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RESQUBE

Overboard Rescue Device

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RESQUBE Overboard Rescue Device

Table of Contents

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Summary

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Research

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User Profile

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Project Overview

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Goal

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Problem Statement

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Hypothesis

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Needs

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Rescue Statistics

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Top Five Known Cause of Death in Boating Accident

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Top Five Primary Accident

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Drowning Symptoms

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Cold Water

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Hypothermia

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Participants Analysis

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Man Overboard Recovery

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Stakeholders

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Users

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Personas

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Interviews with industry experts

32

Interview Conclusions

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Survey Results

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Possible Materials

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Possible Manufacture Process

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Ergonomics Study

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Product Requirements

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Competitive Analysis

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Personal Flotation Device (PFD) Analysis

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Pounds of Buoyancy

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Color Study

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Design Process Early Stage Ideation

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Design Concept

64

Concept Development

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Concept Refinement

106

Final Design

109

3D Model

114

Physical Model

120

Use Case

124

Exploded View

126

Bill Of Material (B.O.M)

127

Orthographic

128

Reference

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Summary A lot of people like open water activities, such as fishing, surfing, boating, and sailing, especially when the weather turns warm. However, there are many dangers that go along with these activities. The most common dangers of water activities are drowning and hypothermia. The purpose of this project is to explore how the rescue process can be improved through the development of rescue devices. The project focuses on rescuing victims who are facing dangerous situations in the open water. It is necessary to think about enhancing the safety of the rescuer and increasing the survival chances of the victim by applying future or advanced technologies to rescue devices.

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Research

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User Profile In this project, there are two target user groups: general users, such as sports fishermen, and recreational boaters and professional rescuers, such as the Coast Guard and lifeguards. Most of the general users don’t have water rescue training. For emergency situations, general users can use rescue devices that require rescuers to use their physical energy. Moreover, most of the recreational boaters are elderly people who can’t attempt a rescue because they are limited by their physical condition. For professional rescuers, their training is focused on physical training and rescue device operation. In an emergency, they prefer to use rescue equipment first. If the rescue device is limited by certain factors, then they will consider rescuing the victim themselves or aborting the rescue mission. According to my interview results, the current rescue equipment mostly relies on the rescuer’s physical energy. Therefore the efficiency and effectiveness will be limited by the rescuer’s strength and energy level . My survey results showed that, most of the users accept that the price of a rescue device is between $ 100 and $250.

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Project Overview Goal The goal of my project is to move beyond current rescue limitations and develop rescue devices. I want to explore how the rescue process can be improved in order to increase the safety of the rescuer and the survival chance of the victim.

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Problem Statement Water rescue is a dangerous and physically tiring mission. Current rescue processes mostly count on human energy to rescue victims. This increases the safety risks of the rescuer during the rescue process.

Hypothesis If a product can be designed to assist rescuers during rescue process, then it can increase not only the survival chance of the victims, but also the rescuer’s safety.

Needs Improve safety of water rescues. Reduce human energy consumption during rescues. Increase the efficiency of rescues. Increase the survival chances of the victims.

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Rescue Statistics From 2001 to 2009, on average, there were over 27,000 cases of U.S. Coast Guard rescue missions per year. The statistics show that the number of rescue missions are decreasing. This means that less and less fatal accidents happened in the open water and people are able to handle basic emergency situations.

45,000 40,000 35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 2001

On average, almost 5,000 lives were saved, and almost 900 lives were lost, between 2001-2009. In the past five years, the number of lives the U.S. Coast Guard saved and number of rescue cases have decreased 4% per year, which means that fewer people get involved in emergencies. However, the number of lives lost has remained stable, which means that certain number of people still have fatal accidents during open water activities.

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Rescue Cases

6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Lives saved Lives lost

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In the past five years, the number of lives lost before notification have increased, which means that not many people can save their companions or themselves in an open water accident. This is because recreational boaters don’t have enough rescue skills and their rescue equipment is not reliable enough to deal with all kinds of emergency situations. Moreover, the lives lost after notification remains stable, which means that people still die even after the Coast Guard rescues them. This is because the rescue process is the same and rescue equipment hasn’t improved. This is an opportunity to develop rescue equipment for professional rescuers in order to improve their rescue experience and so that they can rescue victims safely and effectively. On the other hand, it is also an opportunity to develop rescue equipment for general users, so that they can rescue themselves and their companions by using the equipment. Therefore, all boaters can have a safer boating experience.

