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This second edition of the Between the Lines series helps students acquire knowledge in order to develop ESL competencies. This text-based activity book proposes a variety of text types and topics. The response process for each text is divided in four phases.

Before Reading

This section encourages students to explore the texts and interact orally with the class about open-ended questions.

While Reading

This section directs students to use reading strategies, which are designed to help them understand the texts.

After Reading

This section reinvests understanding of texts and looks into their literal meaning before providing comprehension activities.

A Step Forward

This section reinvests understanding of texts and delves into their underlying meaning. Further questions establish personal connections and then generalize beyond the texts. They prepare students to interact orally and to write and produce texts. This section also provides enrichment questions.

The Between the Lines Activity Book is completed by the Teacher’s Toolkit, which proposes: • grammar exercises • support in the form of learning materials • consolidation and enrichment activities – and more

PRODUCT CODE 4503 ISBN 978-2-7655-3071-8

English as a Second Language | Secondary 1

Between the Lines

Edit

Bruno Gattuso Maria Lee-Arpino

Between the Lines English as a Second Language

2nd

Between the Lines

2nd

Text-Based Activity Book Secondary 1

Gattuso • Lee-Arpino

English as a Second Language - Secondary 1

Éditions Grand Duc 6

Untitled-1 1-3

20728 45030

9

2016-02-08 7:30 PM


Text-Based Activity Book Secondary 1

Bruno Gattuso Maria Lee-Arpino

Between the Lines English as a Second Language

2nd

Éditions Grand Duc

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The publisher wishes to thank the following people for their comments and suggestions during the development of this project: Mr. Stavros Antoniadis, Collège Notre-Dame de Lourdes Mrs. Nathalie Gauvin, École secondaire La Rencontre, Commission scolaire Côte-du-sud Mrs. Patti McCurdy, Collège Durocher Mrs. Michelle Moreau, Collège Notre-Dame de Lourdes Mrs. Caroline Ramsay, Polyvalente de Disraeli, Commission scolaire Des Appalaches Mrs. Dany St-Pierre, Commission scolaire Harricana

Between the Lines

Secondary 1 © 2016, Éditions Grand Duc, a division of Groupe Éducalivres Inc. 955 Bergar, Laval (Québec), H7L 4Z6 Telephone: 514 334-8466 – Fax: 514 334-8387 www.grandduc.com All rights reserved. Iconographic references: Legend - r: right, l: left, u: up, d: down, c: centre, e: extreme p. 7u: © wwf/Splash News/Corbis • p. 54cl: © andrewgenn_ www.Fotosearch.fr • p. 59cr: © Gilbert Iundt; Jean-Yves Ruszniewski/TempSport/Corbis • p. 60tl: “Jeanson 0206 266” by © James F. Perry _Wikipedia.org • p. 62r: © Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Canada #e000943076, col. • p. 64d: “Chantal Petitclerc” par 5 of 7 - Chantal Petitclerc (1)_ Wikipedia.org Illustrations (p. 26, 27, 82, 83, 136 and 137): Sacha Lefebvre Graphic design: Lichen Funded by the Government of Canada Government of Québec – tax credit for book publishing – administered by SODEC.

It is illegal to reproduce this publication, in full or in part, in any form by any means (electronic, mechanical, photographic, recording, magnetic or other) without first obtaining permission from the publisher. By respecting this request, you will encourage the authors in the pursuit of their careers. PRODUCT CODE 4503 ISBN 978-2-7655-3071-8 Legal deposit Bibliothèque et Archives nationale du Québec, 2016 Bibliothèque et Archives Canada, 2016

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Printed in Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 HLN 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6

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Table of Contents

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

UNIT 1

The World of Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Platypus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spotted on the Savannah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amazing New Animal Discoveries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turning Back the Hands of Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . On the Edge of Extinction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dodo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miniature Donkey FAQs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNIT 2

Medieval Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Knights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Historical Portrait: King Richard I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Order Created . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . An Interview with the Knights of the Round Table. . . . . . . Black Death Spreads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Medieval Medecine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Letter to the Editor of The Medieval Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNIT 3

18 19 22 24 26 29 32 34

Unsolved Mysteries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Stonehenge: A Wonderful Mystery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fact or Fable? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanov: Mystery Solved . . . . . . . The Bermuda Triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Lines of Peru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resurrection Mary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Mummy’s Curse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNIT 4

1 2 4 6 8 11 14 16

37 39 41 44 46 48 50

The World of Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Golf Etiquette. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Olympic Disciplines That No Longer Exist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Brief History of Doping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Paralympic Games . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lacrosse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wingsuiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

54 56 59 62 64 66 68

III

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Table of Contents UNIT 5

The World of Cinema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anecdotes in the Life and Death of Charlie Chaplin . . . . . The Daily Movie Mirror Classifieds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Short History of Cinema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Stunt Double . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . James Bond: Secret Agent 007. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Dog Who Stopped the War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNIT 6

Music and Rock and Roll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Rockin’ Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Arcade Fire (Made in Montreal) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 “Hallelujah” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 The History of Rock – The 50s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 The History of Rock – The 60s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Metal? No, Music! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Rock and Roll Meets Opera and the Classics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

UNIT 7

Hoaxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 What Is a Hoax? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The War of the Worlds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Cottingley Fairies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alien Autopsy 1995 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paul Is Dead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Cardiff Giant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Great Moon Hoax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNIT 8

Cartoons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Caricatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Short History of Comic Strips and Animated Cartoons . . Walt Disney's Short Biography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asterix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Portraits of Superheroes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stan Lee: The Father of Superheroes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Simpsons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

UNIT 9

108 111 113 116 118 121 123

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

70 71 74 76 79 82 85

126 128 131 134 136 139 141

Amazing Facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Astonishing Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trademark Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Food Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cigarettes and Smoking Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Prehistoric Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Space Facts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Facts About a Wonderful Machine: Your Body . . . . . . . . . .

144 146 148 151 154 156 159

Toolkit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

IV

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Structure of the Text-based Activity Book This second edition of the Between the Lines series helps students acquire knowledge in order to develop ESL competencies. This text-based activity book proposes nine units with seven texts, for a total of 63 texts.

The World of Animals

Unit Opening Page

Did you know that scientists brought back to life two species of animals that were extinct? Did you know that an enormous variety of animals will soon become extinct? See pages 8 and 11 to learn more about it.

Platypus

2

Structure of Each Text

Spotted on the Savannah

4

The response process for each text is divided into four phases.

Amazing New Animal Discoveries

6

Turning Back the Hands of Time

8

On the Edge of Extinction

11

The Dodo

14

Miniature Donkey FAQs

16

UNIT 1

Platypus Before Reading While Reading

Animals that lay eggs are classified as oviparous. „„ What other animals do you know that lay eggs?

See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

What are animals that give milk to their babies „„

Which paragraph is „„

called?

about how strange the platypus is?

Male platypuses are poisonous. How would you „„

This section directs students to use reading strategies that are designed to help them understand the texts. Students must work through this section before reading the whole text. By answering the questions mentally, they will be practising the reading strategies.

the fourth paragraph?

Which paragraphs „„

describe the platypus?

The platypus is very often regarded as one of nature’s weirdest animals. It is a semi-aquatic mammal that lives in Australia. It is one of the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth. The other mammal that does this is the echidna. When you look at it, you have the impression that a crazy taxidermist put a bunch of leftover animal parts together. It has a bill like a duck, a tail like a beaver and feet like an otter. It’s so strange that when travellers returning from Australia first described it to their friends, they thought it was a joke.

taxidermist a person who stuffs and mounts the skins of animals for display

Platypuses have dense, thick fur that helps them stay warm underwater. Most of the fur is dark brown, except for a patch of lighter fur near each eye, and fur on the underside.

rubbery has the texture of rubber

The bill of this animal, sometimes called a duck-billed platypus, has a smooth texture that feels like suede. It is also flexible and rubbery. The skin of the bill holds thousands of receptors that help the platypus navigate underwater and detect movement of potential food, such as shrimp. The male platypus has a spur on its hind foot containing venom that can cause severe pain in humans, making it one of the few venomous mammals. 2 Platypuses live in only one, small area of the world. These creatures make their homes in the freshwater areas that flow throughout the island of Tasmania and the eastern and southeastern coast of Australia.

The text-based activity book proposes a variety of text types. The length of the texts varies from half a page to two pages. The words highlighted in the text are defined in a Vocabulary section in the page margin to facilitate students’ understanding.

After Reading

Platypus

spur

venom

bony outgrowth

poison

Vocabulary

While Reading

What is the main idea in „„

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

This section encourages students to explore the texts and interact orally with the class about open-ended questions. There are also questions in this section pertaining to pre-reading strategies.

react if you came face to face with a platypus while swimming?

Vocabulary

Before Reading

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence. Example: Where would you find a platypus? I would find a platypus on the island of Tasmania or the eastern and southeastern coast of Australia. © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

Each unit begins with a one-page presentation. The title of the unit is accompanied by a related picture. There are also questions in the “Did you know that...?” form to capture students’ interest and give them examples of information they will learn by reading the texts. The contents of the unit are also on this page.

1

What does a platypus do that most other mammals don’t?

2

What is the purpose of its fur?

3

What is another name given to the platypus and why?

4

What is the physical difference between the male and female platypus?

5

What was the reaction of people when they first heard about or saw a platypus?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

After Reading

1

Where could you find this type of information?

2 3 4

Find one simile in the text.

a) A science magazine

This section reinvests understanding of texts and looks into their literal meaning, before providing comprehension activities.

c) Both A and B

When you look at the picture of the platypus, which part of its body looks like a duck? a) the tail

5 6 7 8

b) On the Internet

When you look at the picture of the platypus in the text, what is the first thing that surprises you? b) the mouth

c) the chest

Does the author give an opinion about the platypus? Explain. Do you think a platypus would make a good pet? Why? What is particular about a platypus bill? The word aquatic comes from the Latin word for water: aqua. Other words with the root aqua are aqueduct, aquarium, aquaplane, aquaculture, etc. What does semi-aquatic mean (line 2)?

3

A Step Forward This section reinvests understanding of texts and delves into their underlying meaning. Further questions establish personal connections and then generalize beyond the texts. They prepare students to interact orally and to write and produce texts. This section also provides enrichment questions.

Toolkit

Toolkit At the end of the text-based activity book, a Toolkit provides lots of helpful information, including tables and summaries of grammar rules to help students with written and oral productions.

V

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Irregular Verbs

TOOLKIT

162

Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

164

Verb Tenses

165

Spelling Rules for the 3rd Person Singular of Simple Present Tense

166

Spelling Rules for the Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs

166

Spelling Rules for the Plural Forms of Nouns

172

Spelling Rules for Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

173

Common English Verbal Adjectives

174

Spelling Rules for the Present Progressive Tense

167

Common English Prepositions

175

Negative Forms

167

Common English Adverbs

176

Interrogative Forms

168

Common English Homophones

177

Articles a – an – the

169

Common Non-Count Nouns

177

Modal Verbs

170

Phrasal Verbs

171

Common English Discourse Markers

178

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Reading Strategies To help you understand a text, you can use reading strategies. In the texts you read in this textbased activity book, you will experiment with the following reading strategies:

Infer with visual and/or contextual cues When you look at the visual and contextual cues in a text, you may make more intelligent guesses about the content of the text and the events in a story, or about important information in an informative text.

Pay attention to cognates and/or words you already know

When you focus on cognates and words you already know, you may realize that you already understand a lot of the words. If there remains only one or two words you don’t understand in a sentence, you may then be able to guess the meaning more easily. Cognates are English words that share similar spellings and meanings with French words.

Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph When you stop at the end of a section to restate the essential information in a few words, you may be in a better position to understand the text. It will also help you find the information needed to answer the “After Reading” questions.

Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words When you retain the relevant information in each sentence of a text by ignoring the details, it is easier to understand long sentences or texts with detailed information.

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

Visual cues are illustrations and photos, while contextual cues are titles, subtitles, fonts and text formats.

Activate prior knowledge When you think of what you already know about the subject of a text, you may be able to make intelligent guesses about its content, and about the meaning of unknown words. Also, understanding new information will be easier if you connect it to something you already know.

Scan the text When you take a quick look at a text, you may already be able to get a good idea of its subject. It is then easier to search for specific information. This strategy is useful when answering “After Reading” questions about names, dates and numbers.

Compare When you focus on similarities and differences between elements in a text, or between different texts, you gain a stronger understanding of the text as a whole. This strategy helps to make the various pieces of information more orderly and memorable.

Predict When you make hypotheses based on what you already know and on the contextual cues, you may be able to guess the subject of the text. You may also guess what will happen in a narrative text or what information you will learn in an informative text.

VI

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The World of Animals Did you know that scientists brought back to life two species of animals that were extinct? Did you know that an enormous variety of animals will soon become extinct? See pages 8 and 11 to learn more about it.

Platypus

2

Spotted on the Savannah

4

Amazing New Animal Discoveries

6

Turning Back the Hands of Time

8

On the Edge of Extinction

11

The Dodo

14

Miniature Donkey FAQs

16

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UNIT 1

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Platypus Before Reading Animals that lay eggs are classified as oviparous. „„ What other animals do you know that lay eggs?

What are animals that give milk to their babies „„ called?

Male platypuses are poisonous. How would you „„ react if you came face to face with a platypus while swimming?

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Which paragraph is „„ about how strange the platypus is?

What is the main idea in „„ the fourth paragraph?

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

Which paragraphs „„

describe the platypus?

Platypuses have dense, thick fur that helps them stay warm underwater. Most of the fur is dark brown, except for a patch of lighter fur near each eye, and fur on the underside.

taxidermist a person who stuffs and mounts the skins of animals for display

rubbery has the texture of rubber

Vocabulary

The platypus is very often regarded as one of nature’s weirdest animals. It is a semi-aquatic mammal that lives in Australia. It is one of the only mammals that lay eggs instead of giving birth. The other mammal that does this is the echidna. When you look at it, you have the impression that a crazy taxidermist put a bunch of leftover animal parts together. It has a bill like a duck, a tail like a beaver and feet like an otter. It’s so strange that when travellers returning from Australia first described it to their friends, they thought it was a joke.

The bill of this animal, sometimes called a duck-billed platypus, has a smooth texture that feels like suede. It is also flexible and rubbery. The skin of the bill holds thousands of receptors that help the platypus navigate underwater and detect movement of potential food, such as shrimp. 2

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The male platypus has a spur on its hind foot containing venom that can cause severe pain in humans, making it one of the few venomous mammals. Platypuses live in only one, small area of the world. These creatures make their homes in the freshwater areas that flow throughout the island of Tasmania and the eastern and southeastern coast of Australia.

After Reading

spur

venom

bony outgrowth

poison

Vocabulary

Platypus

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence. Example: Where would you find a platypus? © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

eastern and southeastern coast of Australia.

1

What does a platypus do that most other mammals don’t?

2

What is the purpose of its fur?

3

What is another name given to the platypus and why?

4

What is the physical difference between the male and female platypus?

5

What was the reaction of people when they first heard about or saw a platypus?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

Where could you find this type of information? a) A science magazine

2 3 4

c) Both A and B

Find one simile in the text. When you look at the picture of the platypus in the text, what is the first thing that surprises you? When you look at the picture of the platypus, which part of its body looks like a duck? a) the tail

5 6 7 8

b) On the Internet

b) the mouth

c) the chest

Does the author give an opinion about the platypus? Explain. Do you think a platypus would make a good pet? Why? What is particular about a platypus bill? The word aquatic comes from the Latin word for water: aqua. Other words with the root aqua are aqueduct, aquarium, aquaplane, aquaculture, etc. What does semi-aquatic mean (line 2)?

3

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Spotted on the Savannah Before Reading Look at the picture. What animal „„ is that?

What are the main differences „„

Guess where cheetahs live. „„ What other animals are on „„ the endangered list?

between a tiger and a cheetah?

While Reading © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

See Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words, p. VI

Look at the title. What „„ can you learn from the title?

What amazing things „„

can cheetahs do? Find the verbs in the second paragraph.

savannah

retractable can be pulled back inside

glare brightness

Vocabulary

The cheetah can be found in the Middle East, Africa and anywhere from a savannah to a semi-desert region. Although it resembles a big cat like a lion or tiger, it does not roar but makes a high-pitched chirping sound instead. The other characteristic that makes it different from the big cats is that it does not have retractable claws like cats. It has non-retractable claws like a dog.

A plain characterized by thick grass and only a few trees

Its fur is covered with round black spots of all sizes. It has long thin legs, a delicate skull and a relatively slight build. That is to say it is not very big (it weighs between 39 and 65 kg). Even though it is not very big, it is extremely muscular. It is the fastest land animal and can run 110 km/h, reaching its top speed in just three seconds! Cheetahs have “tear marks” that run from the inside corners of their eyes down to the outside edges of their mouth. These marks help reflect the glare of the sun since they do their hunting during the day. 4

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Spotted on the Savannah After a gestation period of 90 to 95 days, a mother cheetah usually gives birth to two to eight cubs per litter, but cubs are often the target of other predators and many do not survive their first year. There are only 10,000 cheetahs left in the wild, making it Africa’s most endangered big cat.

After Reading

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What is the fastest land animal in the world?

2

What characteristic does the cheetah have in common with a dog?

3

How much does a cheetah weigh?

4

What does a cheetah do during the day?

5

How many of these cats exist around the world?

6

How long does it take for a female to have its litter?

7

How many cubs are born at one time?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

Find a simile in the text.

6

After reading the text, what aspect of the cheetah do you find most interesting?

What is the purpose of this text? Where can you find such a text? Explain your answer answer. Look at the picture at the beginning of the text. What do you think the cheetahs are waiting for? Look at the words not roar … makes a high-pitched chirping sound (lines 4 and 5). In this phrase, a keyword is sound. The word sound is sometimes a verb and sometimes a noun. In the text, is sound a verb or a noun? Explain why.

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Amazing New Animal Discoveries Before Reading

Every year, scientists make new and amazing discoveries in the animal world. In the 1930s, a fish that was supposed to have become extinct millions of years ago was fished out of the Indian Ocean. In last few years, many more such discoveries have been made. Here are two of them.

While Reading See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the „„

illustrations. Which animal do you think is the most unusual? Which animal is the worm? Which one is the piranha?

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Which strange animals do you know about? „„ What do you like about animals? „„ Where would you find texts about unusual animals? „„

What can the velvet „„ worm do? What can the vegetarian piranha do?

Remember Spider-Man? He immobilizes bad guys by throwing a very resistant spider web at them. Well, nature has created its own type of Spider-Man. It’s called Eoperipatus totoros. It is a new species of velvet worm. This little guy spits an immobilizing, glue-like net onto its prey then injects it with saliva and eats it. It is about 5 cm long, lives in Vietnam and can move about very slowly on very tiny legs.

Why are these „„

animals strange?

spider web

to spit to eject something from the mouth

Vocabulary

Glue-Spitting Velvet Worm

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Amazing New Animal Discoveries

Vegetarian Piranha

Scientists have now discovered a new species of piranha, called Tometes camunani, in the Amazon River. It only eats water plants. It can grow up to 50 cm long and weigh up to 4 kg. It lives among the rocky rapids of the river where seedlings of plants sprout between the rocks.

to sprout to begin to grow

Vocabulary

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When you hear the name piranha, you automatically imagine a small fish with sharp teeth eating any animal that happens to fall into its path.

After Reading Answer the questions with a complete sentence.

1

How does the velvet worm capture its prey?

2

Where does the velvet worm live?

3

Besides the way it captures its prey, what makes the velvet worm different from other worms?

4

What image does the word “piranha” evoke?

5

Why does it live among the rapids of the river?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2

What is the main idea of the text?

3

What irregular noun (a plural noun that doesn’t take an “s”) appears in the first sentence of the Vegetarian Piranha paragraph? What is the singular form of that word?

4 5

Where do you think the vegetarian piranha lives?

If I write “The glue-spitting velvet worm spits a net that is like glue,” glue what is the underlined section called?

If you had a choice between the two animals mentioned in the text, which one would you like to have as a pet and why?

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Turning Back the Hands of Time Before Reading If you could go back or forward in time, „„ which period would you choose?

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Who would you like to meet in that „„

period? What would you like to see?

How were the extinct tarpan „„

Does the idea of recreating extinct „„

and auroch recreated? In which paragraph did you find this information?

animals through their DNA remind you of something?

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What is the main idea in the last „„ paragraph?

What is the main idea in this text? „„

Reproduction of aurochs in the Lascaux Cave

Reproduction of tarpans in the Lascaux Cave

Heinz and Lutz Heck were German zoologists. Heinz Heck was the director of the Munich Zoo. In the 1930s, Heinz and Lutz decided to try to bring two species of extinct animals back to life: the wild tarpan horse and the auroch. The last tarpan horse died in captivity in 1876 and the last auroch disappeared from Poland around 1632.

gene hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA on a chromosome

Vocabulary

You may have heard people say they would like to turn back the hands of time. Of course, this is impossible. Or is it? Not really. Heinz and Lutz Heck did just that.

How did Heinz and Lutz do it? It seems no animal is really extinct if a genetic trail exists. They rearranged the genes like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. They took living animals of a related breed with the same characteristics and used their genetic material. It took them five generations to recreate the tarpan and 10 for the auroch. Today there are some 50 tarpans in North America and about 100 in the world.

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Turning Back the Hands of Time Can this be done with any extinct animal? Yes, as long as there are living descendants, because those living breeds can be used as a source for genetic material. (Remember the movie Jurassic Park?) There is talk of eventually recreating a mammoth. Who knows what else can be brought back from extinction.

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Recreated tarpans

Recreated auroch

After Reading Answer the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

“Turning back the hands of time” is an expression. What does it mean?

2

What was Heinz Heck’s profession?

3

Which animals did the Heck brothers recreate?

4

What is a tarpan?

5

When did the last genuine tarpan die?

6

How did the Heck brothers recreate tarpans and aurochs?

7

How many generations did it take to recreate the tarpan and the auroch?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

Which animal would you like to see recreated? Why? What is the purpose of this text? Look at the pictures on p. 8. What does the prehistoric painting tell you? The word trail (line 12), in this context, means trace. What is another synonym for trail?

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Turning Back the Hands of Time

Crossword Puzzle Complete the crossword below. 1 2

5

3

6

7

8 9

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4

10

11

Across

Down 1. Prehistoric elephant.

3. Someone who studies or practises zoology.

2. One of the Heck brothers.

6. What makes you who you are.

4. All the people that are about the same age.

7. A species.

5. A European country where the Heck brothers lived.

Example:

7. When a species no longer exists, it is…

10. The name of a dinosaur park in a movie.

8. Prehistoric cattle.

11. Prehistoric horse.

9. A representation of something using colours.

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On the Edge of Extinction Before Reading Many animals are in danger of becoming extinct. What other animals „„

are on the extinction list? How do you feel about animal extinctions?

What type of world would it be following the extinction of all animals? „„ Look at the pictures of the animals, then name „„ While Reading

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them.

See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI

The world has lost many of its animals, some through natural selection, others because of humans. Here are a few examples of endangered species.

How many animals are „„ described in this text?

How many of these „„

animals do you know?

Okapi The okapi is a relative of the giraffe. It has zebra-like stripes on its legs and lives in equatorial forests in Africa. It is a solitary animal with a slow reproductive rate. It faces real danger from habitat loss and destruction, as well as from accidental capture in traps set for smaller game. There are a total of 88 okapis living in captivity in all the world.

Why are so many „„

animals becoming extinct?

Fewer than 1,000 giant pandas are left in the wild today. They are losing their habitat. Humans are destroying the bamboo forests. This is the main source of food for the panda. The illegal hunting of animals is called poaching. It is bringing the panda close to extinction. rate degree of speed

Vocabulary

Giant Panda

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On the Edge of Extinction

Goliath frog The goliath frog is the world’s largest frog. It is found in dense rainforests in western Africa. This habitat is rapidly disappearing through deforestation and dam building across rivers. Wilderness is being replaced by villages. These frogs are victims of their own giant size. Private collectors and zoos are collecting them. Wild populations must be preserved so this frog can survive.

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The kagu is a secretive bird. It prowls the forest in New Caledonia, an island east of Australia. It eats worms, insects and snails. This bird is now almost extinct. The mountains of New Caledonia are now used for mining and agriculture. Food is more difficult for the kagu to find. In addition, the kagu has to deal with introduced predators. This includes dogs, pigs, cats and rats, which eat the kagus or their eggs.

Kakapo

dam barrier to prowl to hunt flightless cannot fly

Vocabulary

The kakapo is the world’s rarest parrot. It is flightless, nocturnal and very heavy. It can weigh up to 3.5 kg. The kakapo lives in New Zealand. Since New Zealand had no mammals for millions of years, the kakapo did not learn the necessary skills to combat or escape from predators. This, unfortunately made the kakapo very vulnerable when mammals started showing up in New Zealand. The arrival of humans and their livestock further reduced the kakapo population. Today there are only about 62 kakapo left. To protect them, they have been relocated to an island that is free of predators.

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On the Edge of Extinction

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Where does the okapi live?

2

Which animal feeds on bamboo?

3

Of the animals listed above, which one is active at night?

4

Which animal is a victim of its size?

5

Give one reason for the decline of the kakapo.

Matching Activity Match the animal in column A to the reason for the apparent extinction in column B. Use the information found in the text.

Column A

Answer

Column B

Example: Okapi

1. Loss of habitat and illegal hunting.

a) Giant panda

2. Loss and destruction of habitat and illegal capture.

b) Goliath frog

3. No skills to escape from predators and arrival of humans.

c) Kagu

4. Loss of habitat and predators.

d) Kakapo

5. Deforestation and dam building/collectors.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

What is the purpose of this text? Do you know of any other animal that is close to extinction? Which one? Who or what is the main reason for the decline in animal populations? In the last line of the text on the giant panda, what does “it” replace? In the text, find an expression that means “it is a good sign.” Which of the animals do you find most bizarre or interesting? Why? Referring to the animal you selected in question 6, what would you suggest in order to help it make a comeback?

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The Dodo Wooden dodo bird, typical souvenir from Mauritius

Before Reading What do you know about the bird known as the dodo? „„ Why do you think people thought the dodo was not very intelligent? „„ Why has the dodo become extinct? „„

While Reading See Infer with cognates and/or words you already know, p. VI

Focus on words that „„

look similar in French. These are called cognates. How many cognates did you find in the first paragraph?

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The dodo was a descendant of a type of pigeon. It lived on Mauritius, an island off the coast of Africa, in the Indian Ocean. The bird lost its need and ability to fly because it had no predators. It lived and nested on the ground and ate fruit.

How many cognates „„ In the 1600s, Portuguese sailors were the first did you find in the whole text? humans to visit Mauritius. The dodos were a welcome source of fresh meat for the sailors. The birds had no natural enemies and were apparently quite friendly. The sailors mistook this trust for stupidity and named them dodos. This is a Portuguese word that means “stupid”. Naturally, it was easy for the sailors to kill and eat them.

