Turning point 3rd Ed

Page 1

English as a Second Language, Secondary Cycle Two, Year Three

3Edition rd

Competency Development and Text-based Grammar Preparation for the Ministry Examination

Connected Classroom

Margaret-Anne Colgan Voula Plagakis Leena M. Sandblom

CONFORMS TO THE PROGRESSION OF LEARNING



English as a Second Language, Secondary Cycle Two, Year Three

3Edition rd

Competency Development and Text-based Grammar Preparation for the Ministry Examination Margaret-Anne Colgan Voula Plagakis Leena M. Sandblom

9001, boul. Louis-H.-La Fontaine, Anjou (Québec) Canada H1J 2C5 Téléphone : 514-351-6010 • Télécopieur : 514-351-3534


Editorial Management Patrick Johnston (2nd and 3rd Editions) Carolyn Faust (1st Edition) Production Management Danielle Latendresse Production Coordination Rodolphe Courcy Editorial Coordination Kathryn Rhoades Proofreading Emily Angharad Brown Cover and Page Design Pige communication

The authors wish to thank Les Éditions CEC inc. for their unfailing support and enduring resolve to create publications of the highest pedagogical integrity, such as Turning Point. Profound thanks to Carolyn Faust for driving the project to completion with efficiency, creativity and good humour. Many thanks to those teachers who participated in consultations for helping to fine-tune this book. Marika Bédard, Commission scolaire des Bois-Franc Denis Boivin, Commission scolaire de la Riveraine Frédéric Dupuis, Commission scolaire des Bois-Franc Nathalie Gauvin, Commission scolaire Côte-Sud Félix Perras, Commission scolaire de la Région de Sherbrooke Nicholas Perreault, Commission scolaire des Bois-Franc Chantale Robillard, Collège St-Alexandre Johanne Robitaille, Commission scolaire de Portneuf Elizabeth Wadden, Collège Saint-Maurice Personal thanks

To Dominic, without whom I would not be who or where I am today, thank you for everything. To Jean-Pierre, Anthony and Liam, you guys are simply the best. —MAC Support is essential anytime we step out of the norm or take on a personal dream. I am blessed to have many teachers and mentors disguised as friends and family, so thank you all for helping me, even when you didn’t know it. Anthony, your love is my greatest inspiration. —VP

La Loi sur le droit d’auteur interdit la repro­ duction d’œuvres sans l’autorisation des titulaires des droits. Or, la photocopie non autorisée — le photocopillage — a pris une ampleur telle que l’édition d’œuvres nou­ velles est mise en péril. Nous rappe­lons donc que toute reproduction, partielle ou totale, du pré­­sent ouvrage est inter­dite sans l’autorisation écrite de l’Éditeur.

Turning Point is my swan song and I leave with the strong sense that this book will meet the needs of teachers and students at this crucial time in their lives. Thank you, Voula and Margaret-Anne. You have been a joy to work with. Thank you, Carolyn. You are flying, girl! Thank you, Emmanuelle. You are a strong leader and a fine person to deal with. Thank you, Les Éditions CEC. It has been a phenomenal ride. —LMS

Turning Point Connected Classroom, Competency Development and Text-based Grammar, 3nd Edition Secondary Cycle Two, Year Three © 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. 9001, boul. Louis-H.-La Fontaine Anjou (Québec) H1J 2C5 Tous droits réservés. Il est interdit de reproduire, d’adapter ou de traduire l’ensemble ou toute partie de cet ouvrage sans l’autorisation écrite du propriétaire du copyright. Dépôt légal : 2017 Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec Bibliothèque et Archives Canada ISBN: 978-2-7617-9115-1 (Connected Classroom, Competency and Text-based Grammar, 3rd Edition, avec activités interactives) ISBN: 978-2-7617-2770-9 (Competency and Text-based Grammar, 1st Edition, 2009) ISBN: 978-2-7617-6232-8 (Competency and Text-based Grammar, 2nd Edition, 2013) ISBN: 978-2-7617-9117-5 (Connected Classroom, Competency and Text-based Grammar, 3rd Edition, version MaZone avec activités interactives pour 1 an)

Imprimé au Canada 1 2 3 4 5 6 21 20 19 18 17


TABLE OF CONTENTS LETTER TO STUDENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

IN TURNING POINT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CHART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

1

SECTION

Chapters

1

ASSESSING MY COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 CHAPTER

TALK ABOUT IT Task 5 Putting It All Together. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

1

Who’s Tracking Who? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

WRITE ABOUT IT 3

Task 6 Who Wins for Thinking Outside the Box? . . . . . . . . . . . 80

FIRST STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

WRITING STRATEGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

READING

EXTRA READING

Task 1 Should Schools Start Monitoring Students’ . Social Media? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Task 2 What Are Your Rights? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

VIEWING Task 3 Yondr: Locking Up Student Phones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

LISTENING Task 4 Injecting Criminals with GPS Tracking Devices . . . . . . 20

TALK ABOUT IT Task 5 Has Technology Obliterated Privacy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

WRITE ABOUT IT Task 6 Where Do You Stand on the Issue? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

WRITING STRATEGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 EXTRA READING Schools Move To Fight Vandalism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 CHAPTER

2

FIRST STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 READING Task 1 Who’s Normal, Anyway? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Task 2 What Happened to Sam? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

VIEWING Task 3 A Normal Teenager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

LISTENING Task 4 Out in the Open: A New Way of Doing It . . . . . . . . . . . 50

TALK ABOUT IT Task 5 Do Famous Quotes Speak to You? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

WRITE ABOUT IT Task 6 Where Do You Stand on the Issue?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

WRITING STRATEGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 EXTRA READING

CHAPTER

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CHAPTER

4

Everyone Has a Story. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 FIRST STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 READING Task 1 How Do You Make a Story Come Alive? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Task 2 Who’s Your Audience? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

VIEWING Task 3 Everybody Has a Story . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

LISTENING Task 4 What’s in a Story? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

TALK ABOUT IT Task 5 How Do You Get Story Ideas? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

WRITE ABOUT IT

What’s Normal, Anyway? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

If Only …

Radically Good Ideas from Teens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

55

3

Thinking Outside the Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Task 6 What’s Your Story?

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110

WRITING STRATEGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 EXTRA READING Children at War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 CHAPTER

5

What’s Next? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 FIRST STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 READING Task 1 Who’s In and Who’s Out? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Task 2 Is It Worth the Risk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

VIEWING Task 3 A Vision of Students Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136

LISTENING Task 4 What Teens Can Learn . by Having a Summer Job

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

138

TALK ABOUT IT Task 5 Should They Step Out or Stay In? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139

WRITE ABOUT IT Task 6 Where Do You Stand on the Issue? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

FIRST STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

WRITING STRATEGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

READING

EXTRA READING

Task 1 Let’s Change the World! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Task 2 Putting Your Money Where Your Mouth Is . . . . . . . . . . 70

Vive l’aventure! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

VIEWING Task 3 Custom Order Piñatas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Task 4 Characteristics of a Successful Entrepreneur . . . . . . . . 78

Table of Contents

iii


2

Grammar Points

148

CHAPTER 1

CHAPTER 4

POINT 1 Nouns and Pronouns

POINT 10 Adverbs

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

POINT 2 Present Verbs

POINT 11 Modals

Study Guide: Simple Present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Present Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Interrogative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Consolidation of Points 1 and 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

CHAPTER 2 POINT 3 Adjectives and Pronouns Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

POINT 4 Past Verbs Study Guide: Simple Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Past Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Interrogative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

POINT 5 Simple and Compound Sentences Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Consolidation of Points 1 to 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

CHAPTER 3 POINT 6 Adjectives of Comparison Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

POINT 7 Present Perfect Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

POINT 8 Past Perfect Study Guide: Form and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Interrogative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

POINT 12 Complex Sentences Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Consolidation of Points 1 to 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

CHAPTER 5 POINT 13 Transition Forms Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

POINT 14 Future Forms Study Guide: Form and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Interrogative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Consolidation of Points 1 to 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 SECTION

3

Exam Preparation

224

1   Oral Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Part 2   Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Part

SECTION

4

References

247

ORAL INTERACTION TIPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 STRATEGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 FIVE STEPS FOR GOOD DEBATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 THE RESPONSE PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

POINT 9 Conditionals

THE WRITING PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252

Study Guide: Real Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Hypothetical Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Past Hypothetical Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Consolidation of Points 1 to 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

THE PRODUCTION PROCESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 COMMON IRREGULAR VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 COMMON PHRASAL VERBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 COMMON COMPOUND NOUNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 CAPITALIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 PUNCTUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 CREDITS

iv

Table of Contents

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

262

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SECTION


Dear students: You began learning English several years ago, so you know that: English is taught in English; you are expected to participate in English at all times; there are many strategies and resources you can use to help you; there are steps, or processes, to use when you read and write; you have developed other competencies, aside from the ones in English (e.g., working cooperatively, thinking critically, etc.). You probably find that: it’s still difficult, sometimes, to speak spontaneously; some things about the English language still confuse you; you feel your pronunciation could be better; English can be just plain difficult. So, what can you do this year to ensure that you are as successful as possible in completing your ESL learning in secondary school and in preparing for your end-of-cycle evaluation situation? You can use this book as a turning point in your English-language learning by following some or all of these suggestions: Get things right. If you make certain mistakes over and over, take time to figure out why this happens and how you can avoid them in the future. Notice similarities and differences between English and another language that you know better. Share your knowledge of these similarities and differences with others. This will help you remember them and build your confidence. Here’s an example: the difference in meaning of the word “actual” in English and French. Read, read and read some more. Read every single thing in Turning Point and then find English material that interests you in magazines, on the internet, etc. Use the many strategies and resources you’ve learned over the years. Watch English TV programs. There are lots of good ones, and many are available throughout Québec. Speak English as much as possible and with as many different people as you can. And above all, don’t be hard on yourself. Learning a second language comes more easily to some than to others. But each one of you is capable of learning English … and other languages too. Best of luck in all your endeavours. The team of authors

v


SCOPE AND SEQUENCE CHART STRATEGIES

CHAPTER

1

Who’s Tracking Who?

2

3

4

5

vi

What’s Normal, Anyway?

Thinking Outside the Box

Everyone Has a Story

What’s Next?

GUIDING QUESTIONS

HOW TO

Privacy issues— … identify and use cognates and false Where do you draw the line? cognates

Oral Interaction

HOW TO

Reading

C 1

… communicate more effectively

HOW TO

Viewing and Listening

C 2

HOW TO

C 2

… understand activities more effectively … use the RAP reading strategy … read more effectively

… view videos more effectively … listen to audio texts more effectively

Normal … What does this word mean to you?

… use context cues … find things to understand to say in a unfamiliar words conversation

… use the RTN reading strategy to better understand a text

… prepare to watch a video … prepare to listen to audio texts

What happens if you think outside the box?

… use a dictionary effectively … deal with problem words while reading

… prepare for oral interaction in English

… use the RIDA reading strategy

… focus your attention while viewing … use the BLIND technique to help you focus as you listen to audio texts

What’s your story?

… recognize word families

… engage your listeners

… use annotations to take notes

… watch between the lines … listen for context cues in audio texts

How ready are you to step out of your comfort zone?

… identify and use compound adjectives … identify and use abstract nouns

… battle it out in a debate

… use the RIC reading strategy

… focus on important information while viewing … prepare to listen for specific information in audio texts

Scope and Sequence Chart

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Vocabulary


GRAMMAR POINTS

Writing

Study Guide

HOW TO

C 3 and

Practice

EXTRA READINGS

What’s the Story?

Schools Move to Fight Vandalism

Lamb to the Slaughter by Roald Dahl

… use correct punctuation 3. Adjectives and Pronouns in your text 4. Past Verbs Simple Past Past Continuous Interrogative 5. Simple and Compound S entences

If Only …

I’ve Got Gloria by M. E. Kerr

… write meaningful opinion texts

Radically Good Ideas from The Time Machine (Excerpt) Teens by H. G. Wells

… write a pertinent and coherent text

1. Nouns and Pronouns 2. Present Verbs Simple Present Present Continuous Interrogative

6. Adjectives of Comparison 7. Present Perfect 8. Past Perfect Form and Usage Interrogative 9. Conditionals Real Conditional Hypothetical Conditional Past Hypothetical Conditional

… use the TAG conference 10. Adverbs 11. Modals 12. Complex Sentences

Children at War

The Last Leaf by O. Henry

… personalize the writing process

Vive l’aventure!

Is He Living or Is He Dead? by Mark Twain

13. Transition Words 14. Future Forms

Supplemental story: The Story of an Hour by Kate Chopin

Scope and Sequence Chart

vii


IN TURNING POINT

The CHAPTERS begin with a brief overview, a guiding question and a Think About It text, designed to get you thinking about the issue.

T he FIRST STOP offers brief activities to engage your interest and to activate your prior knowledge of the chapter topic. Talk About It boxes offer ideas for you to discuss with your peers and to help you develop Competency 1.

Each READING task opens with a series of activities that focus on vocabulary building and on strategies to help you understand the texts and learn about the issues behind the guiding question. Pre-reading grammar activity introduces the Grammar-in-context focus of the chapter. How To boxes offer tips on vocabulary building, reading strategies and other learning strategies to help you complete the different tasks and develop Competency 2. A Notes column appears beside each text to allow you to take notes and use reading strategies more easily.