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Lives lost before notification Lives lost after notification

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Top Five Known Causes of Death in Boating Accidents (2005-2010) Drowning

520 people per year

Trauma

124 people / Per year

Cardiac Arrest

18 people / Per year

Hypothermia 10 people / Per year

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning 8 people / Per year

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Top Five Primary Accident (2005-2010) Collision with Vessel 1259 people / Per year

Collision with Fixed Object 486 people / Per year

Falls Overboard

474 people / Per year

Skier Mishap

461 people / Per year

Capsizing 402 people / Per year

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Drowning Symptoms Drowning is a silent killer. People who are drowning may not be able to call for help because they are expending all their energy to breathe or to keep their head above water. Furthermore, as water is introduced into the respiratory tract, the airway may go into a spasm, making it difficult to cry for help.

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Be alert for signs that someone may be in trouble.

A person in the water flailing his or her arms

Displaying uneven swimming motions

Lying face down in the water

Only the head showing above water with mouth open

The drowning sequence

First, the person panics or struggles followed by submersion with breath-holding. Loss of consciousness can begin within three minutes of being under water.

The brain may suffer damage if it is deprived of oxygen for more than six minutes.

The heart may go into an irregular rhythm that doesn’t allow the heart to pump blood, if it too is deprived of oxygen for more than a few minutes.

Signs of drowning

Bluish or pale skin of the face and lips

Cough with clear to frothy pink sputum

Decreased consciousness or loss of consciousness

Labored or no breathing

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Cold Water Cold water is estimated to be around and under the temperature of 70 degrees. However, this will vary in each case due to the specific circumstances and physical condition of the person involved. Immersion in cold water can quickly numb the extremities to the point of uselessness. Cold hands cannot fasten the straps of a lifejacket, grasp a thrown rescue line, or hold onto an over-turned boat. Within minutes, severe pain clouds rational thought. And, finally, hypothermia (exposure) sets in, and without rescue and proper first aid treatment, unconsciousness and death.

Expected Survival Time in Cold Water

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Water Temperature

Exhaustion or Unconsciousness in

Expected Survival Time

70–80° F (21–27° C)

3–12 hours

3 hours – indefinitely

60–70° F (16–21° C)

2–7 hours

2–40 hours

50–60° F (10–16° C)

1–2 hours

1–6 hours

40–50° F (4–10° C)

30–60 minutes

1–3 hours

32.5–40° F (0–4° C)

15–30 minutes

30–90 minutes

<32° F (<0° C)

Under 15 minutes

Under 15–45 minutes


Hypothermia Hypothermia is a medical emergency that occurs when your body loses heat faster than it canproduce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature. Normal body temperature is around 98.6F (37 C). Hypothermia occurs as your body temperature passes below 95 F (35 C). The first stage is defined as a drop in body temperature of one to three degrees. Stage one hypothermia drops the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s temperature from 96.5-95 F (35.83-35 C).One may feel the hands get numb, goose bumps, mild shivering and the lips appear blue. The second stage drops body temperature to between 95 and 91.4 F (35-33 C). People may not be able to use their muscles properly, they may be confused, and their extremities may feel completely numb. You can see pallor of the skin, and the lips and extremities may be blue in color. Shivering is usually extreme, since shivering is an attempt to keep the body warm. Third stage hypothermia is defined by body temperature at or below 90 F (32.22 C). Though people may not shiver in this stage, they still have difficulty moving. The heart beats faster, confusion is significant and organs begin to fail. Without treatment, hypothermia at this stage is fatal.

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Participants Analysis In recent years, the number of people in U.S. who have participated in boating has grown.