Later, the Dutch used the island for prisoners. They brought rats, pigs and monkeys with them. These all attacked the dodos. By the 1700s, there were none left. to stuff to fill the preserved skin of a dead animal with material for display

Vocabulary

A stuffed dodo was put on display in a British museum and people were astonished. After a while, that last specimen of the dodo began to decompose. The museum threw it away. The head and one foot were kept because they were still intact. That head and foot are all that is left of the dodo today.

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The Dodo

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Where did dodos live?

2

Did these birds fly? If not, why not?

3

When was the dodo discovered?

4

What does “dodo” mean?

5

Why did the sailors kill the dodos?

6

What was the sailors’ attitude toward the dodo?

7

What is left of the dodo today?

8

How did the dodo disappear?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3

Would you have liked to see a live dodo? Why? Do you know of any animal species that are extinct? Which ones? In the last sentence of the first paragraph, you will find the verb “to nest” in the past tense. The verb “to nest” and the noun “nest” have almost the same meaning. According to the context, what does the verb “nested” mean? a) A place affording snug refuge. b) A set of objects. c) The bird made its nest on the ground.

4 5 6 7

The text does not give a description of the dodo. Why? Is the image of the dodo in the text a photograph or an illustration? Why? Do you think we could clone dodos, Jurassic Park style? How could we do that? Why do you think the picture on p. 14 does not represent a real dodo?

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Miniature Donkey FAQs Before Reading What don’t you like about animals?

Some people think that animals are „„

nicer than humans. Why would they say that?

Where could you see a donkey? „„

While Reading

Frequently Asked Questions

See Infer with visual and/ or contextual cues, p. VI

Where do miniature donkeys come from? They are natives of the Mediterranean islands of Sicily and Sardinia. For this reason, they are also known as Miniature Mediterranean Donkeys.

This text is in the „„

form of questions and answers. Does it have an introductory paragraph? Does it have a concluding paragraph?

Which question is „„

about the animal’s character?

What are jacks and jennets? A jack is a male donkey and a jennet is a female. How big do miniature donkeys get? A miniature donkey measures a metre or less high at the shoulder, at four years of age. The average height is 85 cm. The smaller they are, the more valuable they are. How old do miniature donkeys live? They live from 25 to 30 years of age with proper care and feeding.

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What is your favourite animal? „„ What do you like about animals? „„

What is a miniature donkey’s personality like? It’s a most affectionate and friendly animal. It’s tame, gentle, loyal and playful. It’s also very social and easy to train. However, it can’t be a house pet because it needs a barn to protect it from the elements. It can’t be house-trained. What do we feed miniature donkeys? They require very little special food. They need pasture grass or high-quality hay. Are they expensive to buy? They cost from $250 to $5,000. It all depends on what you are looking for.

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Miniature Donkey FAQs

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What is the average lifespan of a miniature donkey?

2

Which would cost more – a 100 cm tall donkey, an 85 cm tall donkey or a 70 cm tall donkey? Why?

3

Is the miniature donkey a dangerous animal? Explain.

4

What do miniature donkeys eat?

5

What is the mother of a miniature donkey called?

6

Name one element that makes a donkey more valuable.

7

Ask two questions to which you would like answers about miniature donkeys. Look up the answers in a book or on the Internet. QUESTIONS

1 2 ANSWERS

1 2

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

What is the purpose of this text? Where could you find such a text? Would you like to own a miniature donkey? Why? Do you know of any other strange animals that people keep as pets? In the text, find a synonym for the adjective “social.” In the text, find a synonym for the word “small.” In the text, find an antonym of the word “foreign.” In the text, find the opposite of the word “cheap.”

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Medieval Times Did you know that knights started their training at the age of only seven? Did you know that a disease wiped out almost one-third of Europe’s population? In this unit, we will get a glimpse of what is known as the medieval period. See pages 19 and 29 to learn more about it.

19

Historical Portrait: King Richard I

22

New Order Created

24

An Interview with the Knights of the Round Table

26

Black Death Spreads

29

Medieval Medicine

32

Letter to the Editor of The Medieval Times

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34

UNIT 2

glimpse a short quick look

wiped out destroyed

Vocabulary

Knights

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Knights Before Reading

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What do you know about knights? „„ What type of life do you think a knight had? „„

When we think of the Middle Ages, we think of a time of chivalry. Knights are the best-known symbol of chivalry. A knight was a warrior who fought on horseback. On becoming a knight, a vassal promised loyalty to the king and fought to defend the king’s land and property against enemies. Knights also took religious vows and lived as monks. Only the sons of lords could become knights. There were three stages to becoming a knight: page, squire and knight.

Page

Aged 7 to 15 Leaves home, joins a knight’s household and starts training. Trains in the use and handling of small weapons. Is taught the manners and behaviour of a knight.

While Reading See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI

This text is divided in stages. „„

How many stages did it take before a boy could become a knight?

What do you know about the „„ Middle Ages?

What do you know about the „„ code of chivalry?

Aged 16 to 21 Is a servant to his master the knight. Becomes a mounted soldier and practises fighting on horseback. Assists the knight in battle.

Knight

Aged 21 and over Is knighted by his master or any other knight. Puts on armour, is tapped on the shoulder with a sword. Is pronounced a knight by the sentence, “I dub you knight.”

vassal servant of the King

on horseback riding a horse

to dub to give someone a particular title such as knight

Vocabulary

Squire

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Knights Knights lived under a very strict code. They had to have a deep love of the Christian faith, were loyal to the land of their birth and gave generously to all. It was their duty to protect women and children, and those who were weak in general. They fought for good over evil and never surrendered to the enemy.

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What was the first duty of a knight?

2

What style of life did a knight have?

3

When did a young boy begin his training as a future knight?

4

Which was the longest stage in the process of becoming a knight?

5

What did the knight teach the page?

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After Reading

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Knights 6

What was his training as a squire?

7

At what age could a boy hope to become a knight?

8

Who could grant knighthood?

9

Knights had to protect the king and his lands. What else did they have to do?

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Find the Cognates Many English words come from French. The word chivalry comes from the French word, chevalier. Find 10 or more words in the text that come from French.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

What is the main idea of the text? a) How knights are symbols of chivalry. b) How a young man becomes a knight. c) The code of knighthood.

2

Would you go through all that training to finally get a job you wanted?

3

Why do you think the author wrote this text? a) to inform b) to entertain

c) to socialize d) to inquire

4

Do you think knights really dressed like the one in the picture at the beginning of this text? Explain.

5 6 7 8

Find a simile in the text. Why do you think only men could become knights? Who do you think are the modern knights? Do you like novels or films about the Middle Ages or knights? Explain.

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Historical Portrait: King Richard I Before Reading King Richard lived in the Middle Ages. This era began in the 5th century AD and ended in the 15th century. What do you know about Richard the Lionheart or Robin Hood? „„ What do you like or dislike about stories of heroes, kings and queens? „„

His real name was Richard Plantagenet. He was born on September 8, 1157, at Beaumont Palace in Oxfordshire, England. His parents were King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He had four brothers and three sisters. His title before becoming king was Duke of Exeter and Aquitaine. He lived most of his life in Aquitaine, France and spoke French, and a little English. You are probably wondering why an English king spoke French and only a little English. Ninety-one years before he was born, his ancestor William Duke of Normandy, (France) conquered King Harold and the English at the Battle of Hastings.

While Reading See Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words, p. VI

Keywords may be subjects, verbs and sometimes adverbs. For example, in the first sentence of the first paragraph, the keywords are heard (verb) and King Richard I (subject of the text). Highlight the keywords „„ in the text.

What information is „„

important to know? valiant brave

coronation ceremony at which a king or a queen is crowned

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Have you ever heard of King Richard I? He was also known as Richard the Lionheart. He appears in many Robin Hood movies and is seen as a valiant and good English king. Let us now distinguish fact from Hollywood fiction.

Vocabulary

19th century portrait of Richard the Lionheart by Merry-Joseph Blondel

The English kings that followed were French. Richard was crowned king at Westminster Abbey, London in 1189. At the age of 34, he married Berengaria of Navarre and had one son, Philip. Richard did not reign very long. He died 10 years after his coronation. Of those 10 years, he spent about six months in England, the rest of the time he spent in France or on the Crusades. The Crusades were wars in which the Christians fought against the Muslims to reconquer Jerusalem. Richard Coeur de Lion, Carlo Marochetti’s statue of Richard I outside the Palace of Westminster, London

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Historical Portrait: King Richard I Richard was killed in battle at Chalus in Aquitaine. He is buried in Fontevraud Abbey in Anjou, France. After his death, his brother John became King of England.

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

When was Richard crowned king?

2

Where did he live before being King of England?

3

What was his title before he became King of England?

4

How many brothers and sisters did he have?

5

What was King Richard’s family name?

6

How many children did he have?

7

How long did he reign over England?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2

From what you have read, do you think Richard was a good king? Explain.

3

What is the purpose of this text?

Does the picture of King Richard at the beginning of the text show him as you think he might have been in real life? Explain. a) T To entertain

4 5

b) T To instruct

c) T To persuade

What else would you like to know about King Richard and why? In the text, the possessive adjective “his” is often cited. Indicate which possessive adjective could be used if we wanted to show: a) that Richard was the husband of Beregaria? b) that Philip was the son of Berengaria and Richard?

6

In the text, find a word similar in meaning to “grandfather” or “great-grandfather “great-grandfather.”

23

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New Order Created Before Reading The Order of the Garter is the highest order of chivalry. It is a very prestigious honour. There are only 25 Knights and Lady Companions of the Order of the Garter. What other prestigious honours do you know about? „„ What types of honours could students win at school? „„

While Reading See Infer with visual and/ or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the „„

New Order Created

What type of „„

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The Medieval Times

pictures. What are they? text is this?

May 12, 1349

What does the „„

Arms of the Order of the Garter

garter

title tell you about the text?

England, 1349 Windsor Castle held a great ball to mark a new Order. The leading knights competed for invitations from King Edward to join his new Order of the Garter. One knight told our reporter that this order is prestigious since only the king and 25 knights can join.

How did the idea of the Order of the Garter come about? It occurred one evening at a ball. While dancing with the King at Eltham Palace, the Countess of Salisbury’s garter is said to have slipped from her leg onto the floor. When King Edward heard the surrounding courtiers laugh at this incident, he picked it up and tied it to his own leg, exclaiming “Honi soit qui mal y pense,” which is Old French for “Shame on whomever thinks evil of it.” It has since then become the motto of the Order of the Garter.

used to hold up stockings

courtiers snoblemen and women at the court of a king

Vocabulary

Receiving this honour would be like winning a huge lottery. The Order held its first meeting on St. George’s Day, that is, April 23. The meeting was held on this day because the patron saint of the Order is St. George. He is also the patron saint of soldiers and England. The spiritual home of the Order is St. George’s Chapel, Windsor.

King Edward III of England

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New Order Created

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Who created the Order of the Garter?

2

How many people may be in the order at one time?

3

When did the first meeting take place?

4

Where was the great ball held?

5

Who lost her garter at the ball?

6

What did the king say when he picked up the garter?

7

How did the people at the ball react to the countess losing her garter?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

Find a simile in the text. How would you react if you were presented with this honour? What is the purpose of this text? What is the opinion of the author regarding the Order of the Garter? In the text, find a synonym of: a) to be part of

b) prize

c) happened

d) beginning

6 7

In this newspaper article, almost all the verbs are in the past tense. Why is that?

8 9

Why is St. George’s Chapel called the spiritual home of the Order?

Why did the English King Edward use the French expression “Honi soit qui mal y pense”? Hint: You may find the answer in the text about King Richard I. Look at the word motto in the last sentence of the text. What is the motto of the province of Quebec? Hint: You will find it on car number plates.

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An Interview with the Knights of the Round Table Before Reading What do you know about King Arthur’s „„ A knight had to promise to follow the „„ castle of Camelot?

rules. What are some rules of honour you must follow?

What do you know about the Knights „„

One day, many centuries after the death of King Arthur, Merlin gathered all the knights of the Round Table one last time. His goal was to get you to know them better. This is how the conversation went.

Good day, gentlemen!

While Reading See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI

What was the Quest „„ for the Holy Grail?

Good day, Merlin!

Why is Merlin an „„

important character in the legend of King Arthur?

How many of these „„

knights do you know?

Before you introduce yourselves, please tell me about the Round Table. Sir Galahad?

I am Sir Bedivere, the constant companion and cupbearer of King Arthur. I was the last knight left alive after battle.

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Why is it important to follow rules? „„

of the Round Table?

Arthur, our king, wanted to promote equality among us. e did not want people to say he had a favourite.

I am Sir Lancelot’s cousin, Sir Bors de Ganis. I am known as one of the three incomparable knights. I witnessed the Quest of the Holy Grail.

I returned Excalibur to the Lady of the Lake.

I am King Arthur’s nephew, Sir Gaheris. My brother and I rescued Queen Guinevere from the fire.

I am Sir Galahad. I achieved the Quest.

I am Sir Kay. I am in charge of the court service. I am trustworthy.

As a perfect knight, I asked to die.

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An Interview with the Knights of the Round Table I am Sir Lamorak de Galis, one of the very brave knights. I can fight 30 knights.

But he didn’t recognize me during Queen Guinevere’s rescue and killed me.

I am Sir Tristan, a knight of song and music.

I am Sir Gawain. I was the first to take the vow of the Quest. Sir Lancelot killed my brothers accidentally.

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I am Sir Gareth. Sir Lancelot was a friend and he knighted me.

Sir Geraint is my name. I was an inactive knight.

I am Sir Percivale, the second of the three incomparable knights. I went with Sir Galahad on the Quest for the oly Grail.

I am the king’s champion. e didn’t like me.

And, finally, the last one…

I am Sir Lancelot, the first knight of the Round Table. I am courteous, courageous and gentle. I went on the Quest of the oly Grail but failed to see it so I became a monk.

an officer of high rank in royal courts, whose duty it was to serve the drinks at the royal table – normally a person that the king trusted very much

incomparable exceptional

After Reading

Vocabulary

cupbearer

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Why was the Round Table round?

2

How many knights are members of the Round Table?

3

Which knight is in charge of the court?

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4

What did Sir Bedivere return to the Lady of the Lake?

5

Who did Sir Lancelot knight and accidentally kill?

6

What did Sir Galahad ask for?

7

How did Sir Lancelot spend the rest of his life?

8

What did Sir Lancelot do to Sir Gawain’s brothers?

Matching Activity Match the items in column A with those in column B.

Column A

Answer

Column B

a) Sir Lancelot

1. the king’s champion

b) Sir Tristan

2. an inactive knight

c) Sir Gaheris

3. the first knight

d) Sir Galahad

4. the saviour of Queen Guinevere

e) Sir Geraint

5. the knight who achieved the Quest

f) Sir Bors

6. Sir Lancelot’s cousin

g) King Arthur

7. Sir Gaheris’s uncle

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An Interview with the Knights of the Round Table

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

Why did the author write this text?

6

The text is a comic strip. How does this type of text help your understanding?

If you were invited to sit next to your favourite knight, where would you sit and why? Which knight resembles you most? Why are most of the answers in the past tense? The word quest is used a few times in the text. What do you think it means in this context? What is the quest?

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Black Death Spreads Before Reading An epidemic is a sickness that happens to many people at the same time in the same community. What do you know about the Black „„ Death of the Middle Ages?

Vocabulary

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a deadly contagious disease in your city? to rot

inflammation

to decompose

crops

to harvest

agricultural produce

gather crops

See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

The Black Death was a devastating epidemic. It killed between 75 million and 200 million people between 1346 and 1353. That was a long time ago.

What would you do if there were „„

swelling

While Reading

Why is this text in the present „„ tense?

Why didn’t the author use the past „„ tense?

The Medieval Times

October 23, 1348

Hundreds of thousands of people are dying in every country in Europe. This disaster is caused by a disease called the Black Death. The last time such an epidemic hit Europe was in the 6th century. There are two forms of this plague. The bubonic plague causes swelling and the pneumonic plague attacks the lungs. This plague has surprised all of Europe. People everywhere are desperate for an explanation. Some people blame poisoned wells. Others have strange explanations such as invisible particles in the air. All want to find a solution. Some look for protection by hiding in their houses and locking the doors. Others look for safety in the country. Some cities have locked their gates and will not let travellers in. But none of these methods has worked so far. Essential services are breaking down. Law and order barely exists in many cities. Panic has invaded Europe. Crops rot in the fields with no one to harvest them. Famine has hit many cities. Doctors do what they can, but nothing seems to stop this plague. They recommend burning aromatic woods and herbs. Some recommend a special diet. Of course, there is the tried and proven method of bleeding. Nothing seems to work. See that you get away from infected cities as fast as you can. If you cannot, be prepared for some hard times.

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Black Death Spreads

After Reading 1

What did they call the epidemic?

2

When was the last time such a plague hit Europe?

3

Name the two forms that the plague takes.

4

What two things mentioned in the article were blamed for the plague?

5

How do people look for safety from the plague?

6

What three things do doctors suggest doing, to fight the plague?

7

According to the text, what is the best way to avoid the plague?

8

Why are some cities hit by famine?

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

Find the Main Idea Read the sentences. They represent the main idea of each paragraph. Write the paragraph number next to the main idea. a) It names the treatments tried to cure the plague.

b) It reports a new disease in Europe.

c) It mentions the possible causes for the disease.

Plague doctor of medieval times

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Black Death Spreads

Matching Activity Match the items in column A with those in column B.

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Column A

Answer

Column B

a) bubonic

1. remedy for the plague

b) poisoned wells

2. way of fighting the plague

c) burning aromatic wood

3. reason for the plague

d) 6th century

4. name of the newspaper

e) hiding indoors

5. year of the plague

f) 1348

6. type of plague

g) Black Death

7. time of the last plague

h) The Medieval Times

8. name of the plague

Past Tense Activity The newspaper article is written in the present tense as it describes a present-day situation. If you changed it from a newspaper article to a history book text, you would change the verbs from present to past. Write the following verbs in the past tense. Example: are a) is b) attacks c) blame d) have e) has f) exist g) seems h) recommend

Nowadays, we know that the bacterium responsible for the plague virus is carried by fleas on rats.

i) get away

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

What type of text is this? What do the doctors look like? Which of the solutions mentioned in the text would you prefer and why? Why was this article written? What modern-day epidemic do you know about?

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Medieval Medicine Before Reading What did they use for medicine „„

How do you feel about taking „„

What type of home remedies do „„

Do you think the subject of medicine „„

in the old days?

your parents use when you are sick with a cold?

medicine?

is interesting? Why or why not?

While Reading See Scan the text, p. VI

Here’s your chance identify deseases and cure patients. You can be just like a doctor in the Middle Ages. There are two patients for you to cure. Read their symptoms, then decide what treatment to prescribe.

Which patient has „„ smallpox?

Photophobia is „„

mentioned in the text. What is it?

1

Patient number 1 has black and blue spots all over her body. You are pretty sure it is the plague. What treatment do you prescribe? • Apply sterile egg whites. • Give the patient treacle (a blend of molasses, sugar and corn syrup). • Wrap the patient and shave the sign of the cross on her head. Most medieval medicines contained herbal ingredients. People ate them raw or drank them in tea. Treacle is a molasses-like mixture. It was considered a cure-all. The formula came from a recipe developed in Greece. It included 60 ingredients. It took 40 days to make and 12 years to mature.

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Try your hand at medieval medicine.

2

Vocabulary

Patient number 2 is in bed with chills, a fever and a terrible headache. You examine him and find pimple-like spots all over his skin. Your diagnosis is smallpox (a contagious skin disease). This is a very common contagious disease. What treatment do you prescribe? to cure • Soak a piece of linen in a mixture of flower-root and rose oil. to find a remedy Apply it to the affected areas. raw • Have the patient drink some chicken broth. • Wrap the patient with red cloth and drape some red hangings not cooked around his bed. chills Smallpox patients suffered from photophobia. This means an feeling of coldness, intolerance to light. The coloured cloths protected them from the like when light. The idea of putting coloured cloth around the bed and around you have a person infected with smallpox came from magic and witchcraft. a fever

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Medieval Medicine

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What were two of the most common diseases that doctors diagnosed?

2

Which medicine was considered a cure-all?

3

How many ingredients did this medicine contain?

4

How long did it take to mature?

5

What colour did the people use to help smallpox victims?

Classifying Activity Classify the following words in one of three categories: symptoms, treatment or diagnosis.

Symptoms

Treatment

Diseases

Example: black and blue spots a) rose oil b) chills c) treacle d) smallpox e) fever f) plague g) photophobia h) chicken broth i) headache

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Find a word in the text that could be used as a simile. What is the author’s purpose in writing this text? a) T To entertain b) T To inquire

c) T To socialize

d) T To inform

Do you think your family doctor would prescribe such remedies? Why? Do you or anyone you know use herbal medicines? Why? What does the illustration remind you of? Which of these remedies would you try for fun? Why?

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To the Editor of The Medieval Times Before Reading Where would you see dragons? „„ What evidence do we have or not „„ have that dragons existed?

In what types of stories would dragons „„ appear?

Were dragons good or bad? Why? „„

While Reading Look at the illustration. How scary is this dragon? „„ What is your idea of a dragon? „„ How do you feel about this dragon? „„ Would people be afraid of this dragon? Why or „„ why not?

Dear Sir, I am very disappointed at how your magazine describes us. I am writing today to correct this error. I, Sir, am a dragon. Yes, a dragon. I dislike the way people see us. We are not fire-breathing monsters that eat women and children. We do not kill brave knights to use their bones as toothpicks. We do not fly high in the air. We do not terrorize innocent people. We do not live in damp dark caves. We do not catch people and eat them. With all due respect, your brave knights imagined us. We exist, but not as they see or describe us. We live peacefully in deep rich forests. We feed on plants and fruit. We do not like meat. The only time we breathe fire is when we have heartburn. We do not kill people and we try to avoid human contact. When we do make contact with humans, we run far away so they cannot see us. True, we are huge creatures but that is how nature made us. And, like all huge beasts, we are gentle. If we ever fought one of your brave knights, it was only to protect our young. Even then, the knight was not hurt. So, as you can see, we are not what people think. Today only very rich people learn how to read and write. Yet we, the dragons, ALL know these skills. Yours truly, Percival Q. Dragon II

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See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

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To the Editor of The Medieval Times

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

According to popular belief, why do dragons kill knights?

2

Where do people think dragons live?

3

According to Percival, what are dragons?

4

Where do they live?

5

What does their main diet consist of?

6

Why do they sometimes fight with knights?

7

The negative “do not” is repeated very often in the text to indicate what dragons do not do or do not like. Find a sentence in the text that is not in the negative form yet has a negative meaning.

8

Which sentence tells you that dragons are vegetarian?

9

To whom is this text written?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

What is the author’s purpose in writing this text? What is Percival Q. Dragon’s opinion about humans? What type text is this? How would you reply to Percival? Write a little note of about 50 words. Look at the picture at the beginning of the text. Is this how you imagine a dragon? Explain? Do you believe dragons existed at one time? Why?

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Unsolved Mysteries Did you know that at least 80 boats and planes have been lost in the Bermuda Triangle since the 19th century? Did you know that there are lines on the Nazca Desert in Peru that can only be seen from the air? See pages 44 and 46 to learn more about it.

Stonehenge: A Wonderful Mystery

37

Fact or Fable?

39

Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanov: Mystery Solved

41

The Bermuda Triangle

44

The Lines of Peru

46

Resurrection Mary

48

The Mummy’s Curse

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Stonehenge: A Wonderful Mystery Before Reading Some people think Stonehenge is a place of „„

mystery, power and endurance. What do you know about Stonehenge? Why is Stonehenge mysterious?

What other ancient places or archaeological „„ sites do you know?

While Reading See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI

Look at the picture of the „„

druids. What stories come to your mind?

What is the most interesting „„

There is a very curious site in southwestern England, on Salisbury Plain in the county of Wiltshire. It is called Stonehenge. It is a circle of giant stones. It was built between 4,000 and 5,000 years ago.

No one knows for sure „„

why Stonehenge was built. In your opinion, why was it built?

The word Stonehenge means hanging stones. People have excavated, x-rayed, measured and surveyed this site. Still its purpose remains a great mystery. Here are some theories associated with the site. • It’s a structure with multiple functions. • It’s a very good quality monument and it’s built on a site of energetic power. • It’s an astronomical observatory for the various stages of the sun and moon. • It’s a temple for holding festivals. • It’s a surviving record of an ancient folk memory.

England

There are many legends surrounding Stonehenge. One tells that Merlin was asked to help bring the stones from Ireland to Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. Using magic, he made the stones extremely light so that anyone could lift them. Another legend tells the story of a magician who brought a group of dancing maidens to Salisbury Plain. He then transformed the dancers into stone as they were dancing in a circle. county energetic power province

displays a lot of energy

surveyed

record

examined

an account

Vocabulary

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thing about druids?

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Stonehenge: A Wonderful Mystery

From “Brut” by Layamon, 1200 CE

healing

to unravel

curing

to explain something difficult or too mysterious to understand

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Where is Stonehenge located?

2

What is Stonehenge?

3

What is the purpose of Stonehenge?

4

Name two possible functions of Stonehenge?

5

What did Layamon believe the stones of Stonehenge could do?

6

How is Merlin involved with Stonehenge?

7

According to the poem by Layamon, what do the stones at Stonehenge possess?

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Will the mystery of Stonehenge be unravelled one day, or will the secret stay in the stones forever?

Vocabulary

The stones are great And magic power they have Men that are sick Fare to that stone And they wash that stone And with that water bathe away their sickness.

One more legend tells that the stones that form Stonehenge have great power to make sick people well. In fact, an English poet, Layamon, wrote around 1200 CE about the healing powers of Stonehenge. Here is the poem:

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2

Apart from the Internet, where would you find a text like this?

3 4 5

5,000 to 4,000 years ago. What date is that in BCE time?

6

Looking at context once more. What does “maiden” mean?

According to the picture opposite, what is another legend surrounding Stonehenge? Do you believe there are places with magical powers? Why? The first text contains the word “curious.” Normally this means “wanting to know about things.” In this case it means something else. Can you tell, by the context, what it means?

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Fact or Fable? Before Reading Nessie, Champy, Memphre, Bigfoot and the Yeti are all mysterious creatures. However, no one knows if they ever really existed or not. What do you know about these creatures? „„ Look at the picture. What creature is this „„ text about?

What makes you think monsters do or do „„

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not exist?

While Reading See Predict, p. VI

Where does this monster „„ live?

What does this monster „„ remind you of?

How is it possible to find „„

out what lives at the bottom of a deep lake or ocean?

Nessie’s Blog 2016 Hi everybody! My name is Nessie and this is my blog. I live in the Great Glen region of Scotland. My home is in a large lake called Loch Ness. I’m an elusive creature. You won’t see me very often, so I created this blog so you can get to know me better. My favourite spot is Urquhart Bay, just beside an old castle. That’s where people think they may have seen me. It’s so cool. Actually, I mean the water is very cold.