Glossaries provide definitions of unfamiliar words and expressions in the texts. Grammar Notices mention specific grammar information presented in the text and indicate where you can get more information.

viii In Turning Point

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

There are four sections in TURNING POINT: a section of five chapters; including extra readings; a Grammar Points section, with study guides and practice exercises; an Exam Preparation section to prepare you for your oral and written ministry exams; and a helpful References section. Explore the features that will help you in your language learning experience.


VIEWING and LISTENING tasks help you further develop your ideas and opinions about the guiding question and help you develop Competency 2. Write About It boxes offer suggestions for how you can express your opinion in writing and further develop Competency 3.

The TALK ABOUT IT  page presents a task designed to help you interact orally with your peers about a topic related to the theme of the chapter and to develop Competency 1.

The WRITE ABOUT IT spread helps you reinvest your learning in a task. You can choose from suggested topics and different text types that will help you answer the guiding question. A detailed writing process guides you as you complete your task and models of text types are offered. Go Further suggestions indicate ways to include the production process as you develop Competency 3. WRITING STRATEGY pages offer suggestions about how to get started on the Write About It  task.

An EXTRA READING related to the theme follows each chapter.

In Turning Point

ix


The GRAMMAR POINTS section has study guides and practice exercises for the grammar elements identified within the chapters. A Personal Examples column is a space for you to write your own examples or take note of something you wish to remember.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Practice activities follow the Study Guide; many are text-based, allowing for a more contextualized practice of the grammar point. A Grammar Consolidation activity at the end of each chapter reviews all grammar points covered to that point.

Designed to prepare you for your end-of-year ministry exams, the EXAM PREPARATION section offers tips and practice for C1, C2 and C3 competencies.

A REFERENCE section offers a variety of information to facilitate your language learning experience, including: oral interaction tips and strategies the three processes: response, writing and production resource pages containing useful grammar information

x

In Turning Point


© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

CHAPTER

3

Thinking Outside the Box

What happens if you think unconventionally?

CHAPTER OVERVIEW FIRST STOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 READING Task 1: Let’s Change

the World! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Task 2: Putting Your Money

Where Your Mouth Is . . . . . 70 VIEWING Task 3: Custom Order Piñatas . . . . 76 Task 4: Characteristics

of a Successful Entrepreneur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 TALK ABOUT IT Task 5: Putting It All Together . . . . . 79

Think about it “Thinking outside the box” means thinking about things in a way that is out of the ordinary. Some people do this naturally while others have to work at it. What groundbreaking ideas have been developed by creative people? What personality traits might help a person succeed? How do people come up with innovative ideas? What makes an idea more successful than another?

Note down your thoughts on these issues.

WRITE ABOUT IT: Task 6: Who Wins for Thinking

Outside the Box? . . . . . . . . . . 80 WRITING STRATEGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

EXTRA READINGS Radically Good Ideas from Teens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

61


FIRST

Stop

name:

group:

Activity 1

1. With a partner, try to think outside the box and come up with solutions to the following enigmas.

a. Draw four straight lines through all nine dots

b. A woman has two children who were born at the same time but they are not twins. How is this possible?

c. What repeats itself every minute, twice in a moment but never in a hundred years?

d. Someone fell out of a building that is thirty stories high and lived. There was no soft mat for landing, so how did he or she survive the fall?

e. If you were alone in a cabin with no light and no electricity and you only had one match, a lamp, a fireplace, and a candle to choose from, which would you light first?

f. A boat has a ladder attached to its side that is three metres long. The last metre of the ladder is submerged in the water. If the water rises five feet, how much of the ladder will be underwater?

2. Can you interpret the following messages? a. UJUSTME b. GIVE, GIVE, GIVE, GIVE AND GET, GET, GET, GET c. 1D, 2R, 3A, 4C, 5U, 6L, 7A d. HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH e. /R/e/a/d/ f. THINK g. T O W N 62 Chapter 3

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

without taking your pencil off the paper


name:

group:

Activity 2

So many possibilities

1. Which of the following ideas do you think would work? Which ones are too “outside the box”? Answer Yes or No. At school:

Yes No

a. Students should be allowed to read in the library while on a stationary bike.

b. During lunch time, schools should offer classes to learn relaxation techniques such as meditation, yoga or self-hypnosis.

c. Students should have access to kitchen facilities © 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

to cook their own lunches.

d. Schools should offer space where students could give and receive massages.

e. One class a week should be devoted to students playing different strategy-based video games such as StarCraft, Final Fantasy or Computer Chess.

f. The cafeteria should have a section where regular seats are replaced with exercise-ball chairs.

2. Which of the following games are the most outside the box? Come to a consensus with your partner and put them in order with 1 being the most outside the box and 5 being the least.

Bungee jumping with a trampoline (you fall down, then jump up) Zip-lining between two tall buildings Street hockey played on inline skates Tricycle basketball Frolf (golf played with a Frisbee) 3. Ask a group: What are some of the newest outside-the-box sports, video games, role-playing games, music, movies and TV shows/web series you have learned about recently? How have they changed the way you view or participate in these activities?

sports

video games

music

role-playing games

movies

TV shows/web series

You will learn more about innovation and people who think outside the box in this chapter. Chapter 3

63


Task 1

C 2

READING

name:

group:

Let’s Change the World! SETTING IT UP You will read a text “Canadian Teens Plan on Changing the World, Equipped with Passion and Smartphones” about how Canadian teens are changing the world with innovative ideas.

A Before Reading Reading a dictionary entry effectively

Read the information below about using a dictionary entry effectively. Then practise by answering the questions for the entry of the word program.

HOW TO use a dictionary effectively • First, make sure you’re spelling the word correctly. • Go back to your text and notice the word’s part of speech. • If there are multiple definitions, ask yourself, “Which one best matches the context of the word?” • Practise using your new word in a sentence. • If it’s difficult to spell, write it a few times to help yourself remember it.

Use the guide words at the top of each page to help you find the word quickly. Find the definition that corresponds to the part of speech of the word: v. (verb., n. (noun), adj. (adjective), pron. (pronoun) If the part of speech has different meanings (usually indicated by numbers or letters), ask yourself: • Which meaning fits the situation in the text? • Are there examples of sentences provided with the definition? • Is other information given? E.g., pl. (plural), syn. (synonym), informal, idiom, N Am, Br (North American or British word or spelling)

program program N Am (programme Br) noun 1. A listing of the order of events for a presentation (What’s on the program for tonight?) 2. A course of academic study (What program are you in at school?) 3. A sequence of coded instructions for a computer 4. A broadcast on TV or radio 5. A thin book giving information about an event program verb 1. To plan the activities of an event (I have to program the graduation ceremony.) 2. To provide a computer a set of instructions to make it perform a particular task (Can you program my computer?) 3. To make someone or something behave in a particular way get with the program (informal) to tell sb to act the way they are supposed to: (Stop fooling around and get with the program.) Related forms: programmer, programming, programmed

1. How many parts of speech does the word program have? 2. Where are the other word forms indicated? 3. Is “program” a cognate or a false cognate with a word in French? Explain.

64 Chapter 3

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Activity 1


Activity 2

Practising with a dictionary

Use your dictionary to answer the following questions.

1. How many parts of speech does wonder have? What are they? 2. Define daunting and give its part of speech. 3. Write a sentence using the word dispense. Activity 3

Matching words to definitions

Read the sentences and circle the correct definition of the underlined words. Use the part of speech as a clue.

1. The sun came through the panel and warmed up the patients.

For more practice on this reading and its vocabulary, check out the interactive activities.

n. piece of square or rectangular wood, glass or metal    n. a jury

2. Marc has drive: when he wants something he goes for it.

n. energy and determination    v. to operate a vehicle

3. Her field of study involves a lot of science.

n. an area of land    n. subject of academic interest

Activity 4

Pre-reading grammar

Read the Grammar Notice on page 66. To compare two people or things, add –er* for one or two-syllable adjectives.

Use more + adjective with longer adjectives.

Jerome ran faster than Marc. This tablet is more advanced than my old one. To compare three or more people or things, add –est* for one or two-syllable

adjectives. Use most + adjective with longer adjectives.

Jerome is the fastest runner on the team. This tablet is the most advanced model. Some adjectives have irregular forms.

good / better (than) / the best   bad / worse (than) / the worst * Some adjectives require spelling modifications (change -y to -i, double final consonant, etc.)

Choose the correct adjective form in the following sentences.

1. Who’s idea is (more creative / creativer), Bruce’s or Debbie’s? 2. The Shad program chooses only the (bestest / best) applicants. 3. I think this idea is (gooder than / better than) the other one.

B While Reading Activity 5

Reading the text

Use the RIDA strategy to check your understanding as you read. See the example in the Notes column on page 66.

HOW TO use the RIDA strategy • Read a section of the text. • Imagine the scene you have just read about. • Describe it to yourself. • Add more details as you read.

Make notes in the margin about other details you imagine in the situation. Chapter 3

65


Canadian teens plan on changing the world, equipped with passion and smartphones By Nicole Thompson

Student creates an app for heat

Example of RIDA: Bruce Gao—in orphanage in China—very cold— solar panels not working correctly

G rammar Notice

Look at the words in orange in the text. What kind of adjectives are they? To learn more, see page 182.

When Bruce Gao was in high school, he visited an orphanage in China where he saw children huddled together in beds to share 5 body heat.

40

It was monsoon season, and it was cold. There was heating in the building, but the solar panels meant to provide electricity weren’t 10 installed to their full capacity. Gao, who is now 22, wondered what he could do about that. He researched how solar panels should be positioned to soak up 15 the most energy, which he said was “a little daunting” for a high schooler. And then, he spoke publicly about his plans to create an app—“I was a big computer programmer,” 20 he said nonchalantly of his time in high school—while at the nationwide Shad program for “exceptional high school students.” Gao said that experience solidified 25 his decision to actually make the smartphone app, SimplySolar, with a high school classmate. The app is now used in more than 130 countries. It works using a combination of GPS and the built-in compass in smartphones. Users place their phones on top of the solar panels, and the app shows them when the panels are facing the most 35 effective direction. 30

66 Chapter 3

Pointing solar panels in the right direction can make them up to 40 per cent more effective, Gao said. Now Gao is in his second year of medical school at the University of Calgary. He said that what he liked about coding and creating apps was the ability to help people, and he gets the same thing out of medicine.

The Shad program for exceptional students The Shad program, which Gao said convinced him to build the app, is now in its 37th year. The 2016 program begins Monday, and more than 700 high school students will 50 participate. 45

“One of the things we believe is that you can’t really leave it to chance, that the best and brightest minds are going to develop to 55 their capabilities,” said Teddy Katz, a spokesperson for Shad. So through the program, students travel to universities—12 are participating across the country— 60 where they listen to lectures from prominent university professors and business leaders.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

NOTES


NOTES

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

L if e is n ’t a b o u t f in d in g y o u r s e l f . L if e is a b o u t c r e a t in g yourself.

Working in groups to solve social problems They also work in groups to come up with a business proposal that 65 creates a new product or service to solve a social problem. In the autumn, a winning proposal will be selected. Last year, students focused on a lack of physical activity in Canadian 70 kids’ lives. The proposal that won was a machine that could be installed in public parks to dispense sporting equipment, like a combination between a library and a vending 75 machine. This year’s theme has yet to be announced, but the program has already started. One of the students participating is 16-year-old Debbie 80 Dada of Toronto. Dada said she plans on going into medical research when she’s older. She said that right now, she’s especially interested in how to 85 decrease the infant mortality rates in developing countries. She got the idea when she was on a field trip for anthropology class, she said. Her teacher mentioned 90 the infant mortality rate in the central African country of Chad. (The latest data puts the rate at about 89 deaths per 1,000 babies born, compared to about 4.5 per 95 1,000 in Canada.)

“I was just blown away,” Dada said. Thinking about—and researching— what she could do, she decided that education about sanitary births 100 was key.

Sharing knowledge “I think it’s important to share that knowledge in an efficient way, where it doesn’t just help a couple people, it helps thousands,” she said. And she’s also done work at home. She started a program called “Find Your Path,” which brings motivational speakers to schools to help give kids the confidence 110 to aspire for big things.

105

She said she got her drive from her family—her paternal grandfather didn’t go to school, she said. But her father has a PhD. Growing up in an environment where she felt like she could accomplish a lot really helped her, she said. And she hopes her experience this summer will help her, too. 120 She’ll be spending the month of July in Thunder Bay, Ontario, with the Shad program. 115

She said she’s looking forward to learning from people who have 125 already built successful careers in science and technology fields, and also to working with peers who have similar interests.

glossary huddle: move close together, usually in a circle lecture: talk given to a group of people proposal: proposition lack: shortage; scarcity vending machine: a machine that sells food, drinks or small items field trip: trip to study something in its natural environment blown away: astounded; very surprised peers: people of the same age or position

Chapter 3

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name:

group:

After Reading

WRITE ABOUT IT C 3

C

Research this year’s theme at Shad. Write a short text explaining what project you would propose to meet the theme’s criteria.

Activity 6

TALK ABOUT IT

Activity 7

Discuss in groups what you know about Canadian inventions and inventors.

In your own words, explain what the Shad program is.

Checking for greater understanding.