Total Participation: 2006

49.7 million

2007

51.8 million

2008

48.2million

2009

50.4 million

2010

51.4 million

Participants by Age:

18

16 to 34

24%

35 to 44

26%

45 to 64

29%

65+

21%


Participants by Gender: Male

59%

Female

41%

59%

41%

Participants by Income: Less than $25k

16.4%

$25k - $49k

18.3%

$50k - $74k

21.3%

$75k - $99k

17.5%

$100k+

26.5%

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Man Overboard Recovery

1. Providing buoyancy for the victim. 2. Keeping the victim in sight. 3. Returning to the victim. 4. Connecting the victim to the boat. 5. Getting the victim onboard. 20


MOB WIND WIND

MOB

Quick Turn Rescue

Quick Stop Rescue

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Stakeholders End Users The Coastguard Lifeguards Maintenance workers Beach goers Boaters People doing water sports Swimmers Rescue teams Sports teams Sport fishermen Jet skiers Water skiers Sail boaters

Educators The United States Coast Guard Academy The United States Coast Guard Auxiliary The United States Water Rescue Dive Team Team Lifeguard Systems, Inc WhiteCap Water rescue Training, LLC Rescue 3 International PRI Rescue Training Specialists Lifesaving Resources, Inc

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Organizations The International Maritime Organization The United States Lifesaving Association The American Lifeguard Association The American Boating Association The Public Safety Diving Association The American Sail Training Association

Manufactures Rescue Solution International, Inc Mustang Survival Force 6 Safety Products, Inc Water Safety Products, Inc Datrex Inc. National Marine Manufacturers Association Kokatat watersports wear Float-Tech, Inc Extrasport, Inc West Marine 23


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Users This product is expeted to be used in an emergency situation by: â&#x20AC;˘ General users, who do open water activities like sailing and boating. â&#x20AC;˘ Professional users, who perform water rescue as a job, like the Coast Guard, life guards, and swift water rescue specialists.

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Needs Recreational boater’s needs • Reliable • Intuitive • Convenient

Professional rescuer’s needs • High performance • Multi-functional • Efficient • Durable

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Personas

Peter Age: 55 Profession: Recreational Boater Annual Income: $70,000 Current Situation and Problems : Peter loves fishing. He usually goes fishing once or twice every week. Every time he goes fishing, he catches big fish, especially in the open water. He bought a motorboat several years ago, and he also bought some lifesaving equipment like a life sling for emergency situations and a lifejacket for passengers. He doesn’t know how to rescue people in the water by himself because he hasn’t had any rescue training. He read the instructions for his rescue equipment only once when he bought it. Therefore, he isn’t very familiar with the rescue equipment on his boat. If an emergency happened, it might take a lot of time and risk for him to save people who have fallen into the water accidentally.

Possible Future Scenario : Peter loves fishing. When he bought his motorboat, he also bought special life saving equipment. This powerful equipment can help him to save peoples’ lives or his own life during an emergency. The product is very easy to use. He doesn’t have to spend time understanding how to use it. Now that he has this rescue equipment, he can enjoy a lot of fishing without worrying about the potential dangers of the open water. 26


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Jessica Age: 38 Profession: Recreational Boater Annual Income: $56,000 Current Situation and Problems : Jessica is a professional sailor and she loves sailing. She usually sails every week and sometimes she competes in sailing competitions. She knows about how to rescue people in the water because she went to sailing school and water rescue was part of the training. However, she once had an experience where her friend fell into the water and became unconscious. It was difficult for her to bring him back on board because his body was too heavy. The weight slowed down the rescue, so it took her longer to provide first aid.

Possible Future Scenario : Jessica is a professional sailor and she has rescue equipment on her sailboat. She doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to worry about dealing with all kinds of emergency situations because this equipment is very powerful and reliable. It can help her to rescue people in the water safely and efficiently without overly relying on human energy. Therefore, it shortens the rescue time and increases the survival chance of the victim. 28


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Joseph Age: 65 Profession: Recreational Boater Annual Income: $65,000 Current Situation and Problems : Joseph has a sailboat. He enjoys sailing, fishing and barbecuing on the open water. He knows how to rescue drowning people. He learned these rescue skills when he was young in sailing school. He is getting older and he usually goes fishing with his friend because it is safer than going alone. He still knows how to sail and sails often. However, he may not be able to rescue himself or others because of his health may not allow him to.