Urquhart Castle

Kurt 222 Yo, Ness, I heard that you once bumped into this guy named Saint Columba. Is it true? NESS Not really. It was one of my ancestors who was out for a swim and bumped into Saint Columba, who was crossing the loch. This is the first time someone saw my species. It was in the year 565 CE. By the way, how old do you really think I am, anyway? APRIL 33 My great-grandparents, Mr. and Mrs. John Mackay (maybe you know them), once told me that they saw you enjoying the sun in the middle of the loch. They said you were an enormous animal, rolling and plunging. Is that true? NESS What do you mean enormous? I simply have big bones.

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Fact or Fable? BOB 77 I agree with April 33. My uncle, Arthur Grant, was on a motorbike when he saw you swimming in the loch. You disappeared very quickly. He said you looked like an old dinosaur. How about that!

NESS People have not only taken pictures of me. In April 1960, Tim Dinsdale took the first moving picture of me. Some skeptics said I was a small motorboat but they were proven wrong. I’m happy about that! By the way, a big search is going on this year. Boats using sonar are trying to find me, but once again, I’m hiding. I like my privacy.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Where does Nessie live?

2

Where do people usually see Nessie?

3

Who or what is Nessie?

4

Who took the first moving pictures of Nessie?

5

What special equipment was used to find Nessie?

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NESS Not cool, man. I swim around every day, so it’s just natural that someone will see me. Once while on my daily swim, a Colonel Wilson took a picture of me (one that is not very becoming, I must say). It is the most famous picture of me to date. It’s posted on this blog.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3

What type of text is this? What is the purpose of the text? What would your reaction be if you came face to face with Nessie?

4

Do you think the picture of Nessie represents a sea monster or a dinosaur? Why?

5 6

Find a simile in the text. Is Nessie fact or fable? Explain.

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Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanov: Mystery Solved Before Reading Why do some people believe everything they see or „„ read on TV or on the Internet?

Some people are not very critical about what they see „„ or hear. Why is that?

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A hoax is an act intended to make people believe „„

something that is not true. For example, “extraterrestrials are secretly invading the planet.” What other type of hoax do you know? Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia in 1914 at age 13

While Reading See Scan the text, p. VI

What people are mentioned in the text? „„ What dates are mentioned? „„

In July 1918, Tsar Nicholas II, the Tsarina Alexandra and their five children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia and Alexei, were executed. Officially, they were never seen alive again. Yet stories tell of the survival of at least one member of the Romanov family. In February 1920, a young woman who was approximately 20 years old was pulled from a canal in Berlin. At first, she refused to reveal her identity. She was depressed, so doctors put her in a mental hospital under the care of a nurse. Later, the young woman told the nurse that she was the Grand Duchess Anastasia.

Romanov family in 1914 Seated: Marie, Tsarina Alexandra, Tsar Nicholas II, Anastasia and Alexei. Standing: Olga and Tatiana.

Tsar

Anastasia was the youngest daughter of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia. People were skeptical of Anna Anderson (her other name) because she was a patient at the hospital. They did not want someone to masquerade as a Romanov and get away with it. Two of the Tsar’s relatives were called in to identify her. They were the Tsar’s sister, the Grand Duchess Olga, and his sister-in-law, Princess Irene of Prussia. Both said she was

Tsarina Queen of Russia

to masquerade to pretend to be someone else

Vocabulary

King of Russia

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Many people tried to prove that Anna was the Grand Duchess Anastasia. There were photography and beauty experts, physicians and mental health experts and even handwriting experts. The court ruled there was not enough information to prove her identity positively. However, Anna looked liked the duchess, talked like her and wrote like her. Was she the real Anastasia or was it just a masquerade? In 1997, the remains of the executed Romanov family were found. There were two skeletons missing! In 2007, another grave was found near the first. In it were two skeletons. A new DNA analysis proved that the skeletons found were those of Anastasia and Alexei. After nearly 90 years, the mystery was solved.

physicians doctors

Top: Anna Anderson in 1920 Bottom: Anastasia Romanov in 1916

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not Anastasia. Princess Irene’s son sent a list of questions that only Anastasia could have answered. Her answers convinced him that Anna Anderson was in fact Anastasia.

Vocabulary

Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanov: Mystery Solved

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Who was the Grand Duchess Anastasia?

2

Where was Anna Anderson found?

3

Who did Anna Anderson claim to be?

4

Why were people skeptical about Anna?

5

Name two of the types of experts who came to testify in court.

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Anastasia Nikolaevna Romanov: Mystery Solved 6

When were the remains of the Romanov family found?

7

Where did the Romanov family lived?

Matching Activity Match the names on the left column to the connections on the right.

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Name

Answer

Connection

a) Irene and Olga

1. Anastasia’s mother

b) Nicholas II

2. Anastasia’s aunts

c) Olga, Tatiana and Maria

3. Anastasia’s father

d) Alexandra

4. Anastasia’s look-alike

e) Alexei

5. Anastasia’s sisters

f) Anna

6. Anastasia’s brother

Antonym Activity In the text, find antonyms for the following words. Example: dead

alive

a) old

d) prince

b) accepted

e) negatively

c) brother

f) lost

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3

From 1997 to 2007 2007, why was Anna Anderson’s story a bit more believable?

4 5 6 7

Do you think Anna was sincere or was she pulling a hoax? Explain your answer answer.

What do you think the purpose of this text is? Why? Look at the pictures on the previous page. Do you believe Anastasia and Anna Anderson are the same person? Why? Are you a skeptical person? Why? Why did it take nearly 90 years to solve the mystery of Anastasia’s death? Nowadays, is it possible for somebody to masquerade as someone else?

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The Bermuda Triangle Before Reading What do you know about the Bermuda „„ Triangle?

Christopher Columbus travelled through „„ the Bermuda Triangle. How long ago was that?

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

The first paragraph explains „„

What is the Bermuda Triangle? It’s an area located between the islands of Bermuda, Puerto Rico and Miami, Florida. What makes this area interesting is the mysterious disappearance of boats and planes over the years. Since the 19th century, there have been at least 80 boats and planes lost in the area of the triangle. Here are a few examples. The first European to experience the force of the Triangle was Christopher Columbus. As he entered the Triangle, he noticed that the sea was strangely calm. Suddenly it began to rise without any wind. In December 1945, a group of planes took off from Florida for a training flight in the area of the Triangle. They never returned and no trace was ever found. Two planes were sent out to try and locate them. One of these planes returned to base and the other disappeared. These are just two examples in a long series of disappearances.

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the Bermuda Triangle story. What are the other paragraphs about?

Not only planes encountered misfortune in the Triangle. Boats also fell victims to such strange disappearances. In 1872, the Mary Celeste was found floating intact in the Bermuda Triangle, but there was no one aboard. All the passengers and crew had vanished. A strange thing also happened to a ship named the Ellen Austin. It did not disappear, but it met another ship travelling at full speed, with no one aboard, just like the Mary Celeste. Bermuda

Florida Gulf of Mexico

Bermuda Triangle

In 1921, another ship, the Carroll A. Deering, was also found abandoned with no one aboard. The crew and captain had vanished and were never seen again.

Tropic of Cancer

Caribbean Sea

Puerto Rico

Map of the Bermuda Triangle

44

400 km

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The Bermuda Triangle Submarines, military vessels and cargo ships have all been victims of the Bermuda Triangle. What is the reason for all these disappearances? It has yet to be explained. There are, however, many theories on the subject. Here are two of the more popular theories attempting to solve the mystery of the Triangle. 1. Methane gas under the sea floor will sometimes erupt. When this happens, water becomes less dense, causing ships to sink like a stone. Airplanes flying over the region can catch fire and be completely destroyed. 2. An electronic fog that covers the ships or planes causes the instruments on board to malfunction.

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Then again, there is always the supernatural.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What is the Bermuda Triangle?

2

What makes it unique?

3

Why did the rising of the seas seem strange to Christopher Columbus?

4

What was peculiar about the Mary Celeste and the Carroll A. Deering?

5

Other than planes and ships, what else has disappeared in the Bermuda Triangle?

6

What is the reason for all these disappearances?

7

What happened to the Ellen Austin?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

Of the two theories presented in the text, which one do you prefer? Why? What supernatural theory could explain the disappearances in the Triangle? Do you think the Bermuda Triangle is real, a myth or a hoax? Explain. Would you be afraid to travel over the Bermuda Triangle? Explain.

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The Lines of Peru Before Reading Look at the title. What does the title „„

While Reading

tell you about the text?

See Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words, p. VI

Where is Peru? „„ What do you know about Peru? „„ Look at the pictures on this page. „„

What mental pictures can you „„ create in each sentence?

What information is relevant „„

What do they suggest about Peru? What are these strange pictures?

1

The Nazca Lines Imagine this. You are flying some 350 kilometres south of Lima, Peru. As you look out the window of your airplane you notice strange lines on the desert below. A closer look reveals that some lines look like a monkey or a spider or even a humming bird. There are straight lines, curved lines, lines that represent geometric shapes of all kinds. Some straight lines are 50 kilometres long, some biomorphs (drawings of animals) are from 30 metres to 400 metres long. The enigma is the following: who created the lines, why were they created and, even more mysterious, how were they created?

2

Scientists believe that the majority of lines were made by the Nazca people, who lived in that area of Peru up until the 7th century. Here are some of the theories about how those lines were drawn: • The simplest theory is that those lines were simply roads. Nothing exciting there. • Signals or offerings perhaps, to celestial beings like extraterrestrials or gods. • A calendar possibly? Who knows… The sun sets directly at the end of one of the lines the day after the winter solstice. • Giant landing zones for extraterrestrials. Some people believe this theory because the lines can only be seen clearly from the sky.

3

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in each sentence?

Not one of the various theories has been proven yet. The other question is, how did they do it? These are not simple short lines. The area covered by the lines is 520 square kilometres. What do you think?

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The Lines of Peru

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Which theory is the simplest?

2

Since the lines are only visible from the air, what do some people think they are?

3

According to scientists, when were the lines created?

4

What kinds of lines are seen from the air in the Nazca Desert?

Complete the Sentences Complete the sentences using the information provided in the text. Example: The lines on the desert were very probably made

by the Nazca tribe

a) The bizarre thing about the lines is that they are visible

. ª.

b) The Nazca Desert is located in

ª.

c) The area of the Nazca Desert is

ª.

d) The lines could be

to spacemen.

e) Of the theories about why the Nazca tribe created these lines,

ª.

f) Some of the Nazca Lines are in the shape of animals, called

ª.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2

Why would anyone read this text?

3

How do you think the Nazca people were able to create these lines? Explain.

4

What images do you recognize in the numbered pictures on page 43?

What do you believe the Nazca Lines are there for? Explain.

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Resurrection Mary Before Reading If you like thrills and chills, then ghost stories are for you. Ghost stories are usually about love and loss, and what happens after.

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Ghost stories are rarely about happy „„

Which paragraph is about „„

What word in the title gives you a clue that „„

Which paragraph describes „„

Mary’s looks?

endings. Why is that? this is a ghost story?

What do you like or dislike about ghost „„ stories?

what Resurrection Mary is doing when she is seen?

What are the main ideas „„

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in the other paragraphs?

There are many stories about ghosts. One of the most famous is about a young Chicago woman called Resurrection Mary. Who is she or, should I say, who was she? No one seems to know exactly who Resurrection Mary was, but most people think she is the ghost of a girl who died in the 1930s.

Most versions of the Resurrection Mary legend indicate that she and her boyfriend were at the Oh Henry Ballroom. At one point they had an argument and she ran out into the night. She was hit by a car a few minutes later. clutch purse Resurrection Mary usually hitchhikes and is “picked up” near the area in which she supposedly died, just a few miles from a popular dance hall. She asks to be taken to Archer Avenue, along which Resurrection Cemetery is located, but never gives a definite address. It is only when the cemetery comes into view that she asks the driver to stop and let her out. When the driver pulls up in front of Resurrection Cemetery, she exits. She then walks through the cemetery gates and disappears.

hitchhikes asks for a ride

Vocabulary

This theory is based mostly on the style of her clothing. Resurrection Mary is always seen in the white dress and white dancing shoes she was wearing on the night she died. Some witnesses also report seeing a small clutch purse in her hand.

picked up got in the car

pulls up stops

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Resurrection Mary

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Where does the story take place?

2

How old was Resurrection Mary when she died?

3

Where was she last seen alive?

4

Why do some people think she died in the 1930s?

5

How does she get to Archer Avenue?

6

What is on Archer Avenue?

7

How did she die?

Synonym Activity Find the words in the first column, in the text. Circle the appropriate synonym. Example: ghost

phantom

hint

entity

a) famous

popular

favourite

unknown

b) argument

claim

dispute

agreement

c)

arrives

continues

lifts up

graves

gains

doors

pulls up

d) gates

The main gate of Resurrection Cemetery on Archer Avenue

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

How would you react if you came face to face with a ghost? Have you or anyone you know ever seen a ghost? Explain. Do you think Resurrection Mary is a frightening figure? Why? Why is a belief in ghosts found in all cultures? What do you like or dislike about this story? Why?

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The Mummy’s Curse Before Reading Look at the picture on this page. „„

What do you know about Ancient „„

Where have you seen a picture like „„

Where could you find out something „„

Who is it?

this before?

Egypt?

about Ancient Egypt?

While Reading See Infer with cognates and/or words you already know, p. VI

causes. How many more words can you find in the text that are similar to the French?

The Lines News

Vocabulary

London, March 1939 Today, the great Howard Carter died of natural causes. He was 66. Howard Carter discovered one of the greatest treasures of all time, the tomb of Tutankhamen. Tutankhamen was the 19-year-old Boy King who died around 1349 BCE. When the archaeologist finally opened the tomb, he read the following words on a tablet on the door of the tomb: “Death shall come on swift wings to those who disturb the peace of the King.”

Carter was not a superstitious man. He did not take the warning seriously. However, since the opening of the tomb in 1922, many of those present have died mysterious deaths. A man called Lord Carnarvon funded the excavation. He died of an infection from an insect bite on his cheek and was the first victim of the curse. Carter’s yellow canary died from a cobra bite. Carnarvon’s half brother, Aubrey Herbert, died of peritonitis. Ali Farmy Bey was an Egyptian

BCE

peritonitis

Before (the) Common Era

an infection

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There are many words in the text that are similar to the French, such as natural „„

Howard Carter

prince descended from the pharaohs. He was murdered in London after he was photographed visiting King Tut’s tomb. His brother committed suicide.

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The Mummy’s Curse on. All in all, there have been 21 victims. Howard Carter never believed in the curse. He died today of natural causes

in London. Perhaps the power of a curse is only in the mind of the person who believes it.

King Tut was born around the year 1368 BCE. He was the 12th king of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. His father Akhenaten was forced to abdicate, leaving 9-year-old Tutankhamen to take over the crown. The same year that Tutankhamen came to power, he married Ankhesenamun, his half sister and the daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. King Tut died at the age of 19 of unknown causes. Tutankhamen is famous because his burial chamber was one of the rare Egyptian tombs found intact. abdicate give up the throne

After Reading

Vocabulary

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George Jay Gould was a rich American who visited the tomb. He died of pneumonia after catching cold in the tomb. The list goes on and

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

How long did Tutankhamen live?

2

Who discovered Tutankhamen’s tomb?

3

When was the tomb discovered?

4

What did the curse mean?

5

Who was the first person to die?

6

How did Lord Carnarvon die?

7

Who died of peritonitis?

8

Who was murdered in London?

9

How many victims are reported to have died?

What was Howard Carter’s reaction to the curse?

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The Mummy’s Curse

True or False Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If it is false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True False Example: Tutankhamen married at age 19.

Correct Answer

X

He married at age 9.

a) Nefertiti was Tutankhamen’s mother.

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b) Ankhesenamun was Tutankhamen’s half sister and wife. c) Tutankhamen was the 18th king of the 12th Dynasty of Egypt. d) Tutankhamen’s father died when he was 9 years old. e) Tutankhamen died at the age of 19 from peritonitis. f) King Tut’s tomb was intact for more than 3,200 years after his death.

Tomb of Tutankhamen

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

Do you think there really was a curse? Explain. What was the author’s purpose in writing this text? Explain. What type of text is this? What do you find particular about the tomb in the picture above?

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The World of Sport Did you know that rope climbing used to be an Olympic discipline? Did you know that lacrosse is the national summer sport in Canada? See pages 56 and 66 to learn more about it.

Golf Etiquette

54

Olympic Disciplines That No Longer Exist

56

A Very Brief History of Doping

59

A Legend

62

The Paralympic Games

64

Lacrosse

66

Wingsuiting

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UNIT 4

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Golf Etiquette Before Reading

While Reading

What is etiquette? „„ What are some examples of „„

See Infer with cognates and/or words you already know, p. VI

school etiquette? What are some school rules with which you agree or disagree? Why?

What do you know about golf? „„

Look at the title. Etiquette is an English „„

word that comes from the French. It means the same thing in both languages. Many words are the same or similar in French and English.

Look at the text. How many words can you „„

A

“Let me know if I am distracting you.”

3

Quick Rules

courtesy politeness

1

Respect the dress standards set by the club where you are playing. For instance, at most clubs you can’t wear jeans to play. At others, your shirt must be tucked into your pants. At all clubs, the rules say you can’t play wearing sandals.

2

Don’t wear your spiked shoes in the clubhouse. It is true that today’s golf shoes have rubber spikes and won’t mark the hardwood floors or carpets, but still…

Invite faster groups to play through. “Playing through” means letting a faster group pass in front of you. That way, they won’t have to wait too long, while you play.

4

Don’t stand directly in front of anyone playing a shot. Obviously it would be very dangerous. Don’t stand close behind either!

5

Don’t hit the ball if you think it might strike one of the players ahead. It’s a question of safety and courtesy.

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Golf is a game with a lot of dos and don’ts. So, with all these rules, why would anyone really enjoy playing golf? Perhaps it’s because, in spite of all the dos and don’ts, there is one important DO. Do have fun.

Vocabulary

find that are similar in French and English?

B

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6

Always be quiet when another player is about to play his ball. Talking can be very distracting and the other player may miss his shot.

7

Stand still when another player is about to hit. For the same reason as the one above.

8

Don’t drag your feet when you are on a green. It damages the surface. to drag

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9

Don’t leave the ball in the hole when you putt. You should always remove your ball from the hole as soon as you finish playing.

to trail along the ground

Vocabulary

Golf Etiquette

Turn off your cellphone. This too can be very distracting. Take time to relax as you play. Put your cellphone on “off” and enjoy the game.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What three things might distract a player?

2

What could happen if you play your ball and someone is in front of you?

3

What should you not do in the clubhouse?

4

What should you do when there is a faster group behind?

5

What is important when you are on a green?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

4 5

Which rule is illustrated in illustration A on page 54?

2

Which rule is illustrated in illustration B on page 54?

3

Which rule do you find most important? Explain.

Where would you find this type of text? Do you know another sport that has rules of etiquette? Which one? Explain.

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Olympic Disciplines That No Longer Exist What do you like or dislike about the Olympic „„ Games?

What is your favourite Olympic sport? Why? „„ Do you prefer competitive or non-competitive „„ sports? Why?

What is more exciting to watch, team sports „„ or individual sports? Why?

While Reading See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Name some of the sports „„ in the pictures.

Look at the subtitles in „„

the text. Why do you think these competitions were cancelled?

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Before Reading

The Olympic Games have changed a bit since they were revived in 1896 by Pierre de Coubertin. Some sports were added and others dropped. Here is a short list of sports that have been dropped from the modern Olympics.

Pigeon Shooting In shooting competitions, clay discs called clay pigeons are used. In the 1900 Olympics in Paris, real pigeons were used instead of clay ones. During those Games, 300 pigeons were killed. The 1904 Games no longer used live pigeons.

Tug-of-War

Rope Climbing Rope climbing was also an Olympic event until the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics. The rules? Very simple: get to the top before anyone else.

gatherings a group of persons together in one place

Vocabulary

Here is something many people play at picnics or other gatherings. The game tug-of-war consists of a team on each end of a long rope trying to pull the opposing team across a line. Well, believe it or not, this was an Olympic sport until the 1920 Antwerp Games.

Solo Synchronized Swimming You have all heard of synchronized swimming. A group of young ladies swim in perfect harmony with each other. In 1984, solo synchronized swimming appeared. You are probably asking yourself, if you are swimming alone, with 56

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Olympic Disciplines That No Longer Exist whom are you synchronized? The answer is simple: you are synchronized with the music, doing a solo choreography. In 1996, it became a team event. Men have never been allowed to compete in that event. How’s that for being sexist?

Croquet

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Remember croquet? The game where you have to pass a wooden ball through a series of hoops using a mallet. Believe it or not, this was an Olympic discipline just once, at the 1900 Paris Olympics.

Duelling Would you believe that duelling was once (and only once) an Olympic event? Duelling involves two people facing each other with pistols, who then shoot at each other. The Olympic version consisted of a man standing at a distance of 20 or 30 metres and shooting at a plaster dummy dressed in a coat.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What are the three sports that were officially Olympic sports during only one Olympiad?

2

What was the aim of solo synchronized swimming?

3

What are the three cities mentioned in the text that hosted the Olympic Games?

Matching Activity Write the matching sport for each statement. a) Its principal sporting equipment includes a mallet and a wooden ball. b) Its last appearance at the Olympics was in 1932. c) Its practise involved numerous deaths. d) Its Olympic version was a gentler version of a deadlier practise. e) It is played by a whole group of people at once. f) It is a discipline in which only women were allowed to compete.

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Olympic Disciplines That No Longer Exist

True or False Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True False

Correct Answer

a) People use clay discs instead of real pigeons today. b) 300 pigeons were killed in the 1904 Olympics. c) Tug-of-war and rope climbing use the same accessories.

e) Duelling was never an Olympic sport.

Synonyms In the text, find synonyms for the following words. a) sphere

f) precede

b) bird

g) physical activity

c) removed

h) a sort of hammer

d) thick string

i) meetings

e) firearms

j) alone

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d) Solo synchronized swimming was an Olympic event until 1996.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Which Olympic sport would the SPCA not approve?

7 8 9

Would synchronized swimming for men be exciting to watch? Why?

Which sport would you bring back if you could? Why? Which actual Olympic sport would you drop? Why? Which sport would you add to the list of Olympic disciplines? Why? What is the purpose of this text? Where would you find a text like this one? a) Internet c) A book on the Olympic Games b) Magazine d) All three Why do you think tug-of-war and croquet were dropped as Olympic sports? Which Olympic sports mentioned above could be practised at any age? Why? Which of the sports mentioned above do you consider to be especially violent? Explain.

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A Very Brief History of Doping Before Reading What is your opinion about „„ taking drugs to improve performance in sport?

Why is the concept of being fair „„ in sport important?

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Why is honesty important? „„

While Reading See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI

Sport can bring the best out of people, and the worst. Unfortunately, cheating has been around for a long time and not only in sport. Who do you know who has cheated and „„ lied in a sport or any other situation?

Who do you know who has taken drugs „„

to gain an unfair advantage in a sport? Where does the word doping come from? The word doping probably comes from the Dutch word dop. It was the name of a drink used by the Zulus to give them strength during a battle against the Dutch in South Africa. Even the Ancient Greeks used special diets and potions to make them strong during sporting events.

As you can see, doping is nothing new to the world of sport. But doping has come a long way since the Ancient Greeks. In the 19th century, cyclists would take caffeine, cocaine or alcohol to help them perform better. One of the first cases of doping in the modern Olympics took place at the 1904 Olympic Games. Thomas Hicks used a combination of raw eggs and brandy to help him win the marathon.

Vocabulary

Unfortunately, doping has made progress since the days of raw eggs and brandy. Today, doping involves the injection of potentially dangerous drugs. As doping began to get out of control, drug tests were Ben Johnson at the finish line of the 1988 introduced to discourage athletes from taking any. Seoul Olympics’ 100-metre race The first drug tests took place at the 1968 Olympic raw Winter Games in Grenoble. But did that discourage anyone? uncooked Regrettably, no. Some athletes continued using illegal drugs to boost their performance. The most notorious example took place at to boost the 1988 Olympic Games. to help 59

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Geneviève Jeanson

Lance Armstrong

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A Very Brief History of Doping

Martina Hingis

Thankfully, most athletes want to practise their sport in an honest way and are taking action to stop drugs in sport. Is it worthwhile to cheat? Geneviève Jeanson, Lance Armstrong and Martina Hingis were great names in their respective sports, winning titles and at times acting as an inspiration to young people. Sadly, they will be best remembered as cheaters. As the saying goes, you can’t fool all the people all the time.

to be stripped to be deprived

Vocabulary

The men’s 100-metre race at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, in which Ben Johnson became the fastest man on Earth, was soon called by the media, “The dirtiest race in history.” Johnson won the 100-metre sprint in 9.79 seconds. But it turned out that he was taking steroids, so he was stripped of his gold medal. The medal then went to Carl Lewis, who finished second. Yet he should also have been disqualified, since he also failed the drug test. Actually, the only one who did not fail the test was Calvin Smith, who came in third.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What is the origin of the word doping?

2

What does dop mean?

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A Very Brief History of Doping 3

What did 19th-century athletes consume to make them perform better?

4

What substance helped Tom Hicks win the 1904 Olympic marathon?

5

How did the Ancient Greeks “cheat”?

6

Where did the first anti-drug test take place?

7

Who was considered the fastest man on Earth during the Seoul Olympics of 1988?

8

How did he lose his title?

9

Who received the gold medal in his place?

Who should have received the gold? Why?

What was the reason for creating drug tests?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Do you think drug tests should continue? Why?

7 8 9

What does the last line tell you about the author’s opinion of performance-enhancing drugs?

What do you think of people who lie and cheat to gain an unfair advantage? What happens to the “spirit of the game” when people cheat? Which sports did Geneviève Jeanson, Lance Armstrong and Martina Hingis practise? What do you think the expression “Y “You can’t fool all the people all the time” means? The text mentions that “the Greeks used special diets and potions to make them strong during sporting events.” Do you think using a special diet and potions is cheating? What does the expression “the dirtiest race in history” mean? If you were an Olympic judge at the 1904 Games, would you have disqualified Thomas Hicks because he used a combination of raw eggs and brandy to help him win the marathon? Explain your answer.

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A Legend Before Reading

While Reading

What do you find exciting about „„ hockey?

See Scan the text, p. VI

Why was Maurice Richard nicknamed „„

Look at the illustrations. Who is „„

“The Rocket”?

this text about? What do you know and think about this person?

How many goals did Maurice Richard „„

Joseph Henri Maurice “The Rocket” How old was Maurice Richard when „„ Richard is a Canadian hockey legend. he retired from hockey? Maurice Richard was born on August 4, 1921. He was the eldest of eight children of Onésime and Alice Richard. At age four, he began playing hockey on a backyard rink, built by his father. As a teen, Richard excelled at baseball and boxing. He played hockey as much as he could, sometimes twice per night and four games on the weekend.

