you wrote in the chart above, select one person’s opinion. Write a short text of about 75 words giving your personal opinion on this question. When possible, share personal experiences.

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Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

43


GRAMMAR

Simple Past Tense Versus Past Tense of Used to + Verb Both the simple past tense and the past tense with used to refer to past actions.

Simple Past Tense When you use the simple past tense, you are referring to an action that occurred in the past and is now completed.

Used to + Verb

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When you use the structure used to + verb, you are referring to an action in the past that was repeated and that is now stopped.

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I went swimming last summer.

Example

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I used to go swimming every day when I was young.

Example

SIMPLE PAST TENSE Purpose

USED TO + VERB

The action is completely finished.

The action is completely finished.

There is no reference to repetition of the action.

Indicates that an action was habitual and repetitive or long-term.

Indicates that the action has now stopped.

Regular verbs: verb + –ed.

Irregular verbs must be learned by heart. Consult the list of irregular verbs on page 120.

Examples of keywords

Yesterday, last night, last week, on January 6, two days ago, at 6:00 a.m., this morning, etc.

Once a month, every year, when I was young, on the weekend, during the summer, etc.

Example Affirmative

I watched a movie on TV last night. (watch, regular verb)

We used to go to the museum once a month, but now we don’t have time.

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Structure Affirmative

used to + verb (base form)

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Amiel went to Nova Scotia last summer. (go, irregular verb)

44

Structure Negative

did not + verb (base form)

did not + use to + verb (base form)

Example Negative

They did not watch a movie last week.

I didn’t use to eat spinach, but now I like it.

Structure Interrogative

Did + subject + verb (base form)

Did + subject + use to + verb (base form)

Example Interrogative

Did she take English lessons last semester?

Did they use to live in the United States?

Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE In the following sentences, use either the simple past tense or used to + infinitive for the verbs in parentheses. a) The employees anymore. (to get)

a 15-minute break in the morning, but they don’t

b) The employees

a 5% pay increase on August 1. (to receive)

c) The vocational school (to offer)

yoga every Monday after work. I quit because I hurt my shoulder.

e) Jake

in Europe last summer. (to travel)

f) The plumber g) The team that is much bigger. (to practise) h) Did they i) I

D

the broken water pipe in the basement. (to repair) at the school gym, but they now go to a commercial gym to Cuba last winter or the year before? (to go) cilantro when I was a kid, but now I love it. (to hate) a “two for one” on spaghetti every Wednesday, but

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j) The restaurant they don’t anymore. (to offer)

2.

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d) I (to take)

a hairstyling program, but they cancelled it.

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1.

Transform the underlined verbs in the following sentences using the cues in parentheses. Follow the example. I used to like apples. (neg.) I didn’t use to like apples.

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Example

a) I finished my homework at 9:00 p.m. (neg.)

©

b) Harry didn’t use to read online advertisements. (affirm.)

c) They studied plumbing at the local vocational centre. (int.)

d) My dogs didn’t eat the new food I bought for them. (affirm.)

e) Janick used to live in Spain. (int.)

f) Bruce used to weigh 100 kilograms. (neg.)

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Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

45


Activity 3 BEWARE OF ADVERTISING TECHNIQUES! Do you sometimes feel that advertising persuades and even manipulates you? Would it influence students on their resource website? In this activity, you will reflect on techniques used by marketers to persuade and influence consumers.

PLAN Read another student’s reaction to the Student Council’s proposal below.

2.

Identify Ron’s issue with advertising.

BLOG POST

ABOUT

ARTICLES

Ron

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D

1.

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A

CONTACT

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I’ve been thinking about the Student Council’s proposal to allow online advertising on our school website. Their message said that advertising does not really influence most people and that it would not have any negative impact on students. On the contrary, I believe advertising is very powerful. It should not be allowed on a student resource website.

Éd iti

I think that advertising brainwashes us. I realized it the other day when I recommended Apple products to a friend. He asked me why. I realized that it was because of their advertising. I like their creative, artistic approach and the catchy music they use. In fact, I don’t really know if their products are better! At that moment, I understood the power advertising has to influence us. Online advertising is even more influential because you are specifically targeted.

©

When you’re online, every move you make is monitored. It is creepy. Advertisers follow us everywhere: on social media, in our web searches, etc. Advertisers are like Big Brother. They observe and control us. But they do it so discreetly that we don’t realize that we are being manipulated by them. I’m sending you two texts about techniques advertisers use. These texts show what approaches advertisers use to brainwash us. After reading them, you might agree with me that allowing advertising on our school website is not such a good idea.

Note Big Brother is a character in George Orwell’s book 1984. It is now a symbol of being watched by the government.

VOCABULARY powerful

Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

strong, very influential

to brainwash to influence

to persuade,

catchy (music) popular

captivating,

targeted

selected

every move you make all of your actions; everything that you do creepy

46

BOX

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scary, weird, macabre

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B 1. 2.

USE

Note

While doing a web search on different techniques advertisers use, you find some useful information. Read the following two articles.

A feature is a characteristic of a product. To convince us to buy, advertisers focus on certain desirable features.

Using information from the articles, answer the following questions: a) What is covert advertising?

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b) What is the danger of presenting advertising in the form of information?

Complete the chart on page 49 with information from the two articles below (Parts 1 and 2). Use your imagination to think of ads that use the techniques mentioned. Indicate if you think these techniques are effective or not. BLOG POST

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3.

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c) What is the difference between overt and covert advertising?

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

ADVERTISING: IT’S ALL ABOUT INGENIOUS TECHNIQUES Part 1: Popular Advertising Techniques

Advertisers use a variety of techniques to convince us to buy their products. They may create an out-of-the-ordinary, engaging or ridiculous character.

Éd iti

They may use exaggeration or comedy to attract attention. They sometimes try to provoke an emotional response by using images or themes that generate positive feelings about their product (e.g. a nice farm scene in an ad for cheese). Music is also a creative and forceful instrument – a good song can produce an instant response, particularly if it is popular and familiar. Animals are big winners: large or small, cute or gawky, they get a very positive reaction from most people. Think of the “dancing” hippopotamus in the cellphone ad, or the fluffy white kittens in the toilet paper ad.

©

Advertisers sometimes use testimonials presented by a celebrity, an expert or an ordinary person (“I tried this soap and I love it!”). Testimonials are very persuasive because they make the benefits of a product appear more believable. Another advertising strategy is the scientific approach, used to try to prove that the message is true and verifiable (“75% of users noticed results after 1 week!”). Companies spend a lot of money on publicity and use specialized techniques to convince us to buy. They employ marketing agencies, who study human nature and psychology. They want to touch us emotionally and create a need – and a desire – for their products or services. They do all this for one simple reason: it works. We buy. They make a profit.

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Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

47


BLOG POST

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

ADVERTISING: IT’S ALL ABOUT INGENIOUS TECHNIQUES Part 2: Covert Advertising

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There is a big difference in the presentation of overt and covert advertising, but the goal is the same – to sell. Overt advertising is immediately recognizable as publicity. An example would be an ad for a car or a furniture store. Covert advertising, on the contrary, is publicity that is “hidden” and indirect. It is an ingenious but controversial advertising technique. For example, imagine you are searching on the Internet for information on a new medication. You find a site that gives clear and detailed information. Then, near the end of the page, you realize that it is written and paid for by the pharmaceutical company that makes the medication. At first, this information may have seemed neutral, but, in fact, it was biased in favour of the product. Covert advertising can be dangerous because, as web users, we don’t continually check the source of what we are reading. The affiliation of the author is not always clear. Was the author paid to write a favourable review? If we are not vigilant, we may let ourselves be influenced by advertising that is “disguised” as information.

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To protect consumers, regulatory authorities and governments pass restrictions that limit what marketers can and can’t do. However, because of growing Internet use, advertisers can infiltrate and gradually invade new platforms where legislation is deficient. Consequently, as consumers, we need to check the source of what we are reading. Is it really information, or just advertising?

©

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Marketing is a science that can be used to manipulate us. We must be careful to avoid being brainwashed by advertising – either overt or covert.

VOCABULARY overt

BOX

open, apparent

covert

secret, clandestine

hidden

out of sight, not apparent

favourable reviews

good reports

disguised hiding the true nature of something marketers advertisers, people who create and sell publicity brainwashed

indoctrinated

ingenious

creative and imaginative

response

reaction

gawky not graceful or beautiful (for example: an ostrich) testimonials

48

Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

personal recommendations

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TECHNIQUES USED BY MARKETERS (From the texts, Parts 1 and 2)

EXAMPLES OF ADS THAT USE THIS TECHNIQUE (From ads you know)

YOUR OPINION: EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TECHNIQUE ON YOU Check (✓) one.

 Effective  Somewhat effective  Not effective

 Effective

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 Somewhat effective

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 Not effective

 Effective

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 Somewhat effective  Not effective

©

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 Effective  Somewhat effective  Not effective

 Effective  Somewhat effective  Not effective

 Effective  Somewhat effective  Not effective

 Effective  Somewhat effective  Not effective

 Effective  Somewhat effective  Not effective

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Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

49


C

REINVEST Think of two brands of cellphones (yours and a friend’s).

2.

Do a web search for video ads for each one.

3.

Compare them. Think of the features that make the ads engaging and persuasive. Which ones might tempt you to buy?

4.

Pick the one you like most.

5.

Explain your choice below. Remember to focus on the marketing approach. Analyze the ad itself, not the product. What advertising technique did the advertisers use in this ad?

Does the ad have the power to influence you?

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1.

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oral task

Prepare to talk about an ad you really like or dislike. It cannot be the same ad as in the preceding writing task. You will discuss this ad with a classmate or your teacher. To organize your ideas, prepare point-form notes below (not complete sentences). You may use these notes during your discussion.

Notes Sheet

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AN AD I LIKE/DISLIKE

Product advertised/company

A description of the ad

©

Where you saw this ad (online, on TV, etc.)? What is the punch or appeal/ irritating factor? What advertising technique (from the preceding text) does the advertiser use? Why do you like/dislike it?

Have you purchased the product or service because of the ad?

50

Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

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Test your ability to use the new vocabulary you learned in this learning situation. In the following email message, use the vocabulary from the Word Bank to complete the sentences.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

You can use each word only once. Be careful! There is one extra word.

Word Bank search history

to appeal

covert

to browse

to order

to seem

search engines

brainwashed

favourable reviews

response

harmful

D

to complain

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targeted ads

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To: you@yahoo.ca Subject: Invasive advertising

Hi there,

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I want to tell you about an unpleasant experience I had online yesterday. It all started with a standard web search. These days, I regularly looking for a new sleeping bag. I know that

the web because I’m allow companies to send

to specific web users. So, I wasn’t really surprised when I started

receiving ads for camping equipment. They know from my interested in sleeping bags. They me ads that

to me. Typically, my

that I am to know what I like and they send is to click

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on these ads and check what they have to offer.

But yesterday, I wasn’t shopping. I was looking for information about what they put in sleeping bags to make them warm. I wanted to know how to tell if they are good quality. I found an interesting site that explained what materials they use. As I continued reading, I noticed that the site started giving

to sleeping bags made by a Canadian company.

There was no mention of sleeping bags made by other companies. Then, I saw at the end of the

©

web page that it was written by the sales manager! Then I understood! The website, which at first seemed to give neutral information was, in reality, a

ad! I wasn’t

very happy. I think I am going to email the company In my opinion, it is

about this type of advertising. to permit advertising that appears in the form of

documentation. I don’t want to be

by ads that are camouflaged in texts

that appear neutral, but aren’t. Talk to you soon, Alison

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Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

51


final writing task •

Before starting the following tasks, use the strategy Self-Evaluation in relation to the writing and speaking activities in Activities 1, 2 and 3 in this situation learning. Ask yourself: How did I do? What mistakes did I make? How could I do better?

Use your analysis from your self-evaluation to improve your writing and speaking in the final task.

Don’t forget to refer to the notes you wrote in the charts in this learning situation.

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Important reminder: Before beginning this task, go back once more to the scenario at the beginning of this learning situation (page 30) and the Final Task Organization Page (page 31).

D

After considering information about online advertising in this learning situation, you now have opinions of your own to share about allowing advertising on the school website.

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Advertising on the student’s website: a good or a bad idea? Following the debate about allowing advertising on your school resource website or not, your task now is to choose sides.

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In Activity 1 (pages 34-37), four students reacted to the Student Council’s proposal to allow advertising on the student’s resource website. Opinions varied from being totally open to advertising, open to it with some limits, or totally opposed to it. Whose opinion do you agree with: Jung and Alexia’s, Keven’s or Ricardo’s? You will write a blog post of your own in support of this person’s opinion and add your own arguments to make it more complete. Your blog post will be about 100 words. Information to include: Indicate which student’s opinion you are supporting.

Give reasons for your position, using ideas expressed in the blog posts and your own opinions.

To make your argument more convincing, try to include examples you have experienced personally.

On a student resource website, would certain types of advertising be more acceptable than others?

©

Éd iti

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Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

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©

Éd iti

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your Blog POST

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53


final oral task Presentation In your writing task, you expressed some of your ideas on online advertising. Now, you will go a step further and explain how your opinions and beliefs about the issue of advertising could affect you in the future.

Prepare for a discussion with your teacher on the subject “Advertising My Way”

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Imagine yourself in the future. You own a business. How and where will you advertise? What type of advertising would you try to avoid? Why? Give arguments to support your ideas.

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Before the discussion, prepare notes below for a four- to five-minute discussion with your teacher based on information from this learning situation and your personal ideas. You may refer to some of the opinions students expressed in their blog posts. Use the Notes Sheet to organize your ideas. You may use these point-form notes (not complete sentences) during your discussion.

Advertising My Way

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AN AD I LIKE/DISLIKE

REASONS/EXPLANATIONS

©

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MY CHOICES IN ADVERTISING

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Learning Situation 2 – Are We Victims of Marketing?

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review 1. PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE

In each of the following sentences, circle the correct verb tense in

parentheses. Choose between: •

the past progressive tense for the longer action

the simple past tense for the shorter action

uc

a) When I (drove/was driving) on Highway 40, I (noticed/was noticing) that the river was very high. b) Alan (asked/was asking) me about the project while we (rode/were riding) to work on the bus. c) Harry and I (tried/were trying) many Indian dishes when we (travelled/were travelling) in India.

D

d) (Did you sleep/Were you sleeping) when I (called/was calling) you this morning?

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e) After three days, Jack finally (accepted/was accepting) to feed the stray cat that (came/ was coming) to his house. f) At 8:00 p.m. last night, I (watched/was watching) TV.

g) It (rained/was raining) when I (took/was taking) the garbage out this morning.