Possible Future Scenario : Joseph enjoys sailing and fishing on the open water. He has rescue equipment on his sailboat. This rescue equipment is powerful and user friendly. During an emergency situation, the equipment can assist him to rescue others or even save himself. He can go fishing or sailing alone without worrying so much about safety.

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Interview with Industry Experts These interviews were with professional rescuers, for example members of the Coast Guard, lifeguards, and firefighters. The purpose of this questionnaire was to gain a better understanding of the current rescue process, equipment, difficulties, and limitations in order to find out the needs from a professional rescuers’ point of view and identify design opportunities.

• What kinds of water rescue situations are most dangerous? • How many people are in a rescue team? • What is the most common vehicle used in a rescue mission? • What kind of rescue equipment do you usually use? • Are there any weaknesses in the rescue equipment? • Could any aspect of the current rescue equipment be improved? • What training experience do you have? • Are there any differences between training and real rescue missions?

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Interview Conclusions Severe weather creates the most dangerous situations for both rescuers and victims. Mass rescue is the most difficult and dangerous type of rescue. The rescue equipment should only be operated by one rescuer. Jet skis have the most mobility for near shore rescue. For open water rescue, rescue boats are the most common rescue vehicles.

The most common rescue devices are throwable rescue devices. However, these devices have limited rescue distance and the rescuer requires a lot of practice.

The performance of rescue equipment can be improved and reduce the energy consumption of the rescuer. Rescue equipment hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t changed for many years. The functionality and performance could be improved by applying new technology. The new rescue device could be a multi-functional device, in order to adapt to different situations.

The training consists of simulating the real situation and practicing to operate rescue equipment. The biggest difference between a real and simulated resecu is that the environmental circumstances could be more dangerous and unexpected accidents could happen in a real rescue.

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Survey Result This survey was for recreational boaters. The purpose of this survey was to gain a better understanding of users’ habits, needs, and abilities to deploy a rescue device in an emergency situation in order to identify the design opportunities. About the survey : Respondent Number : 80 users Location : Treasure Island, Sausalito, Oakland

• Have you ever gone boating in the late evening or overnight? Conclusion : Many people had experience boating at night. Fishing is the most common night time activity in the open water. Because the environment is dark, the safety risks are increased and the rescue process become more difficult.

• How many people do you usually go boatingwith?

YES

NO

59%

41%

8% 9%

With 4 passengers

Conclusion : Usually people go boating with 2 or 3 companions. If one person gets involved in an accident, then there is only one or two people that can operate the rescue device.

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With 1passenger

With more than 4 passengers

12% 27% with 3 passengers

44%

with 2 passengers


• Can you rescue people who fall into the water? Conclusion : Most people said they can rescue people in the water, but it seems like they don’t have confidence about it. Some of the boat owners have training, but the passengers don’t.

Not sure

28% NO

YES

55%

17%

• Do you know how to use your rescue equipment? Conclusion : Most users know how to operate rescue equipment, but they still need to be concernd about usability and accuracy. Some users never read the instructions carefully.

Not sure

31% 4%

NO

YES

65%

• Have you ever gone boating alone? Conclusion : Boating alone is dangerous. People who go boating alone take boating safety more seriously and have more awareness than others. The reason that some people don’t go boating alone is because there is no one to help them in an emergency situation.

NO

39%

YES

61%

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• Do you have any training experience in water rescue? YES

Conclusion :

33% NO

Some boat owners have basic rescue training because when they learn how to boat, the training canter also provides basic rescue training. However, most users have no water rescue training.

67%

• Have you ever practiced operating rescue equipment? YES

Conclusion :

19%

Most of the users have never practiced operating rescue equipment. In an emergency situation, the functionality and accuracy of the rescue equipment may not achieve the expected level.

• How much money are you willing to spend on rescue equipment? Conclusion : On average, people are willing to spend more than $100 on rescue equipment. Moreover, it depends on the function of the equipment, but of the users are willing to spend more money to buy powerful rescue equipment.

NO

81%

2% Spend more than $400

4% Spend $300 to $400

19%

29%

Spend $200 to $300

Spend under $100

46% Spend $100 to $200

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3% Every month

• How often do you check your rescue equipment?