Answer the following questions.

1. Check all statements that are true. If the statement is false, correct the information.

a. True    False   The orphanage in China was cold because it was not heated.

b. True    False   Gao first presented his project as part of the Shad program.

c. True    False   Gao’s idea was never actually developed d. True    False   Gao’s solar panel project and studies in medicine have nothing in common.

2. Explain in detail how SimplySolar works.

3. The Shad program is offered at how many universities? a. 10 b. 12 c. 15 4. Shad participants number more than students. 5. One winning Shad project helped Canadian kids become more physically active by

a. providing free enrollment in sports programs b. distributing free sports equipment c. installing vending machines in parks to loan sports equipment 6. What solution did Dada come up with for decreasing infant mortality rates in developing countries? 68 Chapter 3

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C 1

Checking for global understanding


7. How do you think Dada’s family influenced her decision to start the program?

D Follow-Up 1. Why do you think Dada is looking forward to working with peers who have similar interests? Explain. Describe a situation where this has been true for you.

2. Explain which of the following programs you think is the most important: SimplySolar, decreasing infant mortality rates or “Find your Path.” Discuss your answer with a group.

3. What problem in Canada or the world do you think should be solved, and how would you do it? Discuss your answer with a group.

GO further Using the internet, research the Shad program: find out where the programs take place, who can apply and what is involved. Share your findings in a small group.

Chapter 3

69


Task 2 C 2

name:

READING

Putting Your Money Where Your Mouth Is

group:

SETTING IT UP Some people have come up with some interesting solutions to help people and the environment. In the texts “Crunch Time” and “Watch Your Tongue,” you will read about Canadians who are really on the cutting edge of innovative practices.

A Before Reading Matching the definitions

word bank

Infer the meaning of the underlined words and expressions using clues from the rest of the sentence. Then find the definition in the Word Bank and write its letter next to the sentence number. a. only; simply b. problem c. got involved in the trend d. great help e. eating eagerly f. increased g. relaxing

1.

T he new community taxi system will be a boon for elderly people going to the hospital.

2.

T he people were sitting down and chilling out before they went back to work.

3.

hen the Red Cross went to Haiti to help victims of the earthquake, W everybody jumped on the bandwagon.

4.

I t boosted his confidence when he saw that his hard work was successful.

5.

Before tucking into their food, the family washed their hands.

6.

I t was mere hours before they received news from the survivors of the earthquake.

7.

T here was a snag in the delivery of essential aid: the weather was too unstable

Activity 2

Preparing to read

Read the introductory paragraphs of the two texts “Crunch Time” and “Watch Your Tongue.” Write down two questions you would like to find the answers to. Crunch Time:

HOW TO deal with problem words

while reading

• Read the text once without stopping. Don’t worry about words you don’t understand. • When you read a second time, take note of problem words and use resources to find their meaning.

70 Chapter 3

Watch Your Tongue:

B While Reading Activity 3

Reading the text

Use the RIDA strategy to check your understanding as you read and to note down details you understand in each story. You can also write questions you might have for each project. Remember to use the different vocabulary strategies as you read.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Activity 1


PUTTING YOUR MONEY

WHERE YOUR MOUTH IS

Crunch Time: Edible-Bug Trend on the Rise By Marc Kielburger and Craig Kielburger

Insect farming a boon to developing countries and the environment

H

ave you heard about the next big food trend? You won’t find it growing in your garden, but you might find 5 it crawling there. On the shelves at Summerhill Market, a Toronto grocery store, there are mealworm protein balls and scrumptious cricket key lime pie. 10 Last year, chef Meeru Dhalwala put delicacies like a flatbread made from cricket flour on the menu at her popular Vij and Rangoli restaurants in Vancouver. And two 15 years ago, New Millennium Farms in Norwood, Ontario, became North America’s first agricultural business to raise and process insects for consumer meals. These entre20 preneurs are at the leading edge of what food bloggers say will be the top food trend of 2016. It may be a stretch to imagine noshing on a bag of chocolate25 covered crickets while chilling out with Netflix. But a meal of bugs is high in protein and essential nutrients, according to the Food and Agriculture Organization 30 of the United Nations. The group encourages Westerners to get on the bug bandwagon.

Palm weevils, for instance, contain two times more dietary zinc than 35 beef, as well as higher amounts of iron and healthy fats. And while the nutritional value of bugs is undeniably big, the environmental footprint of insect farming isn’t. 40 Insect farms require much less land and resources like water, and produce far lower levels of greenhouse gases than traditional livestock farms.

NOTES

G rammar Notice

Look at the words in orange in the text. What two verb forms are they? To learn more, see pages 186 and 187.

From Asia to South America, insects have long appeared on the menu in many cultures. But what’s truly epic about the edible-bug trend is its potential to not only provide a healthy source of food, 50 but also boost incomes among people in developing countries who could never afford chicken or beef from a grocery store. 45

Owusu, a stone mason in Ghana’s central Ashanti region, is a great example of how insects can transform lives. Surgery left him unable to do heavy labour, and with no other job skills, Owusu couldn’t 60 put food on the table for his wife and five children. 55

glossary bug: a small insect mealworm: beetle larvae stretch: exaggeration noshing: snacking; eating between meals footprint: environmental impact livestock: farm animals raised for food afford: have enough money to buy something Chapter 3

71


glossary tackle: deal with staple: basic; main source wage: income fetches: brings earn: make savings: money, investments burden: heavy responsibility swallowing: eating interface: device which allows a person to interact with a computer

In the open-air market of Owusu’s home village of Donyina, one kg 75 (about 2 lbs) of weevils fetches between $8 and $10. A novice farmer can produce a kg every four weeks. Owusu now produces 10 kg (about 22 lbs) of insects a month, 80 worth $80 to $100. In a region where most people earn less than $2.50 a day, he’s a fortunate man. Aspire CEO, Mohammed Ashour, tells us he is stunned to see the 85 benefits of his insect enterprise extend beyond improving nutrition and incomes. Ashour recalls an elderly man in Brong Ahafo, Ghana. John had retired with

no savings, becoming a burden for his family. Then he took up weevil farming. John is happier now that he’s productive again. And he’s bonding with his grandchildren 95 who help him out with his insect endeavour. 90

“It’s not just the nutrition, but the feeling that he’s contributing to his family in his later years,” says 100 Ashour. “The empowerment is incredible to see. It was a qualityof-life boost.” Having changed lives using palm weevils in Ghana, Ashour has 105 expanded Aspire, launching cricket farms in Mexico and the U.S. While swallowing something that once wriggled on the ground may sound unappetizing, food that’s 110 healthy for our bodies, the planet, and the prosperity of the world’s most vulnerable, sounds like a meal worth tucking into.

Watch Your Tongue! By Fannie Sunshine

Teen awarded Ontario Science Centre award for innovative tongue-controlled computer mouse 115

120

72 Chapter 3

Emma Mogus was looking for a way to help a friend who suffers from ALS better navigate technology when she came up with the idea for a tongue-controlled computer mouse. The Tongue-InterfaceCommunication (TiC) is a $10 non-invasive, tongue-operated,

customized and programmable USB-HID (Human Interface 125 Device) keyboard with interface circuitry. The prototype consists of a mouth guard, similar to an athletic mouthpiece, with five pressure sensitive switches across 130 the front that correspond to up, down, left, right, and enter.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Then he heard about Aspire, a Montreal-based social enterprise that won the prestigious Hult Prize 65 for its world-changing plan to tackle chronic malnutrition in developing communities. Aspire teaches people to farm palm weevils—small insects that are a staple food in Ghana. 70 Owusu got a starter kit from Aspire and within mere weeks he was earning a living wage.

NOTES


So if the user has a keyboard that pops up on the computer screen— Mogus is working on a wireless 135 TiC version—they can easily type and search, the 17-year-old Oakville resident explained.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

And TiC isn’t just for people with ALS; it’s also useful for people with 140 MS or spinal cord injuries, Emma said.

165

the 2016 Weston Youth Innovation Award from the Ontario Science Centre.

NOTES

Established in 2008, the award encourages and recognizes young 170 Canadian innovators.

“The jury was inspired by Emma’s ingenuity, skill and dedication to developing an original solution, for an issue that in spite of many She also drew innovation inspiration 175 scientific advances continues to from the United Nations Convention affect many people,” Dr. Maurice on the Rights of Persons with Bitran, CEO and chief science 145 Disabilities, which calls for research, officer of the Ontario Science development and support of all Centre, said in a release. “We look types of assistive technologies with 180 forward to seeing what this young an emphasis on affordable devices. innovator will develop next to continue improving the world “The tongue is capable of complex around her.” 150 movement, it doesn’t get tired,” Emma said, adding it took about Emma will be awarded the $2,000 185 18 months to develop the prototype prize at the Ontario Science Centre after using on-line forums, courses, in the fall, and will work with a and tutorials as guides. multimedia team at the Don Mills Road and Eglinton Avenue site 155 The TiC prototype has been entered to create an animation to showcase in science fairs, and went through 190 TiC, which will be displayed in the subject testing, but Emma wants to Weston Family Innovation Centre. work out any snags before it moves to the next level of testing, adding And Emma, who is heading 160 top priorities are making the device to McMaster University come wireless and ensuring the mouth September to study chemical and guard fits comfortably for all users. 195 physical sciences, has one simple, primary goal when it comes to TiC. Though TiC hasn’t made it onto shelves yet, it has won its creator “I want to help people.”

G rammar Notice

Conditional sentences have two clauses: the if clause and the main clause. Underline a conditional sentence on this page. To learn more, see page 195.

glossary fairs: exhibitions release: official announcement; also called “press release”

Chapter 3

73


name:

C

group:

After Reading

Activity 4

Checking for global understanding

Did you find the answers to your questions in Activity 2? Write your answers here. Crunch Time: Watch Your Tongue: What three edible insects are mentioned in “Crunch Time”?

Activity 5

Checking for greater understanding

Answer the following questions to see how well you understood each article. PART A   Crunch Time

1. What do Summerhill Market, Vij and Rangoli Restaurants and New Millennium Farms all have in common?

Explain the benefits and advantages of the following:

2. A meal of bugs: 3. Palm weevils compared to meat: 4. Insect farming: 5. An edible-bug diet for people in developing countries: 6. What is the goal of the enterprise Aspire?

7. In your own words, explain how Aspire helped Owusu.

8. In your own words, explain how weevil farming helped John.

74 Chapter 3

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In “Watch Your Tongue,” Emma is trying to help people with what diseases?


9. Do you agree that edible bugs sound like “a meal worth tucking into”? Explain.

PART B   Watch Your Tongue

1. How did Emma Mogus come up with the idea for a tongue-controlled computer mouse?

2. Imagine you are presenting TiC to your peers. What does it look like and how does it work?

3. Explain how the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities inspired Emma.

4. What advantage does the tongue have in using this type of device? 5. What problems does Emma want to work on before moving her invention to the next level?

6. What is the Weston Youth Innovation Award?

TALK ABOUT IT 7. Why did Emma win?

C 1

Discuss in groups which of the two innovations helps people around the world the most.

D Reinvesting Your Understanding In this chapter, you read about the Shad Program, the Hult Prize, and the Weston Youth Innovation Award (Ontario Science Centre). What do they all have in common? What makes them different from each other? Make a list of the similarities and differences of the three programs on a separate sheet of paper. Propose to your teacher which award is the most outside-the-box idea and one that you feel your school should donate to. Give reasons for your choice.

Chapter 3

75


Task 3 C 2

VIEWING

name:

group:

Custom Order Piñatas SETTING IT UP In this video “Custom Order Piñatas” from The Globe and Mail series Inside Jobs, Vancouver entrepreneur Meaghan Kennedy talks about how she turned a hobby into an international business.

A Before Viewing Thinking about language

Choose the correct word to complete the sentence.

1. The piñata was a

of his dad: everybody had

a good laugh.

a. caricature

b. portrait

2. It is hard, sometimes,

with the clients

and establishing a relationship.

a. intimidating

b. engaging

3. This year the economy

and many people lost

their jobs.

a. improved

b. shifted

4. People say that it

to start your own business but

being a determined person helps.

a. takes guts

b. doesn’t work

5. My background is in

. I have worked for a sales

company.

a. retail

b. volunteer work

B While Viewing Activity 2

Checking for global understanding

Take notes of information you think is important as you watch the video.

For more practice on this video, check out the interactive activities.

HOW TO focus your attention while viewing Read over the After Viewing questions before viewing so you know what to watch for.

76 Chapter 3

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Activity 1


C

After Viewing

Activity 3

Checking for greater understanding

PART A

Highlight whether the following statements are true or false.

1. True 2. True 3. True 4. True 5. True 6. True

False   The piñatas are mainly caricatures of famous singers.    False   Meaghan’s background is in retail.    False   Meaghan found sanctuary going to work each morning.    False   Meaghan questioned her decision about starting her own business.    False   Her biggest commission was 30 celebrities as Trolli piñatas.    False   She puts herself in situations where most people wouldn’t.

PART B

Answer the following questions about the video.

1. Why does Meaghan like making piñatas? 2. How do Meaghan’s neighbours help her in her creation of piñatas? 3. How much do her piñatas usually cost? 4. How much did her most expensive piñata cost? 5. How long has Meaghan been making piñatas? 6. What are the three things Meaghan has learned doing her piñata business?

a. b. c. 7. What does she do when she doesn’t have commissions for her piñatas?