2. USED TO + infinitive FOR REPEATED ACTIONS IN THE PAST a) I b) They c) The students

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Use the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. In each sentence, choose between the simple past tense or used to + infinitive. skating every weekend in the winter, but I don’t anymore. (to go) to Italy, Spain and Portugal last year. (to go) at the food bank last Thursday. (to volunteer)

Beausoleil High School. Now he goes to Adult Education

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d) Maxime in Ottawa. (to attend)

e) You won’t believe it, but I f) Sharon

poutine. I hate it now! (to like) to the hospital for tests yesterday. (to go)

g) Brian baseball with the school team. He quit the team and now plays volleyball with some of his friends. (to play)

©

La classe numérique

3. FOCUS ON PRONUNCIATION: VOWEL SOUNDS

Listen to the recording. Pay attention to the vowel sounds. For each number, circle the word you hear. Each word will be pronounced twice.

8d

sv

jk

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

1) wall

well

2) bus

boss

3) care

car

4) hair

hear

5) lick

like

6) men

man

7) ten

tin

8) left

lift

9) sense

since

10) said

sad

11) bear

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beer

rt

12) luck

lock

Are We Victims of Marketing? – Learning Situation 2

55


4. FOCUS ON PRONUNCIATION: CONSONANT SOUNDS

La classe numérique

Listen to the recording. Pay attention to the consonant sounds. For each number, circle the word you hear. Each word will be pronounced twice.

8h

s3

ja

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

pig

2) day

they

3) fan

van

4) get

jet

5) jeep

cheap

6) meat

neat

7) very

berry

8) gold

cold

9) shock

sock

10) knees

niece

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1) big

12) volts

thin

bolts

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11) tin

r2

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Self-Evaluation 1 Did the strategy Self-Evaluation help me accomplish the final task?  Yes

 No

 Sometimes

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How can I improve on this skill?

2 Did I keep the scenario in mind as I was going through the activities?  Yes

 No

 Sometimes

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How can I improve on this aspect?

3 Was I able to apply new vocabulary from this learning situation to the writing and oral tasks? If not, why?  Yes

 No

 Sometimes

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How can I improve on this aspect?

4 How will the skills I gained in this learning situation be useful when I am online?

5 Was the grammar presented in this learning situation new to me? Was it easy or difficult?

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IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION…

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BUILDING CONSTRUCTIVE RELATIONSHIPS

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Learning Situation 3

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You will read about getting along with others, reducing barriers between social groups and taking action to improve dialogue and civility among people. This information will help you clarify your own opinion on what is needed to live in harmony and build constructive relationships at school, at work, online and in public life. You will express your point of view and feelings about getting along with the people around you, and prepare an action plan to promote change for the better.

Summary of learning outcomes: Read and respond to opinions on why words matter in our social interactions Read, listen and respond to suggestions on how to build constructive relationships Focus on using the learning strategy Practising to Improve Skills Give your point of view, orally and in writing, on various aspects of improving relationships Try to persuade others by preparing and defending an action plan Review the use of I wish and I hope Compare the use of the simple past tense with the present perfect tense

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Scenario Your English teacher has set up a blog for your class. On this class forum, you can exchange with your teacher and other students. Your teacher encourages students to practise using English on this site, by writing about issues of interest to you. This week, your class has received a message from a student, Liz, who is frustrated about disrespectful attitudes that she has seen around her.

ABOUT

ARTICLES

Needed: Your ideas!

Note

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CONTACT

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BLOG POST

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After reading and listening to information about inclusivity and respect, you will make recommendations on the types of actions that could be taken to help people get along better, in and out of school. You want to raise awareness about the importance of creating and maintaining healthy relationships between various groups.

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Something really troubling happened at our centre this week. It all started when one person insulted another person by calling them “lazy.” Then, both of them started arguing. I couldn’t believe it! It is wrong to use insulting language with anyone… and then to start arguing about it!

An issue is a subject or problem of public interest. Example: The existence of “discrimination in housing” is an issue that our society must address.

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This incident is just the tip of the iceberg. Lately, I have noticed a tendency: people use divisive language and don’t show respect for others. At school, I have heard so many racist, sexist and homophobic remarks. And it’s not just at school. In the workplace, rude comments and divisive behaviour are issues, too. I’ve also heard a lot of gossip that is not helpful to anyone. The worst place for hostility and hate is the Internet. People take advantage of the anonymity social media offers to insult others. Cyberbullying is common. In the public sphere, via the media, we often hear of public figures, people in the entertainment industry for example, and even politicians who say divisive, intolerant things aimed at ethnic groups, women and LBGTQ people, or people who simply don’t share their opinion. In their words and actions, these people show a lack of respect for diversity. Sometimes, you even see disrespectful behaviour in public, such as on the bus when people take the space of two seats.

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I believe we need to work harder to establish healthy relationships in our everyday contacts with people. We all suffer if our society is divided into clans. We need to find solutions! Do you agree that we need to improve the language we use toward other people and the way we treat each other? What can each of us do to encourage more respect around us? What can our class do to get along better with those around us? How can we sensitize people and raise awareness about the necessity of being more open to others? I hope you’ll respond. We could exchange ideas on how to get along better.

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BOX

VOCABULARY rude

impolite

hate

intense dislike

cyberbullying intimidation

online

lack insufficient, not enough clans

small, closed groups

to improve

make better

to raise awareness to raise consciousness

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Final TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE 1.

Complete the chart below with information from Liz’s blog post on page 58. ENVIRONMENTS IN WHICH LIZ THINKS DISRESPECT IS AN ISSUE

What questions does Liz ask in her message? Write each question in the chart below, one to a row. Leave room to add a personal response to the question as you go through the learning situation.

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EXAMPLES SHE GIVES

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Practising to Improve Skills Have you heard the expression in English “practice makes perfect”? It means that to make progress in something, you need to repeat it many times. It is unrealistic to think that progress comes without effort.

FOCUS ON STRATEGIES

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Practising to improve skills helps you stay focused as you meet new language challenges. You will be happy to see some improvement and this will increase your motivation.

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When you use the strategy Practising to Improve Skills, you take time to focus on a particular skill. You concentrate and apply yourself to the selected task. The skill you want to work on could be in relation to speaking, listening, reading or writing. For example, you can practise to improve your pronunciation; your ability to understand others when they speak; or your knowledge of verbs, new vocabulary and expressions, or grammar notions.

STRATEGY PRACTICE

Pronunciation of Regular Verbs in the Past Tense (Verb + –ed)

Your task:

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Using the strategy Practising to Improve Skills, read the text on the next page titled “Relationships in a Small Community.” Then, read the text again, out loud. Focus your attention on the pronunciation of the –ed ending of regular verbs in the past tense. The verbs to focus on are underlined.

Is the –ed ending pronounced as a /d/, /t/ or /id/? For each underlined verb, circle the sound you hear. Jerry asked (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) for help with his homework.

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Example

Reminder:

Regular verbs in English end in –ed (watched) or –d (liked). Previously, you have learned words ending in –d/ed are sometimes pronounced as a /d/ and sometimes as a /t/. With verbs ending in voiceless sounds (there is no vibration in the throat; the sound is in the mouth: /s/, /sh/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /p/, etc.), pronounce the –ed as a /t/.

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Example

With verbs ending in voiced sounds (the vocal cords produce a vibration you can feel in your throat: /b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /l/, etc.), pronounce –ed as /d/ or /id/. Example

Ask ends in a voiceless sound. Asked is pronounced “askt.”

Jog ends in a voiced /g/ sound. Jogged is pronounced “jogd.”

When a verb ends in a /t/ or a /d/ sound, pronounce the –ed like /id/. Examples

End finishes in a /d/ sound. Ended is pronounced “endid.” The /d/ sound is dominant. Invite ends in a /t/ sound. Invited is pronounced “invitid.” The /d/ sound is dominant.

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La classe numérique

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Relationships in a Small Community I lived (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) in a small community for many years. I enjoyed (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) the close social contact. Relationships were usually very harmonious. People in the community liked (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) doing activities together and invited (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) all the local people when there was an event. It was very inclusive. One

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popular winter activity was curling. People prepared (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) sandwiches and baked (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) cakes to eat after the game. We talked (/d/ – /t/ – /id/), laughed (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) and socialized (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) in a very positive way. We connected (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) with each

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other over coffee and cake. In the summer, different families organized (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) picnics at the lake. Sometimes, they asked (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) people to bring their musical instruments.

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People with musical talents played (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) and the rest of us tried (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) to sing. It was fun, but I admit we were not recording stars!

One thing that affected (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) relationships in a negative way was the tendency to gossip or talk about other people. In a small community, everyone knows everyone else. Harry,

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an old gentleman who lived (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) next door to me, stopped (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) the gossiping by saying, /If you don’t have anything nice to say, it’s better to say nothing at all./ This surprised (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) me the first time I heard it, but I recognized (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) that what he said was true. Keeping your opinions to yourself is a good way to contribute to good relationships with others.

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I live in a big city now. Relationships are different, but the lessons I learned (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) about sharing, being sociable, respectful and polite still guide me in my relationships in the workplace and my community. I truly believe these lessons helped (/d/ – /t/ – /id/) me be more inclusive and

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attentive to others.

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Activity 1 WORDS MATTER In this activity, you will explore and share opinions about how people can show respect in the workplace and at school, and why the language we use is important in maintaining healthy relationships.

PLAN

What makes our contacts with others pleasant? In the following list, check (✓) four of the most important qualities that help you get along with others.

B

being able to compromise being open showing respect being intelligent

USE

   

being curious being honest being tactful showing creativity

D

   

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being dependable being imaginative having a sense of humour showing patience

   

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A

1. 2.

Read Adam’s response to Liz’s blog post below.

3. 4.

Read the two articles about relationships at work and at school on pages 63 and 65.

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According to Adam, what workplace issue was the cause of the conflict?

Using information from Adam’s blog post and the two articles, fill in the charts on pages 64 and 66. BLOG POST

ARTICLES

CONTACT

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Adam

ABOUT

I read Liz’s blog post about the lack of respect between people. I agree 100% that words matter. Many degrading words exist, but is it really necessary to use them? I found two articles on healthy work environments and school relationships. They deal with issues that can come up between people and how they can be solved. I’m sharing them with you.

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I had an experience recently at my workplace, a restaurant. There was some friction between male and female waiters. When male waiters talked to the female waiters, they used words like “cutie,” “baby,” “babe,” “darling,” “my love” and so on. Although these words were not said rudely, they were sometimes flirtatious and inappropriate. After some complaints from the women, the manager called a staff meeting and we all discussed our viewpoints. The women were able to show the men how certain words could be degrading. Most of the men said their intention was not to be hurtful. They just didn’t think about the impact of their words. Everyone agreed that we all need to keep our language more formal and respectful. We all learned a lesson: words matter in the workplace.

VOCABULARY

BOX

to matter important

to be

degrading insulting

negative,

flirtatious having a sexual connotation complaint criticism hurtful

objection,

cruel, unkind

I hope the articles will help you.

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Article 1

Healthy Work Relationships You spend a lot of time with people at work, which may cause tensions from time to time. Here are a few common workplace issues and suggestions on how to improve professional relationships.

Note To build bridges to create connections between people; improve communication

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Jealousy and overcompetitiveness: Some employees seem to be the boss’s favourites. Other employees may feel jealous and use hostile and insulting language toward a favoured colleague. Favouritism makes others feel insecure and fragile, and can create an aggressive, competitive atmosphere. Of course, the boss has a role to play in solving the problem. But what can you do? Why not try to get to know a colleague you feel uncomfortable with a bit better? Can you work with this person on a project? This might help you see their qualities in another light, and help you develop friendlier feelings based on mutual confidence and trust. Insecurity often stems from low self-esteem, so if you are jealous or distrustful, you may need to work on building your own self-confidence as well.

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Lack of consideration for others: Some people are undiplomatic in their manner and too direct in the way they speak. Co-workers who hear harsh words may feel insulted and then respond by using more bad language, causing an escalation of tension that can damage work relationships. Again, you can be the one to help solve the problem by sticking to good manners. Keep your dialogue polite and respectful. Don’t forget little things, like saying “please” and “thank you.” Adopt a happy, friendly attitude. Kind gestures can help (offering a cup of coffee or opening a door for someone). Words really do matter, so never gossip or make hurtful comments. Your optimistic attitude will be contagious and have a positive effect on your colleagues.

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Discrimination: Many types of discrimination exist in the workplace – it may be related to a disability, a gender issue, ethnicity, sexual orientation or even age. Discrimination is caused by a lack of understanding and is based on preconceived ideas. Of course, you are not the boss and cannot change the company’s discriminatory practices or policies, but you can contribute to positive attitudes around you. Be inclusive. Why not try to establish friendly relationships with people different ethnicities? During coffee breaks, talk to colleagues of different age groups. Never tell sexist, racist or VOCABULARY BOX homophobic jokes. Establishing respectful relationships helps everyone connect. It builds bridges between groups and reduces to build to construct barriers between individuals. kind compassionate Healthy work relationships are necessary for a good work environment. Everyone needs to make an effort. The good news is that everyone benefits.

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to gossip to talk about other people when they are not there preconceived ideas ideas that we form without real evidence

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5.

In the chart below, write short notes from Adam’s blog and the article titled “Healthy Work Relationships.” Identify ideas that you could use in your final written and oral tasks. SOLUTIONS (Identify at least two per issue)

REASON(S) FOR THE ISSUE

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ISSUE

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Article 2

Sadly, school is a place where many students experience conflict and aggression. Confrontational attitudes can lead to name-calling and even violence. As a student, you can’t change everyone, but you can try some simple actions that may help neutralize bad behaviour.

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Healthy School Relationships

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Vulgar or insulting language: Why do people insult each other? Often, it is because they imitate what they hear on TV, on the Internet and in their social circles. Some people use vulgarity because they feel it helps them fit in with their peer group. However, people don’t always stop to think about the impact of degrading words. Words matter: they can be brutal and hurtful, and destroy a person’s self-confidence, so be very selective in your choice of words. Your school could start a public awareness campaign or produce articles on this topic.

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Stereotyping: In a school, there are people of many backgrounds, races, body shapes and sizes, ages, sexual orientations, mobility levels, academic levels, etc. Some students aren’t open to diversity and use stereotypes to judge others. They may draw rapid conclusions about you because of the group you belong to. However, stereotyping should be rejected. It is often based on false information and doesn’t contribute to healthy relationships. Initiating sociable contacts will help create positive relationships. Your school could organize events to facilitate interactions, such as social events, clubs or sports teams.