16%

25% Conclusion :

Every 6months

More than1year

Most users will check and maintain their rescue equipment every year. Most users expected the maintenance period at least one or two years.

56% Every year

• Where do you store your rescue equipment on your boat? 27%

Conclusion : Most users store their rescue equipment outside of the boat’s cabin. If they store their rescue equipment inside of the cabin, it will take more time to take the equipment out and deploy a rescue. Therefore, the equipment should be durable enough to be stored outside of the cabin.

Inside the cabin

73% Outside the cabin

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Possible Materials These materials have been explored and analyzed based on their possible benefit to this project.

Flotation Foam Flotation Foam is a polyurethane 2 part foam that, when mixed in equal parts and poured in place, this foam will to be soundproof, insulate the device, and provide extra flotation. The flotation range is 100-120 lbs./qt. and 480600 lbs./gal. The foam is approximately 95-98% closed cell, which resists absorbing water. However, continuous water submersion can eventually lead to loss buoyancy over a period of years. Source: http://www.jamestowndistributors.com/

Kevlar General properties of Kevlar: • High level of toughness • Load at specified elongation • High tensile strength at low weight • Structural rigidity • Low thermal shrinkage • Low electrical conductivity • High chemical resistance • Excellent dimensional stability • High cut resistance • Flame resistant, self-extinguishing 38

Source: http://www2.dupont.com/Kevlar/en_US/tech_info/index.html


Nylon Webbing Nylon webbing is the strongest and most durable of webbing straps. It has a tensile strength of about 4,200 lbs. (in one inch widths).

Polypropylene Rope (1/4 â&#x20AC;&#x153;) Best use: Ski ropes, non-critical anchoring and docking. Benefits: Easily spliced Lightweight and economical Specifications: Stretch: 5.5% @ 20% breaking strength Breaking strength: 1,200 lb.

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Possible Materials Vinyl Coating • Durable- highly resistant to abrasion, peeling, tearing, fading, stains, corrosion, chemicals, weather, moisture. • Flexible •Temperature (hot or cold) insulation • Flame-retardant • Non-toxic • Easy to clean and less maintenance

HDPE - High Density Polyethylene • Light weight • Chemical and corrosion resistance •Temperature (hot or cold) insulation • Durable

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High Density Reflective Tape • Duable • Flexible and easy to bend • Increase visibility

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Possible Manufacture Process Compression Molding Advantages : • Good for rubber, thermoplastic, and fiber composites. • Lowest cost molds • Better for larger parts • Dimensional accuracy and stability is good

Disadvantages : • Not suitable for fragile mold features, or small holds • Shape complexity is limited

Rotational Molding Advantages : • Low cost • Consistent wall thickness • Low pressure process Disadvantages : • Longer production time

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Injection Molding Advantages : • High production rates • Minimum scrap losses • Good strength for small parts Disadvantages : • High setup costs • Complicated process • Use for large quentities due to costs

Die Casting Advantages : • Excellent dimensional accuracy • Smooth cast surfaces • Reduces secondary machining operations Disadvantages : • Very high cost • The process is limited to high-fluidity metals

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Ergonomics Study Definition: Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.-Wikipedia Ergonomics plays an important role in industrial design; especially in that the dimensions of the human body are used to optimize the product while conforming to the bodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs. It affects the product to not only be comfortable and easy to use, but also appear and perform better.

Considerations for human interaction: Handles Tool grip Toggle swithces Ring pulls Push buttons

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Product Requirements Scope: This document defines the requirement for the product and serves as basis for concept development and design.

Definition: The product requirements are defined by following conditional words: Must: Necessary or essential Should: Recommended but not required. Indicates product goal. May: Expresses possibility. Will: Use to indicate a statement of fact. Adding the word â&#x20AC;&#x153;notâ&#x20AC;? to any one of these definitions means the opposite of the statement above.