TALK ABOUT IT

C 1

Discuss in groups how you would promote Meaghan’s piñata business. Come up with an advertising strategy.

8. What primal experience does Meaghan mention with regard to her piñatas?

D Follow-Up Look at the examples of some businesses and jobs below. Which one would you be most interested in? Explain why. • chocolatier • florist • independent yoga instructor • campground owner • snow removal company owner • your choice • snowboard designer

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Task 4 C 2

VIEWING

name:

group:

Characteristics of a Successful Entrepreneur SETTING IT UP In this video, Som Seif, CEO of Purpose Investments, talks about the characteristics necessary to become a successful entrepreneur. He also gives advice about how to be successful within an existing corporation.

HOW TO use the BLIND technique to help you focus as you listen to video texts • Close your eyes the first time you view the video. This will help you to focus. • You can even take notes on a blank piece of paper while your eyes are closed.

Activity 1

Preparing to listen

Tick off which characteristics you think Som Seif will mention as important to becoming a successful entrepreneur.   determination

intelligence

passion

sociability

vision

self-discipline

perseverance

energy

B While and After Viewing Activity 2

Checking for global understanding

View the video once and verify your answers in Activity 1. Then, answer the following question. Explain the meaning of “intrepreneurship.”

TALK ABOUT IT

C 1

Discuss in groups which characteristic in Activity 1 you consider the fourth most important for successful entrepreneurs.

Activity 3

Checking for greater understanding

1. Give details of the three characteristics that Som Seif mentions in his explanation of what it takes to be a great entrepreneur.

a.

:

b.

:

c.

:

2. Which characteristic is the most uncommon? 3. Which characteristic is the most important? 4. Describe the example that Seif gives to explain the third characteristic.

5. How can you be successful within a corporation?

78 Chapter 3

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

A Before Viewing


name:

Task 5

group:

TALK

Putting It All Together SETTING IT UP Look back at the texts in this chapter, including the videos. Think about what each inventor and entrepreneur had to do to produce his/her creation. Activity 1

C 1

ABOUT IT

Assessing personality traits

Write the most important characteristic that you think each person had to have. Discuss your answers with your group using examples that support your opinion.

HOW TO

Bruce Gao

characteristics

Debbie Dada Meeru Dhalwala Mohammed Ashour: Emma Mogus Meaghan Kennedy Activity 2

determination intelligence passion sociability vision self-discipline

perseverance energy leadership cooperative creativity hard-working

prepare for oral interaction in English • Try brainstorming vocabulary and other functional language before the discussion. • Compare your list with a partner’s list.

Predicting who will succeed

Read the short descriptions of the following small businesses. Which one do you think is most likely to succeed? Discuss your ideas with your team and come to a consensus.

1. GoCycle electric bike: an electric bike with a range of about 32 kms and a charge lasting for about three hours

2. Tiny Houses: houses measuring between 30 and 120 square metres promoting minimalist living

3. Embrace Infant Warmer: developed for hypothermic newborns in developing countries

4. nPowerPEG: collects kinetic energy produced by a person’s movements and uses the energy to charge a battery Activity 3

5. TriSpecs: a combination of sunglasses, stereo headphones and Bluetooth headset

6. E-Waste pickup: picks up e-waste (computers, phones, etc.) from your home and recycles it for a price

7. Hotel Van: inexpensive camper vans parked on city streets to rent like a hotel room

8. Health-food lunch boxes: lunch boxes full of healthy meals and snacks delivered to your door for a week of good food

Thinking about creativity

Explain to your group why you agree or disagree with these statements: The characteristic of great innovators and great companies is they see a space that others do not. They don’t just listen to what people tell them; they actually invent something new, something that you didn’t know you needed, but the moment you see it, you say, “I must have it.” – Google CEO, Eric Schmidt

Often the difference between a successful man and a failure is not one’s better abilities or ideas, but the courage one has to bet on his ideas, to take a calculated risk, and to act. – Author, Maxwell Maltz

The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable one persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore all progress depends on the unreasonable man. – Author, George Bernard Shaw

The human mind prefers to be spoon-fed with the thoughts of others, but deprived of such nourishment it will, reluctantly, begin to think for itself and such thinking, remember, is original thinking and may have valuable results. – Author, Agatha Christie

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Task 6

C 3

WRITE

ABOUT IT

name:

group:

Who Wins for Thinking Outside the Box? A Choose Your Topic

write meaningful opinion texts Planning your text well is the key to making it meaningful. Research your ideas and opinions to find facts and examples that support or even oppose your views, and use them in your text. Doing this will give strength to your opinions and potentially influence the reader’s opinion.

ICT Narrow your topic down before typing it into Google or some other search engine. Think about some specific questions you want to know the answers to. Keep a note of all the sites you visit.

Think about the business innovations you have learned about and discussed in this unit. Or what about your own “outside-the-box” idea? Which business would you provide funding for? CHOICES

Innovative food business Original business that helps people Beauty business innovations

Revolutionary environmental business Business hobby Your original idea

B Choose the Type of Text You Want to Write

C

CHOICE

1

Write an opinion text on why the invention you chose deserves funding.

CHOICE

2

Write a letter to the bank requesting financial support for your business.

Plan Your Text Do some research on your topic. See the How To and ICT boxes for tips.

Writing Strategy For more practice on planning your text, see page 82.

Use a T-chart or another organizer to take notes on your ideas.

D Write a Draft Go with the flow of your ideas and don’t worry about spelling or grammar for now. Study the models on the next page to help you structure your text. Provide facts, reasons and concrete examples to support your opinion. Show your draft to someone to get some feedback.

E

Revise Your Text

Use resources to ensure your grammar is accurate. Read your text carefully and critically. Ask yourself: Are there at least three reasons to support your opinion? Do the reasons in support of your opinion make sense? Do you list your strongest reasons first? Do you summarize your opinion in a different way at the end? 80 Chapter 3

If you don’t have enough reasons to support your opinion, ask someone who has read your outline to help you find one more.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

HOW TO


F

Edit Your Text

G Go Public

Check your punctuation, spelling and grammar. Read your text slowly, one sentence at a time, to better catch your errors. Share your text with another student and exchange feedback.

Find a way to share your text with someone. It could be your classmates and teacher. But maybe there is a way to take it to a broader audience. Think about this.

GO further Use the production process to prepare a poster, or another media text type of your choosing, that illustrates your topic in a catchy and attractive way. For more on the production process, see page 253.

Write your final version.

An opinion text

Models

Introduction State your opinion in up to three sentences. I am convinced that … In my opinion/view … My opinion is that … I (definitely) feel/think that … Some people think … Body Argument 1: Example, explanation or supporting detail The business idea for … is clearly a good one because … If creativity is intelligence having fun, then obviously the idea of … needs to be exploited. Argument 2: Example, explanation or supporting detail Studies show that … deserves financing so … Argument 3: Example, explanation or supporting detail Perseverance, drive and an original idea justify … Conclusion Summarize your opinion, using different words, in two or three sentences. Finally, I’m convinced that … It is true that …; however, … X is needed in today’s world because … We can be sure that … While it is true that …, let us not forget … Despite the fact that …, I firmly believe that …

A letter requesting funding Your address and date 158 St Germain Street … December x, 20XX Address The Bank of Montreal 36 Gauthier Street, Quebec Salutation Dear Ms. Kim, Subject Line SUBJECT: Business Proposition Introduction I would like to request funding for my new business … I am starting a new business and require funds … Development Paragraph 1: My business venture is … As a citizen who considers innovative action vital, I believe that I … Paragraph 2: My vision and drive clearly shows that … If you consider the research I have done on …, you will agree that … Paragraph 3: I believe that I can … Despite the fact that …, you must agree that … Conclusion In conclusion, I truly believe that I … Finally, I believe without a doubt … It is with certainty that I propose … Close Sincerely, (leave space to sign your name) Signature Sanjay Lee

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81


WRITING

STRATEGY

name:

group:

T-chart WHAT IS A T-CHART? A T-chart is a graphic organizer that helps examine two sides of a topic. It’s an easy way to compare similarities and differences about an idea or a viewpoint, or to write the pros and cons about a topic. Opinion

For

Advantages

Disadvantages

Against

What do you know? Activity 1

Sample T-chart

Read the arguments for and against starting up your own business. Then, place them in the correct column of the T-chart below. • Demands a lot of time • Can be expensive • You are your own boss

• Employ the people you want • Need to invest in testing the market • You can use your own creativity

topic: Starting my own business Advantages

Activity 2

Disadvantages

My T-chart

Use the T-chart below to plan your text.

topic: Advantages

82 Chapter 3

Disadvantages

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Fact


C 2 name:

group:

Thinking Outside the Box

EXTRA

READINGS

RADICALLY GOOD IDEAS FROM TEENS SETTING IT UP Thinking outside the box has no age limit! Read three stories from around the world about how teens are helping themselves and others.

A Pre-reading Vocabulary Before reading the text, match the following terms with their definitions.

1. earnings

a. outline; plan

2. piggy bank

b. money taken out of a bank

3. withdrawals

c. salaries

4. draft

d. money box

5. set of wheels

e. equal to

6. joyride

f. gather together

7. trick out

g. enhance, improve

8. retrofitted

h. thrilling, sometimes hazardous, drive

9. round up

i. car

10. nothing short of

j. stop moving forward

11. hold back

k. quickly set in motion

12. jump-start

l. modified

B While Reading

1. VOCABULARY STRATEGIES

Use the strategies and resources you’ve learned about in this and previous chapters to help you understand unfamiliar words. In Chapter 3, you learned how to use a dictionary entry to help you find the right definition (page 64). Remember to check for cognates (page 6) and to use the context cues to help you understand words (page 34).

2. READING STRATEGIES Review the reading strategies you’ve learned in this and previous chapters as you read the text. Use the RIDA strategy (page 65). As you read, imagine the scene, describe it to yourself and take note of any details to help you understand the text. Alternatively, use the RAP (page 7) or RTN (page 41) strategies.

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83


from Teens A Bank Run by Street Kids, for Street Kids

NOTES

By Craig and Marc Kielburger To find a bank still readily giving loans during the financial crisis, you need only look as far as a New Delhi train station. There you’ll find a child sitting at a ramshackle post. Despite his unkempt appearance, he’s branch manager. Expertly trained by the people at Butterflies, a New 10 Dehli-based children’s charity, he diligently takes deposits and marks them down in his client’s passbook. 5

As with many banks, there’s fine print. All clients must be below the 15 age of 18. The Children’s Development Khazana—which means wealth— is unlike traditional banking institutions. You won’t find many 20 suits among their elected board of governors. That’s because it’s completely run by street kids.

45

Sometime shopkeepers who agree to take care of the money never give it back.

Observing this, Butterflies offered sanctuary for the children’s money. Once they had gathered enough, 50 that collective piggy bank became a place of business. “They said they didn’t want to go to a real bank,” says Pinto. “They said, ‘Big banks do not respect us because 55 we are not dressed well. We want our own.’” They came up with a system of passbooks and account numbers to record earnings. Then, they elected 60 child managers and committees who trained with Butterflies in accounting to keep track of the day-to-day banking. The other children are then invited to basic 65 literacy, math and budget training to better keep track of their deposits and withdrawals. To take out a loan, they must draft a proposal to start a business or go 70 back to school, and submit it for approval by the loan committee.

“We help them through the whole process of appointing a board of directors and a child manager,” says With 26 main branches and 53 sub- 75 Pinto. “It teaches them democratic branches* across India, Afghanistan, practices, how to organize a meeting 25 Bangladesh, Nepal, Kyrgyzstan and and how to budget for expenses.” Sri Lanka, the Khazana gives more That in turn helps the children than the opportunity to save their plan for their futures. money—it gives children the opportunity to invest in their futures. 80 Take Tania Naaz for example. The 17-year-old daughter of a sex worker 30“In Hindi khazana means wealth. living in Muzaffarpur, India, learned We liked how that sounds. embroidery skills to make a living ‘Children’s development wealth’,” but had nowhere to put her earnings. says Gerry Pinto, an advisor for Butterflies. “We brought it to the 35 kids for discussion. They took to it.”

84 Chapter 3

Wealth isn’t easy for street children to accumulate. Their earnings first buy food. Then there is real concern of losing it. Extra money is often 40 spent on destructive pastimes like drug abuse or gambling. It may also be stolen by older kids, police and others in positions of power.

85

90

After her father was paralyzed in an accident, she felt pressure to join her mother’s profession in order to provide for the family – until she opened an account at Khazana.

Naan began making regular deposits. After a year, she took out a loan of 5,000 rupees and started her own business. Since then, she has actually paid back 2,200 rupees

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Radically Good Ideas


95

of her loan, saved another 1,250 in her account and avoided exploitation in the sex trade.

“The major element that attracts children is making money,” says 100 Pinto. “But, when it comes to capturing their minds and promoting these development ideas, there is nothing like the bank.”

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

105

Pinto says they have seen hundreds of children break through poverty by saving. One group of children in

Sri Lanka even used their collective earnings to construct girls’ toilets for the community.