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Cliques: In many schools, students tend to divide into cliques and associate only with people that are similar to them. This may be out of fear, timidity or insecurity. It is normal to want to stay in your comfort zone, but let’s face it: it is restrictive. Why not move out of your comfort zone and try to make friends with a variety of people? Try to get to know students on an individual basis. Simply changing the way tables are arranged in the cafeteria could help in this regard.

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Constructive relationships in school depend on a collective effort. We can all be agents of change.

VOCABULARY

BOX

name-calling using insulting names for people to fit in with a peer group to be part of a social group

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6.

In the chart below, write short notes in your own words about the article titled “Healthy School Relationships.” Identify ideas that you could use in your written and oral final tasks. REASON(S) FOR THE ISSUE

SOLUTION(S)

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ISSUE

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C

REINVEST Which of the issues outlined in the two articles do you personally relate to most? Choose one or two issues and explain why they are relevant to you, based on your background or experience. Write a text of about 75 words.

2.

Prepare for a conversation with a classmate or your teacher. You will talk about the qualities that help people build constructive relationships in the workplace or at school (look back at Part A on page 62 for ideas). Explain the reasons for your choice of qualities. Can you give a few examples? Use the chart below to organize your ideas. You may use these notes (not complete sentences) during your discussion.

REASONS/EXAMPLES

HOW YOU CAN CONTRIBUTE

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WHAT MAKES A WORK OR SCHOOL RELATIONSHIP HEALTHY?

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GRAMMAR

Using I Wish and I Hope 1. We use I wish when talking about something unreal, impossible or improbable. •

If you are referring to a situation in the present, the verb following I wish will be in the simple past tense. I wish my phone worked better here. (The reality is that it doesn’t work well.)

Examples

I wish Harry had a car. (The reality is that Harry doesn’t have a car.) Simple past tense

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If you are expressing regret for something that happened in the past, the verb following I wish will be in the past perfect tense (had + past participle).

I wish I had cleaned the house before she came to visit. (The reality is that I didn’t clean the house and I regret it.)

Example

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Past perfect tense

2. We use I hope when talking about what we want to happen in the future, when there is a good chance that it will happen. The verb following I hope is either in the simple present tense or the future tense (less common). I hope Sharon gets my message before she leaves. (I want her to get the message.)

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Examples

Simple present tense

I hope Sam will come to the party. (I want Sam to be there.)

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Future tense

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1.

Choose I wish or I hope in the following sentences. Circle the correct answer in parentheses. a) I applied for the welding program in the local vocational training centre. (I hope/I wish) I will be accepted. b) I made a reservation to camp for three nights in Forillon National Park. (I hope/I wish) the weather will be nice. c) I would like to contact my parents. (I hope/I wish) I had my cellphone on me. d) It’s so boring and lonely here. (I hope/I wish) you were here with me!

f) Jade has her final exam tomorrow. (I hope/I wish) she passes.

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e) We’re having so much fun here at the lake. (I hope/I wish) you can join us on the weekend.

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g) I can’t find a place to live in this city. (I hope/I wish) there were more apartments available. h) It’s so cold in Canada! (I hope/I wish) I lived in a warmer climate.

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i) I asked John to help me move into my new apartment tomorrow. (I hope/I wish) he will come. j) These instructions are so complicated! (I hope/I wish) I had asked for more explanation. k) As an only child, I sometimes feel lonely. (I hope/I wish) I had a sibling.

2.

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l) Jameel’s surgery is planned for tomorrow. (I hope/I wish) everything goes well. Using your imagination, complete the following sentences. Use the correct verb tense for your choice. Many answers are possible. Correct with your teacher. I don’t have any money left.

I wish I had money. / I hope I’ll get my paycheck tomorrow.

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Example

a) It’s very cold out today! I hope…

b) I don’t have Melinda’s phone number. I wish…

c) I forgot my keys to the house.

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I hope…

d) My gas tank is empty. I wish… e) I have nothing interesting to eat because I didn’t go grocery shopping. I wish… f) I don’t have a credit card. I hope…

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Activity 2 CIVILITY IN ONLINE RELATIONSHIPS In this activity, you will explore the importance of being honest and polite online, and think of actions that can be taken to improve civility.

A

PLAN Are you connected to other people using a social media platform? If so, estimate the number of people you are connected with.

2.

Do you consider these people to be your friends? Explain.

3.

Estimate the percentage of messages from your online community that you consider to be polite and respectful. (Circle your answer.) 10%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Estimate the percentage of messages from your online community that you consider to be impolite or rude. (Circle your answer.) 10%

B

30%

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20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

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20%

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1.

Read Chad’s blog post on the next page.

2.

What issue does Chad identify?

3.

Jamal’s and Kendra’s blog posts on pages 71 and 72. Use the Vocabulary Box to help you.

4.

Fill in the chart on page 72 using information from all three of the blog posts. Identify the positive and negative aspects of online exchanges.

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1.

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BLOG POST

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

VOCABULARY rudeness

mean

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I see from Liz’s blog post that she is frustrated with rudeness at school. I am too, but I’m even more shocked at the rude things I see and hear online. I’m active on social media and I can’t believe how mean peole can be in their posts. I know many people think that if you have an opinion, it’s OK to share it. They believe it’s better to be honest and frank. I agree that honesty is important, but I think there can be a right way and a wrong way to express your viewpoint. So I’ve started a new private initiative in my chat groups: when I think someone’s comments have gone too far, I tell them. I choose a tactful and polite way to say it. I just remind them to be careful because words matter; words can really hurt. No one benefits from being treated rudely.

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Chad

BLOG POST

Jamal

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I’m trying to sensitize people in my circle to the importance of civility in online communications. I also think schools and adult education centres should invite guest speakers to address this issue. That would create a great opportunity for raising awareness about the problem, and allow for discussion of solutions. Can you think of any other way of raising awareness?

ABOUT

ARTICLES

BOX

impoliteness

unpleasant, cruel

to remind to help someone remember to hurt to cause pain or damage to someone civility

politeness

cyberbullying intimidation

online

CONTACT

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I think it is important, as Liz says, for people to be respectful in their comments about others. This is especially true online. I agree that healthy relationships are important. I have been a victim of cyberbullying and I learned a few hard lessons about online interactions.

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I was a victim of cyberbullying partly because, in the past, I was rude and mean on social media myself. My cruel words hurt people’s feelings and made them mad. So they counter-attacked by being mean to me and bullying me. It was my turn to feel the hurt caused by bullying. It made me feel depressed and anxious. I had headaches and started missing classes. Finally, I got help from a school counsellor. To put an end to cyberbullying, I cancelled my social media account and started up again with limited contacts only. As a society, we should insist that social media platforms do more to monitor the comments of their users to prevent cyberbullying. The government could pass a law about this and impose fines on the companies if they don’t follow up. The government should also invest more in counselling services for victims of cyberbullying. Now, I’m trying to be more respectful in my comments online and offline. I believe this will help me build happy and enriching relationships. If karma really exists, my kindness will come back to me some day!

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BLOG POST

ABOUT

ARTICLES

CONTACT

Kendra

A few years ago, a friend recommended several sites that he used that were popular with students, so I signed up on a few. I thought it would be fun to develop online friendships with people like me. Soon, I became frustrated with the way people interacted online. Some faked their identity or exaggerated their accomplishments and one person even scammed me! I also heard some sexist and racist comments. Some of these comments came from students in my adult education centre – and they were using school computers!

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I agree with Liz that sometimes dialogue is less than perfect online. But it is not all bad, either.

VOCABULARY

to scam to be fraudulent or deceptive behaviour

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So, I adopted a new strategy. I actively blocked people the minute I saw any weird or suspicious behaviour. I got more serious about protecting my confidentiality by using the privacy settings. I also think the school administration should create a policy about using the centre’s computers, and they should track down people who break the rules.

BOX

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behaviour the way a person acts

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After I made these changes in the way I use social media, things rapidly became more encouraging. I met a lot of nice people who were serious, kind and courteous.

confidentiality the state of being private or secretive privacy settings options you have on a device or platform to control how much information is shared to track down

to find

Complete the chart below with information from the blog posts by Chad, Jamal and Kendra.

Chad

SOLUTIONS THEY SUGGEST

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Jamal

ISSUES THEY RAISED ON THE BLOG

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BLOGGER

Kendra

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REINVEST

What Can Be Done? 1.

Look at the list of actions below. They are things that institutions and governments could do to help combat unruly behaviour online.

2.

Choose two actions that you think would be most effective to deal with this problem.

3.

Write a text identifying your choices and explaining your decision. Your text should contain 75–100 words. You can use the Word Bank below for help. Your English class: Organize a “Compliment Day,” during which people send positive messages online; organize a poster contest about inclusiveness.

Your adult education centre: Organize conferences or workshops on the use of language online; invite guest speakers.

The municipal government: Launch an advertising campaign to raise awareness among the public; organize cultural festivals and art exhibits.

The provincial government: Organize training programs in schools and adult education centres; hire more counsellors and social workers.

The federal government: Impose fines on social media platforms that do not address the issue.

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©

Word Bank Words to describe bad behaviour:

Words to describe good behaviour:

mean with cruel intention (hateful, malicious, vicious words or actions)

polite

hate speech words that show intense dislike and malice. Hate speech is vicious and odious. unruly

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disorderly, chaotic

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civil

respectful polite, respectful

courteous

polite, cordial, helpful

kind sensitive, empathetic, courteous, decent

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GRAMMAR

Simple Past Tense or Present Perfect Tense? The following information will help you distinguish between these two common tenses.

SIMPLE PAST TENSE

I You He She It We They

verb + –ed *

Used for actions that began in the past and continue in the present. Often used to specify the duration.

Used for past actions when the time is not indicated.

I You We They

have + past participle (verb + –ed )*

He She It

has + past participle (verb + –ed )*

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Structure Affirmative

Used when the action and the time period are completely finished.

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Purpose

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

*N.B.: Irregular verbs: Consult a list of irregular verbs on page 120. Use the past participle (3rd column).

Keywords

last week, yesterday, last month, last year, two days ago, in 1993, etc.

for two years, since March, already, yet, how long (question), etc.

Example Affirmative

I contacted my boss yesterday.

I have worked here for five years.

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*N.B.: Irregular verbs: Consult a list of irregular verbs on page 120. Use the simple past tense (2nd column).

This morning, Jack calculated his overtime.

Marsha has lost five kilograms since October. I have been to London. (the time is not indicated)

Shawn did not walk to school yesterday.

Mauricio has not worked out in the gym since June.

Example Interrogative

Did you attend class last week?

Has he visited any museums since arriving in Paris?

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Example Negative

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1.

Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb. Use keywords from the chart on page 74 to help you choose between the simple past tense and the present perfect tense. Use the affirmative form. a) Jane

in Vancouver since December. (to live)

b) Last night, my friends and I (to watch)

the hockey game at Fred’s house.

c) They (to visit)

Cassandra just once since the beginning of September.

d) Meagan

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in the United States for 10 years. (to work)

e) Roger

at Cegep from 2009 to 2013. (to study)

f) Jack

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cats and dogs since he was a child. (to like)

g) He (to get) Rover for his 10th birthday and him until he died last year. (to keep) h) Jennifer

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to her messages on Wednesday morning. (to listen)

i) Mike

Irene on Saturday to invite her to the birthday party. (to call)

j) I

for a job in Toronto two weeks ago. (to apply)

k) Online shopping

2.

Anisha in 2009. (to marry)

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l) Ken

since 2000. (to increase)

Use the cues in parentheses to transform the following sentences into the affirmative, negative or interrogative forms. a) Jack has taken tai chi lessons for the last six months. (int.) Jack

tai chi lessons for the last six months?

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b) It has snowed since 8:00 a.m. this morning. (neg.) It

since 8:00 a.m. this morning.

c) I didn’t study in administration. (affirm.) I

in administration.

d) It snowed on Monday. (neg.)

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It

on Monday.

e) I have seen that movie many times. (int.) that movie many times?

f) Alicia liked the freedom she had in her job. (int.) Alicia

the freedom she had in her job?

g) The students went to the cafeteria for lunch. (neg.) The students

to the cafeteria for lunch.

h) She hasn’t tried calling him since 4:00 p.m. (affirm.) She

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calling him since 4:00 p.m.

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Activity 3 RAISING AWARENESS ABOUT THE IMPORTANCE OF CIVILITY Some people have been confronted with the negative effects of impolite or vulgar communications. In the following activity, podcast host Lina, a psychologist, is talking to three students about how they faced this issue and what solutions they found.

PLAN

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A

ANSWERS

DEFINITIONS

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WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS

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Before listening to the podcast, study the words and expressions below. They are all used in the podcast. Match the terms and expressions on the left to their correct definition on the right. Use an online dictionary if necessary.

a) to be insensitive to criticism

2. hate speech

b) to avoid bothering people

3. to set an example

c) a group formed to help create friendly and helpful relationships

4. to keep to yourself

d) to act in a way that others should follow

5. to develop a thick skin 6. to live and let live 7. to mind your own business

B

e) to promote knowledge, understanding and information on a subject f) abusive comments that express prejudice against a particular group g) to be solitary; to isolate yourself h) to be tolerant of the opinions and actions of others

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Listen to the podcast between the psychologist and the three students.

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1.

USE

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8. to raise awareness

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1. goodwill committee

According to the psychologist, who would benefit from the suggestions given in the podcast?

3.

Using information from the podcast, fill in the chart on the next page. Identify at least three strategies suggested by each person. Write your notes in your own words.

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2.

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RAISING AWARENESS ON GETTING ALONG WITH OTHER PEOPLE GOAL(S)

PROPOSED STRATEGIES

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Jake

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Sharon

REINVEST

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What Would You Do?

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Imagine this situation: In the adult education centre’s cafeteria during lunch, one student bumps into another by accident. This person responds by shouting a personal insult. You are afraid the situation will escalate. Write a text of 50–75 words explaining what you would do or say to each person.

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Building Bridges with Others

ORAL PRACTICE

Talk to a classmate or your teacher about some of the issues discussed in this learning situation, and come up with solutions (actions) that can be taken to help reduce the problem. You may discuss some of the points presented in the activities, as well as add your own ideas. Use the Notes Sheet below to organize your ideas for the discussion. You may then use these notes during your final oral presentation (point form only, not complete sentences).

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Notes Sheet

ACTIONS TO BE TAKEN (By individuals, groups, governments, etc.)

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ISSUE

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a) Cyberbullying

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d) Gossip

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c) Online rudeness

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b) Cliques

e) Use of inappropriate language

f) Discrimination

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Test your ability to use the new vocabulary you reviewed in this learning situation.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

In the following text, fill in the spaces using the vocabulary from the Word Bank. You can use each word only once. Be careful! There is one extra word.