Richard married his teenage sweetheart Lucille Norchet in 1942. Maurice had met Lucille when she was 13 and he was 16. He then played for the Paquette Club in the Park Lafontaine Juvenile League. The team was coached by Lucille’s brother Maurice Richard George. The couple announced their engagement when she was 17 and Maurice was 20. He worked with his father as a machinist. That was his only income, other than some income in the winter with the senior Canadiens hockey team.

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score in his career? How exceptional is that?

Richard played for the Montreal Canadiens in the National Hockey League (NHL) from 1942 to 1960. “The Rocket,” as he came to be known, was the most prolific goal-scorer of his time. He was the first to score 50 goals in 50 games and the first to score 500 goals in a career. Richard helped win the Stanley Cup eight times for Montreal, and once more as Assistant to the President of the Montreal Canadiens. He won the Hart Trophy for most valuable player in 1947. He was elected eight times to the first all-star team and six times to the second all-star team. The Rocket played in every National Hockey League All-Star Game, from 1947 to 1959. He was made a member of the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1961. Normally players have to wait three years after their retirement to

Statue of Maurice “The Rocket” Richard in Gatineau

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A Legend be part of the Hockey Hall of Fame. Since 1999, the NHL has awarded the Maurice Richard Trophy to the league’s leading goal scorer during the regular season. He died on May 27, 2000. To show how much of an impact he had made on Quebecers, a state funeral was held. This was the first state funeral ever held for a non-politician.

After Reading

Montreal Canadiens, October 1942

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Answer the questions with complete sentences.

1

What was Maurice Richard’s nickname?

2

When did he start playing hockey?

3

Besides playing hockey, what was his job?

4

How old was he when he started playing for the Montreal Canadiens?

5

How long did he play for the Canadiens?

6

How many Stanley Cups did he win?

7

Which other trophy did he win?

8

Name one record he set.

9

Name two things the NHL did to honour him.

Name another first in his honour.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

What kind of text is this? Who is your favourite hockey player? Why? Why do you think people admire “The Rocket”? What would you say to “The Rocket” if you met him on the street? In your opinion, what is the most exceptional thing about “The Rocket”?

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The Paralympic Games Before Reading Paralympic athletes are „„

exceptional people. What is so extraordinary about them?

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Look at the picture of the „„

Look at the first sentence in the first „„

What other Paralympic athletes „„

Look at the first and last sentences in „„

woman. Who is she? What is special about her?

paragraph. What are the keywords? What is the paragraph about? the second paragraph. What is the main idea of the second paragraph?

do you know?

What is this text about?

The first Paralympic Games took place in 1960 in Rome, Italy. Four hundred athletes from 23 countries took part in this event. The first winter Paralympic Games took place in 1976 in Sweden. Like the “regular” Olympic Games, they take place every four years and in the same city as the “regular” Olympic Games. Who can participate in the Paralympics? They are open to any athlete with any disability. Of course, they must first qualify. The first official Paralympics were held in 1960. But in 1948, in Mandeville, England, Sir Ludwig Guttmann organized a sports competition for soldiers who had suffered paralyzing back injuries during World War II. Four years later, competitors from Holland joined the Games, and the international movement, now known as the Paralympic Movement, was born. The Paralympics then went on to include people with all kinds of disabilities. Blind and amputee athletes were included at the 1976 Paralympic Games.

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Look at the first sentence in the frame. „„

One of the most famous Paralympic athletes is Chantal Petitclerc. At age 13, she lost the use of both legs when a heavy barn door fell on her. When she was 18, she was introduced to wheelchair sports. While working very hard to become a wheelchair athlete, she continued her studies in social sciences in a CEGEP in Quebec. She then went on to study history at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. She participated in her first Paralympic Games in Barcelona in 1992. She won two bronze medals there. That was the start of a collection that now includes 21 Paralympic medals, including 14 gold. Since 2012, she holds five world records for wheelchair racing. In 2009, she was made a Companion of the Order of Canada. In 2012, she received an Honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the University of Alberta.

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The Paralympic Games

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

When did the first Paralympic Games take place?

2

Who came up with the idea of sports events for disabled soldiers?

3

Where did the first Paralympic Winter Games take place?

4

Name two things the Olympics and Paralympics have in common.

5

People with which disabilities were first included in the 1976 Games?

6

When did Chantal Petitclerc start practising wheelchair sports?

7

How many medals did she win in her Paralympic career?

8

Other than her world records, name two honours she has received.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Do you know any disabled people who practise a sport? What is particular about the picture in this text? What is the reason for reading a text such as this one? From the last paragraph in the text, what do you think is Chantal Petitclerc’s attitude toward life? Why do you think the Paralympic Games were created? What is the main theme of this text? What do you believe Sir Ludwig Guttmann’s opinion was about injured soldiers? If you were asked to change the title of the text, what would it be and why?

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Lacrosse Before Reading

While Reading

What do you know about Lacrosse? „„ Why do you think Lacrosse is very „„

See Predict, p. VI

Where do you think Lacrosse „„

popular, especially in schools?

was invented?

BAGGATAWAY NOW CALLED LACROSSE

Number of players reduced to 10 on each team

1867, THE LACROSSE ORGANIZATION FOUNDED TO CREATE RULES FOR THE GAME

Game shortened to last four 25-minute per iods instead of one day

1908 – Lacrosse is played for the last time as an actual Olympic event in London, and Canada again wins the gold medal.

FIRST MENTION OF THE GAME BY JEAN DE BRÉBEUF, A JESUIT MISSIONARY WHO SAW THE HURONS PLAYING IT 1890 – The first women’s lacrosse game is played at St. Leonard’s School in St. Andrew’s, Scotland. NEW RULES: no slashing, no holding, no pushing from behind, no illega l checking

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Four people must play in the defensive end at all times.

When was it invented? „„ Who do you think invented it? „„

1904 – Lacrosse is first played as an actual event at the Olympics in St. Louis, with Canada winning the gold medal. Lacrosse was reconfirmed by Parliament as the National (Summer) Sport of Canada in 1994.

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Lacrosse

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

When was the Lacrosse Organization founded?

2

How many players are allowed on each team now?

3

Who was the first European to mention the sport?

4

How long did the first games last?

5

What did Parliament do in 1994 regarding lacrosse?

6

How long does a lacrosse game last today?

7

When was the first women’s lacrosse game played?

8

In how many Olympiads was lacrosse an official sport? Which ones?

Find the Right Rule Read the descriptions and write the corresponding rule you can find in the text. a) You cannot push the back of your opponent. b) You cannot charge, hit from behind or board your opponent. c) You cannot swing your lacrosse stick at an opposing player. d) You cannot grab an opponent’s body, equipment or clothing.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2

What type of texts are these?

3 4 5

What are the similarities or differences between lacrosse and other team games?

Have you ever seen a lacrosse game? If yes, did you find it interesting? Why? If no, would you be interested in seeing a game? Why? Would you like to play lacrosse? Why? What is the main theme of the text?

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Wingsuiting What is an extreme „„

sport? Give examples of extreme sports.

What makes it extreme? „„ Have you ever watched „„ extreme sports?

While Reading See Infer with visuals and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the illustration on this page. What „„ does the picture tell you about the text?

What type of sport is it? „„ Where could a person practise a sport like this? „„

Do you like big thrills? Would you like riding a huge roller coaster that goes up and down, round and round, and upside down? Have you ever dreamed of flying like Superman? Well, now you can! Wingsuit flying is just what you are looking for. Here are a few basic rules: 1 You must be at least 18 years old. 2 You must have a minimum of 200 parachute jumps. Once these two basic conditions are met, you can suit up. You dress up in a suit that looks like a cross between a flying squirrel and a snow angel and then either jump out of an airplane or from the top of a very high cliff or mountain. Naturally, you need a parachute to land safely on the ground. Wingsuit flyers have to open their parachutes and float the rest of the way down to the ground. Wingsuiters can’t reduce their speed fast enough for a safe landing without the use of a parachute. But before you open your chute, you can glide for a longer time than if you were simply parachuting. You can also travel longer distances, giving you the impression you are flying.

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Before Reading

What is a wingsuit? It’s a piece of equipment with three wings between arms and legs. These wings inflate like a parachute would as you fall. Since it is shaped just like an airplane wing, it allows you to glide great distances across the sky. So, if you are into great big thrills, wingsuiting may be just right for you, but, remember, it is still a very dangerous sport and takes a lot of time to master.

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Wingsuiting

After Reading

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Answer the following questions using complete sentences.

1

What is a wingsuit compared to?

2

Where can you jump from in a wingsuit?

3

Can you glide all the way to the ground? If not, what do you need?

4

How many wings does a wingsuit have?

5

What does a wingsuit allow you to do?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3

Find a simile in the text.

4 5 6 7 8 9

Which phobia is the worst for a wingsuiter? Why?

Do you like extreme sports? Which ones and why? If you had the chance, would you try wingsuiting if you have reached the age and experience requirements? Why? What is the author’s opinion about wingsuiting? What is the purpose of the text? By looking at the picture above, does the sport seem interesting? Why? Why would you not be allowed to practise wingsuiting? Although the author seems to like wingsuiting, what advice does he give?

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The World of Cinema Did you know 3-D movies were invented in the 1950s? Did you know you could fly like Superman with the help of a green screen? See pages 76 and 87 to learn more about it.

UNIT 5

Anecdotes in the Life and Death of Charlie Chaplin

71

The Daily Mirror Movie Classifieds

74

A Short History of Cinema

76

The Stunt Double

79

James Bond: Secret Agent 007

82

The Dog Who Stopped the War

85

Green-Screen Magic

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Anecdotes in the Life and Death of Charlie Chaplin Before Reading Look at the illustration. Have you ever seen this person in a movie? „„ Can you guess when this person lived? „„ What do you already know about this person, if anything? „„

While Reading © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the title. An „„

Look at the keywords „„

Look at the first subtitle. „„

Look at the title of the „„

anecdote is a short, amusing or interesting story about a person. Why is there an exclamation mark after the subtitle? Can you guess what this first anecdote is about?

in the title of the second anecdote. What is the second anecdote about? third anecdote. What is the third anecdote about?

Charlie Chaplin was a filmmaker of the silent movie era at the beginning of the 20th century. He starred in his own movies and created a character that made him famous: the little tramp. The little tramp was a clown. He dressed in a black suit and tie, wore large clownish shoes and a bowler hat, and carried a cane. His walk resembled that of a duck. There are many anecdotes about Charlie Chaplin. Here are three of the better known ones.

Can’t Win Them All! bowler hat a famous English hat with a round crown

look-alike Charlie Chaplin holding a doll version of his popular film character, Little Tramp, in 1918

resemble

Vocabulary

Charlie Chaplin became so famous that there were look-alike contests all over the world. One particular contest took place in San Francisco in 1915. Since he happened to be nearby, Chaplin decided to enter the contest as a joke to see if he would be recognized. He arrived there without his hat, large shoes, cane and moustache, all elements that made him immediately recognizable. But he never even made the finals. He was eliminated after the first round. This would be the equivalent of, let’s say, Céline Dion not being chosen at a singing contest. It seems that Charlie Chaplin the 71

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Anecdotes in the Life and Death of Charlie Chaplin imitator was not as good as the real Charlie! Was he insulted? Not in the least. Charlie Chaplin knew a funny situation when he saw one.

Chaplin was a lover of horses, races and the tango. He was an excellent dancer. In Buenos Aires, Jose A. Molet composed a tango called Carlitos Chaplin in his honour. As you probably guessed, the title is Spanish for “Charlie Chaplin.” Chaplin was not only an excellent dancer, he also had a very good ear for music, especially when it came to the tango. He composed his own tango for his movie City Lights. The title of his tango is Beautiful Wonderful Eyes.

No Rest (in Peace) for the Famous Famous people are very often bothered by adoring fans. That is something they expect and mostly accept. However, Charlie Chaplin was one of those movie stars who would gladly sign an autograph or take a picture with a fan (selfies were not invented at that time). Two “fans” took things a bit too far. A few months after Chaplin’s death, his body was stolen and held for ransom by two mechanics. After an 11-week search, the thieves were caught and poor Charlie’s body found in a field. No ransom was ever paid. Just to be sure something like this would not happen again, Chaplin’s family had his body buried under a thick layer of cement. So he is finally resting in peace!

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Chaplin and the Tango!

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

When did Charlie Chaplin enter a look-alike contest?

2

Where did this contest take place?

3

In which position did he finish?

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Anecdotes in the Life and Death of Charlie Chaplin 4

What was unusual about his dress in this contest?

5

If Chaplin was an excellent actor, what else was he good at?

6

Who composed Beautiful Wonderful Eyes?

7

What did the family do to prevent someone from stealing Chaplin’s body again?

True or False Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True

False

Correct Answer

a) Charlie Chaplin was a famous star of the 19th century. b) He was an excellent dancer.

c) He composed the tango called Carlitos Chaplin. d) His body was stolen and a ransom had to be paid. e) He lost a Charlie Chaplin look-alike contest.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Name two things you learned about Charlie Chaplin from this text. What is the conclusion of the anecdote about the look-alike contest? Why do you think the two mechanics stole the body? Who do you consider to be a great comic today? Why? What do you think was Chaplin’s reaction after he lost the look-alike contest? Why do you think Jose A. Molet wanted to honour Chaplin by composing Carlitos Chaplin? Look at the pictures on page 71. Would you have recognized Charlie Chaplin without his Little Tramp accessories? Explain.

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The Daily Mirror Movie Classifieds Before Reading job? Why?

What do you have „„

to do to reach your goals?

While Reading See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the title. What can you guess from the title? „„ What can you guess from the words in capital letters? „„

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What is your dream „„

The Daily Mirror Movie Classifieds

Are you a lighting technician? Do you wish to pursue a great career in the film industry? We are looking for a GAFFER to manage our electricians in their work. For more information, call Bill at 514-555-1234, ext. 71. Do you have any experience with cameras? KEY GRIP wanted. Job consists of moving cameras from one position to another during filming. Call Jill at 514-555-1234, ext. 72.

If you have a green thumb, we need you. Our company is now looking for GARDENERS. They are in charge of dressing the set with greenery. Interested? Call Sam at 514-555-1234, ext. 73. Are you fearless? Can you work under pressure? Do you have more than a working knowledge of camera equipment and lenses? We are looking for an AERIAL CAMERA ASSISTANT. If you are up to the challenge, call Evel at 514-555-1234, ext. 74. Can you read complex architectural drawings? Do you have first-rate carpentry skills? Do you have the physical strength and stamina to work long hours? If so, we are looking for CARPENTERS to work on movie sets. You must be able to build a fake house, building or room so that it looks like a real one. At times you will work indoors and at other times, outdoors. Interested? Call Frank at 514-555-1234 ext. 75.

MUSIC DIRECTOR wanted. You must have a solid musical background, as you will be responsible for composing movie soundtracks. You must be creative enough to translate the director’s vision into music. You will also have to put together a team of musicians to interpret and record the soundtrack of the film. Call Kent at 514-555-1234, ext. 76. Can you transform anyone from a regular person into a hideous, frightening monster? If you have the necessary skills as a MAKEUP ARTIST, you are just the person we are looking for. Call Lily for an interview at 514-555-1234, ext. 77. Bring a portfolio of your work. greenery flowers and plants

fearless unafraid

stamina endurance

Vocabulary

A large, well-known film company is looking for people to fill the following positions: If you wish to enter the movie business, this is your chance. We are looking for JUICERS. The chosen candidate, an electrician, will need to have a good knowledge of lighting. Must be able to repair electrical machinery. If interested, contact Will at 514-555-1234 ext. 70.

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The Daily Mirror Movie Classifieds

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Who works with lighting and repairs electrical machinery?

2

What does a gaffer do?

3

Who do the candidates for the position of gaffer need to contact?

4

What experience does a key grip need?

5

What is the similarity between a juicer and a gaffer?

6

What can a makeup artist do?

7

What does a gardener do on the set?

Writing Activity Think of a business you would like to start and complete the ad in order to hire people. Do you have any experience with (write three required skills) ? We are looking for (write the name of the job)

. Job consists of . Call (write your name)

at 514-555-1234.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

According to the text, what do you think “to have a green thumb” means? What do all these ads have in common? Why do you think this company is recruiting all these people? Where would you find ads like these posted? Of all the jobs posted, which seems the most difficult to you? Why? Which one do you find the most interesting? Why?

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A Short History of Cinema Before Reading

While Reading

What would you like to learn about „„ the cinema?

See Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words, p. VI

What is the oldest movie you know „„

What information is relevant „„

about?

in each sentence?

Can you name some innovations „„

What innovations are presented? „„ Who made changes to cinema „„

in the movie business?

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

over the years?

The Lumière cinematograph, invented and demonstrated by Louis Jean and Auguste Lumière

Thomas Edison invents the kinetoscope. This is a mini-movie machine that can only be watched by one person at a time.

Decembe

r

1895

Showing of th e first ever mo tion picture entitle d Train Arrivin g at a Station by th e Lumière bro thers. It’s a silent mo vie in black an d white. August e Lumière says movie fad will not last.

1912 to 1927

Cinema’s silent era. Great stars such as Chaplin, Valentino, Barrymore and others make movie magic come to life for millions of people.

1912

Movie giants move to new site. Hollywood is created. Perfect location because of climate and scenery. kinetoscope machine for watching movies

1927

vie industry. People not • Sound. Great change in the mo , they can now also only watch their favourite actors for some. Great listen. Unfortunately, careers end utiful voices. faces do not necessarily mean bea movie starring • First talkie, The Jazz Singer, a Al Jolson.

1930s

Middle of decade sees another great innovation in cinema: colour. Old movies improved.

fad

1950s

a fashion that will pass

Vocabulary

1892

allenge: Cinema meets first true ch le in every ab ail television. Television av le at the movies. home means fewer peop ative. Film industry becomes cre , Surround 3-D , pe Cinerama, Cinemasco mething called Sound, Imax and even so ted, others Smell-O-Vision. Some las faded away.

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A Short History of Cinema

90s 1980s to 19

1970s

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Videocassettes make commercial-free movie viewing possible in comfort of home.

New innovations in the film industry: DVDs; use of computers for special effec ts; bigger movie complexes.

2000

Tomorrow

a lot of Newer innovations for the 21st century: There have been Today, Blu-Ray innovations in the movie industry since the early days. that are ns scree movie is replacing the old DVD. There are IMAX re giving pictu gigantic. Some IMAX theatres project a 360-degree Demand you the impression you are right in the movie. Video On and home stay can you Now is another computer-age innovation. can You n. scree watch your favourite movie right on your computer room living even watch a 3-D movie, like Avatar, right in your own on a big screen TV.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Who invented a mini-movie machine?

2

When did the Lumière brothers project their first film?

3

What was the title of that film?

4

Give two characteristics of the first movies.

5

What did Auguste Lumière think of the cinema business?

6

When did sound appear in films?

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A Short History of Cinema 7

What was the title of the first talking movie?

8

What great innovation occurred in the 1930s?

9

What was the greatest challenge the cinema had to face?

gimmick

Put the following events in chronological order from the earliest to the latest. sound • television • colour • silent movies • videocassettes

something used to attract customers

Interesting Facts Complete the following timeline by indicating one element that you find interesting for each. Example: 1890–1900

Edison invents the kinetoscope or first silent movie.

1900–1920

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Chronological Events

Vocabulary

Name three gimmicks the film industry used to attract people.

1921–1940 1941–1960 1961–1980 1981–2000 2001–????

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

Why do you think there are question marks for tomorrow? What invention of the 50s made a comeback later on? Of all the inventions mentioned in the text, which do you find most interesting? Why? What new innovation in cinema would you like to see? This type of text is called a: a) memo b) fiction

c) timeline

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The Stunt Double Before Reading A stunt double replaces an actor in a movie. Do stunt „„

doubles only represent the main actor in dangerous scenes?

In what other scenes would they double the leading actors? „„ What is the difference between a daredevil and a stunt „„ double? Hint: Evel Knievel was a daredevil.

While Reading See Infer with cognates and/or word you already know, p. VI

(line 6). The second part of the word is also a French word. Now, read the whole sentence. Can you guess what wardrobe means?

What other words in the „„

text are similar to French?

How many words do you „„

already know? Can they help you understand words you don’t know yet?

Courageous and dedicated stunt people perform dangerous car chases, high falls, crashes and fight sequences in every high-action film. Stunt doubles do dangerous stunts in almost every major motion picture. The men and women are very well trained. They sometimes resemble the leading man or woman in the movie. They also dress in the same wardrobe as the leading actor. The audience cannot detect these doubles at a distance. They are usually filmed with their backs to the camera. This makes it more difficult to see that it is not the star of the movie. When the camera comes in for a close-up, it looks like the leading actor is performing the stunt. Does this sound like an exciting job? Do you think you would like to be a stunt double? If the answer is yes, here are a few conditions. To be a stunt double, you should have: 1. Excellent physical fitness and a commitment to staying very fit. 2. Interest and ability in several sports and outdoor pursuits. Stunt doubles are rarely overweight. 3. Good communication and “people skills” with an ability to work well in a team, since you are working in dangerous situations with other people. 4. Quick reactions and calmness under pressure. During a stunt, it is no time to panic. 5. A willingness to work in dangerous situations. 6. A high degree of responsibility and attention to detail. Your life may depend on details. 7. Some acting skills (although formal training is not essential).

stunt a dangerous act

wardrobe clothing

skill ability

Vocabulary

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Look at the word: wardrobe „„

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The Stunt Double

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence. What are the people who perform the dangerous parts of movies called?

2

Name two special qualities these people need to do their jobs.

3

Where do these people perform?

4

What sort of things do they perform?

5

Why do they dress like the leading actors?

6

How are stunt people usually filmed?

7

Who do we see in the close-ups?

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1

Matching Activity Match each requirement to be a good stunt double with the matching quality.

Requirement

Answer

Example: Excellent physical fitness and commitment to staying very fit.

4

Quality 1. sociable

a) Interest and ability in several sports and outdoor pursuits.

2. talented

b) Good communication and “people skills” with an ability to work well in a team.

3. meticulous

c) Quick reactions and calmness under pressure.

4. healthy

d) A willingness to work in dangerous situations.

5. sharp

e) A high degree of responsibility and attention to detail.

6. courageous

f) Some acting skills.

7. sporty

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The Stunt Double

True or False Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True

False

Correct Answer

a) Stunt persons are easy to spot.

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b) A camera will take a close-up shot of the stunt person. c) Stunt people need to be in excellent physical shape. d) Stunt people need to have some acting skills. e) Stunt people don’t need to communicate since they have no speaking role.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Why are good communication skills important?

7

Of all the requirements for a stunt double, which one is not absolutely necessary? Why?

Can you give an example of when calmness under pressure is important? Where would you find a text like this? Do you think you would be a good stunt double? Why? Do you think stunt doubles are well paid? Why? The purpose of this text is to: a) instruct about the job of a stunt double b) entertain us with descriptions c) persuade us to become stunt men and stunt women

Stunts involving car crashes are dangerous and must be prepared in minute detail.

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James Bond: Secret Agent 007 Before Reading

While Reading

Who has not heard of 007? James Bond is a familiar „„ figure in popular culture. Do you think James Bond was real or a fictional character only?

See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

My name is Bond. James Bond.

Our guest today is none other than the famous secret agent 007.

Look at the cartoon. „„ Which one is Bond?

When were you born? I was born in 1950. And where were you born?

I was born in Jamaica.

Who created your character?

Ian Fleming did. Can you tell us about him?

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Do you know who “the father” of this character was? „„ What do you know about James Bond? „„

Most certainly. He was born in England in 1908. He was educated at fine English schools like Eton and Sandhurst Military Academy. He got his first job with Reuters News Agency. During the Second World War, he was a commander in British Naval Intelligence. That is where he learned about spies. He travelled around the world and eventually fell in love with Jamaica. He built his home there, and called it “Goldeneye.” I was born there in 1950 in a novel called Casino Royale.

How many books did he write? He wrote 14 books before he died in 1964.

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James Bond: Secret Agent 007 How many movies have been made with your character so far?

Six so far. There was Sean Connery, George Lazenby, Roger Moore, Timothy Dalton, Pierce Brosnan and Daniel Craig.

Twenty-four so far.

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How many actors have played your character in the movies?

When was the first Bond movie made and what was the title?

Wow. It is a long time ago. Are you the only character who plays in every movie? In fact, no. One character has appeared in almost every film: Q. He is the one who creates all the gadgets that Bond uses in the movies. The character was played by the same actor for 36 years starting with From Russia with Love in 1963 to The World Is Not Enough in 1999. His name is Desmond Llewelyn.

Thank you, Mr. Bond. I hope to see you soon in a new adventure!

It was made in 1962 and the title was Dr. No.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Who is James Bond’s creator?

2

When was Bond born?

3

What did Fleming call his home in Jamaica?

4

How many books did Fleming write about Bond?

5

How many Bond movies were made?

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6

What is the title of the first Bond movie?

7

What was Fleming’s first job?

8

What did he do in the navy?

9

How many actors have played Bond so far?

Who was the first actor to play James Bond?

Who is Q?

Which actor played the same role for the longest period?

What is Bond’s secret agent code?

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James Bond: Secret Agent 007

Was James Bond always a movie character? Explain.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Why can’t we see James Bond’s face in the cartoon? Would you describe this interview as biographical? Why? Will you look at the Bond movies differently after reading this text? Why? What is the main idea of this text? Have you learned something new about Bond? Explain. What is one question you would like to ask James Bond?

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The Dog Who Stopped the War Before Reading Look at the title. What do you think this movie is about? „„ What type of movies do you like? „„ Do you have any favourite movies? Which ones? „„

While Reading What is the original title „„ of the movie?

Where is the movie set? „„ Who are the main „„ characters?

What is the story about? „„ What happens at the end „„ of the movie?

What is the fifth paragraph „„ about?

Have you ever seen this movie? Maybe you have, then again maybe not. Ask your parents if they remember this movie. They were probably very young, but still old enough to remember it. If they answer no, ask them if they remember La guerre des tuques. There is a good chance they will. It was a very popular Canadian movie that was shown around the world. The action takes place in a small village in Quebec, at the beginning of the Christmas holidays. The children decide to have a snowball fight, so they split up into two gangs. The first gang is led by Luc and the second by Marc. Luc’s gang is bigger than Marc’s, but Marc has François on his side. François is a little genius who comes up with a plan to build a big snow fort. Once the fort is built, Luc’s “army” attacks it. During that attack, Luc is hurt and they retreat. They return the next day. This time, Luc and his army are greeted with ink-filled snowballs. The idea to fill snowballs with ink is Sophie’s. She is on Marc’s team, yet she has feelings for Luc. Another main character in the film is Ti-Guy La Lune. He is a young pacifist who does not want to be on any team because he is against all types of violence. Then there is Cleo, Marc’s big St. Bernard dog. As the final battle takes place, the fort collapses on top of Cleo, killing her. The war ends as both teams unite to help Marc bury his dog.

led (verb) past tense of “to lead”

retreat run away from

ink-filled full of ink

both two

Vocabulary

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See Scan the text, p. VI

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The Dog Who Stopped the War A very famous line from this movie is: “War, war, it’s not a reason to hurt each other!” It became a popular slogan against the Iraq war in 2003. Good news: An animated 3-D version of this film with the name changed to Snowtime! has been available since 2015. How about watching it with your parents and asking them which one they like best. I’m sure they will say that the original can’t be beaten!