NOTES

While none of the children with accounts at the Khazana seem like the most desirable candidates for a loan, the opportunities created by an account and passbook are seemingly 115 endless. That’s because investing in someone’s future is never a risk. 110

* At the time of print, there were over 100 Khazana branches.

Plainville Students Adapt Toy Cars Bill Leukhardt for Disabled Childrens’ Use Contact Reporter PLAINVILLE — Gavin Hungerford, 3 years old but not yet able to walk or talk because of illness, got his first set of wheels Wednesday 5 and zoomed off for a joyride down a school hallway at top speed—a turtle-slow walking pace. His car was a battery-powered toy Mini Cooper, blue, adapted by a 10 team of middle school, high school and college students to fit his abilities and protect him. Gavin, from Portland, was one of eight disabled children to get cars, each tricked 15 out to be safe and easy-to-use. “He had a huge smile when he got into it,” Gavin’s father, Todd Hungerford, said as his son drove past in a hallway of Plainville High 20 School, where the children gathered to test and get their cars. “He hit the walls at first, but is doing better now. We have a big yard he can use. Good thing the car has reverse. 25 He’ll have to learn to back up. This will help him learn.” The car conversions were done by teams of Plainville Middle School, Plainville High School and Central 30 Connecticut State University technology students and faculty as part of a Go Baby Go event to refurbish toy ride-on cars for children with special needs. The Go Baby 35 Go program started at the University of Delaware and is now done at schools nationwide.

“It’s just an amazing collaboration,” Michele Dischino, an associate CCSU 40 technology education professor, said Wednesday as she and the 40 students tweak cars to best fit their new drivers. “These give the children mobility. There aren’t motorized 45 wheelchairs for children under 3.” Megan Hislop, a CCSU senior from Torrington, bought the blue and pink cars. 50

55

60

“I went to the aisle and said, ‘I’ll take three of these, two of these,’” said Hislop, whose own ride is an unremarkable 2005 Toyota. “The clerk must have thought I was nuts.” Steven Dow, 17, a Plainville High senior whose team retrofitted Gavin’s Mini Cooper, said they included a button so Gavin can start the car and control the speed because he couldn’t use pedals. Rosie Flammang, a physical therapist who works with disabled children at Connecticut Childrens’ Medical Center in Hartford, helped match kids with Go Baby Go cars.

“It serves to help teach them,” Flammang said. “They have to steer and learn to push a button to go. A lot of the children don’t walk or crawl. This gives them freedom, 70 a chance to be normal.”

65

Each car comes with a charger for the battery, and each has a “kill switch” so parents can disable it.

glossary ramsackle: decrepit; run down unkempt: untidy; shabby pace: speed refurbish: repair and improve tweak: adjust aisle: passageway between shelves ride: car clerk: shop assistant steer: navigate

Chapter 3

85


75

80

Mark Chase, the high school tech ed teacher involved with the project, said his students enjoyed working on the cars about as much as the young drivers do operating them. “This was our first year involved in this. We hope we do it again next year,” he said. Down the hallway, the Hungerfords were packing up Gavin’s car to take

85

home. Michaela Hungerford rounded up Gavin and his twin brother, Jackson, whose matching shirts read “Waiting for my beard to grow in.”

Jackson had climbed in the car whenever he could, happily zig-zag 90 ging into the walls, with Gavin in a fast crawl after him. Todd Hungerford said car shopping was on the parents’ to-do list for the afternoon.

Two Teen-Aged Canadian Sisters Changing the World: Meet Susanna and Linda Manziaris While most teen-aged girls these days are busy snap chatting and instagramming with friends, two Canadian sisters are working together to build 5 schools and provide scholarships to destitute girls throughout the world. Meet Toronto natives Linda and Susanna Manziaris—working together while each doing their part 10 to change the world—and succeeding. Linda, 14, is a designer and entrepreneur who designs her own jewelry line called Body Bijou. She makes body chains, leg jewelry, hip chains 15 and the typical bracelets and necklaces and sells her products online. She gives 50% of her profits to GirlsHelpingGirls, a charity that her 18-year-old sister Susanna founded. Through the efforts of the two sisters, more than $100,000 has been raised and 25 scholarships have been offered to girls in South Africa, Afghanistan and Haiti. Add 25 to this feat the complete building of three schools in Jamaica and teacher training in Afghanistan.

the issue of gendercide or the killing of infant girls, changed her life. “I saw that girls were being killed around the world just because they were girls, and I didn’t understand why. And that was my motivation to start my project,” she told CBC News. “I researched gendercide and 45 came to the conclusion that a lack of education is what’s holding women back.” 40

A visit to Kenya confirmed what Susanna already thought to be 50 true—that even in young kids, a tremendous gender inequality and lack of education created stark differences amongst young girls. 55

20

glossary scholarship: funding for school founded: established feat: achievement lack: absence of stark: plainly obvious launched: started awareness: informative fundraising: collecting money for a cause plight: unfortunate situation

86 Chapter 3

The efforts of these two teens are nothing short of remarkable and 30 they are attracting local and international media. Susanna watched a powerful documentary called “I Am A Girl” which tells the stories of six teenage girls 35 growing up in different parts of the world. The film, which deals with

By Gregory Pappas

“The girls who were going to school all wanted to become journalists and teachers, while the other girls were stuck in a life of poverty and they didn’t have the ability to see what was out there,” she said.

Susanna launched her charity GirlsHelpingGirls, and began awareness and fundraising campaigns to spread the word about her cause and the plight of girls in various 65 countries throughout the world. 60

Her sister Linda donated $15,000 from her jewelry business to jumpstart GirlsHelpingGirls and continues with regular donations from her 40 company’s profits. To date, they’ve raised $100,000 for educational projects around the world.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

NOTES


C

After Reading

Answer the following questions to see how well you understood each article. PART A   A Bank Run by Street Kids, For Street Kids

1. What is the setting of the story? What is the purpose of the text?

Setting:

Purpose:

2. Explain why “Butterflies” is an appropriate name for the organization.

3. What is the age criterion for belonging to the bank? 4. What makes the Khazana different from a regular bank? 5. What situations exist that cause the children to lose their money? 6. What do clients of Butterflies learn? What do child managers learn? 7. In your own words, describe Tania Naaz’ situation before she opened an account at the Khazana. What business do you think she started with her loan?

PART B   Students Adapt Toy Cars

1. What is the setting of the story? What is the purpose of the text?

Setting:

Purpose:

2. What is the purpose of the Go Baby Go program?

3. Who converted the cars for the children? 4. Michele Dischino and her students “tweak” the cars for the children. Give an example from the text that shows what this means.

5. What does the author mean when he says Rosie Flammang “helped match kids with Go Baby Go cars”? 6. What is the main benefit of the Go Baby Go cars?

Chapter 3

87


name:

group:

7. Under what circumstances do you think a parent would use the “kill switch”? PART C   Canadian Sisters Changing the World

1. What is the purpose of the text? 2. Explain how Susanna and Linda Manziaris are different from other girls their age.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

3. How do Linda and Susanna help underprivileged girls around the world?

4. What has Susanna’s organization achieved so far?

5. What motivated Susanna to start her organization?

6. Explain what “gendercide” means.

D Reinvesting Your Understanding 1. Explain why you agree or disagree when the Kielburgers say, “That’s because investing in someone’s future is never a risk.” Support your opinion.

2. Mark Chase said his students enjoyed working on the cars about as much as the young drivers enjoyed operating them. In your opinion, why did the students enjoy the project? What do you think they learned?

3. For inspiration, do some research into the Go Baby Go program and the GirlsHelpingGirls organization. Write a short description of an important cause that you believe a group of disadvantaged young people would really appreciate. Explain why. Use a separate sheet of paper.

88 Chapter 3

GO further • What other organizations in Canada and around the world are managed by young people? Do some research and share your findings with your group. • Think about a business like Body Bijou that could help fund a cause that you believe in. Present your idea to your group.



SECTION

2

CHAPTER 1 Point 1

Nouns and Pronouns

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Point 2

Present Verbs

Study Guide: Simple Present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Present Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Interrogative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Consolidation of Points 1 and 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

CHAPTER 2 Point 3

Adjectives and Pronouns

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170

Point 4

Past Verbs

Study Guide: Simple Past . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Past Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Interrogative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

Point 5

Simple and Compound Sentences

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Consolidation of Points 1 to 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

CHAPTER 3 Point 6

Adjectives of Comparison

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

Point 7

Present Perfect

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

148

Point 8

Past Perfect

Study Guide: Form and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Interrogative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

Point 9

Conditionals

Study Guide: Real Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Hypothetical Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Past Hypothetical Conditional . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Consolidation of Points 1 to 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

CHAPTER 4 Point 10

Adverbs

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205

Point 11

Modals

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

Point 12

Complex Sentences

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Consolidation of Points 1 to 12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

CHAPTER 5 Point 13

Transition Words

Study Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

Point 14

Future Forms

Study Guide: Form and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Interrogative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Consolidation of Points 1 to 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Grammar Points


Point 7 The present perfect and the simple past are used in different situations.

Function: The present perfect is used: when the time period has not finished.

when the time period has finished.

I have seen two crime shows this week.

I saw two crime shows last week.

when the time is not specific or is unimportant.

when the time is specific or is important.

(The week is not finished.)

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

The simple past is used:

(Last week is finished.)

Present Perfect Present Perfect vs. Simple Past PERSONAL EXAMPLES

Read the information in the Study Guide. Write your own examples in this column.

The family has already identified the body. The family identified the body at 9:00 a.m. (We don’t know when.)

(We know exactly when.)

with since and for when the action has not ended.

with since and for when the action has ended.

The victim has lived on Girard Street for 10 years.

The victim lived on Girard Street for 10 years.

(The victim still lives there.)

example

I have watched three movies this month.

(The victim doesn’t live there anymore.)

Adverbs usually come between the auxiliary and the past participle. Examples:

The family has just arrived on the scene. They have already filed a missing person’s report. Key Words: Words that often appear with the present perfect are: ever, never, just, already, yet, recently, lately Words that often appear with the simple past are: yesterday, last week, last month, years ago

Chapter 3 • Grammar Point 7 187


name:

For more grammar practice, check out the interactive activities.

group:

PRACTICE 1 Put a check beside the statements that correctly answer the following questions:

a. Which sentences express something that continues to be true

Crime was a part of his life in 2006.

Crime has been a part of his life since he was a teenager.

Melissa has had a secret for the last 19 years.

Melissa had a secret when she was 19 years old.

b. Which sentences do not mention a specific time?

The detective solved the case yesterday.

Detective Forlini has already solved many cases in his short career.

On Monday, the police released details of the crime to the media.

Over the years, the police have released details of crimes to the media.

c. Which sentences imply the action was repeated one or more times in the past?

I have read numerous Sherlock Holmes mystery novels.

I read a Sherlock Holmes mystery novel when I was fifteen.

I watched the police show on TV at noon.

I have watched many police shows on TV over the years.

2 Complete the sentences below by writing the verb in parentheses in the present perfect tense.

a. The discovery of DNA (to change)

the speed in

which crimes are solved.

b. Recently, my cat (to start)

to meow at night when

the neighbour goes out.

c. Generally, photographs (to help)

jury members

to understand what happens at a crime scene.

d. Some say that crime shows (to encourage)

people

to commit crimes.

e. Jeremy (to be)

suspicious of his neighbour for

a long time.

f. Recently, scientists (to develop)

new tools to help

identify people.

g. The detectives (to continue)

their search, despite

the lack of evidence.

h. The victim, Mrs. Ramsey, (to live) since 1992.

188 Chapter 3 • Grammar Point 7

at this address

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

in the present?


3 Read the following text about using DNA to identify missing people.

WHEN DISASTER STRIKES

5

Most people have probably heard about DNA from the crime shows and courtroom dramas they see on television. DNA testing is certainly a powerful tool in fighting crime, but the benefits do not stop there. Imagine the devastation of a natural disaster, such as a tsunami or an earthquake. Picture the wreckage of an airplane crash with no survivors. What happens when the bodies are no longer recognizable or when the victims do not carry identification? Beyond the terrible tragedy of losing someone you love is the pain of not being able to identify their body. The sentences below are in the simple past. Rewrite them in the present perfect by removing or changing the time frame linked to the past. example

In 2004, a terrible tsunami hit the Indian Ocean.

A terrible tsunami has hit the Indian Ocean.

a. It was difficult to identify the victims who died in the tsunami back in 2004.

b. On December 26, a number of tourist hot spots were destroyed. c. Many of the victims were not identified immediately. d. The bodies remained in the tropical heat for a week. e. By the end of the week, the heat caused the bodies to swell beyond recognition.

f. Family members contributed a DNA sample yesterday to aid in identification. glossary

g. After one week, the authorities reported the death toll at over two hundred thousand.

wreckage: pieces or fragments of something badly damaged or destroyed hot spots: popular locations toll: the extent of damage or loss from an accident

Chapter 3 • Grammar Point 7 189


Point 8

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Past Perfect

STUDY GUIDE

Form and Usage

Function: The past perfect expresses action that happened before another action in the past:

By the time she arrived, the party had ended. Read the information in the Study Guide. Write your own examples in this column.

Key Words: until, before, when, by the time …

AFFIRMATIVE Had + past participle

NEGATIVE Had + not + past participle

example

Regular verbs

By the time Jason showed up at the game, we had already left.