Word Bank Nouns:

Adjectives:

to raise awareness

civility

courteous

to improve

cyberbullying

unwelcome

to gossip

kindness

rude

to fit in

goodwill committee

lack

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Verbs:

A View from Below: It’s Not Always Easy Down Here! I’ve been in a wheelchair since the age of 12. I was in a bad car accident with my family, but happily, we

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all survived. I have had many operations to

my mobility, but here I am, age

18, still in my chair. No miracles for me. Despite my disability, I am a sociable person and I really try to with people around me. But my efforts are not always successful.

In our society, many people are victims of intolerance. Prejudice is sometimes expressed openly. Consider these examples: misogynistic treatment is a reality for many women. People are not always to people of other racial or age groups.

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many online interactions. Employees may

poisons about other people at work, creating

divisions and jealousy.

As a disabled person, I am generally treated with

. People almost never say

things to me, so I’m relatively lucky. However, prejudice can be subtle.

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As a person in a wheelchair, I often feel that I am “invisible.” It’s as if I don’t exist. This is especially true when people are standing. I’m way lower, in my chair. Because I am lower down, people often don’t make eye contact with me or even look at me. So basically, there is a of recognition of me as a human being. People rush past me and ignore me. This makes me feel very isolated. I would like to

about this issue, so that people can understand how people

in chairs, like me, feel. At our school, I would like to set up a students to the problems faced by people with disabilities.

to sensitize is appreciated, but

that alone is not enough. We need to be included, not ignored. Who will join me on this new committee?

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GRAMMAR

Synonyms A synonym is a word that has the same meaning or almost the same meaning as another word. Synonyms add variety to your speaking and writing. Using synonyms also helps you clarify meaning, as well as helping people understand your message.

Here are some common synonyms.

lucky = fortunate

strange = weird

big = large

buy = purchase

stupid = dumb

important = essential

near = close to

funny = comical

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE Using Synonyms

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In the following text, replace the underlined words with a synonym or expression you came across in this learning situation. Choose from the words in the Word Bank. Refer to the Vocabulary Boxes, consider the context and use an online dictionary. Write your answers in the spaces in parentheses. Be careful! There is one extra word.

Word Bank clan

hurtful

kind

unwelcome

to develop a thick skin

mean

behaviour

civility

to raise awareness

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a lack of

to scam

A Little More Respect, Please

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As a transgender person, I feel I do not get the respect I deserve. Over the last few years, I have learned to be insensitive ( ). People say a lot of cruel ( ) things about my looks, like “Hey, are you male or female?” It’s hard in school and in public. You never know who is going to be condescending ( ) – sometimes it comes out of nowhere! Discrimination is not just in behaviour, it is also in the way people look at you. Sometimes, I would like to be invisible, but I know that type of thinking is not good for my mental health. There is definitely not enough ( ) awareness about all the tough questions surrounding gender diversity and gender identity.

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Because of all the degrading ways of acting ( ) toward me, my tendency has been to stick to my group ( ). But this doesn’t seem to be a solution – of course I enjoy being with people in the trans community, but I want to mix with other people, too. I talked to one of my teachers about the many unwanted ( ) comments I was hearing from students in class. The teacher responded a week later by talking to the whole class about transgender issues. Her goal was to present our reality in a compassionate ( ) way and to promote understanding ( ) of transgender issues. She told me in advance and I decided to be absent that day. Students were able to express their thoughts more freely. I think the discussion really cleared the air, because since then I have noticed much more politeness ( ) in people’s words and behaviour toward me. The fight is not over, but I feel there has been some progress.

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final writing task My Personal Experience After considering the information about building constructive relationships between various groups in society, you now want to share your personal views and experiences on this issue in response to Liz’s request for help on your English class blog.

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Write a blog post of 75–100 words. Discuss what you can do on a personal level to improve relationships between various groups in society. In addition to answering Liz’s questions, your blog post could touch on some of the following issues: Do you find it difficult to get along with others? If so, how have you met this challenge?

What is your definition of diversity or inclusion? How do you display these values?

What can you do to improve relationships between groups and help others to be more open to diversity?

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Don’t forget to use the notes you wrote on page 78 and in all the charts in this learning situation.

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final oral task My Action Plan On a collective level, what can your class, the adult education centre or governments do to help build constructive relationships in society? You will share your ideas with your teacher by describing an action plan that contains about four or five different actions. Use ideas that were presented in this learning situation, as well as your personal views and experience. In your discussion, talk about the following points: The action plan you propose and why you think it is necessary

What group or groups would need to get involved

What role you would play in the action plan

If you think it would be easy or difficult

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Your discussion should last about five minutes. Be prepared to answer questions about your action plan.

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You should try to be persuasive, since you want your English teacher to believe in your ideas. Use the Notes Sheet to organize your ideas. You may use these notes (not complete sentences) during your discussion.

Notes Sheet

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GROUP(S) INVOLVED (Class, Student Council, adult education centre, governments)

NOTES (Additional ideas, reasons, etc.)

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ACTION

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review 1. USING I WISH AND I HOPE

  Complete the following sentences, using the correct tense of the verb in parentheses. Circle your choice. a) Mary is absent today. I hope she (is, was) better for her presentation tomorrow. b) I miss you. I wish I (see, will see, saw) you more often. c) I live in a very small apartment. It’s nice, but I wish I (will live, lived, live) in a bigger one.

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d) I bought a lottery ticket for the big draw on Friday. I hope my number (won, wins). e) I have started looking for a new car. I hope I (find, found) one before winter. f) I love Paris. I wish I (will live, live, lived) there.

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g) I hate these shoes. I wish I (didn’t buy, hadn’t bought, will buy) them.

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h) My brother is very impolite. I wish he (had, will have, has) better manners.

2. SIMPLE PAST tense VERSUS PRESENT PERFECT tense the correct form of the verb in parentheses.

  In the following sentences, circle

a) I (went/have gone) to the store to get milk after work yesterday.

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b) Jameel (walked/has walked) downtown with her son on the weekend.

c) I (shared/have shared) my work with Jack many times since he started to work here. d) She (worried/has worried) about her exam for the last week. e) You (didn’t cook/haven’t cooked) supper last night. f) We (saw/have seen) that movie several times.

g) I (laughed/have laughed) when I heard that story.

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h) Maureen (didn’t talk/hasn’t talked) to her new colleague for a few days. i) He (learned/has learned) a lot since starting that course.

3. SIMPLE PAST tense VERSUS PRESENT PERFECT tense

  Complete the following sentences with your own verb choice. Look for keywords to determine which verb tense to use. a) The repairman (past tense)

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to my house yesterday but no one was home.

b) He

the piano since he was 10 years old. (present perfect)

c) Nancy and Helen d) Toby

the military last week. (past tense)

e) The apartment

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skiing for the day. (present perfect)

already. (present perfect)

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4.

La classe numérique

Focus on pronunciation: the /h/ sound.

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a) When you pronounce the /h/ sound, you release a small puff of air from the mouth. To practise, hold your hand in front of your mouth. Pronounce the word hospital. If you feel the puff of air, you are pronouncing the /h/ sound correctly.

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j8

rk

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

b) Listen to the recording. For each number, circle the word you hear. Pay attention to the /h/ sound. Each word will be pronounced twice. 1) hit

it

2) hearing

earring

3) had

4) heat

eat

5) hair

air

6) high

eye

7) hand

and

8) his

is

9) ham

am

10) harm

arm

11) hate

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ate

at

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Self-Evaluation

add

1 Did the strategy Practising to Improve Skills help me accomplish the final task?  Yes

 No

 Sometimes

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How can I improve on this skill?

2 Did I keep the scenario in mind as I was going through the activities?  Yes

 No

 Sometimes

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How can I improve on this aspect?

3 Was I able to use the new vocabulary appearing in this learning situation in the writing and oral tasks?  Yes

 No

 Sometimes

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How can I improve on this aspect?

4 How will what I covered in this learning situation be useful in my relationships?

5 Was the grammar presented in this learning situation new to me? Was it easy or difficult?

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Learning Situation 4

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IN THIS LEARNING SITUATION…

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HEALTHY COMMUNITIES

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You will learn about the important issue of teen health. You will get information on how a community can promote teen health – why action is needed, what can be done and who can support it. This information will help you clarify your own opinion on ways of maintaining and improving teen health. It will also help you see what role you can play in promoting fitness and health.

Summary of learning outcomes: Read and respond to texts related to issues of teen health Listen to a discussion about projects that can help teens in need Practise using the learning strategy Asking for and Giving Constructive Feedback Persuade others by preparing a pamphlet defending your point of view on an aspect of teen health Review the use of ones and one to replace nouns Review the use of by and with to indicate a means of doing something

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Scenario You are concerned that many teens at your adult education centre and in your community don’t seem interested in their health; they eat poorly and don’t exercise very much. You also worry that some teens may be dealing with more serious issues, such as lack of food or shelter. You found the following pamphlet in your mailbox. It was distributed by the municipality. Local councillors want residents’ input for new programs to make progress in an area they have identified as a priority: teen health.

Recreation: Lack of sports and recreation can result in teen obesity. Boredom can open the door to crime, drugs and gang activity. Teens need access to physical activities to be fit and happy.

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Our collective future relies on our youth. However, many are faced with difficulties, including poverty, addiction and homelessness. These problems have serious consequences for their health, their happiness and, ultimately, their future. Teen health is an issue we need to get serious about.

Mental health services: Like adults, teens can suffer from anxiety due to difficulties at school, family tensions, etc. Increasing counselling services for teens would help them manage stress.

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In our five-year budget, the municipal council has decided to make a priority of promoting teen health. We will invest in health programs aimed specifically at teens. Of course, there are many good ways to do this, but we need input from residents to help us choose the most effective ways of investing our limited funds.

VOCABULARY

Shelters: There are many youth on the street who suffer from poor health. Funds could be invested in setting up shelters where teens could spend the night and have access to support.

Improved transportation: For teens, long bus routes and too many transfers leaves little time for sports and recreation.

Food banks: Teens who live away from their family have many budget problems. As a result, many neglect nutrition. Food banks could help by making food and nutrition education accessible. All your ideas are welcome. Remember: When we invest in our teens, we invest in our future! Please share your ideas with municipal councillor Katrina Martin at kat.martin@ yourmunicipality.ca

Note

BOX

health condition of your body and mind youth young people who have not yet reached adulthood homelessness the condition of having no home and living on the street

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Modifying routes and bus frequency could reduce travel time and allow more time for exercise.

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TEEN HEALTH – OUR PRIORITY

Below are five potential areas that we could invest in to improve teen health. We cannot support them all, so we are asking you to choose three that you think would improve the lives of teens the most.

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TO ALL RESIDENTS: IMPORTANT CONSULTATION ON MUNICIPAL INVESTMENTS

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Your municipality has proposed five areas in which they could invest to prioritize teen health. Because of budget limitations, they can only retain three of these options.

Learning Situation 4 – Healthy Communities

to improve

to make better

boredom state of feeling uninterested or unoccupied counselling help from a professional with your problems

Input is what you put in to a task. Input consists of opinions, ideas, reactions, contributions and feedback to help in the development of a project.

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Final TASK ORGANIZATION PAGE Read the pamphlet on page 86.

2.

In the chart below, complete the column on the left with the five areas in which the municipality could invest to improve teen health.

3.

As you go through the learning situation, add information and opinions for each area in the column on the right.

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1.

INFORMATION AND OPINIONS

IN TEEN HEALTH

ON THE OPTION

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OPTION FOR INVESTMENTS

Other important information/ personal ideas

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Asking for and Giving Constructive Feedback Feedback comments or suggestions about someone’s work or skills.

FOCUS ON STRATEGIES

When learning a second language, you frequently need feedback to guide you. For example, your teacher may give you feedback on your writing skills to help you improve. Or, you might ask a native English speaker for feedback so that you can correct mistakes in your speaking or improve your pronunciation.

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How to give feedback: When giving feedback to a classmate or friend, you need to show support and be encouraging. If not, it can be insulting instead of productive. The objective is to help the person improve, not criticize or denigrate them. Never make brutal comments such as “That was terrible. You’re no good at English.”

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How to ask for feedback: Why not make a habit of asking for feedback? If you ask, it will show that you are open to suggestions that will help you improve. If you don’t ask, people might be afraid of insulting you. In general, people do not want to be impolite. They will not correct your mistakes if you don’t ask. To help you get constructive feedback, ask specific questions. Don’t simply ask “How was I?” This is too vague.

Examples

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Here are examples of specific questions:

Can you give me two suggestions to improve my oral presentations? If this were your letter, would you change the introduction?

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It’s important to select the right people to ask for feedback. Ask a person who knows you and is qualified to help you. Don’t ask a stranger, an enemy or a person who is critical of everyone. On the other hand, don’t choose a person who will only say nice things, like your grandmother! You need someone who is objective and tells you what was good and what was not so good. This might be a close friend or your teacher. Remember: To be effective, feedback always needs to be constructive.

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When someone gives you feedback, do not debate or justify yourself. The point of getting feedback is to listen carefully to people’s suggestions. Analyze what they have said. If you don’t understand, say “Can you give me an example?”

STRATEGY PRACTICE 1.

Using information from the text above, write in point form what you should and shouldn’t do when giving and asking for feedback. WHEN GIVING FEEDBACK YOU SHOULD…

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Learning Situation 4 – Healthy Communities

YOU SHOULDN’T…

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STRATEGY PRACTICE (CONTINUED) WHEN ASKING FOR FEEDBACK YOU SHOULDN’T…

2.

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YOU SHOULD…

In the following situations, imagine what you would say to get constructive feedback or consider whether the context is appropriate. Write your answers in the spaces provided. a) Ms. Mallory, your English teacher, gave you 55% for your oral presentation.

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Question(s) to ask to get feedback:

b) Your friend Ken is a native English speaker. You show him a short text you just finished writing. You want to know if it is OK.

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Question(s) to ask to get feedback:

c) You are in a fastfood restaurant in Toronto. There are many people in line waiting for service. You want to know if your pronunciation of brewed coffee is right. You ask the employee at the counter for feedback on your pronunciation.

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Question: Is this a good time and place to ask for feedback? Explain.

d) You are in English class. You are practising a variety of expressions to place an order in a restaurant. You want to know if your pronunciation of deep-fried chicken is correct. You ask your friend, who is very good at English, for feedback on your pronunciation. Question: Is this a good time and place to ask for feedback? Explain.

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Activity 1 SHOULD WE INVEST IN RECREATION OR MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES? In this section, you will read opinions on how municipal investments can have a positive impact on teen health. You will learn about the benefits of supporting recreation and/or mental health services.