After Reading 1

Where does the movie take place?

2

When does it take place?

3

In one of the assaults by Luc’s troops, what secret weapon does Marc use?

4

What is the name of the animated 3-D version of the movie?

5

What is Ti-Guy’s opinion of war?

6

How is the movie related to the Iraq war of 2003?

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

Who Is Who? a) One of the captains

d) She stopped the war

b) A pacifist

e) The genius

c) She has feelings for Luc

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3

Luc and Sophie are on opposing teams. Does this remind you of another story?

4

“Luc’s gang is bigger than Marc’s,” is an example of… a) a simile b) a comparative c) a superlative

5

What is the purpose of this text? If you have already seen this movie, did you like it? Why? If you have not seen it, would you like to? Why? d) all these answers

In the text, the author says that your parents might remember the movie even if they were very young. Using this information, when do you think the movie came out.

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Green-Screen Magic Before Reading

While Reading

Did you ever hear of the green„„

screen process? A green screen is used to create special effects. It is used on news programs, movies and video games.

See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Which paragraph describes „„

how a green screen works?

Can you guess why the word “magic” „„

In which paragraph is a popular „„

is in the title?

cartoon character mentioned? Who is it?

When you see a movie, can you say „„

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what is real or not? Explain.

Which paragraph explains „„

the uses of a green screen?

When you watch a superhero movie, do you ever wonder how they make the character fly? Looks cool, right? Well, here’s the secret.

What are the other paragraphs „„ about?

It’s a special effect created with what is called a “green screen.” You don’t have to watch an action movie to see a special effect created by a green screen. When you watch the weather channel, you see the weather person in front of a map of the province, country or even your specific region. But the map is not really there. The weather person is pointing at a green screen. But what is a green screen? It is simply a large screen that is green. It works thanks to a process called chromakeying. It chooses one particular colour (green) and uses computer software to make that colour disappear. Then another image is projected in its place, like a weather map, for example.

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Green-Screen Magic In an action movie like Superman, the actor is on his stomach in front of a green screen with a great big fan blowing wind in his hair and cape. The green screen is replaced with a background of sky and buildings, etc. This gives you the impression that he is really flying through the air. If you want to create a green-screen effect of your own, there are many sites on the Internet that will show you how. Have fun!

After Reading 1

What do you call the technology that can make Superman seem to fly?

2

Where do you most often see a green-screen effect?

3

What does chromakeying do?

4

Other than the green screen, what gives you the impression that Superman is truly flying?

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2

What is the purpose of this text?

3

Where could you find information on how to create your own green screen?

4

Would you like to create your own green-screen effect? How would you use it?

5

Have you ever seen how a green-screen effect works? Where?

6

After reading this text, do you feel like trying and researching more about the green-screen magic?

In the picture beside, what is needed to complete the illusion that Superman is flying?

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Music and Rock and Roll Did you know that the band Arcade Fire comes from Montreal? Did you know that the first outdoor rock festival did not take place in Woodstock? See pages 93 and 100 to learn more about it.

Rockin’ Names

90

Arcade Fire (Made in Montreal)

93

“Hallelujah”

96

UNIT 6

The History of Rock and Roll – The 50s 98 The History of Rock and Roll – The 60s 100 Metal? No, Music!

102

Rock and Roll Meets Opera and the Classics

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Rockin’ Names Before Reading Have you ever wondered how bands choose „„ their name?

Why is it important to have a good band name? „„

While Reading See Predict, p. VI

Look at the bands’ „„ names. Can you guess how they got their names?

One of the fun things in creating a band is finding a name. Some names are very silly and others are very deep. But you must remember that if your band is a big success, it might be around for a long time. Even after a very successful band is no longer doing shows, it is still remembered through the records it sold. All this is to say that you should choose your band’s name very carefully. Here are a few bands whose reputation continues long after they started playing and an explanation for the names they chose. LED ZEPPELIN: According to one story, Keith Moon of The Who came up with the name. He thought of it after a recording after a recording session of Beck’s “Bolero.” Everyone there thought it would be great to form a band together. Keith Moon jokingly said the band would fly like a lead balloon. When, a few years later, Jimmy Page created the group, he remembered Moon’s joke about a lead balloon so he named his band Led Zeppelin (an aircraft shaped like a balloon).

deep profound

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strange or fantastic name? Which ones?

Vocabulary

Can you think of some bands that have a funny, „„

PINK FLOYD: The group chose that name in honour of two bluesmen from Georgia, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. At that time, the band considered itself a blues band. THE ROLLING STONES: The band holds an enviable record. They have been together since 1962. The name of the band was inspired by bluesman Muddy Waters, from a song he wrote entitled “Rollin’ Stone.”

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Rockin’ Names

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RAGE AGAINST THE MACHINE: Sounds strange, right? Not really. The band had considered many names. They chose Rage Against the Machine because they were enraged against a machine. The machine in question was a 1979 van they owned when they started out. It was always breaking down making them late for concerts. The machine even caused them to lose contracts.

lead main

owned belonged to

came up invented

Vocabulary

QUEEN: The band was originally called Smile. The lead singer Freddie Mercury eventually came up with a new name: Queen. Why? Simply because it sounded great. No other reason.

U2: Some band names are very short and it’s difficult to figure out how the band came up with the name. One example is U2. There are many theories as to how the band got the name. Here are a few: • It’s the name of an American spy plane of the 1950s that became famous when it was shot down over the USSR. • The band is Irish and in Irish schools, classrooms are numbered 1 to 6 and lettered D-U-B-L-I-N (capital of Ireland). So when the band got together, they were all in classroom U2. • Here is a deep one for you. The band believes that the audience is part of their music. So “You too.” Anyway, these are some of the theories. You choose the one you like best.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Why should you choose your band’s name carefully?

2

Who were Pink Anderson and Floyd Council?

3

Which group chose its name for no special reason?

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4

Which machine was the cause of some rage?

5

Which band has the record for being the longest running?

6

Which band was founded by Jimmy Page?

7

Who was the lead singer of Queen?

8

What is a Zeppelin?

Matching Activity Match the group name with the reason given for its invention.

Name

Answer

Reason

a) Led Zeppelin

1. A song title

b) Pink Floyd

2. An airplane

c) The Rolling Stones

3. A joke

d) Rage Against the Machine

4. Sounded great

e) Queen

5. A car

f) U2

6. Honoured two musicians

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Rockin’ Names

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3

Which theory about U2’s name do you prefer? Why?

4 5

What criteria would you use to choose a good band name?

What is the purpose of the text? Which band’s name, other than the ones in the text, do you find cool? Why? If you had to choose a name for your band, what would it be and why?

6 7 8

Do you know the origin of any other band names? Explain.

9

Have you ever listened to any of the six bands mentioned in the text? Which one(s)? Which of these bands' song(s) do you like? Explain.

Look at the pictures on pages 90 and 91. What do the three bands have in common? Read the descriptions of Pink Floyd and The Rolling Stones. What do these two groups have in common?

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Arcade Fire (Made in Montreal) Before Reading What is your favourite music band? Why? „„ Do you like to read or listen about „„ them on the Internet, or in newspapers or magazines? Explain.

What do you know about the band „„ Arcade Fire?

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What other Quebec bands or singers „„

do you know of that are internationally popular?

While Reading

The Montreal-based alternative rock group Arcade Fire is composed of Win Butler, Josh Deu, Régine Chassagne, Richard Parry, Tim Kingsbury, Will Butler, Sarah Neufeld and Jeremy Gara. Here is what some newspaper or magazine headlines had to say, as well as clippings that illustrate the progress and huge success of this Quebec band.

2004 Arcade Fire releases its first album Funeral. 2005: Win and Régine participate in the song “Do They Know It’s Hallow’een” to benefit UNICEF.

2005

d Arcade Fire buys an ol abandoned church in turns it Farnham, Quebec and io. into a recording stud

In each headline or „„

clipping, look for the words you already know and words that are similar to French to help you guess the meaning of a word you may not know.

Montreal, 2003 A new orchestral alternative rock band formed by friends and classmates Win Butler and Josh Deu. Its name: Arcade Fire.

2007

Arcade Fire’s second album Neon Bible comes out in March. 2008: A DVD entitled Miroir Noir, featuring footage from the Neon Bible tour, will be released for pre-ordering in December.

2007 Neon Bible is number one on the Canadian album chart as well as the Irish album chart.

93 October 2007: Win and Régine appear onstage with Bruce Springsteen, playing “Keep the Car Running” and “State Trooper.” 4503_06_BTL_Sec1_Unit_6.indd 93

See Infer with cognates and/ or words you already know, p. VI

2011: The song “Wake Up”

of the was used by the players team Montreal Impact soccer m as they entered the stadiu

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Arcade Fire (Made in Montreal)

2007 Neon Bible is number one on the Canadian album chart as well as the Irish album chart.

October 2007: Win and Régine appear onstage with Bruce Springsteen, playing “Keep the Car Running” and “State Trooper.” 2013

Grammy award winning rock band Arcade Fire releases its number one album Reflektor, a double album co-produced by James Murphy and Markus Dravs.

2011: The song “Wake Up”

of the was used by the players team Montreal Impact soccer m as they entered the stadiu . during their 2011 season

2010: The song “Wake Up” was used for National Football League commercials during Super Bowl XLIV. Funds raised were donated to Partners in Health, an organization working in Haiti.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Who are the members of Arcade Fire?

2

When did the group first get together?

3

Name the two organizations for which Arcade Fire helped raise money.

4

When was Miroir Noir released?

5

Who were the founders of the group?

6

Which award did the band win and when?

7

On what occasions was the song “Wake Up” used?

8

On which charts was Neon Bible number one?

9

With which famous rock star did Win and Régine sing?

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Arcade Fi abandoned church in turns it Farnham, Quebec and io. into a recording stud

What did the band buy in Farnham?

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Arcade Fire (Made in Montreal)

Verb Tenses There are three verb tenses in the headlines. Find the verbs that fit in each category.

Tenses

Verbs

Past tense

Present tense

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Future tense

Sequencing Put the following events in chronological order.

Events

Order

Example: A new band is formed in Montreal. a) Their second album is a hit. b) One of their songs inspires athletes. c) They purchase an old building to record their songs. d) They share the spotlight with a well-known rocker. Arcade Fire at a festival in Barcelona, Spain on May 29, 2014

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

It is not mentioned in the text, but why do you think they called their first album Funeral? What is the main idea of the text? In your opinion, what is the greatest achievement of the band? Why? Where would you be able to find a text such as this one?

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“Hallelujah” Before Reading More than 100 versions of this song have been recorded. Leonard „„

Cohen is an amazing musician and poet from Montreal. He is known all over the world. Would you like to learn more about Leonard Cohen?

What do you think you will find out about Cohen? „„ Do you know of any other famous Montrealers? Who are they? What’s „„ special about them?

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See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

What is the first „„

paragraph about?

Which paragraph is „„

about his professional achievements?

What are the other „„

paragraphs about?

Who is Leonard Cohen? Have you ever heard the song “Hallelujah”? I’m sure you have if you saw the first Shrek movie. The song is sung during the scene when Shrek and Princess Fiona are on the way back to Fiona’s castle. Remember now? Well, Leonard Cohen is the author. In this short text, I’ll introduce you to this great Montrealer, musician and author.

He wrote eight volumes of poetry, two novels and 22 albums. He travelled the world like a modern troubadour. He performed all over the world. His songs inspired many artists such as Neil Diamond, Diana Ross, Joan Baez, Joe Cocker and many more. He won Juno Awards, among others. He received the Order of Canada and even some honorary Ph.D. degrees over the years. Since 2012, he has been a member of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Although he is known internationally, he still calls Montreal home. Who knows, maybe one day as you are walking in Plateau-Mont-Royal, you may meet this great Montrealer, Leonard Cohen.

troubadour a singer/ storyteller in the Middle Ages

Vocabulary

Leonard Cohen was born in Montreal in 1934. His father was an engineer who died when Leonard was nine. He went to McGill University. At the age of 17, he formed a country and western trio called the Buckskin Boys. Judy Collins, an American singer, encouraged him to record his songs.

Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy (a university degree)

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“Hallelujah”

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Where was Leonard Cohen born?

2

What did his father do?

3

Which university did Cohen attend?

4

What kind of music did he like?

5

What was the name of his trio?

6

Name an artist who was inspired by him.

7

Name one honour he received.

8

In what movie could you hear one of his best-known songs?

Personal Pronouns Replace the following underlined nouns with the appropriate personal pronouns. Example: Leonard Cohen recorded many songs.

He recorded them.

a) Judy Collins encouraged him to record his songs. encouraged him to record

ª.

b) The song “Hallelujah” “Hallelujah” is sung during the scene when Shrek and Princess Fiona are on the way back to Fiona’s castle. is sung during the scene when on the way back to

and

are

.

c) The song is sung when Shrek and Princess Fiona are falling in love. is sung when

are falling in love.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

What type of text is this? What is the purpose of the text? What surprising fact did you learn about Leonard Cohen? Are you interested in hearing other songs by Leonard Cohen? Explain.

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The History of Rock and Roll – The 50s from the 1950s? Can you name some of them?

When Elvis Presley auditioned to sing in a „„ band, the band leader told him, “Keep on driving your truck. You’ll never make it as singer.” What do you think of that?

See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

What can you learn „„ in each paragraph?

What subtitles could you „„

write for each paragraph?

Where does rock and roll come from? Actually the roots of rock and roll go back a long way. Its musical inspiration comes from a mixture of blues, boogie, jazz, gospel, R&B vocal groups and country.

roots origins

Many people believe that the first rock and roll song was “Rock Around the Clock” by Bill Haley & His Comets. The first rock and roll song was indeed by Bill Haley, but it was “Crazy Man Crazy.” So where did the name come from? It was a Cleveland, Ohio DJ named Alan Freed who first used the term “rock and roll.” In the 1950s, rock and roll was extremely popular with teenagers, but not so popular with their parents. Some of them called it the “devil’s music” because of its fast paced rhythm and combination of instruments. Rock and roll was also responsible for the creation of many new types of instruments such as the solid body electric guitar and bass. New singers appeared on the American music scene. What would the 50s be without the King, Elvis Presley. However, Elvis was not the only big name in the 50s. There was Little Richard singing “Long Tall Sally,” Chuck Berry with “Johnny B. Goode” (which you might remember from the movie Back to the Future), Eddie Cochran with “Summertime Blues,” Buddy Holly singing “That’ll Be the Day,” Jerry Lee Lewis, Ritchie Valens and Johnny Cash (yes, the same Johnny Cash).

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What do you know about rock and roll artists „„

While Reading

Vocabulary

Before Reading

The 50s ended on a sad note though. On February 3, 1959, Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens and J.P. “The Big Bopper” Richardson were on a tour called the Winter Elvis Presley in 1957

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The History of Rock and Roll – The 50s Dance Party Tour. After the show in Clearlake, Iowa, they decided to rent an airplane to get to their next stop on the tour. Five minutes after takeoff, the plane crashed, killing three of the biggest music stars of that decade. In 1970, an American songwriter named Don McLean wrote a song entitled “Miss American Pie”. In the song, he refers to this tragedy as “the day the music died.”

After Reading

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Answer the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What are the roots of rock and roll?

2

What was the first rock and roll song?

3

Who was nicknamed the “King of Rock and Roll”?

4

In which movie could you hear Chuck Berry’s “Johnny B. Goode”?

5

Who was the first to use the expression “rock and roll”?

6

Which tragedy devastated the world of rock and roll in February 1959?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

What does the picture tell you about rock and roll in the 50s? a) It only cost 45 cents. b) It was important enough to be on a stamp. c) New Zealand still plays old rock music.

2 3

What is the purpose of this text?

4 5

Where could you find a text such as this one?

6

Do you like rock and roll music? Explain.

Why do you think rock and roll was popular with teenagers, but not their parents? Why do you think Don McLean refers to the death of Ritchie Valens, Buddy Holly and The Big Bopper as “the day the music died”?

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The History of Rock and Roll – The 60s Name some famous music artists from the 60s. „„ In the 60s and beyond, there was a battle „„ raging. People were either Beatles fans or Rolling Stones fans. The argument was that the Rolling Stones were the bad boys of R&R and the Beatles were the good guys. Which side would you choose? Why?

While Reading See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI

Which country did the „„

Beatles and the Rolling Stones come from?

What do you know about „„ Woodstock?

Who were the best known artists of the 60s? If you answered the Beatles, you are right. However, the Beatles were not the only ones on the music scene in that decade. Elvis was still around, folk songs were making a comeback and other styles of music such as the “surf sound” were coming on the scene. Folk songs come from music, usually of a simple character, handed down among the common people by oral tradition. Many musicians of the 60s wrote folk songs, including Bob Dylan, who wrote “Blowing in the Wind.” The surf sound became popular with the Beach Boys singing about surfing, sun, girls and summer. In the 60s, the US was hit by what was called the British Invasion. It included bands such as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Herman’s Hermits, The Who, the Hollies and many more. The songs started to include political statements although people also composed “bubblegum music” (containing no political or social message) or radio-friendly pop songs. MTV did not yet exist. Music could be heard either on the radio, in concerts, on records or on television with shows such as American Bandstand or, Jeunesse d’aujourd’hui in Quebec. Hard rock was starting off and it would lead to the heavy metal of the 70s.

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Before Reading

Monument to the Beatles

In the late 60s, a new phenomenon began: outdoor rock festivals. The best-known is naturally Woodstock, which took place in 1969. The complete name of the event was the Woodstock Music and Art Fair. It lasted three days and attracted 500,000 people. It is the most famous, but not the first. 100

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The History of Rock and Roll – The 60s That honour goes to the Monterey Pop Festival of 1967. The idea of outdoor music festivals caught on and has been going strong ever since. Take, for example, the Montreal Jazz Festival. And there was once an outdoor music festival called Woodstock en Beauce. By the early 80s, rock was out and disco was in. Then came grunge, punk, rap, etc., but if you listen very carefully, you will always hear rock’s influence on the music. As someone once said, “rock and roll will never die.”

After Reading © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

Answer the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What was particular about the songs of the 60s?

2

What was the equivalent of American Bandstand in Quebec?

3

What was the biggest outdoor rock festival of the 60s?

4

Which was the first outdoor music festival?

5

Who made the surf sound popular?

Writing Activity Write two information questions about something you would like to know about the 60s that is not found in the text. Remember the pattern for an information question is: Question word + auxiliary + subject + verb + object? Example: Where + did + the Beatles + come + from? 1. 2.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

What does the symbol in the picture beside represent? What was the motto of the 60s generation? What do you think the 60s generation meant by that motto? What do you think “bubblegum” music is? What do you think is meant by “the British Invasion”?

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Metal? No, Music! Alice Cooper? Kiss? Can you name some more recent heavy metal bands?

Do you like heavy metal? Explain. „„

When is metal not metal? When it is music. What is metal music? Is it music using metal instruments like a saxophone and trumpet? Is it music with metallic sounds in it as if someone dropped a lot of pots and pans in the kitchen? No, it’s a music style that started in the late 60s. But I guess you already know this, don’t you? Well, for those of you who don’t know the difference between heavy metal and classic rock music, here is a very brief introduction to the wonderful world of metal music.

While Reading See Infer with visual and/ or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the title. „„ Why is there a question mark? Why is there an exclamation mark?

Look at the „„

subtitles. What comes to mind?

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What do you know about heavy metal music? „„ Have you ever heard of Led Zeppelin? Metallica? „„

What are the „„

bands’ names in the pictures?

Heavy metal music started in the late 60s and early 70s with bands such as Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple and others. As time went by, heavy metal split into many genres. However, they all had one element in common: very rhythmic drumbeats and super fast guitar riffs. Here are just a few different genres of metal music. You may know some and others might be new to you.

riffs a series of notes played on the guitar

shredding

Thrash Metal This style of metal music is based on very fast tempos and complicated guitar riffs called shredding. This type of metal music was popularized by bands such as Black Sabbath, Judas Priest, Metallica and a few others.

very fast guitar playing popular in metal bands

Vocabulary

Before Reading

Metallica performing live at Olimpiyskiy stadium in Moscow, Russia on April 24, 2010

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Metal? No, Music!

Goth Metal As the name suggests, this type of metal music is slow, sad and gloomy. Bands such as Candlemass are an example of this category.

Death Metal

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Like thrash metal, the rhythm is very fast, but this time it’s the percussion or drums that are exploited. The words are ferocious and sometimes incomprehensible and the lyrics are often associated with death. Slayer is one of the wellknown death metal groups.

Symphonic Metal It combines heavy drum rhythms and guitars with classical music, including symphonic instruments, choirs and on occasion, a full symphony orchestra. Symphonic metal bands often have classically trained female vocalists. This is why it is sometimes called opera metal. Groups such as Nightwish and Therion are examples of symphonic metal.

Metal singer Tarja Turunen from the band Nightwish during a performance at the Benátská noc festival in Mála Skála, Czech Republic on July 24, 2009

There are many other styles of metal music: power metal, nu metal, Finnish folk metal and, believe it or not, even Christian metal. So, there you have it, a very brief look at metal music!

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

According to the text, what is not metal music?

2

When did heavy metal get its start?

3

Name some groups that were pioneers of the genre.

4

What is the difference musically between thrash metal and death metal?

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5

What other name does symphonic metal have? Why?

6

To which type do Metallica and Judas Priest belong?

7

What makes Goth metal different from the rest?

8

What makes symphonic metal different?

True or False Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True

False

Correct Answer

a) Symphonic metal is only instrumental music, with no lyrics. b) There are no common elements in the many genres of metal music.

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Metal? No, Music!

c) Metal music is always fast and entertaining. d) Drums and guitars are the main instruments of metal music.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

Has your idea of metal music changed after reading this text? Explain. What is the purpose of the text? Which type of heavy metal music is more your style? Why? What is the author’s opinion about metal music? Give one example in the text.

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Rock and Roll Meets Opera and the Classics Before Reading

While Reading

Where can you hear classical music? „„ Can you name some pieces of „„

See Predict, p. VI

Look at the title. What is „„

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classical music or composers?

the main idea of the text?

Rock and roll and classical music. What do you think of this combination? How about rock and roll and opera? Opera might not be your favourite style of music, but others prefer it to all other styles. To some, it sounds like a group of people screaming at one another in a language difficult to understand. The truth is quite different. First, the actors are not screaming. They are singing. Second, the strange language they are singing in is probably Italian, German, or French. The opera singers are acting out a story. Opera singers are classified by the range of their voices. They go from the highest female voice (soprano) to lowest male voice (bass). You may be wondering what opera or classical music has got to do with rock and roll. Well, you might not know this, but many rock and roll (or modern) songs copied classical or operatic pieces. Here are just a few examples. If you can, listen to the original, then find the songs mentioned below and see how they are similar.

in D major by Johann Pachelbel. 2. Elvis Presley’s “Can’t Help Falling in Love” is the melody of “Plaisir d’amour” by Jean-Paul-Égide Martini, an 18th-century composer. 3. “Grace Kelly” by Mika contains some of the music from the opera “The Barber of Seville” by Rossini. 4. “I Can” by Nas uses Beethoven’s “Für Elise” as background music. 5. The music in Jem’s song “They” is J. S. Bach’s Prelude in F minor. So, you see, there is a connection between classical music, opera and rock and roll. All you have to do is search and listen. I’m sure you will find many more.

range gamut of tones

Vocabulary

1. Vitamin C’s song “Graduation (Friends Forever)” is actually Canon

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Rock and Roll Meets Opera and the Classics

After Reading 1

What impression does opera create for certain people?

2

What languages are usually sung in operas?

3

What do the singers do during a performance?

4

How are opera singers classified?

5

What is the highest voice range?

6

What is the lowest voice range?

7

Which modern song is based on the music from an opera?

Grammar Activity Read the sentences below. Decide if they are written in the simple present, simple past or present progressive tense. Then, decide if they are in the affirmative, negative or interrogative form. Example: What do you think of this combination? Simple present, interrogative a) It sounds like a group of people screaming. b) The actors are not screaming.

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

c) They are singing. d) Many rock and roll (or modern) songs copied classical or operatic pieces. e) What has opera or classical music got to do with rock and roll? f) Are they really singing? g) Well, you might not know this.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

Do you like classical music? Why? What is the purpose of the text? Do you know some of the classical pieces presented in the text? Which ones? Why do you think some composers copied classical or operatic pieces?

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Hoaxes

Did you know that an alien came to Earth in 1995? Did you know that life was discovered on the Moon in 1835? Did you know that these things are not true, but only hoaxes? See pages 116 and 123 to learn more about it.

What Is a Hoax?

108

The War of the Worlds

111

The Cottingley Fairies

113

Alien Autopsy 1995

116

Paul Is Dead

118

The Cardiff Giant

121

The Great Moon Hoax

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What Is a Hoax? Before Reading How easy is it to make people believe „„ How can you tell if something is true „„ something that is not true?

or not?

How often have you seen things „„

on the Internet or on TV that turned out to be false?

Why do people enjoy fooling other „„ people?

If you look up the word “hoax” in a dictionary, you will find this definition: a story or trick meant to fool people. The definition is simple, but some hoaxes are very elaborate. In this chapter we will explore some of the most famous hoaxes in history, but let’s start with some of the funnier short ones. By short, we mean those that were not as elaborate.

harvest

reputable

gathering

having a good reputation

See Infer with cognates and/or words you already know, p. VI

The word “trick” is similar „„

to a French word, but it does not mean the same in French as it does in English. We call these words false cognates.

“Elaborate” is also a word „„

similar to French, but this one is a true cognate. What does “elaborate” mean in the text below?

1 On April Fool’s Day 1957, the BBC presented a short TV documentary about the annual production of spaghetti trees in Switzerland. At the time, many people did not know how pasta was made. To them, a spaghetti tree seemed as logical as an apple tree. So when the BBC announced that the spaghetti harvest was exceptional that year, many people believed this to be true. To make the story more believable, BBC showed a film of women dressed in traditional Swiss clothing gathering spaghetti from a spaghetti tree.

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Vocabulary

While Reading

Since the BBC was a very serious organization, a great number of people believed the story. Later on, CNN called this “the biggest hoax any reputable news establishment ever pulled.”

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What Is a Hoax?