I You He She It We They

had called the police before she left the house.

I You He She It We They

had not / hadn’t called the police before she left the house.

Irregular verbs He had done his time in prison before he came to work here.

Past Perfect vs. Simple Past PERSONAL EXAMPLES

We had not seen the thief get into his car.

The past perfect is used when there are two past events. The event that happened first in the past is in the past perfect.

The situation: FIRST: The robber left the house. SECOND: The police arrived.

Situation expressed, using the past perfect and simple past:

The robber had left the house before the police arrived.

OR

Before the police arrived, the robber had left the house. The words before and after help establish the sequence of events.

190 Chapter 3 • Grammar Point 8

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PERSONAL EXAMPLES


Point 8

Forming questions using the perfect tenses is similar to forming questions in the present or simple past. Just remember that have / has / had are used as auxiliary verbs and not main verbs; this means you don’t need the auxiliary do. When asking questions in the present perfect, invert the auxiliary have / has

and the subject.

Perfect Tenses Interrogative Forms

When asking questions in the past perfect, invert the auxiliary had and

the subject.

PERSONAL EXAMPLES

Yes/No questions For yes /no questions in both perfect tenses, begin the question with

Read the information in the Study Guide. Write your own examples in this column.

the auxiliary: example

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Rest of sentence

Present perfect Have

you

watched

many crime shows?

Has

she

testified

as a witness before?

Have you solved the crime yet?

Past perfect Had

they

gone

to visit him in jail before he was released?

Information questions

For information questions, follow the same structure, but begin with the question word:

Question word

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb

Rest of sentence

Present perfect When

have

you

given

blood before?

Why

has

she

refused

to answer questions?

Who

have

they

visited?

Past perfect What

had

it

cost?

Where

had

she

hidden

Who

had

they

disturbed?

the gun?

Chapter 3 • Grammar Point 8 191


name:

For more grammar practice, check out the interactive activities.

group:

PRACTICE 1 Underline the action that happened first in the sentences below.

a. The thief simply took the car. Someone had forgotten the keys in the lock. b. By the time the police arrived, the rain had washed away some of the footprints.

forgotten to remove her bracelet.

2 Read the two texts below, which describe criminal acts. Underline the verbs in the simple past and highlight the ones in the past perfect. Then answer the true or false questions that follow each text.

ONE LAST DRINK

5

10

192 Chapter 3 • Grammar Point 8

Rick Smart called Cynthia Moore to invite her out to dinner—for the last time. He didn’t tell her that he had bought a plane ticket last week and packed his luggage the night before as part of his plan to murder her. Mr. Smart arrived at the restaurant and waited for his date to walk in. By the time she arrived, he had already ordered her an alcoholic drink and put a poisonous drug in it. When Cynthia arrived, she smiled and thanked him for the drink, but proceeded to order a glass of mineral water. Rick didn’t know she had an intolerance to alcohol. She wouldn’t be drinking anything but water. Mr. Smart was not so smart after all. a. True

False

b. True

False

e packed his luggage before he bought the plane H ticket.

c. True d. True

False

Cynthia arrived at the restaurant before him.

False

ick ordered an alcoholic R drink after she arrived.

R ick Smart bought a plane ticket before he called Cynthia for a date.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

c. I didn’t have any money because a thief had stolen my wallet. d. She had taken a science course in 1990 before she began college. e. The man disposed of the woman’s body and then he remembered he had


ONE LAST RIDE

5

Mick and Marty had decided to stop stealing cars until they spotted a luxury automobile parked on the street. For one week, they examined the comings and goings of the owner, Mr. Britto, who worked in the building across the street. The opportunity was simply too tempting. They decided to steal one last car. Mick and Marty had not realized Mr. Britto could see his car from his office window. He watched them break into his car. Mr. Britto quickly alerted his insurance company, who in turn contacted the police. When the police arrived, the insurance company had already activated the special device that forced the car to slow down and come to a stop. Mick and Marty took an early retirement at the local jail. a. True

False

b. True

False

T hey knew Mr. Britto could see the car from his office window after they examined his comings and goings.

c. True

False

T he police arrived first and then Mr. Britto alerted his insurance company.

d. True

False

M ick and Marty had decided to stop stealing cars until they saw the luxury car.

T he insurance company activated the special device before the police arrived.

3 Complete the sentences below, using the simple past and the past perfect.

First: The kids vandalized the building. Second: The bell rang. a. The kids (vandalize) the building by the time the bell (ring)

.

First: Sandy activated the alarm. Second: Sandy went to bed. b. Sandy (go) to bed after she (activate) the alarm.

First: I entered the school. Second: The principal announced a fire drill. c. After I (enter) the school, the principal (announce) a fire drill.

Grammar Tip The present perfect may continue in the present, but the past perfect cannot. The present perfect is often used with superlatives:

The best crime show I’ve watched so far is “CSI.” The past perfect is also used in reported speech to repeat what someone

else said.

He said he had seen the thief escape through the window.

glossary comings and goings: movements and activities tempting: appealing retirement: end of work life, usually because of age

Most past participles end in ed. Irregular past participles must be learned. Chapter 3 • Grammar Point 8 193


SECTION

3

PART

1

Oral Interaction   C

1  C 2

A Before Arguing Sentence starters for arguing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Persuasive language for structure and meaning . . . . . . . 226

B Practising Your Arguments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Statements for argument’s sake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Your turn to argue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

C Reading and Response Practice 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 The driving age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Checking for global understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Checking for greater understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

D Reading and Response Practice 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 More about teen driving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

E Consolidated Oral Interaction Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 F Bonus 1 Oral Interaction Practice: Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

G Bonus 2

Oral Interaction Practice: Quotations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

PART

2

Writing  C

2  C 3

A Overview: The Narrative, Descriptive and Opinion Text

Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Identifying text formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Practising with text formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235

B Overview: The Opinion Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 C Structure of the Opinion Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Introduction, body or conclusion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Drafting your first opinion text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

D The Introduction and Thesis Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Analyzing introductions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 Writing an introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

E The Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Writing a conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Practising your introductions and conclusions . . . . . . . . . 239

F Body Paragraphs and Topic Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 G Transition Words to Connect Ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Transition types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Choose the correct transition type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Final Practice 1: Identifying Parts of the Opinion Text . . . . . 242 Final Practice 2: Analyzing an Opinion Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Final Practice 3: Expressing Opinions vs. Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Final Practice 4: Graphic Organizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Final Consolidation: Writing an Opinion Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

224 Exam Preparation

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Exam Preparation


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ORAL

INTERACTION

Think about it Why are some people better at arguing than others? How well do you form an opinion and present your arguments about a controversial topic?

Exam preparation

A Before Arguing Activity 1

Sentence starters for arguing

When you are giving your opinion, it is important to use the correct vocabulary to present your arguments. Work with a partner to place the useful vocabulary in the correct box.

Supporting your point of view

Counterarguments

Asking for clarification

useful vocabulary

Stating your opinion clearly

So you can clearly see … I would argue that … It is true that … Therefore … I’m not sure I fully understand. I am certain that … Added to that, it is obvious … Consequently … I have to disagree. On the other hand … By contrast … For this reason … I am convinced that … So what you mean is … Evidently …

To summarize

Agree / Disagree

If I understand correctly … That’s a good point. On the contrary … I truly believe that … Of course …

Exam Preparation 225


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Activity 2

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Persuasive language for structure and meaning

Your listeners need to understand your point of view easily. In an argument, it is very important to use persuasive language to help you present facts and examples logically.

With a partner, discuss which of the persuasive words or phrases from the Word Bank would best complete the sentences below. Be ready to defend your choice.

therefore I believe in addition it stands to reason it is obvious in fact there is no doubt equally important you must admit consequently

1. So you see,

that the death penalty

is not a deterrent because violent crimes continue to occur in places where the death penalty exists.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

word bank

Statements for argument

2. At the end of the school year, many students are worried more about  ,

the prom than their final exams;

the graduation ball should be held in the September after graduation.

3. Studies show that continued use of technologies is slowly eliminating our  , conversation

ability to communicate;

classes and debates should be mandatory in first- and second-language classes.

4. Because older people are also a driving risk, they should pay higher  , 33 per cent

insurance premiums.

of drivers over 65 are involved in serious accidents compared with 22 per cent of 20- to 24-year-olds.

5.

that it is fair to test student athletes for drugs if they are representing their school in provincial competitions.

6. Studies show that girls often perform better in math and science when  ,

they are not in the same classes as boys. then, that same sex schools would be beneficial for girls in general.

7.

that allowing students with learning disabilities to do their exams orally would help them gain confidence and encourage them to finish their secondary school education.

8. At the beginning of the year, parents should be obliged to spend a day at school following their child’s timetable.

,

children should spend one working day with a parent.

9.

students caught smoking at school should be fined by the school.

, if they throw their

cigarette butts on school grounds, they should be required to do community service at the school.

226 Exam Preparation


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B Practising Your Arguments Activity 1

Statements for argument’s sake

With your partner, prepare arguments for or against each of the Statements for argument on page 226. Be prepared to debate your opinion with another pair of students who have opposing views on each statement. Use persuasive language in your arguments to convince your classmates of the validity of your position.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Notes:

Activity 2

Your turn to argue

Now, brainstorm some arguments for the following topics. Be prepared to defend your position.

1. Physical education results should not be included in your school grade-point average.

2. The general public should be allowed to pay to receive faster medical care.

3. Kids under the age of 16 should have a 10 p.m. curfew.

C

Reading and Response Practice 1

Activity 1

The driving age

Read the text “The Driving Age Should Be Moved to 18” and then answer the questions that follow.

THE DRIVING AGE SHOULD BE MOVED TO 18 Driving is a privilege, not a right. It comes with responsibilities and consequences. It can sometimes mean the difference between life or death, or living with consequences no one really wants to think about. So, at what age do we become aware of the seriousness of those responsibilities and consequences? I consider that it is only at the age of 18, after secondary school, that young adults are ready to take on the responsibility of getting behind the wheel of a car.

Exam Preparation 227


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Not only are friends a distraction, there is also modern-day technology. With the number of teenagers now owning cellphones, it is no wonder that distracted driving, including the use of cellphones, counts for 10 per cent of fatal accidents in the 15- to 19-year-old age group. Statistics show that the risk of crashing your car is four times higher when you use your cellphone while driving, even if it is hands-free. Added to this, and despite the recent advertising blitz, teens still feel the need to text while driving, reducing their ability to drive in a way that is safe for everyone. Finally, it is simple biology that dictates that teens under 18 should not get behind the wheel. Studies now show that the teenage brain is still developing and continues to develop into the early twenties. This, then, points to the fact that it is immaturity and not inexperience that causes teenagers to act and react inappropriately while driving. The front temporal lobe of the brain, which deals with motor skills and emotional maturity, has not fully developed by the time a 17-year-old gets behind the wheel of a car. It is no wonder, then, that teens continue to speed and disregard the rules of the road: their brains are not communicating the real dangers that exist as they are driving. With the number of cars on the road increasing every month, it is important to keep all our drivers safe, young and old. It is important to emphasize the responsibility involved in driving. With this in mind, it is obvious that teens under 18 do not yet have what it takes to be in charge of a moving vehicle.

Activity 2

Checking for global understanding

1. What is the purpose of this text? a.

to express an opinion

b.

to inform

c.

2. Who is the intended audience of the text? 3. Is the author for or against driving under age 18? Activity 3

Checking for greater understanding

1. What line in the first paragraph states the author’s opinion?

228 Exam Preparation

to direct

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Secondary school is a time when social pressure is at its highest. Consequently, many students bow down to peer pressure, whether they realize it or not. Once you get behind the wheel of a car, with the music blaring and friends joking around, it’s hard to concentrate on all the things that are happening on the road. “Go faster!” “Go around!” “Put the pedal to the metal!” and “You drive like my grandmother!” are just some of the things that a young 17 year old has to deal with. Who, at 17, is strong enough to turn down the music and tell friends to quiet down so you can concentrate? After all, you don’t want to sound like your mother, right?


name:

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© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

2. What three arguments does the author use to support his opinion? a. b. c. 3. What persuasive strategies does the author use in the text? a. quotations b. anecdotal examples c. scientific studies d. statistics e. arguing opposite opinions (playing “devil’s advocate”) 4. Give three examples of the persuasive strategies used in the text: a. b. c. 5. Do you agree with the author?

6. Discuss your ideas with a partner.

D Reading and Response Practice 2 Activity 1

More about teen driving

Read the following paragraphs and then answer the questions that follow.

Paragraph 1 Buying a car is an important rite of passage for young people. Unfortunately, for young adults, especially young men, it is not the car that ends up costing the most but rather the insurance payments. And so it should be. Young drivers need to be aware of the responsibilities and dangers of driving. In Canada, young male drivers between 17 and 24 years of age can pay between $500 and $2,500 more for insurance. The reasoning behind this is clear: young drivers, especially young men, have more accidents. In fact, young drivers aged 24 and under have over 10 per cent more serious car accidents causing death or serious injury than any other age group, with the exception of adults 55 and older.

1. What technique does the author use to support his opinion? Give an example.

Exam Preparation 229


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2. What possible counter-argument is implied in the paragraph?