Look at the following list. Which of these problems affect teen health in your community? Check (✓) your answers.

There is currently a lack of services in our community. We often need to travel to regions to obtain the services we need.

 Poverty

 Drug abuse

 Lack of activities for youth

 Lack of mental health services

 Problems with public transit

 Crime/gang activity

 Inaccessibility of food banks

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 Lack of medical services

In the list above, circle the three that you think most affect teen health.

USE

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B

EXAMPLE

 Homelessness

Others: (specify)

2.

not enough

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Lack

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1.

Note

PLAN

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A

What Our Teens Need

You go to an online citizens’ forum where municipal issues are discussed. People are expressing their opinions about teen health and about municipal investments in recreation and mental health services for youth. Read the opinion texts below.

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1.

Use the Vocabulary Boxes to help you.

3.

Fill in the chart on page 93 using information from the texts. In the chart, identify the types of projects citizens are proposing and briefly indicate why each proposal would contribute to teen health.

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Opinion Text 1 Why not offer recreation to teens wherever they already are? Christopher M. I’m a big supporter of offering more recreational activities to teens. Why recreation? More exercise is what teens need to stay healthy and happy. Sports are invigorating and help teens have better focus at school.

BOX

reasonably

affordable priced

vocational training centre school where you can learn an occupation or a trade not now

Opinion Text 2

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no longer

The municipality’s investment would mostly cover the cost of sports trainers and part-time physical education teachers to supervise the groups of teens at each school. Schools already have equipment, but the municipality could also invest in more (e.g. balls, nets, a few exercise machines). For the municipality, the cost would be very reasonable. For teens, the extra recreation would be enjoyable, motivating – and healthy! Why not combine the pleasant with the useful?

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VOCABULARY

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I think the best and most affordable way to offer more recreation is to invest in the places teens already are – in schools. The municipality could finance after-school activities in all schools, adult education and vocational training centres. Some could do outdoor activities, too. Once a week, teens could take buses to other schools where they have different or better installations (e.g. gym, pool, football field, exercise room). Teens who are no longer at school could be informed and invited to play and compete with kids their own age in adult education or vocational centres.

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Mental health services should be our priority Jeffrey G.

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I think the municipality should invest in mental health services for teens. We can’t talk about teen health without addressing the issue of mental health, as well. Teens need to be able to access counselling services easily and rapidly.

VOCABULARY bullying

BOX

intimidation

peer pressure direct influence on people to adopt their friends’ attitudes and actions to set up to start

to organize,

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Teens experience bullying, peer pressure, problems at home, academic challenges, the need to combine school and part-time work, and tensions in their social and romantic relationships. They are also worrying about their future and making choices about future study programs. Depression and anxiety can affect teens in the same way as adults. Services should be set up in all health clinics in the area; the staff should include sufficient mental health care workers. This would make treatment easy to access, rapid and discreet. I’m sure this would be money well spent.

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Opinion Text 3 We need a youth recreation centre that offers physical activity AND basic mental health services! Hanna N. Teenage delinquency and drug abuse are big problems in our area. One of the reasons is that kids have nothing to do, so they sometimes get into trouble.

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I think that a municipal youth recreation centre where teens could go after school would fill this void. The focus needs to be on physical and mental health. Remember the proverb that refers to a healthy mind in a healthy body. Students who have trouble with academic work may suffer from low self-esteem, but these same students may be very good at sports. A recreation centre could offer a variety of activities: volleyball, basketball, outdoor sports. There could be a few stationary bikes, a treadmill or two, and a few weights. Zumba classes or yoga could be offered, too. It’s also important for teens to meet with friends. The recreation centre could combine socializing with physical activity. To have a “healthy mind,” kids sometimes need support and mentoring from adults. Coaches, social workers or monitors who work at the recreation centre can give support to teens who are feeling down or who just need to talk about their problems.

void

BOX

empty space

mind intellect, mental capacity, reasoning

mentoring helping a less experienced person

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Opinion Text 4

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A recreation centre would really help teens feel better about themselves and help them make more health-oriented choices. To me, that’s a big step toward being healthy.

VOCABULARY

No to a teen recreation centre; yes to free activities in all sports complexes Cody T.

I know some people think it is important to set up a youth recreation centre, but I disagree with this idea. However, I believe that recreation is key to improving teens’ health.

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I think it would be better for the municipality to support teen health by paying for their entry to all gyms and sports centres in the municipality. That means free gym memberships, free skating at the rinks, free entry to the local ski centres, etc. This way, each teen would be able to choose their own activities. I’m sure this VOCABULARY BOX freedom would appeal to teens. Also, offering free activities key essential would encourage teens to try new sports. If we remove the cost barrier, teens will take advantage of the many opportunities to get in shape. The municipality’s investment would have the desired result: healthy teens who will become healthy adults. I’m sure of it.

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Learning Situation 4 – Healthy Communities

rinks surfaces of ice for skating his or her own each person to appeal

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adapted to

to attract

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RECREATION OR MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES? PROPOSALS FROM CITIZENS

WHY THE PROPOSAL WOULD CONTRIBUTE TO TEEN HEALTH

AND BRIEF DESCRIPTION

(Write at least three items per proposal)

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Opinion Text 1

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Opinion Text 2

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Opinion Text 4

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Opinion Text 3

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Do you think that a teen recreation centre should be strictly for physical activities? Should it also focus on more global aspects of teen health, such as nutrition and lifestyle (e.g. the dangers of smoking, drugs and alcohol)? Write a short opinion text of 50–75 words. Explain the reasons for your opinion.

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Physical Activity and You

ORAL PRACTICE

Talk to a classmate or your teacher about your personal exercise routine. In the discussion, exchange viewpoints on the questions in the chart. Before the discussion, prepare by taking notes in the chart. You may use the Notes Sheet during your discussion.

Notes Sheet

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(Not complete sentences)

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a) How many minutes/hours of physical activity do you get in a week?

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d) What do you think is the biggest challenge/obstacle to being active? Explain.

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c) What do you do in the summer to stay in shape? Explain.

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b) What do you do in the winter to stay in shape? Explain.

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e) What could you do to be more active physically?

f) Do you think it is easier to be active if you have a friend to do activities with? Explain.

g) What reasonable goal could you set to be more active? Explain.

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GRAMMAR

Using One or Ones to Avoid Repetition 1. To avoid repetition, we sometimes use one or ones to replace a countable noun. We do this only when it is evident who or what the person is talking about. 2. You need to be specific when using one or ones. Often, one or ones is preceded by an adjective. Examples

Do you want to buy a new car? No, I like my old one. (one = car) Which roses do you like best? I like the red ones. (ones = roses)

Example

Would you like to buy a wallet? (leather)

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Answer each question using one or ones to replace the noun. Use the adjective in parentheses to qualify your answer. Follow the example.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE

Yes, I would like to buy a leather one.

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a) Which boots do you prefer? (black)

b) Which boy is your brother? (tall)

c) Which trip did you prefer? (short)

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d) Which pens did you give to Bob? (blue)

e) Did you buy a sweater for your mother? (red) Yes,

f)

What kind of shirts cost the most? (silk)

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g) Which of the X-men movies did you like best? (latest)

h) There are many houses on your street. In which house do you live? (white stucco)

i)

Which of these apples would you like to buy? (big, green)

j)

Do you like winter days? (sunny) Yes, especially

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE (CONTINUED) Your friend Jason has many decisions to make. You are asking him questions to help him decide. For each number, ask a question using one or ones about the information in parentheses. Follow the example.

Example

I like the brown boots, but I also like the black boots. (fit better) Which ones fit better?

a) Jason: I would like the black mitts. I also like the green mitts. (warmer) You:

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2.

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b) Jason: I like the Mazda, but I think the Toyota is nice too. (more fuel-efficient) You:

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c) Jason: I am interested in the apartment on Balt Street. I like the apartment on Mezy Road, too. (cheaper) You:

d) Jason: I would like to buy the first cellphone I looked at. However, the phone in Best Place is nice, too. (a bigger screen)

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You:

e) Jason: I like the jeans in Boutique Dyna. I also like the jeans in H&P. (more comfortable) You: f)

Jason: The shampoo in the drugstore is a perfect gift for my mother. The shampoo in the hair salon is great as well. (better quality) You:

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g) Jason: The tennis balls in Mike’s Sports Store are what I want. However, the tennis balls in Canadian Tire are just as good. (more durable) You:

h) Jason: I am interested in vocational courses. There are interesting courses in CEGEP, too. (take longer to complete)

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You:

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Activity 2 PUBLIC TRANSPORT AND TEEN HEALTH: WHAT IS THE LINK? In this section, we will see that investing in transportation budgets wisely can make a big difference to teens’ health, in the short and long-term.

What means of transportation do you use? Check (✓) your answers. You may check more than one.  My own car

 Lifts from a parent/friend

 Public transit

 Walking

 Carpooling with friends

 Bicycle

B

To carpool to travel as a group of two or more in someone’s car, especially to work or school

In the list above, circle the three that you use most often.

USE

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Others:

Note

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1.

PLAN

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Read the pamphlet on the next page on the impact of improved transportation on health. Use the Vocabulary Boxes to help you.

2.

Find synonyms for the important words listed below the pamphlet. They are circled in the list.

3.

Read the letter to the editor on a similar topic on page 99.

4.

Fill in the chart on page 100 with ideas from the pamphlet and the letter on how better transportation can improve teen health.

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1.

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IMPROVED TRANSPORTATION: A HEALTHY INVESTMENT

to more walking time than for those who ride in a car.

Many see improving public transport as an environmental issue – which it is. But it also has the potential of improving health. If cities improve their transit systems, more people will take the bus and have the benefit of additional exercise. This means long-term advantages for the general public. Here are some positive impacts on health.

Public transport offers more options

Improved transportation means less time lost

Cities that invest in improving public transit contribute to teen health and help us all live longer.

Increasing bus frequency reduces waiting time when you miss a bus. If cities invest, bus frequency can be increased and waiting time can be reduced to 10 or 15 minutes.

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We often hear about rising numbers of overweight teens and young adults who are out of shape. Many of them take the bus to school and work. Cities that improve their transit systems are making public transit more attractive. This is a solid contribution to teen health because it gets young people walking more and spending less time sitting in a bus.

Do you have ideas on this subject? Contact municipal councillor Ray Baldwin at ray. baldwin@yourmunicipality.ca.

Find the following words in the pamphlet above. Then, write a synonym for the word in the blank space. Use an online dictionary or thesaurus for help.

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5.

Health benefits

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Improving bus service and frequency encourages people to take the bus. This is a healthy investment because public transport users typically walk more per day than car users. They walk before getting on the bus and after getting off. These short walks add up

The weather influences a person who uses public transit. If it’s nice out, you may decide to walk the rest of the way instead of taking the transfer. You can also get off the bus before your stop and walk for 20 minutes. Some people do this regularly, adding a considerable amount of walking to their daily routine. You cannot do this with a car. You need to drive it to your destination.

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Improved public transport promotes more walking

This gives everyone, young people included, more time for exercise.

WORD

SYNONYM

WORD amount

additional

increasing

impacts

reduced

typically

teens

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potential

SYNONYM

nice

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6.

Read the following letter to the editor published in the local newspaper.

The bus is killing my fitness program!

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help teens if the municipality planned new bus circuits so that we could get around the city more rapidly. Think of all that time just sitting in a bus or waiting for a bus. You aren’t getting any exercise, so it’s not so great for your health. If the municipality could reduce the time we spend in buses, we could put some of that time toward exercising or cooking healthy food instead of eating fast food. Everyone would benefit.

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I have heard rumours that the municipality wants to promote teen health. Great idea! I have a suggestion that would make teens healthier: better bus service. This may seem like a strange suggestion, but I will make the link for you. I am a student. I don’t have a car, so I use public transport. Because I need to transfer twice, I spend an hour in the bus to go to school in the morning and another hour to get home. There is a very popular sports centre on Maxwell Street, but buses go there only once every hour. I would like to work out there with friends but, because I need to transfer, it is a 45-minute bus ride from my house. Calculate another 45-minute bus ride to come home. If I miss the bus, I have to wait an hour! Simply put, there are not enough hours in a day for me to go to the sports centre. If the municipality thinks it needs to help teens improve their health, why not start by improving the bus system and making it easier for teens to get around?

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Mark B.

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Increasing bus frequency to the sports centre would really help. A 20- to 30-minute service would be a big improvement. It would also

When you start exercising young, you get into the habit of being active and are more likely to continue when you become an adult. So, controlling weight and being active as a teen increases your chances of staying healthy later on. Sitting on a bus for hours does nothing for us.

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VOCABULARY link

connection

to miss (a bus) to arrive too late for the bus simply put

basically

to get around

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to circulate

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Complete the chart below with information from the pamphlet on page 98 and the letter on page 99. NEGATIVE EFFECTS

POSITIVE EFFECTS

OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT

OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT

ON TEEN HEALTH

ON TEEN HEALTH

REASONS FOR IMPROVING SERVICE

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In his letter about public transport (“The bus is killing my fitness program!”), the author suggests making improvements to the transit system to improve teen health. Do you agree with him? Do you think there are other ways the author could improve his health? Write a short text of 50–75 words giving your opinion.

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Meet with a classmate or your teacher to talk about two problems you see in your own community that affect teen health (e.g. drug problems, not enough jobs, gangs). Identify solutions you think would be effective and might improve teens’ lives. Before your discussion, organize your ideas on the following Notes Sheet. Identify the problem(s) you want to talk about, the effects, possible solutions, etc. You may use the Notes Sheet during the discussion.

ORAL PRACTICE

Notes Sheet

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a) Effects or consequences

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b) Possible solution

c) Potential problems with this solution

PROBLEM 2

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PROBLEM 1

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(Not complete sentences)

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d) Your opinion

e) Other ideas

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GRAMMAR

Using By or With to Express Means To express a way or means of doing something, we use the prepositions by or with.

BY By is usually followed by a verb + –ing to show how something is done:

Note

I stay healthy by getting regular exercise.

Remember! When you add –ing to short verbs that end in a single consonant, you have to double the final consonant.

She earns a living by selling real estate. In specific cases, the preposition by may also be followed by a noun:

get

Example

Example

playing

end

ending

If you don’t select a day, you will be registered for Tuesday by default.

5. In some expressions: Examples

play

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By law, you must attend the court session.

4. To show condition:

sitting

We do not do this if the verb ends in –y or two consonants:

We will work by day, sleep by night.

3. To show conformity: Example

sit

stopping

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Example

stop

I am travelling by road, then by plane.

2. To show a particular time:

getting

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1. To show motion:

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Examples

He missed the ball by a hair’s breadth.