2

3 One of the most famous pictures of Nessie is the “Surgeon’s Photograph.” Many consider this photo to be good proof that a monster did live in the lake. Even if it is the best known picture of Nessie, it is also the one that created the most doubt. The image was revealed as a hoax in the 1990s. The photographer, a gynecologist named Robert Kenneth Wilson, never said he took a picture of the monster. He simply said he took a picture of something in the loch. The picture is cut to make the monster seem enormous. The original picture shows the lake and a monster in the middle.

uncropped uncut

Vocabulary

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Another hoax concerning food was pulled in Montreal in the mid-1960s. At that time, construction was going on to build the new metro system. One April Fool’s Day, a very popular Montreal newspaper printed a story about workers having found a cheese mine as they were digging a tunnel. The article was accompanied by photographs of workers holding large pieces of what seemed to be cheese. Naturally, the same newspaper printed a story explaining it was all a big joke.

Just a year before the hoax was revealed, the makers of a documentary entitled Loch Ness Discovered did an analysis of the uncropped image. The analysis revealed the object to be quite small, about 60 centimetres to one metre long. “Surgeon’s Photograph” replica

These are just three of many hoaxes…

After Reading Answer the following questions with complete sentences.

1

On what occasion did the BBC make the “spaghetti tree” hoax?

2

What was the similarity between the “spaghetti tree” hoax and the “cheese mine” hoax?

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What Is a Hoax? 3

How did the workers find the mine full of cheese?

4

What did CNN call the “spaghetti tree” hoax?

5

Give two reasons why the “spaghetti tree” hoax was believable to BBC viewers?

Read the sentences about Nessie below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True

False

Correct Answer

a) The “Surgeon’s Photograph” got its name because the photographer was a doctor. b) Robert Kenneth Wilson always said he photographed the monster. c) The truth about the picture was revealed in 1993.

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True or False

d) Many people saw that picture as proof that the monster exists.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2

What is the difference between the definition of a hoax and a hoax in reality?

3 4 5

If you were asked to illustrate a spaghetti tree, how would you do it?

6

When people fool other people, are they telling lies?

If Montreal workers had not been building the metro, do you think the hoax would have been believable? Why? Which of the hoaxes mentioned above do you find the funniest? Which sentence in the text suggests that, for viewers of the BBC, a spaghetti tree was just like any other tree?

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The War of the Worlds Before Reading Where have you seen this title before? „„ What war is the title referring to? Which worlds? „„ What in the illustration makes you think that this „„ story is true?

joke, but had very real and serious consequences?

While Reading See Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words, p. VI

The Internet is the place where you are most likely to find hoaxes today. There are new ones appearing all the time. Some are pretty amazing and some are funny, but some are not at all amazing or funny. Before the Internet, most hoaxes were either on the radio, on television or in the newspapers.

In the third sentence, „„

One of the most famous hoaxes of the 20th century did not start out as a hoax on purpose. It just happened that way. On Halloween 1939, the Mercury Theatre presented a radio play directed by a well-known actor, Orson Welles. The broadcast was an interpretation of H. G. Wells’s novel The War of the Worlds. Orson Welles told listeners that it was a radio play based on the novel, but some people tuned in late and did not hear him say that it was just a play. The only thing those people heard was that a Martian spaceship had landed in New Jersey. The result was total panic.

What information „„

the word “pretty” can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence. Can the words “not at all” be removed without changing the meaning? is relevant in each sentence? Highlight the keywords. amazing surprising

on purpose voluntarily

Vocabulary

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What makes you think that this story is not true? „„ What situation do you know of that started out as a „„

Police stations received hundreds of calls. Alarmed people wanted to know what to do about the Martians. Others called to say that they had seen a spaceship not far from their home. Finally, thousands of people tried to escape from New York, causing a massive traffic jam. Of course, Orson Welles and the Mercury Theatre did not know what was happening in the city. They only realized what they had caused when the police arrived at the radio studio to arrest them all for causing such panic in the city.

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After Reading 1

Which media was used to create hoaxes before the Internet era?

2

Give two qualifications about hoaxes on the Internet.

3

Did Orson Welles intend to pull one of the most famous hoaxes of the 20th century? Explain.

4

Why did some people panic when they heard that a Martian ship had landed on Earth?

5

Why did the Mercury Theatre continue broadcasting even after the panic started?

6

When did Orson Welles find out about the panic in the streets?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

How does the picture at the beginning of the text show the importance of this hoax?

5 6 7

Do you think the people of New Y York found the situation funny? Why?

8

In your opinion, is the Internet better or worse than traditional media such as radio, newspaper or television? Explain.

9

Was it right for the police to arrest Orson Welles and his team? Explain.

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Answer the following questions with complete sentences.

Do you think this hoax was funny? Why? If the same thing happened today, do you think people would react in the same way as in 1939? Look at the keywords you highlighted in the first sentence of the second paragraph. Rewrite the sentence in your own words. What would you do if aliens invaded the planet? What do people know about aliens or alien invasions today? Is such an invasion possible? Explain.

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The Cottingley Fairies Before Reading With modern technology such as photo-editing „„

programs, it is fairly easy to create false images. In your opinion, was that possible 100 years ago? Explain.

When you see a photograph, how can you „„

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be sure if it is real or not?

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

The clues for the main idea of a text are usually „„ found in the title and the first paragraph of a text. What is the main idea of this text?

Highlight the keywords in the first sentence of each „„

paragraph. What is the main idea of each paragraph?

One day, at the beginning of the 20th century, cousins Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths decided to amuse themselves with Elsie’s father’s camera. They went into the woods behind the Wright family home in Cottingley, England, to take pictures.

At one point, the affair became public. In 1919, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (the creator of Sherlock Holmes), saw the pictures and wrote an article in a magazine saying that he believed the pictures were real. Not everyone was tricked though. Some people claimed that fairies did not exist, that they were creations of the imagination.

forbade (past tense of “forbid”) not permit

Vocabulary

When Mr. Wright developed the first picture, he saw what looked like fairies. He thought they were fakes and developed the second picture. The same fairies were also on the second picture. In all, there were five pictures with fairies. He still thought they were fakes and forbade Elsie from ever touching his camera again. Elsie’s mother, on the contrary, was convinced they were real, but she kept quiet.

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They said the first four pictures were faked, but claimed the fifth was authentic. Was it? We will never know.

After Reading Answer the following questions with complete sentences.

1

Where does this story take place?

2

Where did the girls see the fairies?

3

Who first viewed the photographs of the fairies?

4

Name two people who believed in fairies.

5

What astonishing declaration did the girls make in 1981?

blurry unclear

authentic real

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For many years the two girls did not mention the fairies and many people believed the photographs were real. Then, in 1981, the girls, who were much older by then, admitted that the first four pictures were fakes. They had made cut outs of fairies and stuck a pin through them and planted them on the ground, giving the impression that the fairies were real. Another fact is that cameras at that time could not freeze motion, as they do today, so had the fairies really been moving, they would have been a little bit blurry. The girls could not believe that anyone had been fooled, especially someone like Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. They said that they could even see the hatpins that held the cutouts they had made.

Vocabulary

The Cottingley Fairies

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The Cottingley Fairies

Main Ideas Write which paragraph answers the following informative questions. Example: How did the hoax become public?

Paragraph 3

a) When was the hoax revealed? b) Who created the hoax? Where and when did it happen? c) Which paragraph ends with a question to the reader? d) Who discovered the photos?

True or False © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True

False

Correct Answer

a) Conan Doyle wrote a story about the Cottingley fairies. b) The girls later admitted that all the pictures were faked.

c) Mr. Wright was Frances Griffiths’ uncle.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2

Do you think it would be possible to pull a hoax like this today? Why?

3 4

What was the father’s reaction to the pictures?

5

Can you think of a reason other than the ones mentioned in the text that would prove the pictures were fake?

6

Do you think the fifth picture was in fact real? Why?

What is the main idea of the text? a) Fairies exist. b) Y You can actually photograph fairies. c) T Two young girls faked a series of photos. What was the girls’ reaction when they spoke of the hoax in 1981? a) They were astonished that people believed it. b) They were sad that the joke was over. c) They were relieved that they did not have to keep the secret anymore.

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Alien Autopsy 1995 Before Reading Look at the illustrations. What clues do they give you about the text? „„ Do you believe aliens exist? Why? „„ What movies or documentaries have you seen about aliens? What did you like „„ or dislike about them?

While Reading See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

What is Area 51? What is the connection between „„ „„ Area 51 and UFOs? What is a UFO? „„ Do aliens all look like the one „„ From which planet/galaxy is this „„ in the picture? Why? UFO? Will the text explain it?

If you ever saw the movie Independence Day, you probably remember the military base where they kept the aliens that crashed there. That part of the movie is based on the belief that in 1947 a flying saucer crashed in Roswell, New Mexico. At least, that is what many people believe. This is probably due to the secrecy surrounding a military base called “Area 51.” It is very difficult to enter Area 51 without special permission.

In 1995, a man named Ray Santilli said that he had in his possession a film taken in a military tent on Area 51. The film was that of the autopsy of the spaceman whose ship crashed there. authenticity

The film was shown to a few dignitaries and representatives of the media at the Museum of London. The film did not show the actual autopsy, but it did show what looked like an alien on an operating table. The film also showed pieces of the spacecraft that crashed at Roswell. It also included interviews with “experts” on the authenticity of the film.

the real nature

Vocabulary

Those people who believe a flying saucer crashed in New Mexico also believe that Area 51 is where the rest of the flying saucer and the remains of the spaceman are kept.

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Alien Autopsy 1995 As it turned out, the film was a fake. Santilli hired an artist to make a fake alien body out of plastic and they filled it with jelly and pieces of meat to make it look real. The operating room in the military tent was actually his living room. The hoax was so well done that many people believed it to be true and some probably still do.

After Reading

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Answer the following questions with complete sentences.

1

Where did the saucer crash?

2

What is Area 51?

3

How long after the incident was the film released?

4

What was the subject of Ray Santilli’s film?

5

The film did not show the actual autopsy, so how do we know what was on the operating table?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

What is the main idea of the text? a) How a man created a hoax. b) About a flying saucer and a spaceman. c) How to use makeup and jelly to create an alien.

2 3

Which sentence indicates that the crash of the alien spaceship is not necessarily true?

4 5 6

Do you believe we have been visited by aliens? Why?

The purpose of the text is to entertain and instruct. What did you find amusing in the text? What did you learn from the text? In the text, find a word that is similar in meaning to the word “real.” Why do you think Ray Santilli first showed the film to dignitaries and representatives of the media?

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Paul Is Dead Before Reading What do you know about the Beatles? „„ Why do you think there are often rumours about famous people? „„ Who are some of the celebrities that people think are not really dead? „„

While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Highlight the keywords in the first sentence of the first paragraph. What is the „„ In the second paragraph, who started the rumours? Where did this person find „„ the clues to McCartney’s death?

One of the biggest hoaxes ever pulled in the music industry took place in 1969 and there are still some questions about whether it is really a hoax or not. This is the story: in November 1966, Paul McCartney of the Beatles died in a terrible car accident and was replaced by a look-alike named William Shears Campbell. At least that was the rumour back in 1969. British Intelligence’s MI5 forced the Beatles to cover up McCartney’s death to prevent mass suicides of Beatles fans. However, the remaining Beatles tried to signal the truth to fans with clues on album covers and in songs. In October 1969, a disc jockey named Russ Gibb started the rumour that Paul McCartney had died three years earlier. He said that he found the clues left by the Beatles in their albums. Here are a few of those clues:

burial ceremony of putting a dead body into a grave in the ground

Vocabulary

In the last paragraph, what is the opinion concerning McCartney’s death? „„

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main idea of the first paragraph?

1. The cover page of the Sgt Pepper’s album, released in June 1967, represents a burial scene. The flowers spelling “Beatles” are red and the bass guitar is left-handed. Since the mythological flowers of death are red and that Paul McCartney was left-handed, it would mean that it was Paul McCartney's grave.

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Paul Is Dead 2. On the September 1969 album cover of Abbey Road, all four Beatles are dressed differently. John is dressed in white representing a priest, Ringo is in black representing the undertaker, George is in jeans representing the gravedigger and Paul is barefoot (dead people are often buried without shoes) and he is out of step with the others.

And there are many more clues in other albums. So, did Paul really die in November 1966? According to Paul McCartney, the answer is “No!” undertaker funeral director

After Reading

Vocabulary

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3. In the song “Strawberry Fields Forever,” released in February 1967, you can hear John say “I buried Paul.”

Answer the following questions with complete sentences.

1

When did Paul McCartney supposedly die?

2

Give one reason why Paul’s death was hidden from the public.

3

Who came up with the story of Paul’s death?

4

On which album cover are the four Beatles dressed according to different professions?

5

Where can you hear John give a clue about Paul’s death?

6

Which album cover looks like a gathering for a funeral?

7

Who replaced Paul according to the rumour?

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Paul Is Dead

Chronological Order Put the events in chronological order. Beginning of the rumour about Paul McCartney’s death Release of the Sgt. Pepper’s album Presumed death of Paul McCartney Representation of Paul McCartney without shoes Release of the song, “Strawberry Fields Forever”

True or False True

False

Correct Answer

a) Paul supposedly died in 1969.

b) Paul supposedly died in a car crash. c) Russ Gibb started the rumour of Paul’s death in 1966. d) British Intelligence’s MI5 wanted to hide the death of Paul McCartney.

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Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

e) Paul McCartney said he did not die in 1966.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

Look at the picture of the Sgt. Pepper’s album cover on page 118. Can you find other clues hinting at Paul’s death?

2 3 4

Do you believe Paul McCartney died in 1966? Explain. If Paul had really died in 1966, do you believe it would have been right to hide his death? Explain. Why do you think Russ Gibb started the rumour about Paul’s death?

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The Cardiff Giant Before Reading

While Reading

What do you see in this picture? „„ What is this statue? „„ Who are these people? What are they doing? „„ How long ago was this picture taken? „„

See Scan the text, p. VI

Where was this statue „„ found?

What words tell you that „„

this statue was very big?

When was it found? „„ What words tell you that „„ © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

this statue is not real?

One of the most famous hoaxes that took place in the United States was the story of the Cardiff Giant.

He hired some men to carve a 3-metre by 25-centimetre block of gypsum in Fort Dodge, Iowa. He had the block sent to Chicago. In Chicago, he hired a sculptor to sculpt a statue of a man lying down. He used different products to make the giant seem old. Once that was done, he brought the giant back to his farm and buried it behind the barn.

well

A year later, he hired two men to dig a well behind the barn. Surprise! They found the giant. Naturally, they talked about what they found. The

stated

minister a priest

mentioned

Vocabulary

The story is about a 3-metre tall petrified man who was discovered in 1869 in Cardiff, New York. Men digging a well discovered the petrified man. The giant was the creation of George Hull. He created it after an argument with a minister, Reverend Turk. The minister said that there was a passage in the Bible that stated there were once giants on Earth. Mr. Hull, who was an atheist, said that there were no such things. Following that argument, Mr. Hull came up with the idea of the petrified man.

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The Cardiff Giant news attracted crowds of people who believed the “giant” was a genuine petrified man. This lasted until 1870, when it was proven that the giant was a fake. What was supposed to be a simple joke lasted a long while. The “giant” was later bought by P.T. Barnum, the owner of the Barnum and Bailey Circus, who took it on tour around the United States for many years.

After Reading 1

Who was the author of the hoax?

2

Where did he get the idea of creating the giant?

3

What did Mr. Hull do to make the giant seem old?

Matching Activity Match the items in Column A with those of Column B.

Column A

Answer

Column B

a) Where the giant came from

1. One year

b) The amount of time Mr. Hull kept the giant buried

2. The size of the giant

c) 1869

3. Fort Dodge, Iowa

d) 3 metres by 25 centimetres

4. Where the giant was sculpted

e) Chicago

5. The year the giant was discovered

© Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

Answer the following questions with a complete sentence.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

What is the main idea of the text? a) A petrified giant was found behind a barn. b) A man tricked another man by creating a fake, petrified giant. c) A joke lasted a long time.

2 3 4

What do you think the word “petrified” means? Would you go to all that trouble to trick someone? Why? What does the picture on page 121 tell you about the discovery of the Cardiff giant?

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The Great Moon Hoax Before Reading What do you think this article is about? „„ In your opinion, was it easier to fool people „„

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years ago than it is today? Explain.

In 1835, The Sun, a New York newspaper, published a series of six articles announcing the discovery of life on the moon. The articles supposedly came from the Edinburgh Journal of Science, and they were signed by a well-known and respected astronomer, Sir John Herschel. However, he was in fact in South Africa at the time.

While Reading See Infer with cognates and/or words you already know, p. VI

Look at the first „„

paragraph. How many words are similar to French? How many of the words do you know?

According to the article sent to the Sun, there was life on the moon. There were animals such as unicorns, beavers that walked on two feet, bears with horns and many more. The vegetation was also beautiful. There were about 38 different species of trees and flowers. There were also lakes of amethysts and rivers surrounded by green vegetation. The big shock came when the fourth article appeared. In it, the author mentioned that the moon was also inhabited by people. They were about 1.5 metres tall with coppercoloured skin. They had big batlike wings that started at their shoulders and went all the way down to their knees. As a result, the Sun sold 20,000 copies and a book about the moon discoveries sold 60,000 copies. Of course, this was one great big hoax. The Edinburgh Journal of Science did not exist and although Sir John Herschel did, he never wrote anything about the moon being populated. The articles were probably written by Richard Adams Locke, a Sun reporter. He wanted to ridicule serious speculations about life on the moon, especially those of Reverend Thomas Dick, a popular science writer who wrote in his bestselling, and very serious books, that the moon alone had 4.2 billion inhabitants. A few months later, the Sun admitted it was all just a joke.

After Reading Answer the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What made the hoax seem real?

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The Great Moon Hoax 2

Name a moon animal.

3

What resulted from this hoax?

4

Who stated that the moon had 4.2 billion inhabitants and gave Richard Locke the idea for the hoax?

True or False Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

False

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True a) Sir John Herschel did not exist.

b) Bears on the moon had giant batlike wings.

c) Richard Locke wanted to ridicule Reverend Thomas Dick. d) The Great Moon Hoax took place in the 19th century. e) It took a few months for the Sun to admit it was all a joke.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

What is the purpose of this text? a) T To persuade b) To instruct

c) To entertain

d) a and b

e) b and c

f) a and c

Why do you think the hoax was not discovered sooner? What figure of speech is “batlike wings?” What does it mean? Why was it important that the articles were signed by Sir John Herschel? Do you think a similar hoax (about life in outer space) would be possible today? Why?

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Cartoons

Did you know that the first truly animated cartoon was made in 1914 and it took 10,000 drawings to create the 12-minute film? Did you know that Batman was born in 1939? See pages 128 and 136 to learn more about it.

Caricatures

126

A Short History of Comic Strips and Animated Cartoons

128

Walt Disney’s Short Biography

131

Asterix

134

Portraits of Superheroes

136

UNIT 8

Stan Lee: The Father of Superheroes 139 The Simpsons

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Caricatures Before Reading

While Reading

What do you like or dislike about caricatures? „„ What is the difference between a simple drawing „„

See Activate prior knowledge, p. VI

and a caricature?

What is a caricature? „„ Where might you „„ see caricatures?

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What is a caricature? The word caricature comes from the Italian caricare, which means “to load” or “to exaggerate.” Caricatures exaggerate funny parts of a person’s anatomy or their characteristics. Caricatures are most often political. They sometimes tell a story or pass a message better than a 1,000-word article. A caricaturist must have a well-developed sense of observation. He or she must possess critical thinking skills. Political caricaturists must be ready to take chances, as many people do not like to be ridiculed. Caricaturists have to know where to draw the line. Some politicians are very touchy about their appearance, while others are able to laugh at themselves. For example, 19th-century cartoonist Charles Philipon insulted the king so often that he was continuously thrown in jail.

Some cartoons are used as propaganda. For example, Rosie the Riveter was used to encourage young men to become soldiers in World War II. She also became something of a women’s liberation symbol. A caricature is like a powerful weapon. In the hands of someone who knows how to use it, it can be very destructive.

2008-2016 Caricature of United States President Barack Obama

touchy easily upset

Vocabulary

Caricatures are of their time. This means that what is likely to be funny or what may hit a sensitive nerve today will probably not be as effective tomorrow. For example, a caricature of Adolf Hitler may have been amusing during World War II, but would not have the same effect today.

1999 United States postage stamp showing an image of Rosie the Riveter

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Caricatures Another cartoon that became extremely popular and is still seen today was drawn in 1931 by a man named Haddan Sundblom. His painting represents a chubby man wearing a red suit and holding up a glass of Coca-Cola. Santa Claus as we know him today was born.

After Reading

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Answer the following questions with complete sentences. Coca-Cola’s iconic Santa Claus

1

What is the root of the word caricature?

2

Give one quality a caricaturist must have?

3

Why was Charles Philipon thrown in jail?

4

What major world event took place around the time of Rosie the Riveter?

5

When and why was the modern Santa Claus created?

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

A “pun” is a humorous word play that can have two or more meanings. Find an example of a pun in the second paragraph.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Do you think caricatures can go too far? Explain. What is the purpose of this text? What is the figure of speech in the words “a caricature is like a powerful weapon”? Why would a caricature of Hitler not be funny today? Do you know any caricaturists? Can you name any of them? What topic do you think would make a very good caricature? Why? Choose a popular topic. Describe how you would draw it if you were asked to create a caricature of it. Not all caricatures are funny and make us laugh. What other uses can they have? Give an example.

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A Short History of Comic Strips and Animated Cartoons Before Reading

While Reading

Cartoons are very popular. Have they always been „„

See Infer with visual and/ or contextual cues, p. VI

What do you know about cartoon history? „„ Do you enjoy comic strips and animated cartoons? „„

Look at the way this text „„

popular? Why?

Explain.

is presented. What type of presentation is it?

A comic strip is a series of sequential art, that is, pictures or drawings that follow one another in order to tell a story. One of the earliest pieces of sequential art is in a cave in Lascaux, France. The pictures tell the story of a tribe’s hunting expedition. Also, in Ancient Egypt, a person’s life history was painted on the walls of his or her tomb.

Look at the pictures. „„

Do you recognize the cartoon characters? sequential something that follows an order

Vocabulary

old are cartoons?

An animated cartoon is a film that is made using sequential drawings. Have you ever wondered how they were made? You may think that it is all simply done through computer animation. You are partly right. Many cartoons today are computer-generated, but some are still created the old-fashioned way. They are drawn movement after movement, in order to make cartoon characters seem to move like real people or animals.

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Look at the dates. How „„

matchstick

Hastings, 1066

Famous battle depicted on tapestry

France, 1908

Brussels, 1832

Plateau creates the phenakistiscope. Machine gives impression that drawings really move. Brussels, 1833 PLATEAU CREATE S N EW M ETHOD OF VI EWIN G MOVING IMAG ES, TH E ZOOTR OPE.

Frenchman Émile Cohl creates a short 5-minute silent animated movie called Drama Among the Puppets. The drawings are not very well done. They are simply white matchstick characters on a black background.

Vocabulary

Here are some of the great moments in comic strips and animated cartoon history.

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A Short History of Comic Strips and Animated Cartoons

Hollywood, 1937 Disney creates the first animated feature film with sound and colour, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.

Metropolis, 1938

Superman flies over the skies of Metropolis. World has a new hero.

1941 – In what will become the Marvel universe, Steve Rogers is given super-soldier serum and a mighty shield, thus becoming Captain America. Paris, 1959

France has a new hero: Asterix.

1962

Marvel adds anothe r two superheroes: Spider-Man and the Hulk.

Tintin leaves for first adventure in the Soviet Union.

New York, 1933

When Popeye tells kids, “It’s good for you!,” like a magic potion, the sale of spinach rises. Gotham City, 1939 Masked avenger Batman wants to clean up Gotham City.

New York, 1950

Charles Schultz gives birth to a new gang of kids: Peanuts.

1978

1974 Wolverine makes his first appearance as a Canadian superhero. In this first adventure, he fights the Hulk. Later, he’ll join the X-Men.

1983 Inspector Gadget vs. his archenemy Dr. Claw.

Brussels, 1929

Garfield begins his long nap in the nation’s newspapers. The strip becomes one of the most widely syndicated—and merchandised— cartoon of all time.

1999

Peter Griffin is truly a family guy. A bit strange, but so is his family. nap

After Reading

sleep

Vocabulary

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New York, 1914 A man named Winsor McCay ma kes the second silent animated movie, Gertie the Din osaur . Incredibly, Gertie is not a match stick drawing and there is a background with trees and mountains! It took McCay 10,000 drawings to bring Gertie to life. The first true animated cartoon movie was a hit!

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

When was the first cartoon created and who created it?

2

Who was Gertie’s creator?

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3

What type of drawings were used in Drama Among the Puppets?

4

What elements were used as a background for Gertie the Dinosaur?

5

Which character has Dr. Claw as an enemy?

6

What is the old-fashioned way to animate cartoons?

Chronological Order Read the headlines. Put the following headlines in chronological order.

Event a) Spider-Man and the Hulk are created.

Order Example

13

Event i) Peanuts is born.

b) Tintin has his first adventure.

j) Peter Griffin is a strange man with a bizarre family.

c) Plateau creates zootrope.

k) New hero Batman in Gotham City.

d) Superman flies.

l) New machine (phenakistiscope) gives illusion of movement.

e) McCay creates cartoon.

m) Garfield begins long nap.

f) Tapestry shows battle.

n) Wolverine makes his debut.

g) Popeye the Sailor sells spinach.

o) WWII begins and so do the adventures of Captain America.

h) Asterix is a new French hero.

p) Drama Among the Puppets first cartoon.

Order

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A Short History of Comic Strips and Animated Cartoons

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

What is the main idea of this text? Which of the headlines do you find most interesting? Why? Find a simile in the text. Do you prefer computer-generated images or hand-drawn images? Why? What do you think is the next step in the development of cartoons?

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Walt Disney’s Short Biography Before Reading

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Which Disney characters can you name? „„ What was your favourite Disney movie as a child? „„ Why are Disney movies and characters loved even by adults? „„

When you think of cartoon magic, you probably think of Walt Disney. Yes, there was a real man named Walt Disney and, yes, he created Disneyland and Disney World. This is a short biography of the man who was Walt Disney.

The Beginning

His full name was Walter Elias Disney and he was born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago. Here is something you might not know: his father, Elias Disney, was Canadian. Walt had three brothers and a sister. He was very interested in drawing when he was little. In 1906, the Disney family moved from Chicago to Marceline, Missouri.

While Reading See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the text. Many „„

words are in italics. People italicize for emphasis (to get noticed) or for titles of magazines, newspapers, books, films, works of art, operas, etc. In each paragraph, why are the words italicized?

Look at each subtitle. „„ What will you learn?

First Jobs

At age seven, the young Walter sold small sketches and drawings to neighbours. Walt later worked at summer jobs with the railroad. He sold newspapers, popcorn and sodas to travellers. In 1911, he left school to work for his father at the Kansas City Star, a local newspaper. In 1917, he tried to enlist in the army, but was refused because he was not yet 18. Instead, he worked as an ambulance driver in France until the end of the war. In contrast to other ambulances that were camouflaged, his ambulance was covered with cartoons.