3. Do research to find other good arguments for decreasing insurance premiums

Paragraph 2 Road safety should be a priority, no matter how old you are. Aggressive driving is on the rise and more people are distracted at the wheel. Added to that, there are just more cars on the road. All this is slowly leading to more traffic pile-ups on our roads. An excellent solution to this is installing cars with tracking devices to monitor speed and braking habits of drivers. With this information downloaded on a database, police and insurance companies can keep track of dangerous drivers. Installing a tracking device makes it easier for insurance companies to charge drivers based on their driving history rather than their age. In fact, good drivers can see their insurance payments decrease by 10 to 15 per cent regardless of age. Keeping in mind the saying “an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure,” it seems that putting a tracking device in cars will encourage drivers to drive more safely. Police can also monitor repeat offenders more easily.

1. What techniques does the author use to support his opinion? Give examples.

2. What counter-arguments could you use?

3. Do research on other devices and methods that could be used to decrease the number of car accidents. Write your findings below. Discuss your findings with your class.

230 Exam Preparation

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for young drivers. Discuss your findings with your class.


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E Consolidated Oral Interaction Practice Decide whether you agree or disagree with the statement below. Work with a partner and prepare strong arguments for or against the topic. Use the vocabulary from the preceding paragraphs. Present your arguments to the class. Drivers 65 and older should be obliged to take a yearly driving test.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

• Start with a strong opening statement

• Support your point of view

• Use counter-arguments to reinforce your position

• Summarize your point of view

Exam Preparation 231


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F

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Bonus 1

Oral interaction Practice: Situations

Read each of the situations and decide how you would answer the questions. Discuss your opinions with a partner or in a group.

Matéo is 19 and is studying Civil Engineering at university. He also plays football on the university team. During his first term, he maintained an average of 85 per cent in his exams. Last year, Matéo bought a second-hand car and has never had an accident or received a ticket. However, because of his age and gender, his insurance premiums cost $1,500 more than his sister who is 21.

– Should Matéo’s insurance payments be reduced despite the statistics indicating that young male drivers have more accidents than any other age group? Situation 2:

Anaya is 18 and received her full driving licence two months ago. With the help of her parents, she also bought herself a second-hand car. However, her parents think she drives too fast and plays music too loud while driving with her friends. They believe this distracts her from what is going on outside. Because of her driving habits, her parents have decided to fix a curfew for Anaya: she has to have the car home by 9 p.m. every night. If she wants to go out later, she has to take the bus, train or a taxi.

– Should Anaya’s parents enforce a driving curfew on their daughter? Situation 3:

Darius is 18 and travels to CEGEP by bus every day. His cousin is willing to sell him a used car at a good price. Unfortunately, Darius has not taken any driving classes. The classes themselves would cost almost $1,000, added to the price of the car and his car insurance. Presently, his bus pass costs him almost $60 per month but does not give him the flexibility he would like. It is also difficult for him to get a part-time job because he is not freely mobile.

– Do you think Darius should invest in driving lessons? Situation 4:

More than half of teen and young adult drivers who were killed in a car accident were not wearing their seatbelt. Why do some teens still refuse to wear a seatbelt while driving?

G Bonus 2

Oral interaction Practice: Quotations

Read the following quotations and formulate an opinion about what they mean. Read the question that follows each quotation. 232 Exam Preparation

Discuss your answers with a partner or in a group.

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Situation 1:


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Americans will put up with anything provided it doesn’t block traffic. — DAN R ATHER How do traffic jams affect people? Why do traffic jams have this impact?

© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

Men may or may not be better drivers than women, but they seem to die more often trying to prove that they are. — TOM VANDERBILT, Traffic: Why We Drive The Way We Do Do you agree that most men believe themselves to be better drivers than women? What message is Mr. Vanderbilt trying to give?

If you’ve been driving for a little while and nothing’s happened to you yet—and you’ve been texting and driving—you think ‘Oh nothing’s going to happen.’ But all it takes is an accident happening with one of your friends or God forbid, something happening to you, to really give you a wake-up call. — VICTORIA JUSTICE Is it true that we really only pay attention when something happens close to us and touches our own lives?

“Your car should drive itself. It’s amazing to me that we let humans drive cars … It’s a bug that cars were invented before computers.” — ERIC SCHMIDT (Google co-founder) Do you think that self-driving cars are the future? Will they help decrease the number of accidents on the road?

I’ve actually made a prediction that within 30 years a majority of new cars made in the United States will be electric. And I don’t mean hybrid, I mean fully electric. — ELON MUSK Do you believe that electric cars will replace regular and hybrid cars? Will this be a good thing? Exam Preparation 233


C 2 C 3

WRITING Exam preparation

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A Overview: The Narrative, Descriptive

and Opinion Text Formats

Read about each of the following text formats. Notice how each has a different purpose:

• A DESCRIPTIVE TEXT uses detailed, vivid language to describe a person, place or thing. It should create a particular atmosphere and leave a strong impression on the reader. The purpose of a descriptive text can be to inform the reader, or to express certain thoughts and feelings about a subject. • In an OPINION TEXT, the writer expresses his or her opinion on a subject and offers information and reasoning to support this opinion. The main purpose of this type of text is to express an opinion. Activity 1

Identifying text formats

With a partner, name the text type of each paragraph. A.  Text format:

C.  Text format:

I am tired of school. It is always the same. The same people, the same stories, the same problems. I have been on the outside looking in for four years now. Sure, I have friends, I’m not a complete reject, but I don’t fit in. Let’s be honest, I never have. I guess that’s what makes it so easy for me to be picked on. Nobody is going to defend me. Most of the other students pretend it’s not happening. When someone “accidentally” pushes my lunch tray off the cafeteria table, nobody seems to notice. Sometimes I just want to stay in bed. I can’t wait for the year to be over so I can begin my life.

The air was crisp and the sky as blue as a robin’s egg. Soft, puffy cumulus clouds peppered the sky. Brown rock merged with the green underbrush that dotted the mountainsides. The weather was glorious as the young couple sat and soaked it all in. It had been a hard climb up, but worth the effort. Laura contemplated the area around her: the view truly was breathtaking. She looked at Carlos and grinned, “Ok, yeah, you were right, it is pretty cool up here.” Carlos laughed and winked, “I hate to say I told you so but, I told you so.” They both laughed happily and continued gazing at the panoramic view of the wilderness.

B.  Text format:

I believe that extreme rock climbing is one of the ultimate sports that tests a person in spirit and body. For example, climbing a cliff face without using a rope pushes your agility to its maximum. Added to this, your body must be strong enough to endure a gruelling ascent to the top of the mountain. However, it is not all just physical. A rock climber must be mentally ready to face the challenge of being alone on a mountainside with nobody to depend on. Likewise, you must be ready to face your fear and overcome it in order to succeed. Anything less could be disastrous.

234 Exam Preparation

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• A NARRATIVE TEXT entertains the reader with a story, usually about a problem or complication that has to be resolved. It describes a series of events that are narrated from the point of view of the storyteller. A narrative text can also teach, inform or change the attitude of the reader.


© 2017, Les Éditions CEC inc. • Reproduction prohibited

name:

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D.  Text format:

E.  Text format:

School is a place where young people go to learn. It is a place where kids and teens learn to negotiate, to socialize, to find their way in the world. Good things should happen in school, friendships should be forged, memories should be made. Unfortunately for many young people, this is not their reality. Many Canadian schools are failing their youth. There is no doubt about it: Bullying is rampant in our schools and we have to do something about it.

“I don’t think I can do this,” I groaned as I grabbed an outcrop of rock. “Of course you can,” Carlos responded encouragingly, “one move at a time.” “How much further,” I panted, afraid to look up and wondering, again, why I get myself into these situations. “A couple of metres left. This is your mountain. Imagine how great you’re going to feel when you get to the top!” Carlos was nothing if not optimistic. “Look up Laura! You can see the summit. Not long now! One last push and you’ll be queen of the mountain,” he laughed, shouting the last phrase as he hauled himself up to the top. In a last burst of effort, I pulled myself to the summit.

With your partner, discuss the answers to the following questions:

1. Who is the main character in the narrative text(s)? 2. What is the problem or complication in the narrative text(s)?

3. What type of vocabulary is particular to the descriptive text(s)? Give some examples.

4. What do you notice about the verbs used in the descriptive text(s)? 5. What expressions are used in the opinion text(s) to persuade the reader? Activity 2

Practising with text formats

With your partner and on a separate sheet of paper, write a short paragraph in each text format on one of the following topics: • Part-time work and school • Robots replacing teachers • No dating before you’re 16 • Topic of your own (ask your teacher for approval)

Exam Preparation 235


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B Overview: The Opinion Text

Definition and Purpose An opinion text tells your audience (the reader) your point of view on a topic. When you write an opinion text, it must be clear on which side you stand: are you for or against a particular issue? In your text, make sure you give your own opinion, not the opinions of other people.

Text Features

INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH: Introduce the topic and state your opinion clearly and concisely. In your introduction you must write a thesis statement.*

BODY of your text: Two or three paragraphs that support your opinion with clear statements that support your point of view. Each paragraph should begin with a topic sentence** and clear arguments that support your thesis statement.

CONCLUSION: Paragraph in which you restate your opinion (using different words) and where you summarize your main points.

* Your thesis statement should not only state your point of view but it should also answer the question(s) what and/or why. ** A topic sentence gives the reader an exact indication of what will be included in the paragraph.

Seven Tips for a Good Opinion Text 1. State your opinion clearly in the opening paragraph. Use language that is persuasive enough to convince your reader that your opinions are valid.

2. Use specific statements, examples and facts to argue your point of view; avoid ambiguous statements and vague ideas.

3. Steer clear of extreme generalizations or obvious statements. 4. Use transition words and phrases to help the reader move smoothly from one argument to the next.

5. Do not use slang or bad language and avoid using overly familiar catchphrases.

6. Restate your opinion in the conclusion without repeating yourself. Vary your vocabulary.

7. Keep your conclusion short: two or three sentences.

236 Exam Preparation

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The main features of an opinion text include:


name:

C

group:

Structure of the Opinion Text

Activity 1

Introduction, body or conclusion?

Read the topic, then each sentence that follows. Decide where they should go in a text: the introduction, the body or the conclusion. Explain your reasoning in the spaces provided. TOPIC:

Teaching driver’s education in secondary school

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1. Evidently, the cost students have to pay for driving classes would be reduced,

but at what price? Place in text: introduction or body

part of opening argument; body: could be followed with statistics Reasoning: introduction:

2. With the large number of students in a graduating class, how would students be able to practice the theory learned?

Place in text:

Reasoning:

3. In addition, where will driver’s education classes fit into an already full curriculum?

Place in text:

Reasoning:

4. It is obvious that teaching driver’s education in school would be forcing students to follow a class they may not be ready for or want, and that is not a good thing.

Place in text:

Reasoning:

5. Most of the classes would be theoretical and teenagers would have to rely on parents for practice.

Place in text:

Reasoning:

6. Finally, teenagers should have the responsibility of finding and organizing their own driving classes with professional instructors at a time that is right for them.

Place in text:

Reasoning:

7. Students would be better off with more physical education classes than driving classes: the health benefits are obvious.

Place in text:

Reasoning: Activity 2

Drafting your first opinion text

Now, on a separate sheet of paper, write a short text of 200 words with an introduction, body and conclusion about teaching driver’s education in secondary school. Use the arguments given in the exercise above, adding your own ideas to make a complete text. Exam Preparation 237


name:

group:

D The Introduction and Thesis Statement A good introduction includes a good thesis. The thesis statement is focused, shows which side you are on and encourages the reader to reflect upon your point of view. It helps to focus your reader’s attention on the topic and the arguments you will provide in your text. A persuasive thesis statement should not include the phrases “I think” or “In my opinion,” but your opinion should still be clear. Throughout your text you should refer to the stand you have taken in your thesis statement. Your thesis statement is usually the last sentence in your introduction.

Community service should be mandatory in order to receive a secondary school diploma.

Introduction 1: School is for learning: it is about studying and acquiring academic knowledge. There are organizations outside of school that can help students in other aspects of their lives, such as driving schools, volunteer organizations and different social groups. It is already difficult to get a secondary school diploma. I don’t believe adding community service will help students— it will just result in more students dropping out of secondary school. Activity 1

Introduction 2: Some students already find it difficult to concentrate on getting good grades in basic subjects such as French, English, math, history and science, and now they want to add community service to the curriculum. Where will students find time to do community work? Most students work part-time and, with studying, have less and less time to socialize. Adding community service to the school curriculum is a bad idea and will put more pressure on students, causing them to drop out of school.

Analyzing introductions

Answer the following questions about the sample introductions.

1. Underline the thesis statements. Which one is better? Why?

2. What argument does the first writer give to introduce his position?

3. Does the writer in Introduction 1 support the statement “It is already difficult to get a secondary school diploma”?

4. What question does the second writer ask to introduce his position? 5. How does he answer his own question?

238 Exam Preparation

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TOPIC:


SECTION

4

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References Oral Interaction Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248 Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Five Steps for Good Debates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 The Response Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 The Writing Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 The Production Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Common Irregular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Common Phrasal Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 Verbs Followed by Gerunds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 Common Compound Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Capitalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261

247


REFERENCES Oral Interaction Tips POL Practice Out Loud

Practise saying your vocabulary words out loud. Read texts from this book out loud. T hink about a topic, like your favorite movie, sport, food, etc., and make as many statements as you can about that topic. M imic the sounds of the language. Don’t mumble. R ecord yourself and play it back to see how you sound. If you study out loud, you increase your memory capacity and you make your mouth work, which helps with pronunciation.