With

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By and large, the Christmas party was a success.

The preposition with is used before a noun. It can be used to express: 1. The instrument you use: Example

I cut my steak with a steak knife.

2. The way something is done:

You should proceed with caution.

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3. Instructions: Example

Always wash your hands with soap and water.

4. Because of, as a result: Example

His fingers were numb with cold.

5. In a certain direction: Example

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It would be safer to go with the flow.

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GRAMMAR PRACTICE 1.

In the following sentences, circle by or with. a) In the online survey, you select your answer (by/with) the mouse. b) Jack decided to paint the ceiling (by/with) a roller. c) She started the painting job (by/with) putting protective covering on the floor. d) The best way to flatten pizza dough is (by/with) stretching it with your hands.

f)

Paula: How did Jack lose weight? Myla: (By/With) reducing portion size and getting more exercise.

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e) He learned to speak English (by/with) practising with his neighbours.

h) Stir the mixture frequently (by/with) a wooden spoon.

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g) To make homemade beans, start (by/with) soaking the beans for two hours in cold water.

You can take your child’s temperature (by/with) a thermometer that you buy at the drugstore.

j)

You can see if your child has a fever (by/with) putting a thermometer in her mouth.

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i)

k) Mark: How can I get the key to the storage room? Jerry: (By/With) asking the caretaker. l)

Complete each sentence with the correct preposition (by or with). a) Skill comes b)

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2.

To make the sign more visible, try writing (by/with) a dark felt marker.

practice.

tradition, we celebrate New Year’s on January 3.

c) We missed the bus d) She blushed

a whisker.

embarrassment at the joke.

f)

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e) I always play Scrabble

a dictionary.

and large, home prices are continuing to go up.

g) You will need to finish the project

Friday.

h) My math teacher always corrects

a red pen.

i)

Maxime treated his acne with a special cream prescribed

©

j)

You will exit the building more rapidly if you walk

the crowd, not against it. his doctor.

k)

being so angry all the time, you are ruining your mental and physical health.

l)

time, Janet realized Nathaniel didn’t love her.

chrisdorney / Shutterstock.com

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Activity 3 DIRECT AID IN TIMES OF NEED Ted and Myriam, local activists, have made a podcast in support of the municipality’s plan to invest in teen health. They have some interesting ideas to share about programs that would make a difference in many young people’s lives.

A

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PLAN What are some local organizations in your community that give help in the form of food, shelter, clothing and so on?

2.

For each organization you identified above… Have you ever volunteered with them?

• •

 Yes

 No

Have you ever given them donations (food, clothing, etc.)?

 Yes

 No

Have you ever visited their installations?

 Yes

 No

Explain.

3.

Match the new vocabulary words on the left to the correct definition on the right. You will hear these words in the audio activity that follows. Write your answers in the middle column. ANSWERS

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NEW VOCABULARY

DEFINITIONS

1. to improve

a) being dependent on a substance

2. disease

b) professional help in solving personal, social or psychological problems

3. properly

c) cannot be known in advance; surprising

4. addiction

d) to return to normal functioning

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Check (✓) Yes or No

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D

1.

5. counselling

e) to make something better

6. to get back on track

f) correctly

7. junk food

g) meals or snacks that are high in fat, sugar or sodium

8. unpredictable

h) sickness; health problem

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La classe numérique

B

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USE

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1.

Listen to the podcast by Ted and Myriam.

2.

Which of the following groups would benefit from the suggestions Ted and Myriam made in the podcast? Check (✓) answers from the following choices:  Teens who live with their parents

 Teens who are in trouble

 All young people

 Preschool age children

 Teens with problems of addiction

 Unemployed teens

 Families

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 Elderly people

Fill in the following chart with brief notes based on the podcast. Identify Ted and Myriam’s proposed solutions and their reasons (how the project would contribute to teen health). Write your notes in your own words.

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3.

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TO TEEN HEALTH (Find at least three)

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Ted’s idea

WAYS THIS PROJECT CONTRIBUTES

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PROJECT

©

Myriam’s idea

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C

REINVEST

Should basic healthy practices be taught in school? Many teens get their first “lessons” on food preparation, healthy eating and healthy lifestyle habits from their parents. However, some parents are not equipped to teach these things to their children. As a result, some teens never learn how to cook, how to make healthy food choices in the grocery store, how to find quality food on a budget, etc. Did you learn to cook in school?

2.

Do you think that the following should be taught to all teenagers at school?

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1.

Basic nutrition and how to cook

Healthy lifestyle habits (e.g. the importance of exercise, the dangers of drugs, alcohol, smoking)

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What should be taught at school that is not taught now?

4.

If these topics are not taught at school, where could teens learn about exercise, nutrition and maintaining health?

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3.

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Write a short opinion text of 75–100 words expressing your views on these questions.

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Test your ability to use the new vocabulary you acquired in this learning situation. In the following text, fill in the blank spaces using the vocabulary from the Word Bank.

VOCABULARY PRACTICE

In the case of verbs, use the infinitive form. You can use each word only once. Be careful! There is one extra word in the Word Bank.

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Word Bank to set up (phrasal verb)

youth (noun)

affordable (adjective)

to appeal (verb)

neighbourhood (noun)

bit (noun)

to hang out (phrasal verb)

daily (adjective)

disease (noun)

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link (noun)

to improve (verb)

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counselling (noun)

Why Focus on Teen Health?

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Some people might think that teen health is no more important than the health of any other age group. This is not true. Teens are the adults of tomorrow. If we can teen health, then we are looking at a better future for a whole generation. Remember, the of today are the parents of tomorrow. As a result, we need

to

programs to help teens understand the importance of

exercise. If there are no activities available, then they will with their friends after school and get into trouble.

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just

Recreational activities should be to

. The activities proposed need

to many different tastes and personalities. It is also important

to give teens a

of encouragement and moral support. We should

not forget the importance of helping teens control their anxiety, so

©

should be available. There is an important

physical health. If all these services are available in every

between mental and of our

municipality, then our teens will be better prepared to face future challenges in their careers and families.

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final oral task Preparation After considering information about programs that could improve teen health (as described in the scenario on page 86), it is now time for you to choose and explain your priorities for the community. You will identify which three of the following initiatives are most important for you: recreation, mental health services, improved transportation, shelters and food banks.

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After reading and listening to viewpoints in this learning situation, you will have chosen three areas that you think should be priorities.

From the five types of investment proposed by the municipality, identify the three that, in your opinion, would contribute most to teen health. Describe each of the three types of investment you have chosen and what you think each project should include.

You may make this a multimedia presentation by adding a short PowerPoint production.

After your presentation, be prepared to answer the municipal councillor’s (your teacher’s) questions.

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In your discussion, talk about the following points:

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You will meet with your municipal councillor (your teacher) and explain which three types of initiatives you have chosen because of their potential to improve teen health. Prepare notes (on the following Notes Sheet) for a two- to three-minute discussion based on information from this learning situation and your personal ideas.

Give reasons for your choices.

Explain what the ultimate goal of your proposal is and why.

Don’t forget to use the notes you wrote in the charts in this learning situation.

Use the strategy Asking for and Giving Constructive Feedback.

Notes Sheet

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You may use the Notes Sheet (not complete sentences) during your presentation. (Ideas, information learned, viewpoints, reasons, etc.)

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DISCUSSION POINTS

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final writing task Learning about how programs can improve lives has inspired you. You now want to sensitize other students at your centre about how teen health can be improved. You decide to present information in the form of a pamphlet that could be distributed to all students. For your pamphlet, choose one of the five areas you feel most strongly about. Using information from your reading and listening in this learning situation, as well as the notes you took on page 87, you will present your ideas on how to improve teen health.

Your reasons for choosing this initiative A description of the program and how it could be structured

How individuals or governments could support the project

Reasons why this initiative would benefit teens

Reasons why it is important

Techniques of persuasive language Forceful language

It is of upmost importance that…

Emotional language Let’s be kind, just and merciful. Warnings

If we don’t act now,…

Rhetorical questions homeless people? Imperative form

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Word Bank

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Your choice of program

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Your pamphlet will motivate and inform students about your chosen initiative. It will also explain why this would improve teen health. In your pamphlet, indicate:

Who is not bothered by seeing

Wake up everybody!

Look at the pamphlet on page 86 (To All Residents: Important Consultation…) and on page 98 (Improved Transportation: A Healthy Investment) as models.

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Your pamphlet should contain 100–150 words. Since you want other people to support your cause, you should be persuasive (see the Word Bank above).

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You can use the space on the next page for a rough copy, but it would be best to prepare the pamphlet on a separate sheet of paper.

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©

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your text

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Learning Situation 4 – Healthy Communities

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review 1. USING ONE OR ONES TO AVOID REPETITION

Complete the following sentences, using one or ones as a substitute for the noun. Fill in the blanks using the adjective in parentheses.

a) I like the yellow roses, but I prefer the

. (pink)

b) I don’t want those leather gloves. I would rather buy the

. (cotton) . (black)

d) I live in a very small apartment. My brother lives in a

. (big)

e) Waitress: Would you like the menu in English or French? Customer: I’ll take the John: Which dogs are yours?

D

f)

, please. (English)

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c) Can you see the cars parked over there? Mine is the

Mayna: The

that are running near the trees over there. (big, black)

g) Can you see the two men waiting at the bus stop? My brother is the

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2. USING BY OR WITH

Complete each sentence with the correct preposition (by or with). a knife.

b) You usually open a can

a can opener.

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a) I opened the envelope

c) You can open a session

your user name and password.

d) You can open a session

entering your user name and password.

e) I indicated the location

showing it to her on a map.

f)

You can improve your vision

wearing glasses.

g) Why don’t you try killing that fly

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h) Do you prefer to eat sushi

your shoe?

your fingers or

chopsticks?

Focus on pronunciation: plural and singular forms. Listen to the recording. For each number, you will hear a word. Each word will be pronounced twice. Do you hear the singular or the plural form? Circle the word you hear.

©

3.

. (tall)

La classe numérique

85

s7

j9

ry

laclasse.grandducenligne.com

1) game

games

2) mistake

mistakes

3) woman

women

4) glass

glasses

5) tent

tents

6) community

communities

7) potato

potatoes

8) project

projects

9) priority

priorities

10) site

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sites

11) apartment

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apartments

12) owner

owners

Healthy Communities – Learning Situation 4

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4. Word Search C

B

S

M X M

J

B

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L

L

Q

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APPEAL

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Q

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P M O

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IMPROVE

G

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B W

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MONITORING

V

F

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VOID

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S

I

Q

U

R

Self-Evaluation

COUNSELLING

D

YOUTH

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HOMELESSNESS

F

ra nd

X

BULLYING

X

 Yes

 No

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1 Did the strategy Asking for and Giving Constructive Feedback help me accomplish the final task?  Sometimes

How can I improve on my use of this strategy?

2 Did I keep the scenario in mind as I was going through the activities?  No

 Sometimes

Éd iti

 Yes

How can I improve on this aspect?

3 Was I able to use the new vocabulary I acquired in this learning situation in the Vocabulary Practice activity? What percentage of these words did I know without checking?  Less than 25%

 25%–50%

 50%–75%

 Over 75%

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How can I retain more new vocabulary that I learn?

4 In my writing and speaking tasks, was I able to use the new vocabulary contained in this learning situation? If not, why?  Yes

 No

 Sometimes

How can I improve on this aspect?

5 How will what I covered in this learning situation be useful to me in future projects in my community?

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Learning Situation 4 – Healthy Communities

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grammar review Phonology HOW TO PRONOUNCE –th For French-speaking students learning English, it can sometimes take a lot of practice to pronounce the –th sound correctly.

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It doesn’t help matters that there are actually two ways of pronouncing this combination of letters. They are called the voiced and the voiceless interdental fricatives.

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In both cases, you put the tip of your tongue between the top and bottom teeth. This is why it is called interdental – your tongue goes between your teeth.

VOICED FRICATIVE

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With the voiced fricative, your vocal cords vibrate to make a sound. The linguistic symbol for this sound is [∂]. This is the sound we hear in the following words. Listen as you read the words.

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than  •  then  •  this  •  weather  •  smooth  •  other

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VOICELESS FRICATIVE

With the voiceless fricative, the tongue is in the same position, but there is no vibration of the vocal cords, so it makes a different sound. The linguistic symbol for this sound is: [0] This is the sound we hear in the following words. Listen as you read the words.

Éd iti

thank  •  think  •  therapy  •  moth  •  path  •  youth

PHONOLOGY Practice

© math

them

cloth

though

with

clothes

thought

thud

theft

path

bathe

their

teeth

bath

think

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Listen to the following words. If you hear the [∂] sound, write voiced. If you hear the [0] sound, write voiceless. Repeat the words after you hear them.

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Phonology (continued) SYLLABLE STRess

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When you say a word that has two or more syllables, you need to put extra emphasis (stress) on one part of the word to sound like a natural English speaker. This is called syllable stress.

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Here are some guidelines to understand syllable stress (but there are exceptions).

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Listen to the example words on the recording. In each example, the syllable in bold is stressed.

Nouns and adjectives: stress the first syllable (climate). Verbs: stress the last syllable (decide).

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Compound words that are nouns: stress the first syllable (greenhouse).

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WORDS OF TWO SYLLABLES

Compound words that are verbs: stress the last syllable (overflow).

WORDS OF THREE SYLLABLES

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Most three-syllable words: stress the first syllable (terrible).

Some three-syllable verbs: stress the last syllable (understand).

Words that end in –ic, –sion and –tion: stress the second to last syllable (extension). Compound words that are adjectives: follow the rules of the second word (old-fashioned).

LONGER WORDS

Éd iti

Words that end in –cy, –ty, –phy, –gy and –al: stress the third from last syllable (democracy). Most other words: stress the second from last syllable (referendum).

PHONOLOGY Practice

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First, read the words below out loud. Underline where you think the syllable stress will go in each word. Then, listen to the recording to see if you were correct.

114

possible

appendix

talkative

photographer

geography

someone

forget

highlight

allow

Grammar Review

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Review of Contractions Contractions are very common in English, especially in oral conversation. They make a spoken sentence sound smoother. When we write a contraction, we remove a few letters from the second word and join it to the first word with an apostrophe ( ’ ).