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Walt Disney’s Short Biography

advised suggested

Victory!

In 1937, the movie Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs won an Oscar for best animated film. Many more Disney movies won Oscars after that.

A Dream Come True

In 1955, Walt Disney’s dream of an amusement park came true when Disneyland opened. This was followed by Disney’s Magic Kingdom, in 1971.

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In 1924, Disney created the characters of Oswald the Rabbit and Mortimer Mouse. His wife advised him to change Mortimer’s name. So Mortimer Mouse became Mickey Mouse. Disney did have a few failures, such as Crazy Plane , a cartoon in honour of Charles Lindbergh. Finally, success arrived with the short black and white, talking cartoon featuring Mickey Mouse, entitled Steamboat Willy.

Vocabulary

A Star Is Born

The End

ney died on Walter Elias Dis 66. There December 15, 19 his body is a rumour that r his death. was frozen afte a rumour… But that is just

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Walt Disney’s Short Biography

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Why did Walt Disney create the cartoon Crazy Plane?

2

Which cartoon started Disney’s success?

3

How old was he when he left school?

4

Which other character did he create along with Mickey in 1924?

5

What was Walt Disney’s full name?

True or False Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True

False

Correct Answer

a) Walt Disney was Canadian. b) Mickey Mouse’s original name was Mortimer Mouse. c) After he died, Walt Disney was frozen. d) Steamboat Willy was the first Disney cartoon to win an Oscar. e) Disneyland opened its doors in 1955.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3

Which Disney movie is your favourite? Why?

4 5

What kind of text is this?

Name two things you learned in this text. The picture at the bottom of page 132 represents Disney’s first and most recognized characters. It can be used as a postcard. If you bought this postcard, what would you write on the back? One of Walt Disney’s sayings was, “If you can dream it, you can do it.” Is there a dream you want to realize some day? What is it?

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Asterix Before Reading What do you know about „„ Asterix and Obelix?

Who is your favourite character „„ in the books? What do you like about that character?

How popular is Asterix „„

among your peer group?

While Reading See Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of word, p. VI

Look at the second paragraph. It gives a description of Asterix and Obelix. Which adjectives describe Asterix and Obelix „„ physically?

Which adjectives describe the character traits „„

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of Asterix and Obelix?

Cartoon street art in Paris, France

Born in 1959, Asterix is the creation of René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. The first adventures of Asterix were published in the French magazine Pilote. They were simply short stories of about one or two pages. The first album to appear on the market was Astérix le Gaulois. But who is Asterix?

Asterix and his friends are unbeatable in a fight because of a magic potion prepared by their druid, Getafix (Panoramix in French). Obelix does not need the potion, even though he always tries to get some. He fell into the cauldron filled with magic potion as a child.

druid Celtic religious leader

cauldron a large pot

Vocabulary

Asterix is short, intelligent and single. He lives in a small house in the middle of a village filled with other Gauls who refuse to submit to the Roman invaders, in general, and to Julius Caesar in particular. Asterix has shared his adventures with a very good friend since they were both little boys. His name is Obelix and he is just the opposite of Asterix. Obelix is big and overweight. He is not as smart as Asterix, but he follows his friend no matter where their adventures take them. Obelix has a pet dog named Dogmatix.

Up until 2015, there have been 36 albums produced. In all, 350 million copies have been sold worldwide. The albums have been translated into 100 languages and dialects. 134

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Asterix

After Reading

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Answer the following questions with complete sentences.

1

When did Asterix make his first appearance?

2

What was the name of the first album?

3

Who created the character of Asterix?

4

Into how many languages have the adventures of Asterix been translated?

Matching Activity Match the items in Column A with those of Column B.

Column A

Answer

Column B

a) Roman emperor

1) Dogmatix

b) Short, intelligent and single Gaul

2) Goscinny

c) Name of a dog

3) Panoramix

d) Number of copies sold around the world

4) 36

e) Asterix’s best friend

5) 350 million

f) Village druid’s name in French

6) Uderzo

g) Creator of Asterix

7) Obelix

h) Other creator of Asterix

8) Asterix

i) Number of albums

9) Julius Caesar

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

In your opinion, why are Asterix and Obelix on this mural of cartoon art?

2 3 4

What is the name of Asterix’s village?

5

What mood is reflected in the illustration?

What is the purpose of this text? What is the difference between the first adventure of Asterix and the last?

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Portraits of Superheroes Before Reading Which superhero is your favourite? Why? „„ Look at the pictures. What do you know about „„ these superheroes?

While Reading See Compare, p. VI

What are the similarities „„

between the superheroes?

Which other superheroes not depicted in the text „„

do you know? What special powers do they have?

What are the differences? „„ What makes each „„

BATMAN 1939

SUPERMAN 1938

• Born in Gotham City arents killed during a hold-up • Parents • Was not adopted and kept real name Bruce Wayne • Grew up in Gotham City • Never left Gotham City • Did not need a job; was rich • Fell in love with Vicky Vale • Hides true identity behind a mask • Wears a black costume with a cape

• Born on planet Krypton • Parents died when planet exploded • Was adopted by the Kents and named Clark • Grew up in Smallville • Left Smallville to find a job at the Metropolis Daily Planet newspaper • Fell in love with Lois Lane • Hides true identity behind a pair of glasses • Wears a blue and red costume with a cape • Has superhuman strength • Flies from one place to another • Can jump over tall buildings

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superhero unique?

• Has normal human strength • Travels in a Batmobile • Jumps off tall buildings and glides to the ground

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Portraits of Superheroes

RAVEN

SPIDER-MAN

1980

1962

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eall name: Peter Parker • Rea ents • Orphaned as a young boy when par h were killed in a plane cras • Raised by his uncle Ben and aunt May im • Brilliant but shy student, was the vict of bullying by other students 15, • Bitten by a radioactive spider at age giving him all the abilities of a spider, so he became Spider-Man red • As Spider-Man, wears a mask and a t fron in er spid a and blue costume with • His uncle was shot and killed • To help his aunt May, he took up a part-time job as a photographer at the Daily Bugle inst • As Spider-Man, defends the city aga all kinds of super villains

• Created by DC comics in 1980 • Is the daughter of Trigon, a demon and Arella, a human • Born on Azarath and raised by Azar, the spiritual leader of the temple of Azarath • At age 14, fled to Earth to hide from her father • Has been a member of the New Teen Titans since 1984 • Uses her powers to implant images in the minds of others • Can shift to her astral body to travel through time • Can heal injuries and manipulate time

After Reading Answer the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

How did Spider-Man get his powers?

2

Which one of the characters above is not human?

3

Who has healing powers?

4

Who does not have any super powers?

5

Who was not born on Earth?

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Portraits of Superheroes

Compare Find the things that superheroes have in common. a) Two things Superman and Spider-Man have in common.

b) Two things Batman and Spider-Man have in common.

c) One thing Super-Man and Raven have in common.

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Missing Information Fill in the missing information. a) Location of Batman’s home b) Superman’s workplace c) Superman’s secret identity d) Can change form to time travel e) Superman’s girlfriend f) Raven’s birthplace g) Batman’s real name h) Superman’s place of birth i) One of Batman’s vehicles

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

What type of texts are these? a) short stories

b) biographies

c) newspaper articles

Why would someone read texts like these? Where could you find information in this form about someone? Why do you think Batman and Spider-Man wear masks to hide their identity? Which of the four superheroes do you find most realistic? Why? Which of the four superheroes do you think would win a “Best Superhero” contest? Explain.

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Stan Lee: The Father of Superheroes Before Reading Look at the picture and the title. Who is this man? „„ Why is he famous?

What do you know about him? „„ What makes you think this man is happy and fulfilled? „„

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While Reading See Pay attention to the main idea of each paragraph, p. VI

Who is the subject of the first paragraph? „„ Which paragraphs explain his work and creation? „„ Look at the last paragraph. What does he still „„ do today?

Who is Stan Lee? Would you believe he is the father of Spider-Man, the Hulk and Thor? By “father,” I mean the creator of these superheroes.

Stan Lee at the Los Angeles premiere of Marvel’s The Avengers

He was born in New York in 1922. His real name is Stanley Martin Lieber. His parents were Romanian immigrants who worked very hard to make ends meet. Later he shortened his name to Lee. In 1939, he started working for a company called Timely Comics, which later changed its name to Marvel Comics. In 1961, Lee’s boss at Marvel Comics asked him to create a series that could compete with the Justice League of America. The Justice League was a group of superheroes created by DC Comics that included Superman. That is when the Fantastic Four were born. After that came the Hulk, Spider-Man, Doctor Strange, Daredevil and the X-Men.

From left: “The Thing,” “Invisible Woman,” “Johnny Storm” and “Mister Fantastic” superhero toy characters from Fantastic Four

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Stan Lee: The Father of Superheroes

After Reading Answer the following questions with complete sentences.

1

What is Stan Lee’s nationality?

2

What was Stan Lee’s first job?

3

What was Stan Lee’s first creation?

4

Why was Fantastic Four created?

5

What does Lee like to do in movies sometimes?

6

What was Marvel Comics first called?

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Today, Stan Lee still works at creating new adventures for his heroes. He also likes to make cameo appearances in movies based on his creations. A cameo appearance in a movie is when a famous person, such as Stan Lee, appears on-screen for a few seconds or has a line to say.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3

What kind of text is this?

4 5 6

Where could you find a text such as this one?

Which of Stan Lee’s creations do you like best? Why? What do you think the expression “to make ends meet” means? Do you think Stan Lee likes his job? Explain. What question would you ask Stan Lee if you met him?

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The Simpsons Before Reading What do you know about the Simpsons? „„ What do you like or dislike about the Simpsons? „„

Who are they? The Simpsons first appeared on television in 1989. The family is composed of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie. Let’s take a look at each character individually.

While Reading See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the headlines. „„

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What are they about?

What will you find out „„

about each character?

Homer Jay Simpson

Marjorie Jacqueline “Marge” Bouvier Simpson

Homer is the husband of Marge and the father of Bart, Lisa and Maggie. He is obese, lazy and not very smart. Homer has many faults, but he loves his family, even if he gets very angry with Bart or forgets Maggie’s name.

Marge is Homer’s wife and the mother of Bart, Lisa and Maggie. She always forgives Homer for his crazy and stupid actions. She absolutely adores her children. She is a housewife, but she has tried other careers, such as police officer, actress and anti-violence activist.

Bartholomew Jojo Simpson Better known as Bart, his nicknames are “Bartman” and “the boy.” He is the oldest of the three Simpson children and not very well behaved. He is a rebellious troublemaker and a potential danger to everyone and everything around him, almost like an unexploded bomb.

Lisa Marie Simpson Lisa is the second of the Simpson children. In contrast to her brother, she is talented. She plays the saxophone and guitar. She is well behaved and extremely smart. She has an IQ of 159 (a normal IQ is about 100; Einstein had an IQ between 160 and 190). Unfortunately she is considered a “nerd” and is not very popular in school.

Maggie Simpson Maggie is the last of the Simpsons’ children. She is the quiet Simpson. This may be because she always has a pacifier in her mouth. 141

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The Simpsons

After Reading 1

When were the Simpsons cartoons born?

2

Who is the smartest in the family? Explain.

3

What are Homer’s good qualities?

4

Which character has the least qualities?

5

What do all the Simpsons have that Maggie does not have?

Character Traits Match the following words with the Simpson character they best fit. adoring • dangerous • forgiving • intelligent • loving • middle • multi-talented • musical • obese • quiet • uncontrollable

Homer Marge Bart Lisa

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Answer the following questions with complete sentences.

Maggie

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Name another Simpson character. Then, write two of his or her character traits. What do you think the postage stamps on page 141 mean? Which Simpson resembles you the most? Explain how. Which Simpson is your favourite? Explain why. Why do you think The Simpsons are so popular? Find a simile in the text.

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Amazing Facts Did you know that there are more than 5,000 different languages in the world? Did you know that the sun has a central temperature of about 15,400,000°C? See pages 144 and 156 to learn more about it.

Astonishing Facts

144

Trademark Facts

146

Food Facts

148

Cigarettes and Smoking Facts

151

Prehistoric Facts

154

Space Facts

156

Facts About a Wonderful Machine: Your Body

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UNIT 9

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Astonishing Facts Before Reading What are some of the subjects you find „„ interesting?

What would you like to know about „„ sports, biology, music, nature or space?

While Reading See Pay attention to keywords and/or groups of words, p. VI

What is each fact about? „„ In each sentence, highlight the „„

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main words that refer to the fact. For example, in the first fact, light year is the keyword.

Here are some astonishing facts that you might like to know. • One light year is equal to a distance of 9.6 billion kilometres. • Light can travel the equivalent of seven times around the world in one second. • The United Nations uses five official languages: English, French, Russian, Spanish and Chinese. • There are more than 5,000 different languages in the world. Eight hundred of them are spoken in India. • There are eleven sheep for every person in Australia. • A cow can produce 13 litres of milk a day. • The most common animal in the world is the sea worm. There are 40,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (or 40 septillion). As you can see, they are not on the endangered species list. • The farthest you can see with the naked eye is 2.4 million light years away! (140,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles) That’s the distance to the giant Andromeda Galaxy. You can see it easily as a dim, large grey “cloud” almost directly overhead in a clear night sky.

naked eye see without the use of a telescope

Vocabulary

• The common pig is one of the 10 most intelligent animals.

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Astonishing Facts

After Reading

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

How far can light travel in one second?

2

How far does light travel in a year?

3

Which animal is among the least endangered in the world?

4

What is the furthest object that can be seen with the naked eye?

True or False Read the sentences below. Put an X under True or False. If false, write the correct answer in a complete sentence.

True

False

Correct Answer

a) A light year indicates the speed at which light travels in a year. b) If 100 people lived in Australia, there would be 1,100 sheep in that country. c) There are 5,000 languages spoken in India. d) The most common animal in the world is the pig.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

What other astonishing facts do you know? Why did the author write this text? Look at the picture at the beginning of the text. What are the people expressing? Which animal do you consider to be the most intelligent? Why? Which fact did you find most surprising? Why?

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Trademark Facts Before Reading

In your opinion, are they popular because a product „„ is good or because everyone else is using it?

Someone once said that teenagers can name „„ hundreds of brand names, but are unable to name one bird. Could that be true? Why?

A trademark is a company name or the name of a product. Here are a few facts about well-known trademarks.

The little fat man in the Michelin tire commercials is named Bibendum.

Back in 1971, Jeff Johnson named his footwear Nike after the Greek goddess of victory.

7UP got its name from the fact that the original drink came in a bottle containing seven ounces of liquid (an old measure). The UP part came from the bubbles. When it was first introduced to the public in 1929, it was called Bib-Label Lithiated Lemon-Lime Soda. You will agree that 7UP is easier to pronounce.

Legend has it that the Oreo cookie got its name from sandwiching the “re” of cream between the two o’s of chocolate.

While Reading See Infer with cognates and/or words you already know, p. VI

In each sentence, „„

look for the words you already know and words that are similar to French. It will help you understand the meaning of the sentence.

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of every day. Why are certain name brands popular among teenagers?

Kleenex is a brand name of paper tissues, not the tissues themselves.

McDonald’s restaurant chain uses about 25,000,000 kilos of hamburger meat each year.

goddess feminine form of god

life preservers

Vocabulary

We are surrounded by brand names every hour „„

Life Savers look like miniature life preservers. That’s how they got their name.

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Trademark Facts Tupperware was named after its creator, Earle Silas Tupper.

Zamboni, the machine that resurfaces the ice between hockey periods, also got its name from its inventor, Frank Zamboni.

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Ping-Pong was the name given to table tennis products. It was trademarked in 1901. The reason for the name is the sound the ball makes as it hits the table.

The M&M logo on the candy stands for Mars and Merrie, the two people who invented the candy in 1941.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

What do the letters M&M stand for?

2

How much hamburger meat does McDonald’s use in a year?

3

Who is Bibendum?

4

Who was Nike?

5

Name three products that are named after their creators.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

Kleenex is a brand name of paper tissues. Do you know another product whose brand name has become the word to designate it? Which one?

2

Choose one of the products described in the text. Give it a new name and explain why you chose that name.

3

Which product do you think made a good move by changing its name? Why?

4

Why would you read a text like this one? Explain.

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Food Facts Before Reading What fun fact do you know about food? „„ Why do people like to talk about food? „„ What are some of the foods you like or dislike? „„

While Reading See Predict, p. VI

Which food is the most „„ dangerous?

Which food contains „„ the most water?

What quantity of coffee „„

a person who washes dishes in a restaurant

kidney an organ in the human body that eliminates waste

Here are some interesting facts about food. It will give you something to talk about during your next meal.

inese is not a Ch Cho p suey nd reate d aro u c s a w t I . dish in dishwasher 1890 by a e co. The nam San Francis the English co mes fro m the Chinese “cho p” an d ans o cho p” me T “ . i u s d r o w s d sui mean “to cut” an ieces.” “bits” or “p

liver an organ in the human body that cleans the blood

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dishwasher

Vocabulary

can kill a human?

Taking 10 grams of caffeine in a four-hour period can kill the average human. This is the equivalent of one hundred cups of coffee.

The world’s most dangero us mushroo m is called the Amanita phalloides or death cap. It contains five different poisons. If you ate one, it would cause damage to your kidneys, liver and central nervous system. This would lead to a coma and then death in most cases.

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Food Facts

s Fossil evidence show that turkeys roamed on the Americas 10 milli years ago.

Cleopatra’s favourite food was the fig. The snake that killed her was brought in a basket of figs.

The only food that doesn’t spoil is honey.

Honeybees must visit two million flowers to make 500 grams of honey.

fossil remains of an animal or plant that has turned to stone

Around 8% of children and 2% of adults have some kind of food allergy. These occur when the body’s immune system incorrectly assumes a certain food protein is harmful and attacks it. Common examples of food allergies include reactions to peanuts, gluten and shellfish. If the dish is improperly prepared, fugu, or puffer fish, can kill you. This fish contains a toxin 1,200 times deadlier than cyanide.

spoil turn bad

hydrating to make something absorb water

Vocabulary

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The Carolina Reaper is the hottest chili pepper on the market. Its rating is about 1,500,000 Scoville units. Scoville Heat Units are used to indicate how spicy or hot a pepper is. For example, the Jalapeno measures between 1,000 and 4,000 Scoville units.

One of the most hydrating foods to eat is the cucumber, which is 96% water.

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

When was chop suey created?

2

What is Chinese about chop suey?

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3

What parts of your body are attacked by the Amanita phalloides mushroom?

4

Which historical character died while eating her favourite food?

5

Which creature mentioned in the text can either delight your taste buds or kill you?

6

Which food can be kept for a very long time? Why?

Fun with Numbers Match column A with column B.

Column A

Answer

Column B

a) 10,000,000

1) Grams of coffee in a 4-hour period can be fatal

b) 2%

2) Number of Scoville units in a Carolina Reaper

c) 10

3) Number of flowers visited by a bee to make 500 grams of honey

d) 5

4) Number of years the turkey has lived in North America

e) 1,500,000

5) Number of poisons contained in a death cap mushroom

f) 96%

6) Number of adults with allergies

g) 2,000,000

7) Percentage of water in a cucumber

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Food Facts

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1

Look at the picture on page 148, under the Before Reading section. What type of information is on this poster?

2 3 4 5 6

If chop suey is not really Chinese, why do you think they named it that way? If you eat the mushroom called the death cap, will you die? Explain why. Which fact will you remember the most? Why? The puffer fish is considered a delicacy even though it could kill. Would you try it? Why or why not? What is your opinion about people who are willing to take the risk and eat fugu?

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Cigarettes and Smoking Facts Before Reading Why do people do „„

things that are harmful to the body?

Name some things that are „„ dangerous for the body.

Name some things that are „„ © Éditions Grand Duc Thank you for not photocopying

unpleasant about cigarettes.

What are some of „„

the reasons that might persuade people to smoke or not smoke?

While Reading See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

Look at the text. Why are there words „„ written in capital letters?

What are the words highlighted in red? „„

Dear Sir, In your letter you asked us to analyze a cigarette. We list our findings below. We found that there are over 5,000 chemicals in cigarettes. Forty of those are human carcinogens. This means that they cause cancer in humans.

TAR: This is a dark substance that carries nicotine to the lungs. By the way, filters in cigarettes don’t work, because they do not remove enough tar to make cigarettes less dangerous. They are just a marketing ploy to make you think you are smoking a safer cigarette. NICOTINE: Nicotine is one of the many dangerous substances in cigarettes. It is responsible for making cigarettes addictive. Nicotine is very addictive. It takes only seven seconds after inhalation to reach your brain. It has a dangerous ill effect on your heartbeat and your breath.

ploy a manoeuvre, a trick

ill effect bad effect

Vocabulary

CARBON MONOXIDE: This is the same odourless and colourless gas that comes out of a car’s tailpipe. It is deadly when concentrated. In smaller doses, it causes shortness of breath and a faster heartbeat. The good news is that the body can eliminate most of the carbon monoxide very quickly. Someone who quits smoking feels more energetic within a few days.

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Cigarettes and Smoking Facts Here are just a few of the chemical components in tobacco smoke, and other places they are found: active component in battery acid embalming fluid

cadmium

formaldehyde used in lighter fluid

hexamine

benzene

found in barbecue lighter fluid

lead

arsenic

used in batteries

used in rat poison

naphthalene an ingredient in moth balls

a common household cleaner

methanol

acetic acid

a main component in rocket fuel

an ingredient in hair dye

toluene used to manufacture paint

found in nail polish remover

Yours truly, Dr. Feelbetter

After Reading

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found in rubber cement

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

How many chemicals can be found in cigarettes?

2

How many of those can cause cancer?

3

What deadly gas emanates both from a car and a cigarette?

4

What does this gas do in small doses?

5

What part of a cigarette is only included to market the idea that it is safe to smoke?

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Cigarettes and Smoking Facts

Matching Activity Match the chemicals found in cigarette smoke with their use.

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Chemical

Answer

Use

a) butane

1) Used when someone dies from smoking

b) arsenic

2) Used to light up a cigarette

c) acetic acid

3) Kills unwanted vermin

d) toluene

4) Is probably on your walls

e) formaldehyde

5) Used to add colour to your hair

Writing Activity Anna wants to stop smoking. Using the illustration on page 152, complete this short letter giving her two reasons why she should quit smoking.

Dear Anna, Smoking is very bad for you. You should quit because cigarettes contain many dangerous chemicals. Cigarettes contain

, which is

.

They also contain

, which is

.

I know you can stop smoking if you try. Your friend,

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Where would you find a picture like the one at the end of Dr. Feelbetter’s email? What kind of text is this? Do you smoke? Why? Do you think this text would persuade a smoker to quit? Why? What would you do to convince a friend or family member to quit smoking? How do these facts make you feel about smoking?

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Prehistoric Facts Before Reading What do you know about prehistory? „„ What images come to mind when you think of „„ prehistory?

How do scientists know about what happened „„ billions of years ago?

While Reading See Predict, p. VI

Look at the sayings in „„

the cartoons next to each paragraph. Guess what each fact is about.

Scientists today believe that plants that are now green, used to be purple. According to them, this was due to the fact that plants used something other than chlorophyll to capture the sun’s rays.

What’s wrong with purple. Purple is nice.

Try swatting that when you are around a campfire.

You think you have problems with bugs in the summer? Try this for size. The Meganeura, an insect that looked like a dragonfly, lived about 300 million years ago. Its wingspan was as much as 65 cm.

Volcanoes are some of the most destructive forces on Earth. But did you know that without them we would probably not be here. Why? I’m glad you asked. Volcanoes are probably what helped create the atmosphere and maybe some complex life forms.

And I thought they were dangerous!

Vocabulary

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We called it home.

Around 240 million years ago, Earth had only one continent. Today’s scientists call it Pangaea. I don’t know what the inhabitants of Pangaea called it.

inhabitants

chlorophyll

dragonfly

to swat

people that live in a given area

what gives plants their green colour

a four-winged insect

to kill an insect

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Prehistoric Facts

Whew, that is good news. But wait! I’m not around already!

We just stuck our head outside the cave to tell what the weather was like.

Time for some good news and bad news. Let’s start with the bad news. The sun will eventually destroy the Earth. It will burn it up like an overcooked piece of bacon. The good news is that it won’t happen for a couple of billion years, so I doubt we will be around for the big final barbecue. tilt

After Reading Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

a position with one end more to one side

1

What is the name given to Earth’s original land mass?

2

What tells you that some bugs were huge 300 million years ago?

3

Name two things that helped shape the Earth. How did they help shape it?

4

Why were the plants purple instead of green?

5

How would the Moon’s absence affect the Earth?

Vocabulary

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The moon was also of great help. It helped stabilize the Earth’s tilt, which in turn stabilized the changes in climate. If it wasn’t for that, we could not trust our weather people, since the climate would change constantly. He or she could not make any correct predictions.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

What would it be like to live in a world where everything that should be green is purple? Explain. When the author says: “Wait a minute, that sounds familiar,” what does he mean? Do you think this is a scientific text? Why? Do you think the text is serious? Explain.

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Space Facts Before Reading

While Reading

Why have humans always been interested „„

See Infer with cognates and/or words you already know, p. VI

If you could go anywhere in space, „„

Many words in this text are „„

in space?

similar to French words. How many can you find?

where would you go?

chemical elements are similar in French and English. Underline the names of planets. Circle the names of chemical compounds, like “methane gas,” for example.

The temperature in the daytime is 430ºC.

orbital velocity the speed at which the Earth orbits around the Sun

The Earth has an average orbital velocity of 29.8 kilometres per second. Earth is the only planet that has liquid water on its surface.

Vocabulary

The sun has a central temperature of about 15,400,000ºC.

A large asteroid hit Mercury 4 billion years ago.

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Often the names of planets and „„

Venus is Earth’s twin. Venus is also called the Evening Star. Venus spins backwards (retrograde rotation) compared to the other planets. This means that the sun rises in the west and sets in the east on Venus.

One day on Jupiter equals 10 hours on Earth. Mars has the tallest volcanoes and the deepest valleys.

One year on Jupiter equals 12 years on Earth. (In theory, you would have to wait 132 Earth years to get your driver’s licence!)

Mars has two moons named Phobos (fear) and Deimos (panic).

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Space Facts

Uranus is a blue-green colour because of the cold methane gas on its surface.

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Like Venus, Uranus has a retrograde rotation (east to west).

Saturn would float if placed in water. Saturn is not solid, but made almost entirely of gas – mostly liquid hydrogen and helium. Only in the planet’s very small core is there any rock. Some of Saturn’s moons have conditions that might support life.

Pluto used to be a planet, but is now called a dwarf planet. It is so cold on Neptune that you would need skin thicker than that of a polar bear.

Pluto is 2,300 kilometres wide. (Canada is 9,300 kilometres wide.) Pluto is sometimes called a double dwarf planet because of its moon Charon.