2 HP Head Practice Say words or sentences to yourself. Focus on accuracy. Ask yourself if it “sounds right.” If not, fix it. Do this and you’ll get results. Your brain will process the information and store it for you to use when you need it.

3 MV Memorize Vocabulary Write vocabulary words on flashcards with the definition on the other side. Practise with these cards or use other techniques until you know all the words perfectly. The more words you know, the more confident you’ll feel.

248 References

4

GGS Get the Grammar Straight

R epeat the grammar rules until they become second nature to you. C ompare new grammatical structures in English to those in your own language. Use the POL and HP techniques to help you practise English grammar. Grammar is the skeleton of a language. Think of it as a special code that unlocks the meaning of English.

5 R&W Read and Write R ead, read, read English. It doesn’t matter what or where, just read. Read on the internet, read magazines, read newspapers, read brochures. As you read, you absorb vocabulary and grammar and everyday expressions. W rite, write, write English. Use the MV technique for writing vocabulary items. Write notes to your classmates in English. Write blogs on the internet. Write to English-speaking friends. Write to the Prime Minister if you want to! Write in English and your spoken English will improve. Reading and writing team up to make speaking easier. Put them to work for you!

Above all … keep trying. Speaking English well will be one of your greatest assets in the future.

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1


REFERENCES

Strategies

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1

Strategies for Oral Interaction

C 1

In the future, you will probably have to use English outside of the classroom … in the real world. You may find that you have trouble understanding or keeping up with native English speakers. This is perfectly normal. Try to use the strategies you have learned.

S et goals Think of realistic objectives that can help you improve your English. Practise Find opportunities to read, view and listen to English outside of the classroom. Don’t let your English skills fade away.

3 Strategies for Writing

and Producing Texts

A sk the person to speak more slowly or to repeat what he or she said. (Could you repeat

that, please?; Could you speak more slowly, please?)

U se functional language to help you get into the conversation. (Well, I think …; In my

opinion …; I’m not sure …; I’m sorry, but I …)

Ask for clarification. (Do you mean that …;

I don’t understand …; What does that mean?)

Use filler words when you’re stuck. (Ummm …;

Well …; You know …)

Use self-correction. (No, that’s not right …;

I want to say that …)

2 Strategies for Reinvestment

of Understanding

B e attentive Pay attention to details, focus on precisely what you have to do and ignore distractions as much as possible.

C 2

You have learned to use lots of strategies in your reading, viewing and listening in the past years, such as skimming texts, predicting content, using prior knowledge and organizing information. Continue to use these strategies in the real-world situations you encounter.

C 3

In the future, you will have to write texts and perhaps even produce media material. You’ve learned that there is a process to follow for each of these. Remember to use these processes and don’t skip any steps. You’ll create much better texts this way. In addition, keep these strategies in mind: Pay attention to the formulation of the message In other words, use accurate grammar and appropriate vocabulary. Include some compound and complex sentence structures. Check your spelling. Get feedback until you are completely sure of yourself. READ a lot Observe the style of the author, the use of strong words and the variety of sentence structure. Notice the structure of the whole text and use it as a model for your own work. All of this will help you become a better writer. Self-monitor Just as in every other aspect of English, learn to self-monitor. Notice what you do well and what still needs improvement. In other words, be your own teacher.

S elf-monitor Check yourself as you do different tasks in English. Notice when you have problems, and find ways to correct those problems so they don’t occur again.

References 249


REFERENCES Common Irregular Verbs Simple Past

Past Participle

Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

awake

awoke

awoken

fight

fought

fought

be

was / were

been

find

found

found

bear

bore

born

fly

flew

flown

beat

beat

beaten

forbid

forbade

forbidden

become

became

become

forget

forgot

forgotten

begin

began

begun

forgive

forgave

forgiven

bend

bent

bent

freeze

froze

frozen

bet

bet

bet

get

got

got / gotten

bid

bid

bid

give

gave

given

bind

bound

bound

go

went

gone

bite

bit

bitten

grow

grew

grown

bleed

bled

bled

hang

hung

hung

blow

blew

blown

have

had

had

break

broke

broken

hear

heard

heard

bring

brought

brought

hide

hid

hidden

broadcast

broadcast

broadcast

hit

hit

hit

build

built

built

hold

held

held

buy

bought

bought

hurt

hurt

hurt

catch

caught

caught

keep

kept

kept

choose

chose

chosen

know

knew

known

come

came

come

lay

laid

laid

cost

cost

cost

lead

led

led

cut

cut

cut

leave

left

left

deal

dealt

dealt

lend

lent

lent

dig

dug

dug

let

let

let

do

did

done

lie

lay

lain

draw

drew

drawn

light

lit

lit

drink

drank

drunk

lose

lost

lost

drive

drove

driven

make

made

made

eat

ate

eaten

mean

meant

meant

fall

fell

fallen

meet

met

met

feed

fed

fed

pay

paid

paid

feel

felt

felt

put

put

put

254 References

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Base Form


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Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

Base Form

Simple Past

Past Participle

quit

quit

quit

sleep

slept

slept

read

read

read

speak

spoke

spoken

ride

rode

ridden

spend

spent

spent

ring

rang

rung

stand

stood

stood

rise

rose

risen

swim

swam

swum

run

ran

run

take

took

taken

say

said

said

teach

taught

taught

see

saw

seen

tear

tore

torn

sell

sold

sold

tell

told

told

send

sent

sent

think

thought

thought

set

set

set

throw

threw

thrown

shake

shook

shaken

understand

understood

understood

shoot

shot

shot

wake

woke

woken

show

showed

shown

wear

wore

worn

shut

shut

shut

win

won

won

sing

sang

sung

wring

wrung

wrung

sit

sat

sat

write

wrote

written

References 255


REFERENCES Common Phrasal Verbs A Common Transitive* Phrasal Verbs transitive phrasal verb example

direct object

William put back the pencil.

Common Transitive Phrasal Verb

Meaning(s)

*Transitive phrasal verbs must be used in a sentence with a direct object.

Example

I’m going to ask a few friends over this weekend. They brought up 12 children. Sorry to bring this up, but … We had to call off the game because of bad weather. We call Sally up when we need cooking advice. Drop in on us when you’re in the neighbourhood. We got in Dad’s new car. The police went after the thieves.

ask over

invite

bring up

raise; . mention

call off

cancel

call up

telephone

drop in on

visit unexpectedly

get in

enter a car / bus, etc.

go after

pursue

hand in

submit work to a . teacher / boss, etc.

The students must hand in the tests now.

hand out

distribute

keep up with

go as fast as

leave out

omit

let in

permit to enter

look out for

be careful of

look over

examine

pass up

not use / not take

pick out

select

pick up

lift; . get

The teacher handed out the test papers. He walks too fast; I can’t keep up with him. She never leaves anyone out when she has a party. Let the dog in before you go to bed. Look out for the traffic. The doctor looked over her charts. Don’t pass up this opportunity. Jess picked out her favourite dress. I asked Jim to pick up the socks. When will you pick up Rick?

put back

return to its original place

Sally, put those books back right now.

put up with

tolerate

run into

meet accidentally

run out of

finish some provision

take off

remove something

talk over

discuss

try out

see if something works

turn down

reject; . reduce

turn in

submit

turn on

activate

use up

consume

I put up with his bad mood all day. She ran into her old boyfriend at the mall. They ran out of gas before they could get to a station. Take off your wet boots. I think we need to talk over our problems. You have to try a car out before you buy it. I turned down his request. Alan, turn down the radio! Cynthia, turn in your report by Monday. I’d like you to turn on the TV. They used up all the paper.

256 References

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B Common Intransitive* Phrasal Verbs intransitive phrasal verb example

*Intransitive phrasal verbs do not require a direct object to be in the sentence.

They work out.

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Common Intransitive Phrasal Verb

Meaning(s)

ask around

question many people

back out

retreat

back up

support; . go in reverse

break up

bring an end to something

catch on

become popular

catch up

get to the right level

come up

arise

drop out

quit

get even

take revenge

get along

relate well

get together

meet

get up

rise from bed, a chair, etc.

give up

stop

go on

continue

keep up

move at the same speed

lie down

recline

look out

be careful

make up

reconcile

pass out

faint

run away

escape

show up

appear

shut up

be quiet (rude)

sit down

take a seat

stand up

rise to one’s feet

stay up

not go to bed

take off

depart (airplane)

throw up

vomit

wake up

awaken

work out

resolve; . exercise

Example

I’ll ask around and find the answer. He backed out of our deal. I’ll back up his argument. I will back up the car for you. I bet they’ll break up this weekend. Snowboarding is really catching on. She is behind in the race, but I know she can catch up. That topic always comes up at the dinner table. She dropped out of her dance lessons. I’ll get even with you if it’s the last thing I do. The two brothers get along well together. Let’s get together at the club next week. I get up late every morning. I give up eating chocolate once a year. I could go on reading for hours. Slow down. I can’t keep up with you. I’m tired; I’m going to lie down for an hour. We should look out for snakes. We always make up after we have an argument. The police officer passed out from the heat. Our cat has run away. When did he show up at the meeting? Don’t tell me to shut up! Please sit down in the lobby. I’ll stand up to show you how tall I am. Don’t stay up too late. Our plane took off early. It’s common to throw up when you have the flu. What time do you wake up on the weekend? Just tell me the problem. We’ll work out an answer. I work out at the gym twice a week.

References 257


REFERENCES Verbs Followed by Gerunds* * Gerunds are verbs used as nouns. They are formed using the base form + ing.

admit appreciate avoid can’t help consider deny detest discuss dislike enjoy escape feel like finish give up imagine keep / keep on mention mind (object to) miss practise quit recommend regret resist risk stand (tolerate) suggest

258 References

Example

She admitted cheating on her exam. Do you appreciate being so lucky? We can avoid getting colds in winter. I can’t help loving you. Would your parents consider renting our chalet? I deny saying that. He detests going to the dentist. I would like to discuss buying your bike. We really dislike asking for help. I enjoy reading a good book. You just can’t escape growing old. Do you feel like dancing? Finish washing the dishes, please. My mother has given up smoking. Imagine paying that much for a new car! If you keep on doing that, you’ll never finish. He never mentioned coming here. Would you mind looking at my homework? She misses being the centre of attention. Practise speaking English whenever you can. Quit acting like a baby. I wouldn’t recommend driving today. She regrets taking the money from the cookie jar. How can anyone resist having gelato in Italy? I don’t think we can risk sleeping under the stars. I can’t stand arguing over these details all the time. Don’t ever suggest doing that again.

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Verb


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Common Compound Nouns

REFERENCES

afternoon

brainstorm

handbag

snowflake

airmail

breakfast

handwriting

snowman

airplane

breakup

headache

snowstorm

airport

campfire

headlight

someone

anybody

cardboard

highway

songwriter

anywhere

chairperson

homework

spaceship

armchair

classmate

lifeboat

starlight

backache

copyright

lifeguard

stepson

backpack

courtroom

lifetime

storybook

backward

cowboy

lunchroom

suitcase

ballgame

crossword

mailbox

sunburn

ballplayer

daydream

masterpiece

sunlight

baseball

doorbell

moonlight

supermarket

basketball

downhill

motorcycle

surfboard

bathroom

downstairs

newspaper

teaspoon

bathtub

driveway

nightmare

textbook

bedroom

drugstore

nosebleed

thunderstorm

bedtime

earache

pancake

toothache

birdhouse

everything

paperback

toothbrush

birthday

fingernail

playground

toothpaste

birthplace

fingerprint

playmate

touchdown

blackboard

fireplace

popcorn

trademark

blowout

flashlight

railroad

underground

blueberry

football

raincoat

underwear

bluebird

gentleman

roommate

upstairs

bookcase

goalkeeper

sailboat

wallpaper

bookmark

guidebook

shoemaker

waterfall

bookstore

hairbrush

skateboard

weekend

boyfriend

haircut

skyscraper

whirlpool

References 259


3Edition rd

Updated to provide more comprehensive, competencyand grammar-based material

Connected Classroom

For STUDENTS

For TEACHERS

Content Workbook

Teacher’s Resource Book

Chapters and Extra Readings engaging and level-appropriate themes a variety of tasks and activity types to develop all three ESL competencies true reinvestment activities, each with a final product updated videos and audios grammar-in-context exercises based on the readings, cross-referenced to the grammar section extra reading with pedagogy Preparation for the Ministry Exam a complete study-and-practice section on how to prepare for the final exam Grammar and Reference Sections context-based grammar, with varied practice activities consolidated grammar review

pedagogical notes and answer keys additional reading activities, available in audio format transcripts for videos and audios a complete evaluation package with point-by-point grammar quizzes, combined grammar review tests, evaluation sheets and three evaluation situations a CD and DVD set for the listening and viewing tasks and the evaluation situations

New to Turning Point 3rd Edition! • New page layout • A new chapter, new videos and authentic audios in all chapters, as well as several new readings • New Final Exam Preparation section • Optional on-screen subtitles for videos • 200 FREE interactive activities on vocabulary, comprehension and grammar, made available with an activation code.

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