I’m He’s It’s You’re We’re They’re

I’ve She’s It’s You’ve We’ve They’ve

I have She has It has You have We have They have

CONTRACTIONS WITH NOT USING TO BE AND TO HAVE I’m not He’s not, He isn’t It’s not, It isn’t You’re not, You aren’t We’re not, We aren’t They’re not, They aren’t

I have not She has not It has not You have not We have not They have not

I haven’t She’s not, She hasn’t It’s not, It hasn’t You’ve not, You haven’t We’ve not, We haven’t They’ve not, They haven’t

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I am not He is not It is not You are not We are not They are not

D

I am He is It is You are We are They are

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CONTRACTIONS WITH TO BE AND TO HAVE

I’ll He’ll It’ll You’ll We’ll They’ll

Éd iti

I will He will It will You will We will They will

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CONTRACTIONS WITH THE MODALS WILL AND WOULD I would She would It would You would We would They would

I’d She’d It’d You’d We’d They’d

CONTRACTIONS WITH NOT USING THE MODALS WILL AND WOULD I’ll not, I won’t He’ll not, He won’t It’ll not, It won’t You’ll not, You won’t We’ll not, We won’t They’ll not, They won’t

I would not She would not It would not You would We would They would

I’d not, I wouldn’t She’d not, She wouldn’t It wouldn’t You’d not, You wouldn’t We’d not, We wouldn’t They’d not, They wouldn’t

©

I will not He will not It will not You will not We will not They will not

Grammar Practice Write the following contractions: We + have =

She + would =

I + will + not =

You + are + not =

They + are =

It + has + not =

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115


Review of Punctuation POSSESSIVE CASE When we want to say that a specific person or thing possesses something, we use the possessive ’s structure. The ’s goes after the name of the person or thing. This has the same meaning as using a possessive pronoun, like my, his, her or their, but it is used with a specific name rather than a pronoun. That is John’s pen.

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Examples

Who is Sandra’s friend? Where did we put the dog’s leash?

D

Australia’s population is smaller than Canada’s.

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COLONS FOR LISTS

When you want to introduce an idea or give a list of items in a sentence, you can prepare the reader by using a colon ( : ). Examples

You know what I mean: it’s time to leave.

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I have many favourite colours: red, blue and yellow.

She’s looking for an employee who can do the following things: input data, write reports and complete tax forms.

SEMICOLONS TO JOIN CLAUSES

Examples

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Semicolons ( ; ) can be used to connect separate ideas. Sometimes, it is preferable to join two independent clauses with a semicolon instead of using two separate sentences or using a conjunction. Using a semicolon allows you to vary your writing style and make the text more interesting. Star Wars was my favourite movie when I was young; in fact, it is still my favourite movie of all time. I had a huge dinner at 6 o’clock; however, I am already hungry again.

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She moved to France; she preferred the historic architecture and vibrant culture.

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ADJECTIVES: COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS Adjectives modify or describe nouns. They are placed before the noun or after some verbs, such as to be or to seem. This is called the positive form. Examples

The water level was low two years ago. The water was polluted as well.

Examples

The water level was lower last year than the year before. The water was more polluted as well.

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To make a comparison between two things, we add the suffix –er to short (one- or two-syllable) adjectives or add more or less before the adjective. This is called the comparative form.

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To say that one thing exceeds all others, we add the suffix –est to short adjectives or add the most or the least before the adjective. This is called the superlative form. The water level is the lowest this year.

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Examples

The water is the most polluted I have ever seen.

Examples

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Some sentences contain double comparisons: the suffix –er may be used on two words or the words more or less may be used twice. This structure often shows a progression through time of the intensity of the quality. Therefore, we often use the words becoming or getting in this type of sentence. The water level is getting lower and lower every year. The water is also becoming more and more polluted. Double comparisons do not always show a progression, such as the following common expressions: Examples

The sooner the better.

Éd iti

For richer or poorer.

We normally do not add both –er and the word more to a sentence. Examples

✔ The music is getting louder and louder.

The music is getting more louder.

©

An exception to this rule is when we use the adjective as the subject of the sentence: Example

The more the merrier.

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117


Silent Letters Many English words have letters you do not hear when the word is spoken. These are called silent letters. For this reason, it can be difficult to spell some English words correctly.

climb, comb, crumbs

know, knock, knowledge

Silent c

Silent l

acquire, muscle, scissors

calm, half, talk

Silent d

Silent p

Wednesday, sandwich, handsome

corps, psychology, receipt

Silent gh

Silent s

thought, through, daughter

aisle, island, debris

Silent h

Silent t

honest, ghost, hour

ballet, castle, listen

Silent i

Silent w

answer, sword, two

Grammar Practice

bridge

what

salmon

know

pneumonia

talk

soften

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light

Éd iti

Identify which letters are silent in the following words. Then, listen to the recording to see if you were correct. doubt

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business

ja

D

Silent k

sz

ra nd

Silent b

8e

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Here is a list of silent letters. Listen to the example words in the recording. Then, repeat them out loud.

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Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs are verbs followed by one or more prepositions. The preposition often changes the meaning of the verb. The verb is conjugated as usual. Practise your knowledge of the following phrasal verbs by choosing the correct preposition to match the given meaning. keep in/on – continue doing something

bring up/out – introduce a topic

leave around/out – omit

call on/back – return a telephone call

look over/in – review for errors

call over/off – cancel an event

look on/up – search for information

calm up/down – relax

make on/up – invent; imagine

check out/in – look at; examine

pick out/in – make a selection

come in/up – happen; occur

D

put off/in – postpone; delay put on/through – add clothing read up/over – read again; revise

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eat in/out – eat in a restaurant

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clean up/over – clean and reorganize

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back out/in – cancel a decision

show up/on – arrive in person

find out/through – locate information

sign up/on – register

get along/ by – be friendly with someone

stand down/up – refrain for sitting; defend

get into/in – enjoy participating in

start in/over – start again from the beginning

get over/through – finish

take up/over – take control

give in/out – abandon

think off/over – consider options

give in/out – distribute

think by/through – reflect on something carefully

go up/over – review

try out/in – try something new

hand in/out – submit an assignment

turn up/down – attend; increase

©

Éd iti

end out/up – finish in a certain way

hang on/up – end a telephone conversation

turn up/down – refuse; lower

help out/in –- assist in doing a task

work out/up – end in a certain way

hold off/up – wait before doing something

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119


Irregular Past Tenses and Past Participles BASE FORM

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

BASE FORM

PAST TENSE

PAST PARTICIPLE

awake

awoke

awakened

hurt

hurt

hurt

be

was; were

been

keep

kept

kept

beat

beat

beat/beaten

know

knew

known

become

became

become

learn

learned/learnt

learned/learnt

begin

began

begun

leave

left

left

bent

bent

lend

lent

lent

broke

broken

let

let

let

brought

brought

light

lighted/lit

built

built

lose

lost

burn

burned/burnt

burned/burnt

make

made

lighted/lit

lost

made

D

bring build

uc

bend break

buy

bought

bought

mean

meant

meant

catch

caught

caught

meet

met

met

chose

chosen

came

come

cost

cost

cost

cut

cut

cut

dig

dug

dug

did

done

drew

drawn

dream

dreamed/dreamt

drink

drank

drive

drove

eat

ate

fall

fell

feel

felt

fly forget forgive get go

found

paid put

read

read

read

ride

rode

ridden

ring

rang

rung

rise

rose

risen

run

ran

run

say

said

said

drunk

see

saw

seen

driven

sell

sold

sold

eaten

send

sent

sent

fallen

show

showed

showed/shown

felt

sing

sang

sung

fought

sit

sat

sat

found

sleep

slept

slept

flew

flown

speak

spoke

spoken

forgot

forgotten

spend

spent

spent

forgave

forgiven

swim

swam

swum

got

gotten

take

took

taken

gave

given

teach

taught

taught

went

gone

tear

tore

torn

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give

fought

dreamed/dreamt

Éd iti

fight find

paid

put

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do draw

pay

put

ra nd

choose come

grow

grew

grown

tell

told

told

hang

hung

hung

think

thought

thought

have

had

had

throw

threw

thrown

hear

heard

heard

understand

understood

understood

hide

hid

hidden

wear

wore

worn

hit

hit

hit

write

wrote

written

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glossary A

attract (to)

attirer

attractive

attirant(e)

être capable

abolished (to be)

être aboli(e)

B

absolutely

absolument

background

les origines

accomplishment

réussite

balance a budget (to)

équilibrer un budget

according to

selon

bank manager

ad blocker

logiciel qui empêche la diffusion des publicités

directeur/directrice de banque

beard

barbe

add (to)

ajouter

behaviour

address (to); to address an audience

se mettre à une tâche ; parler devant un public

beliefs; popular beliefs

croyances; croyances populaires

ads

annonces

believable

croyable

advertiser

annonceur

believe (to)

croire

advertising

publicité

benefits

avantages

advice

conseil

biased (to be)

être biaisé(e)

affordable

abordable

binge-shopper

against

contre

une personne qui fait des dépenses excessives

bit (a)

un peu

blame (to)

blâmer

blank space

espace vide

depuis; il y a deux jours

blasphemous

blasphématoire

se mettre d’accord

blasted (to be)

être bombardé(e)

maladie

block (to)

bloquer

body shape

forme corporelle

ages; through the ages ago; two days ago agree (to) ailment

ra nd

D

comportement

on sG

agenda

uc

able to (to be)

intentions cachées

époques; d’une époque à l’autre

Éd iti

alike; parents and students à la fois; à la fois les élèves alike les parents

augmenter

être partout

boots

bottes

allow (to)

permettre

boredom

ennui

alteration

modification

boring

ennuyant(e)

altered (to be)

être modifié(e)

boss

patron, patronne

although

même si

both

les deux

angry

fâché(e)

bought

another

un autre, une autre

verbe to buy au passé

bountiful

abondant(e)

anxious

anxieux, anxieuse

brainstorm (to)

faire un remue-méninge

appeal (the)

intérêt

brainwash (to)

faire un lavage de cerveau

appeal (to)

être attirant(e); faire appel

brewed coffee

café-filtre

appear (to)

apparaître

bring (to); bring on (to)

apply for (to)

faire une demande

amener; mener à quelque chose

attend (to)

assister

bring down (to)

réduire

©

boost (to)

all over (to be)

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121


être diffusé(e) dans les médias

civility

politesse

classmate

camarade de classe

broader audience

un public plus grand

clean

propre

brought

verbe to bring au passé

clear the air (to)

appaiser les tensions

browse (to)

naviguer (sur Internet)

close (to)

fermer

bubble

bulle

clothing

vêtement

bullying

intimidation

coach

entraîneur

bump into (to)

rencontrer quelqu’un par hasard

coaxed (to be)

être encouragé(e) à faire quelque chose

burn (to)

brûler

come up

se présenter; inventer

bury (to)

enterrer

common (to be)

être partagé(e)

bus driver

chauffeur d’autobus

communicate (to)

communiquer

business organization

entreprise

compassionate

button

bouton

complain (to)

buy (to)

acheter

complaint

plainte

bystander

témoin

compulsion

obsession

concealed (to be)

dissimuler

confidence

confiance

confront (to)

confronter

consumer

consommateur

contain (to)

contenir

continual

continue

continually

continuellement

convey (to)

transmettre

convince (to)

convaincre

convincing

convainquant(e)

correct (to)

corriger

counsellor; school counsellor

conseiller; conseillère d’école

calculer

call (to)

appeler

call to action

appel à l’action

campaign

campagne

care (to); to care about

se soucier; être préoccupé(e) au sujet de quelqu’un ou de quelque chose

careful (to be)

prendre soin

Éd iti

on sG

calculate (to)

carry credit card debt (to)

avoir des dettes accumulées sur les cartes de crédit

catchy

accrocheur, accrocheuse

ceiling

D

compatissant(e) plaindre

ra nd

C

caucasian

uc

broadcast (to be)

personne de peau blanche plafond

honorer

count (to); first impressions compter; les premières count impressions sont importantes

challenge

défi

courteous

courtois(e)

character

personnage

cover (to)

payer les coûts associés

chat group

salon de discussion

cover up (to)

check (to)

vérifier

couvrir (mettre un vêtement au-dessus)

choice

choix

covert advertising

message publicitaire implicite

choose (to); to choose a partner

choisir; choisir un époux, une épouse

create (to)

créer

creepy

qui donne la chair de poule

chopsticks

baguettes (pour manger)

curious

curieux, curieuse

circle; in my circle

cercle; dans mon réseau

cyberbullying

cyberintimidation

©

celebrate (to)

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D

distracting

qui empêche de se concentrer

quotidien, quotidienne

district

quartier

data point

donnée statistique

distrustful

méfiant(e)

deep trouble (to be in)

avoir des grands ennuis

divulge (to)

diffuser

deep-fried chicken

poulet frit

do up (to)

mettre (un manteau)

delinquency

délinquance

double-check (to)

revérifier

delivery

livraison

downside

inconvénient

deny (to)

denier

dress (to)

s’habiller

dependable

responsable

dress code

depressed

déprimé(e)

dress down (to)

despite

malgré

destroy (to)

détruire

dress up (to)

bien s’habiller

devoted (to be)

être dévoué(e)

drug abuse

toxicomanie

dictate (to)

décider

die (to)

mourir

diffuse (to)

se répandre; se disperser

digital world

monde numérique

disabled (the) disagree (to)

les personnes handicapées être en désaccord

Éd iti

découvrir

s’habiller de manière décontractée

D

ra nd

sale

disasters; natural disasters désastres; les catastrophes naturelles discover (to)

code vestimentaire

duration

durée

E

easier

plus facile

effective

efficace

engaged (to be)

être impliqué(e), intéressé(e)

enough

assez

entertainment industry

métiers du spectacle

entirely

entièrement

establish (to)

établir

on sG

dirty

uc

daily

découverte

evaluate (to)

évaluer

discreetly

discrètement

everyone

tout le monde

discriminating

sélectif, sélective

everywhere

partout

discuss (to)

discuter

except for

sauf

disease

maladie

existing

existant(e)

dislike (to)

ne pas aimer

expensive

dispendieux, dispendieuse

display (to)

montrer, présenter

explain (to)

expliquer

displeasing

déplaisant(e)

disputed (to be)

être questionné(e)

disrespectful

irrespectueux, irrespectueuse

dissolved (to be)

être dissou(e)

distinguish (to)

distinguer

distort (to)

déformer

©

discovery

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F fact

fait

false

faux, fausse

false needs

les besoins créés par le marketing

fan

amateur, amatrice

Glossary

123


far from perfect

loin d’être parfait

fuel-efficient

économe en carburant

far more

beaucoup plus

function

fare

prix, coût

fonction; occupation; rang social

farm worker

travailleur, travailleuse de ferme

furniture

meubles

fashion industry

l’industrie de la mode

fast-food

malbouffe

favour(to); in favour

favoriser; en faveur

favourable reviews

les critiques positives

feature

caractéristique

feature article

enquête ou article de fond

feed (to)

nourrir

feedback

rétroaction

feelings

sentiments

fight

lutte

fines

amendes

First Nations

Premières Nations

fit in (to)

s’intégrer

fitness

forme physique

flirtatious words

les commentaires séducteurs

flowered

fleuri(e)

fluffy

duveteux, duveteuse

focus on (to)

se concentrer sur

follow (to)

suivre

food bank

banque alimentaire

forceful former frank

monsieur

gesture

geste

get along (to)

bien s’entendre

get back on track (to)

se remettre sur la bonne voie commencer

accompagner

ra nd

go with (to)