Halley predicted that a comet he had discovered would return in 1758, 16 years after his death, and it did. It was the first time a comet’s arrival had been predicted, and so it was named Halley’s Comet after him.

core

After Reading

central part

Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

1

Which planet has water on its surface?

2

What makes Uranus look blue-green?

3

What would happen to Saturn if you placed it in water?

Vocabulary

The tail of a comet is created as it nears the Sun and begins to melt. A vast plume of gas, millions of kilometres across, is blown out behind by the solar wind. The tail is what you see shining, as the sunlight catches it.

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4

When did an asteroid hit Mercury?

5

Where can you find the tallest volcanoes and the deepest valleys?

6

Why would you need a very thick skin on Neptune?

7

How fast is the Earth’s orbit around the Sun?

Who Am I? Read the sentence. Write the name of the planet in the space provided. a) I’m the hottest of all nine planets. b) You would be very, very old before you could drive a car here. c) I spin backwards. d) I have two moons with frightening names. e) People might be able to live on some of my moons. f) I would fit four times in your country.

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Space Facts

g) Solar wind makes me look spectacular. h) I’m the only place where you could swim. i) I’m sometimes called a star. j) I’m so cold, even polar bears would need a coat.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4 5

The text mentions that Pluto is a double planet because of its moon. Why? Why do you think scientists call Venus, Earth’s twin? Does space exploration interest you? Why? What is the author’s purpose in writing this text? Do you think there are other life forms in our solar system? Explain.

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Facts About a Wonderful Machine: Your Body Before Reading What interesting fact about the body „„

While Reading

do you know?

What do you think of the saying, „„

See Infer with visual and/or contextual cues, p. VI

What is incredible about the body? „„

Look at the first two pictures „„

Here are some interesting facts about the human body that you probably did not know.

Which body parts are „„

below. Name the body parts. If you don’t know, look at the keywords in each of the first sentences of paragraphs 1 and 2.

Why is it a machine? What other word would you prefer instead of machine?

Your brain has about

Your brain keeps

Your heart beats over 100,000 times a day.

developing until your late 40s.

Your heartbeat changes and mimics the music you are listening to.

The smell of chocolate increases theta brain

There are about 160,000 kilometres of blood vessels in your body. Enough to circle the Earth four times.

waves, which trigger relaxation. •

Your heart pumps approximately 13,630 litres of blood in one day.

100 billion neurones. •

mentioned in paragraph 3?

In a lifetime, your brainʻs long-term memory

in the middle. It is the tip of the heart that points to the left.

can hold as many as one million, billion separate bits of information.

The human heart is not on the left-hand side of the body, but

The risk of a heart attack increases by 200%–400% for smokers.

mimics

fuse

imitates

join

The average eye blinks about 20,000 times a day. The eye can also distinguish 10,000,000 different colour surfaces.

Your body contains enough carbon to fill 900 pencils and enough fat to make 75 candles.

There are about 100,000 hair follicles on an average head, but if you are a natural blond,

Vocabulary

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“Our body is an incredible machine”?

you have about 146,000 follicles. People with black hair or brown hair have an average of 110,000 follicles and redheads have an average of 86,000. Each follicle contains 20 hairs. •

Adults have fewer bones than babies. When you are born, you have 350 bones in your body. As you grow, some bones fuse together and you end up with only 206 bones.

You cannot sur vive more than 11 days without sleep. Past this number, you may end up sleeping forever.

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Facts About a Wonderful Machine: Your Body

After Reading 1

How many litres of blood does the human heart pump every day?

2

How many days can you survive without sleeping?

3

Who has the most hair follicles?

4

What is the percentage risk of a heart attack if you are a smoker compared to a non-smoker?

5

What is the number of times the blood vessels found in the human body could be circled around the Earth?

Matching Activity Match the quantity to the description.

Quantity

Answer

Description

a) 100 billion

1) Number of bones in a newborn baby

b) 20,000

2) Number of neurons in your brain

c) 350

3) Number of heartbeats in a day

d) 100,000

4) The average number of times you blink in a day

e) 900

5) Number of different colour surfaces your eye can distinguish

f) 10,000,000

6) Number of pencils that can be made from the carbon in your body

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Answer each of the following questions with a complete sentence.

A Step Forward Answer these questions on a separate sheet. Then you can discuss them with classmates.

1 2 3 4

Name something that would increase your theta brain waves. Why? Why do you think the structure of your brain changes when you learn something new? Look at the illustration of the heart. What is wrong with it? Which piece of information did you find most interesting? Why?

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Toolkit

Irregular Verbs

162

Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

164

Verb Tenses

165

TOOLKIT

Spelling Rules for the Plural Forms of Nouns

172

Spelling Rules for Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

173

Common English Verbal Adjectives

174

Spelling Rules for the 3rd Person Singular of Simple Present Tense

166

Spelling Rules for the Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs

166

Spelling Rules for the Present Progressive Tense

167

Common English Prepositions

175

Negative Forms

167

Common English Adverbs

176

Interrogative Forms

168

Common English Homophones

177

Articles a – an – the

169

Common Non-Count Nouns

177

Modal Verbs

170

Phrasal Verbs

171

Common English Discourse Markers

178

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Irregular Verbs

Simple Form

Simple Past

Colour Code

Examples

A-A-A

bet-bet-bet

A-B-A

become-became-become

A-B-B

bend-bent-bent

A-B-C

awake-awoke-awoken

Past Participle

Simple Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

awake

awoke

awoken

dig

dug

dug

be

was, were

been

do

did

done

beat

beat

beaten

draw

drew

drawn

become

became

become

dream

dreamed, dreamt

dreamed, dreamt

begin

began

begun

drink

drank

drunk

bend

bent

bent

drive

drove

driven

bet

bet

bet

eat

ate

eaten

bite

bit

bitten

fall

fell

fallen

bleed

bled

bled

feed

fed

fed

blow

blew

blown

feel

felt

felt

break

broke

broken

fight

fought

fought

bring

brought

brought

find

found

found

build

built

built

fly

flew

flown

burn

burned, burnt

burned, burnt

forbid

forbade

forbidden

buy

bought

bought

forget

forgot

forgotten

catch

caught

caught

forgive

forgave

forgiven

choose

chose

chosen

freeze

froze

frozen

come

came

come

get

got

gotten

cost

cost

cost

give

gave

given

creep

crept

crept

go

went

gone

cut

cut

cut

grow

grew

grown

deal

dealt

dealt

hang (suspend)

hung

hung

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Use this colour code to highlight or colour the table of irregular verbs. Four examples are provided at the beginning of the table.

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Irregular Verbs

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Simple Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

Simple Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

hang (execute)

hanged

hanged

shoot

shot

shot

have

had

had

show

showed

shown

hear

heard

heard

shrink

shrank

shrunk

hide

hid

hidden

shut

shut

shut

hold

held

held

sing

sang

sung

hurt

hurt

hurt

sink

sank

sunk

keep

kept

kept

sit

sat

sat

know

knew

known

sleep

slept

slept

lead

led

led

slide

slid

slid

leave

left

left

speak

spoke

spoken

lend

lent

lent

spend

spent

spent

let (allow)

let

let

stand

stood

stood

light

lit

lit

steal

stole

stolen

lose

lost

lost

stick

stuck

stuck

make

made

made

sting

stung

stung

mean

meant

meant

stink

stank

stunk

meet

met

met

strike

struck

struck

pay

paid

paid

swear

swore

sworn

put

put

put

sweep

swept

swept

quit

quit

quit

swim

swam

swum

read

read

read

swing

swung

swung

ride

rode

ridden

take

took

taken

ring

rang

rung

teach

taught

taught

rise (get up)

rose

risen

tear

tore

torn

run

ran

run

tell

told

told

say

said

said

think

thought

thought

see

saw

seen

throw

threw

thrown

sell

sold

sold

understand

understood

understood

send

sent

sent

wake

woke

woken

set

set

set

wear

wore

worn

shake

shook

shaken

win

won

won

shine

shone

shone

write

wrote

written

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Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives Pronouns are used to replace nouns. Subject pronouns usually precede a verb. They execute the action of the verb. Object pronouns follow a verb. They receive the action of the verb. Possessive adjectives always precede a noun. They indicate possession and are chosen according to the possessor.

Plural

Singular

Personal Pronouns

Possessive Adjectives

Possessive Pronouns

Subject

Object

1st person

I live in Quebec.

They live with me.

It is my house.

The house is mine.

2nd person

You are a student.

He is talking to you.

This is your book.

This book is yours.

3rd person masculine

He is a teacher.

All the students like him.

This is his class.

This class is his.

3rd person feminine

She is Peruvian.

All the teachers like her.

Peru is her native country

Now this country is hers.

3rd person neutral

It is a beautiful city.

I like it very much.

Its main attraction is the Stadium.

1st person

We leave for school.

The bus picks us up at 8:15.

We arrive at our school by 8:30.

The school is ours.

2nd person

You are students.

He is talking to all of you.

This is your class.

This class is yours.

3rd person masculine

They are my friends.

I like them very much.

I sometime go to their house.

The house is theirs.

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Possessive pronouns also indicate possession but are not followed by nouns. They can replace possessive adjectives and nouns.

Demonstrative pronouns (this – that/these – those) point out the location of something. this = singular (near) that = plural (far)

these = plural (near) those = plural (far)

Examples: This is my cat and that is your dog. These are our ice cream cones and those are some hungry pets.

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Verb Tenses Tense

Simple Past

Simple Present

Use

Formed

Examples

To describe an action finished sometime in the past

–ed is added to regular verbs (see p. 166). The form changes for irregular verbs (see pp. 162 and 163).

He played hockey last year.

To describe repeated actions or general facts

Like the base form but needs an –s at the end in the 3rd person singular he, she, it (see p. 166).

I play hockey every week.

Yesterday, she bought a new coat.

He likes English.

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The Earth goes around the sun. Present Continuous

Simple Future

To describe an action happening now

To be in the simple present (am, are, is) + the present participle (see p. 167).

I am reading this now.

To describe a future action

will + the base form of the verb

I will see you tomorrow. You are going to watch the game tomorrow.

or The simple present of to be + going to + the base form of the verb

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1)

If the verb ends in –y preceded by a consonant, change –y to –i and add –es. Examples: study = he studies

2)

If the verb ends in –y preceded by a vowel, add –s. Examples: play = he plays

3)

If the verb ends in –o or –s or –x or –ch or –sh, add –es. Examples: go = he goes kiss = she kisses fix = she fixes watch = he watches wish = she wishes

Spelling Rules for the Simple Past Tense of Regular Verbs 1)

If the verb ends in a consonant, add –ed. Examples: jump = jumped, help = helped, learn = learned

2)

If the verb ends in –e, add –d. Examples: prepare = prepared, produce = produced, live = lived

3)

In one-syllable words, if the verb ends in a consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) combination, double the last consonant and add –ed. Examples: bug = bugged, rub = rubbed

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Spelling Rules for the 3rd Person Singular of the Simple Present Tense

Do not double one-syllable words ending in –w, –x, or –y. Examples: tow = towed, play = played, mix = mixed 4)

In words of two or more syllables that end in a CVC combination, double the last consonant only if the last syllable is stressed. Examples: prefer = preferred (the last syllable is stressed) visit = visited (the last syllable isn’t stressed)

5)

If the verb ends in a consonant + y, change the –y to –i and –ed. Examples: try = tried, reply = replied

6)

If the verb ends in a vowel + y, add –ed. (Do not change the –y to –i.) Examples: play = played, annoy = annoyed Exceptions: pay = paid, lay = laid, say = said

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Spelling Rules for the Present Continuous Tense

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Verb Ending

Rule

Simple

–ing

1)

For most verbs

Add –ing

help learn

helping learning

2)

Consonant and –e

When the verb ends with –e, drop the e and add –ing.

use skate

using skating

3)

–ee

When the verb ends with –ee, just add –ing.

agree free

agreeing freeing

4)

One vowel and one consonant (one-syllable verbs)

When a one-syllable verb ends with one vowel and one consonant, just double the consonant and add –ing.

stop plan hug

stopping planning hugging

5)

One vowel and one consonant (two-syllable verbs where the second syllable is stressed)

When a two-syllable verb ends with one vowel and one consonant, just double the consonant and add –ing.

prefer control

preferring controlling

6)

One consonant and –y

When a verbs ends with a consonant and –y, just add –ing.

study cry

studying crying

7)

–ie

When a verbs ends with –ie, change the –ie to a –y and add –ing.

die lie tie

dying lying tying

Negative Forms Tense

Subject

Auxiliary + not

Verb

Object

Simple Past

I/You/He/She/ We/They

did not (didn’t)

buy (base form)

new skies.

Simple Present

I/You/We/They

do not (don’t)

write (base form)

every day.

He/She

does not (doesn’t)

I

am not

the game.

You/We/They

are not (aren’t)

watching (present participle)

He/She

is not (isn’t)

I/You/He/She/ We/They

will not (won’t)

finish (base form)

her book.

He/She

is not going to (isn’t)

finish

Present Continuous

Simple Future

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Interrogative Forms Yes/No Questions Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Object

Simple Past

Did

I/you/he/she/we/they

see (base form)

the movie?

Simple Present

Do

I/you/we/they

write (base form)

the guitar?

Does

he/she

Present Continuous

Am

I

for the test?

Are

you/we/they

studying (present participle)

Is

he/she

Will

I/you/he/she/we/they

swim (base form)

in the lake?

Are

you/we/they

going to swim

Simple Future

Question Words Question Words

Used to Ask Questions About…

Who

a person

What

a thing, an action

Where

a place

When

a time, a date

How

a manner

Why

a reason

Which

a choice

How much/How many

a quantity, a price

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Tense

Examples of Information Questions Question Words

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Adverb

Answer

Who

did

he

see

there?

… John.

What

do

you

need

today?

… bread.

When

is

he

going to play?

… tonight.

How much

did

it

cost?

… five dollars.

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Articles a – an – the Indefinite Articles Generally, a is used in front of words starting with a consonant sound (e.g., a mountain). An is used in front of words starting with a vowel sound (e.g., an ocean). A and an are used with singular nouns only. They are used in a general sense.

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Definite Articles The is used in front of singular or plural nouns to describe something or someone specific or unique. Indefinite Articles a and an

Definite Article the

a mountain an ocean a river

the Rockies the Atlantic the St. Lawrence River

I want a chocolate bar. He will be back in an hour. A litre of gazoline used to cost 25 cents. It’s such a nice day today.

The chocolate bar is in the box. Look at the picture. I missed the bus. We are looking at the clouds.

No Articles Are Needed in Front of…

Examples

the names of sports

baseball, soccer, hockey, figure skating

the names of school subjects

mathematics, science, art, music

the names of languages

English, French, Spanish

the names of lakes and bays

Lake Ontario, Lake Superior, Hudson Bay

the names of single mountains

Mount Everest, Mount Logan

the names of continents

America, Asia, Australia, Africa, Europe

the names of provinces or states

Quebec, Newfoundland, Vermont, New York

the names of cities

Montreal, Longueuil, Amos, Oka

the names of countries

Canada, France, Italy, Spain

the names of streets

Main Street, Sherbrooke Street

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Modal Verbs Can

Could

May

Must

Should

Will

Would

Uses

Examples She can come home on her own.

Ability/possibility

He can’t fix it.

Inability/impossibility

Can I drink this?

Asking for permission

Can you help me?

Request

Could I borrow your pencil?

Asking for permission

Could you repeat that more slowly? You could try to find it yourself.

Request Suggestion

I think we could have another test tomorrow.

Future possibility

When I was young, I could lift bigger boxes.

Ability in the past

May I have another piece of cake, please?

Asking for permission

We may get yet another test next week.

Future possibility

You must get home soon.

Necessity/obligation

You must not look into the secret box.

Prohibition

I should really finish my homework first.

Saying what’s right or correct

You should double-check your spelling.

Recommending action/suggestion

My marks should improve next semester.

Uncertain prediction

I can’t concentrate anymore so I will stop practising now.

Instant decision

I will help you with your spelling if you want.

Offer

I will help you next class.

Promise

My marks will improve next semester.

Certain prediction

Would it be okay to use a red pen?

Asking for permission

Would you pass the butter, please?

Request

Would you like to come to a party this Friday?

Invitation

Would you rather have cake or pie?

Preferences

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Modal

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Phrasal Verbs A phrasal verb is cornposed of a verb and a particle (a preposition). Adding this preposition to the verb gives a new rneaning to the original verb. Here are some examples.

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Phrasal Verb

Meaning

Phrasal Verb

Meaning

to ask out

to ask someone to go on a date

to hand in

to give homework, tests, papers, etc.

to break up

to end a relationship

to hand out

to distribute something to a group

to call back

to return a telephone call

to hang up

to end a telephone call

to call off

to cancel

to kick off

to start, to begin something

to call up

to make a telephone call

to leave out

to omit, exclude

to catch up

to reach the same position or level

to look after

to take care of

to cross out

to draw a line through

to look up

to look for information in a reference book

to drop out

to quit school or classes

to make up

to invent

to figure out

to find the solution to a problem

to put off

to postpone, delay

to fill in

to complete a sentence by writing in a blank

to put up with

to tolerate

to fill out

to write information on a form

to run into

to meet someone by chance

to fill up

to fill something with gas, water, coffee, etc.

to take off

to remove something, especially clothes from one’s body; to leave

to find out

to discover information

to tear off

to detach something; to tear along a dotted or perforated line

to get along

to have a good relationship

to tear up

to tear into small pieces

to get in

to enter a car, a taxi

to throw away/out

to put in the garbage

to get on

to enter a bus, an airplane, a train, a subway, or to mount a bicycle

to try on

to put on clothing to see if it fits

to get over

to recover from a bad situation (marks, dates, disputes, etc.)

to turn down

to decrease the volume; to decline an offer

to give up

to quit doing something or quit trying

to turn up

to increase the volume; to appear somewhere

to grow up

to become an adult

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Spelling Rules for the Plural Forms of Nouns Plural Ending

Examples

1)

Most nouns

s (general rule)

cup/cups tape/tapes table/tables

2)

sh

es

dish/dishes

ch

batch/batches

ss

glass/glasses

x

fox/foxes

3)

y (consonant)

ies

body/bodies city/cities

4)

f

ves

wife/wives

fe

s

life/lives

es

half/halves shelf/shelves

o (vowel)

s

zoo/zoos studio/studios radio/radios

o (consonant)

es

potato/potatoes tomato/tomatoes hero/heroes zero/zero(e)s volcano/volcano(e)s

5)

6)

Irregular nouns

7)

No changes

Exceptions

When the ch sounds like a k, only add s. stomach/stomachs monarch/monarchs

belief/beliefs chief/chiefs cuff/cuffs roof/roofs

Pay attention: Zero and volcano can be written both ways.

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Singular Ending

die/dice child/children woman/women man/men mouse/mice foot/feet tooth/teeth goose/geese sheep/sheep species/species fish/fish deer/deer

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Spelling Rules for Comparative and Superlative Adjectives A comparative is used to compare one item (or group) with another, using the word than. Examples: My dog is more intelligent than your dog. My dog is bigger than your dog. A superlative is used to compare one item (or group) with all the others.

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Examples: My dog is the most intelligent dog I know. My dog is the biggest dog in the neighbourhood. Adjectives

one-syllable words

Comparatives –er + than and more + adj. + than Rule: –er + than

Rule: The + –est

E.g.: young John is younger than his sister.

E.g.: young John is the youngest person in his family.

E.g.: tall John is taller than his friend. two-syllable words ending in y, ow and le

Words with two or more syllables

E.g.: tall John is the tallest boy in his class.

E.g.: lazy He is lazier than anyone I know.

E.g.: lazy He is the laziest man I know.

E.g.: narrow Main Street is narrower than 1st Ave.

E.g.: narrow Main Street is the narrowest street in town.

E.g.: noble Some animals are nobler than other. Irregular

Superlatives The + –est and the most + adj.

E.g.: noble That dog has the noblest face of all.

E.g.: good Their soccer team is better than our team.

E.g.: good We are the best soccer team in the league.

E.g.: bad My presentation was worse than I thought.

E.g.: bad That is the worst idea I’ve ever had.

E.g.: far the beach is further than I thought.

E.g.: far The furthest galaxies are about three thousand million light years away.

Rule: more/less + adj. + than

Rule: the most/the least + adj.

E.g.: interesting This magazine is more interesting than the other one.

E.g.: interesting This is the most interesting magazine I have read.

E.g.: dangerous An asteroid is less dangerous than a meteor.

E.g.: dangerous An asteroid is the least dangerous object in space.

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Common English Verbal Adjectives alarmed – alarming

frightened – frightening

amazed – amazing

hated – hating

animated – animating

horrified – horrifying

annoyed – annoying

interested – interesting

attracted – attracting

involved – involving

calculated – calculating

irritated – irritating

concerned – concerning

liked – liking

damaged – damaging

loved – loving

defeated – defeating

puzzled – puzzling

depressed – depressing

outraged – outraging

despised – despising

overwhelmed – overwhelming (too much)

devastated – devastating

relaxed – relaxing

devoted – devoting

relieved – relieving

disgusted – disgusting

revolted – revolting

embarrassed – embarrassing

startled – startling

empowered – empowering

scared – scaring

enchanted – enchanting

thrilled – thrilling

excited – exciting

tired – tiring

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This is only a partial list. There are many more.

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Common English Prepositions Time

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at for a precise time in for months, years, centuries and long periods on for days and dates next, last, every, this with days (Monday, Friday), months (October, January) on

above

over

in front of

beside

below

under

behind

Location in

up

in back of

on

down

behind

at

around

next to

by

through

on top of

near

inside

within

nearby

outside (of)

beneath

above

between

underneath

below

beside

among

over

beyond

along

under

in front of

against

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Common English Adverbs Points of time (definite) now

then

today

tomorrow

tonight

yesterday

Frequency (definite) annually

hourly

quarterly

daily

monthly

weekly

fortnightly

nightly

yearly

always

frequently

never

often

seldom

constantly

generally

normally

rarely

sometimes

ever

infrequently

occasionally

regularly

usually

Relationships in time (indefinite) already

finally

late

recently

before

first

lately

since

early

formerly

later

soon

earlier

just

next

still

eventually

last

previously

yet

angrily

fortunately

politely

slowly

badly

generously

quickly

so

beautifully

gladly

quietly

softly

bravely

happily

rapidly

straight

calmly

hard

rarely

stupidly

carefully

honestly

really

successfully

cheerfully

kindly

regularly

suddenly

clearly

lazily

repeatedly

tenderly

closely

loudly

sadly

violently

correctly

nervously

safely

warmly

easily

openly

seriously

weakly

eventually

painfully

sharply

wearily

exactly

patiently

silently

well

fast

perfectly

sleepily

wisely

Manner

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Frequency (indefinite)

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Common English Homophones ant/aunt/aren’t

he’s/his

road/rode

we’d/weed

ate/eight

hour/our

see/sea

weigh/way

be/bee

knew/new

sent/cent

we’ll/wheel

blue/blew

know/no

sew/so

where/wear

break/brake

knows/nose

sun/son

which/witch

by/buy

made/maid

their/there/they’re

whole/hole

dear/deer

meat/meet

there’s/theirs

who’s/whose

eye/I

passed/past

through/threw

won/one

hear/here

read (past tense)/red

thrown/throne

would/wood

he’ll/heal

right/write

to/two/too

you’re/your

Common Non-Count Nouns

Non-count nouns always stay in the singular form. These nouns cannot be counted; they often express qualities, substances, abstract things or even collective names such as furniture (tables, chairs, beds, etc.), money (dollars, euros, quarters, bills, etc.) or fruit (apples, pears, peaches, etc.). Mass Non-Count Nouns wood cloth ice plastic wool steel metal glass

porcelain hair dust air oxygen water milk beer

rice meat cheese flour reading boating smoking publicity

heat sunshine electricity biology dancing soccer hockey sugar

Chinese Spanish English luggage equipment furniture history leather

cake weather advice wine aluminum traffic harm

mathematics economics poetry experience applause photography

speed experience time friendship

anger education softness violence

taste evil liberty democracy

safety shopping justice chaos

work virtue trouble progress

Abstract Non-Count Nouns peace warmth hospitality culture

conduct courage leisure knowledge

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Common English Discourse Markers To indicate order of time In the past, before, earlier, previously, formerly, yesterday, recently, not long ago, at present, presently, currently, now, by now, until, today, immediately, simultaneously, at the same time, during, all the while, in the future, tomorrow, henceforth, after, after a short time, after a while, soon, later, later on, following

First, firstly, in the first place, at first, once, once upon time, to begin with, at the beginning, starting with, initially, from this point, earlier, second, secondly, in the second place, next, the next time, the following week, then, after that, following that, subsequently, on the next occasion, so far, later on, third, thirdly, in the third place, last, lastly, last of all, at last, at the end, in the end, final, finally, to finish, to conclude, in conclusion, consequently To add a point Also, too, as well as, besides, equally important, first of all, furthermore, in addition (to), moreover, likewise, above all, most of all, least of all, and, either…or, neither…nor, however, yet, but, nevertheless, still, to continue To provide an example For example, as an example, for instance, in this case, to illustrate, to show, to demonstrate, to explain, supposing that, specifically, to be exact, in particular, such as, namely, for one thing, indeed, in other words, to put it in another way, thus To show contrast Though, although, and yet, but, despite, despite this fact, in spite of, even so, for all that, however, in contrast, by contrast, on the one hand, on the other hand, on the contrary, in one way, in another way, although this may be true, nevertheless, nonetheless, still, yet, to differ from, a striking difference, another distinction, otherwise, after all, instead, unlike, opposite, to oppose, in opposition to, versus, against

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To indicate sequence

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ion

This second edition of the Between the Lines series helps students acquire knowledge in order to develop ESL competencies. This text-based activity book proposes a variety of text types and topics. The response process for each text is divided in four phases.

Before Reading

This section encourages students to explore the texts and interact orally with the class about open-ended questions.

While Reading

This section directs students to use reading strategies, which are designed to help them understand the texts.

After Reading

This section reinvests understanding of texts and looks into their literal meaning before providing comprehension activities.

A Step Forward

This section reinvests understanding of texts and delves into their underlying meaning. Further questions establish personal connections and then generalize beyond the texts. They prepare students to interact orally and to write and produce texts. This section also provides enrichment questions.

The Between the Lines Activity Book is completed by the Teacher’s Toolkit, which proposes: • grammar exercises • support in the form of learning materials • consolidation and enrichment activities – and more

PRODUCT CODE 4503 ISBN 978-2-7655-3071-8

English as a Second Language | Secondary 1

Between the Lines

Edit

Bruno Gattuso Maria Lee-Arpino

Between the Lines English as a Second Language

2nd

Between the Lines

2nd

Text-Based Activity Book Secondary 1

Gattuso • Lee-Arpino

English as a Second Language - Secondary 1

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Between the Lines 1re secondaire  

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