D

get started (to)

uc

gentleman

goal

but; objectif

good-natured

aimable

goodwill

bienveillance

gossip

potins

graphic artist

graphiste

greeting

salutation

grooming choices

choix d’apparence

guest speaker

conférencier, conférencière

guideline

lignes directrices

H

puissant(e)

hairdresser

styliste

précédent(e)

hang out (to)

passer du temps (avec une personne)

harmful

néfaste

hate

haine

hate speech

discours haineux

have on (to)

porter (vêtement)

headache

mal de tête

health

santé

health care worker

travailleur, travailleuse dans le domaine de la santé

hear (to)

entendre

heard

verbe to hear au passé

livraison gratuite

freedom

liberté

freedom of choice

liberté de choix

freedom of speech

liberté d’expression

freely

librement

frequently

fréquemment

friendly

sympatique

frustrate (to)

frustrer

©

biaisé contre les femmes (ou les hommes)

régulier, régulière

gratuit; libre

Glossary

gender-biased

habitual

free shipping

124

dégingandé(e)

d’abord

direct; honnête

free

gawky

on sG

Éd iti

for one

G

Thank you for not photocopying

© Éditions Grand Duc


heart; by heart

cœur; par cœur

help (to)

assister

helpful

aidant(e)

herself

J jealous

jaloux, jalouse

elle-même

jealousy

jalousie

himself

lui-même

jewellery

bijoux

hole

trou

judge (to)

évaluer

homelessness

itinérance

honestly

honnêtement

hook

accroche

horse

cheval

host

hôte

housework

tâches ménagères

kid

however

cependant

kind gesture

geste sympatique

kindness

gentillesse

immediately

immédiatement

immune

immunisé(e)

implement (to)

mettre en œuvre

in addition include (to) Indigenous

améliorer

amélioration de plus inclure

autochtone influent(e)

Éd iti

influential

garder ses distances

key

clé

uc

keep to yourself (to)

D

enfant, adolescent

connaissance

L

lack of

manque, déficience

lacking

déficient(e)

on sG

imiter

improvement

garder

knowledge

imitate (to)

improve (to)

keep (to)

ra nd

I

K

lapse of time

période de temps

last; last night

dernier; hier soir

lately

récemment

launch (to)

lancer

laundry

buanderie

law

loi paresseux, paresseuse

contrevenir; transgresser

lead (to)

mener

ingenious

ingénieux, ingénieuse

learn (to)

apprendre

inner voice

voix intérieure

leather

cuir

instant response

réponses instantanées

leave (to)

quitter; partir; sortir

insult

injure

leave room (to)

laisser de l’espace

intend (to)

avoir l’intention (de faire quelque chose)

led

verbe to lead au passé

length

longeur

invasive

envahissant(e)

let them know (to)

signaler

irrelevant

hors-sujet

lie (to)

mentir

issue

problème social, environnemental, etc.

lifestyle

style de vie

IT (Information Technologies)

les technologies de l’information

lighting

éclairs

limitless

sans limite

©

lazy

infringe (to)

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Glossary

125


line

ligne

link

lien

live and let live (to)

vivre et laisser vivre

location

endroit

lonely

seul(e)

long-lasting

permanent(e)

look (to); my look

regarder, avoir l’allure; mon apparence

look good (to)

bien paraître

look like (to)

se ressembler

looks

apparences

lose (to)

perdre

lost

verbe to lose au passé

low self-esteem

pauvre estime de soi

N need (to); out of need

avoir besoin; par besoin

needed

requis(e)

needs (false needs)

les besoins créés par le marketing

neighbourhood

voisinage

neutralize (to)

neutraliser

notice (to)

remarquer

notion; grammar notion

concept; connaissance grammaticale

numb

insensible (à cause du froid); indifférent(e)

D

uc

insultes, injures

O

ra nd

M

name-calling

obesity

obésité

offensive

offensif, offensive

offer (to)

offrir

online community

communauté virtuelle

opinion majoritaire

maintain (to)

maintenir

make sure (to)

vérifier

manager

gérant(e)

open (to be)

être ouvert(e)

manners

usages

order (to)

commander

matter (to)

compter pour quelque chose; être important(e)

originate (to)

être originaire

max out (to)

atteindre le plafond autorisé (sur une carte de crédit)

out of the ordinary

extraordinaire

outcome

résultat final

meaning

sens

outside

à l’extérieur

Éd iti

on sG

mainstream

means (it means)

cela veut dire

overcompetitiveness

compétitivité exagérée

meet (to)

rencontrer

overspend (to)

trop dépenser

marchandise

overt advertising

message publicitaire explicite

cerveau

overweight

en surpoids

mêlez-vous de vos propres affaires

owner

propriétaire

merchandise mind

©

mind your own business misogynistic

misogyne

miss (to); I miss you

manquer; tu me manques

mistake

erreur

monitored (to be)

être surveillé(e)

moral; moral support; moral of the story

éthique; appui moral; la morale de l’histoire

mostly myself

126

Glossary

P paid for

payé(e) par

pain

douleur

pair

nombre pair

pane

vitre

parade (to)

faire le défilé

surtout

pare (to)

éplucher

moi-même

part

partie

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participatif, participative

produce (to)

produire

part-time

à temps-partiel

product

produit

pastries

pâtisseries

project (to)

projeter

pause (to)

faire une pause

promote (to)

promouvoir

pave the way (to)

permettre, mener à

properly

correctement

pay attention to (to)

porter attention à

proposal

suggestion

PC (personal computer)

ordinateur personnel

protect (to)

protéger

peace

paix

peaceful

paisible

public awareness campaign

campagne de sensibilisation publique

pear

poire

pull the strings (to)

être en contrôle

peer group

personnes du même âge

perceive (to)

percevoir

periodical

périodique

permitted

permis(e)

personally

personellement

persuade (to)

convaincre

persuasive

persuasif, persuasive

piercing

perçage (dans une partie du corps)

punch put on (to)

ra nd

planifier

plumber

plombier

point-form (in)

en forme de notes

police officer

policier, policière

policy

politique

politeness

Éd iti

politesse

popular beliefs

croyances populaires

post (to)

mettre en ligne

power

pouvoir

practices; healthy practices; discriminatory practices

habitudes; habitudes de vie saines; pratiques discriminatoires

raison d’être

mettre (un vêtement)

raise (to); to raise a question

soulever; soulever une question

rapper

rappeur, rappeuse

react (to)

réagir

reader

lecteur, lectrice

receive (to)

recevoir

recently

récemment

recruit (to)

recruter

recurring

récurrent(e)

reduce (to)

réduire

refer (to)

se référer

reflect (to)

réfléchir

refute (to)

disputer

regarding

au sujet de

relate (to)

être en lien avec

related to

en lien avec

on sG

plan (to)

©

R

intérêt

D

purpose

uc

participatory

preconceived

préconçu(e)

rely (to)

dépendre sur

price

prix

remark

commentaire

primer

peinture de base

remove (to)

enlever

principal

directeur, directrice d’école

repair (to)

réparer

print

imprimé(e)

repeated

répété(e)

print media

la presse

request

demande

printing

impression

privacy settings

paramètres de sécurité

requirement; job requirement

exigence; exigence de l’emploi

reread (to)

relire

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Glossary

127


recherche

sensor

capteur électronique

respectful

respectueux, respectueuse

sent home

envoyé(e) chez soi

respond (to)

répondre

set (a)

groupe

revealing

vêtement léger, court, décolleté

set an example (to)

établir un précédent

settings; privacy settings

review

révision

réglages; paramètres de sécurité

review (to)

réviser

shape (in)

en forme

right; to have the right

correct, droite; avoir le droit

share (to)

partager

right-hand

droite

shave (to)

se raser

ring (to)

sonner

shell

coquille

rink

patinoire

shelter

abris

roller coaster

montagne russe

shipping; free shipping

expédition; livraison gratuite

rope

corde

shortened

raccourci(e)

rude

impoli(e)

show (to)

rudeness

impolitesse

shown (to be)

être démontré(e)

rule

règle

sick

malade

rush (to)

précipiter

sick and tired (to be)

être fatigué(e) (d’une situation)

sign up (to)

s’inscrire

D

ra nd

montrer; démontrer

on sG

S

uc

research

skating

patinage

skip (to)

éviter

slave to fashion

esclave de la mode

arnaquer

sleeping bag

sac de couchage

scan (to)

lire rapidement

slow (to)

ralentir

scarce

rare

smartphone

téléphone intelligent

épeurant(e)

social media

réseaux sociaux

politique de l’école

social role

occupation; rang (dans la hiérarchie sociale)

software

logiciel

solve (to)

résoudre

malheureusement

savvy

futé(e), calé(e) en quelque chose

scam (to)

scary school policy screen

Éd iti

sadly

écran

sea

mer

search engine

moteur de recherche mots de recherche

speech; freedom of speech parole, discours; liberté d’expression

see (to)

voir

spend (to)

dépenser

seem (to)

sembler

sphere; public sphere

sphère; sphère publique

seize (to)

saisir

self-esteem

confiance en soi

spot; weak (or vulnerable) spot

endroit, point; votre point faible

self-evaluation

auto-évaluation

stabilizing

stable

self-monitoring

auto-surveillance

stationary bikes

vélo d’appartement

sensationalistic

sensationnaliste

stay home (to)

rester chez soi

sensitive

sensible

step

étape

©

search terms

128

Glossary

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étranger, étrangère

tedious

méticuleux, méticuleuse

stray cat

chat errant

teen

strictly

seulement, strictement

adolescent(e) (de 13 à 19 ans)

style of dress

style de mode

tempted (to be)

être tenté(e)

suffocate (to)

suffoquer

tendencies

tendances

suggest (to)

suggérer

testimonials

témoignages

summary

résumé

themselves

eux-mêmes, elles-mêmes

support (to)

appuyer

thick skin

couenne dure

supporter (to be a)

être en faveur

think (to)

penser, réfléchir

survey

sondage

survival

survie

survivor

survivant(e)

suspect (to)

suspecter

sweater

chandail

swept away (to be)

être emporté(e)

tablet

thought

toilet paper

ra nd

took

à travers

D

throughout

verbe to think au passé

papier hygiénique verbe to take au passé

topic

sujet

touching on

qui traite (d’un sujet)

toy

jouet

training centre

centre d’entraînement

on sG

T

uc

stranger

tablette

trans person

personne transgenre

discret, discrète

trap

piège

la fin

treadmill

tapis de course

être conçu(e)

treated (to be)

être traité(e)

prendre

trendy

à la mode

faire un pas en arrière

troubling

troublant(e)

take into consideration (to) prendre en considération

true

vrai, vraie

take off (to)

enlever (un vêtement)

trust

confiance

take part (to)

participer

twice

deux fois

target; target audience

cible; public cible

type

style

target (to); to target a market

cibler; cibler un marché

targeted ads

annonces ciblées

ugly

laid(e)

task

tâche

understand (to)

comprendre

tastes

goûts

undiplomatic

peu diplomatique

taught

verbe to teach au passé

unfair

injuste

teach (to)

enseigner

unpleasant

déplaisant(e)

teddy bear

peluche

unpredictable

imprévisible

tactful (to be) tail (the) tailored (to be) take (to)

©

Éd iti

take a step back (to)

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U

Glossary

129


unspoken

caché(e); implicite

until now

jusqu’à maintenant

unwelcome

non désiré

use (the)

utilisation

useful

utile

user-friendly

facile à utiliser

users

utilisateurs

V

W waiter

serveur, serveuse

wallet

portefeuille

watch (to)

regarder, surveiller

wear (to)

porter (un vêtement)

weigh (to)

peser

weights

poids libres

weird

étrange, bizarre

wheelchair

chaise roulante si

valeurs

whether

various

divers

windy

vlog

plateforme Internet où l’on peut télécharger les courtes vidéos personnelles

winner

vocational training centre

centre de formation professionelle

venteux, venteuse gagnant(e)

ra nd

values

uc

indiscipliné(e)

D

unruly

workplace

lieu de travail

worst

pire

worth (to be)

valoir

wrap up (to)

mettre les vêtements chauds

voix

voiced

voisé (qui fait un son)

write (to)

écrire

voiceless

non voisé (qui ne fait pas de son)

written

participe passé du verbe to write

void

vide

vulgarity

vulgarité

X-Y-Z

yesterday

hier

yourself

toi-même, vous-même

youth

jeunesse

zipper

fermeture éclair

zumba

programme d’entraînement physique à la musique rythmée

©

Éd iti

on sG

voice

130

Glossary

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© on sG

Éd iti ra nd

uc

D


LONGSTAFF

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

Secondary 4

9 782765 541301 >

CD-couvert-close-Heart-fev2020-Final.indd Toutes les pages

Student Workbook

to My Heart

Project Supervisor

Charles Gibbs Alison Longstaff

Course Giving Supplementary Credits in a Second Language CONNECTING

PRODUCT CODE 4649 ISBN 978-2-7655-4130-1

ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

nd

ra sG

©

Éd

iti

on

In this course, students will engage in reading, listening and speaking activities on a wide variety of themes that will provoke reflection and interaction on personally relevant issues. While participating in oral communication activities such as discussions and podcasts, and writing original texts such as pamphlets, blog posts and magazine articles, students will share their thoughts and opinions, as well as listen to the ideas of their classmates. Discussion topics include aspects of personal appearance, the impact of marketing and the elements of healthy relationships.

An Issue Close

ANG-4104-2

AN ISSUE CLOSE TO MY HEART

D

The An Issue Close to My Heart supplementary course meets the needs of teachers and students following the Diversified Basic Education Program for English as a Second Language, even in the context of multilevel classrooms.

to My Heart

CONNECTING

ANG-4104-2

uc

An Issue Close

Student Workbook

GIBBS

CONNECTING

Secondary 4

www.grandducenligne.com

COMPLIES WITH THE PROGRAM IN THE NEW CURRICULUM

2020-02-27 15:56

Profile for Éditions Grand Duc

ConnectingDoors4_An_Issue_Close..._Complet.pdf  

ConnectingDoors4_An_Issue_Close..._Complet.pdf  

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