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Physical Requirements The product must be made using vivid colors. (yellow, red, orange, and orange red) The product must be made of durable, corrosion resistant and UV resistant materials. The product should be easy to store. The product should be lightweight enough to be carried by one person. (Less than 4 lbs) The product should have signal lights. The product must be operable by one person. The product must have handles so that the user can easily hold the product. The product must be intuitive, ergonomic, and easy to operate in emergency situations. The product should have a rescue line container.

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Functional Requirements The product must be able to function normally in water under 70F. The product must be able to float steadily on the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface. The product must be waterproof. The product must have fins or stabilizers in order for it to move on the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface steadily. The product should able to rescue victims from a distance.

Rope storage bag

The product should have a bag to store the rescue rope. The bag should be made by 400 denier nylon. The bag should have a drawstring top. The bag should have a close-cell foam disk to keep it afloat. The bag should be big enough for 300 feet of rope. The bag should have a nylon webbing strap to connect into the handle. The bag should have diffrent colors on both sides.

Safety system The product must have handles on the side that are easy to hold. The product must have soft material around the body to prevent injuring users. The product must have non-slip pads for the user to lay or stand on. The product must have cushions for the victim to grab comfortably.

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Rescue buoy The product should be symmetrical on both uper and lower parts in order to have equivalent function regardless which side faces up in the water. The product should have two fins in order to maneuver it. The product should have a U-shaped opening allowing the victim to fit into, grab, or lie upon. The product should be smaller than 23” wide x 24” long x 4” thick. The narrowiest part of the U-shaped opening should be bigger than 12 inches. The opening space should be bigger than 12x14 inches. The product should have an opening allowing users to easily access the product. The product should provide enough bouyancy for users over 300lb. The product should have two connecting points to fasten two polyproplene ropes. The connecting points should incorporate stainless steel rings to reinforce the fastening structure. The product should have different colors on both sides. The product shoud be able to move stably on the water surface.

Rescue line The rescue line must be able to float on the water’s surface. The rescue line should be a vivid color.

Rope system The rope must be 1/4” diameter polypropylene braided rope. The rope should be 100-150 feet long. The rope system should have two carabiner-like mechanisms to connect it to the boat railing. The rope system should be able to flip without disconnecting from the boat railing.

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Performance Requirements The rescue buoy should provide 35 lbs of buoyancy. The signal light should last over 24 hours. The lighting system should be bright enough for rescuers to see it at night. The signal light should last over 24 hours. The carabiner-like mechanism should able to withstand over 1200lb of break strength.

Usability / Interface requirements The product should provide the user with information about how to operate and maintain the product.

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Competitive Analysis The common rescue equipment that recreational boaters have. LifeRing Rescue distance: 32 feet Provides floatation: Yes Retractable: No Price: $103 Considerations: The rescue distance is limited by the rescuerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy. Requires practice to increase accuracy. Not for unconscious people or nonswimmers

Life Saver Rescue distance: 65 feet Provides floatation: Yes Retractable: Yes Price: $139 Considerations: The rescue distance is limited by the rescuerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy. Requires practice to increase accuracy. Not for unconscious people or nonswimmers. Not for high wind environments.

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Life Line Rescue Throw bag Rescue distance: 50 feet Provides floatation: No Retractable: Yes Price: $45 Considerations: The rescue distance is limited by the rescuer’s energy. Requires practice to increase accuracy. Not for unconscious people or nonswimmers. Doesn’t provide buoyancy for victims. Balcan Emergency Life Line Rescue distance: 130 feet Provides floatation: No Retractable: Yes Price: $70 Considerations: Requires practice to increase accuracy. Not for unconscious people or nonswimmers. Not provide buoyancy for victims. Speed Line Rescue distance: 250 feet Provides floatation: No Retractable: Yes Price: $600 Considerations: Not for unconscious people or nonswimmers. Not provide buoyancy for victims. Expensive 52


Rescue Stick Rescue distance: 100 feet Provides floatation: Yes Retractable: No Price: $130 Considerations: Requires practice to increase accuracy. Not for unconscious people or nonswimmers. Don’t retract victim

Horseshoe Buoy Rescue distance: 32 feet Provides floatation: Yes Retractable: No Price: $130 Considerations: The rescue distance is limited by rescuer’s energy. Requires practice to increase accuracy. Not for unconscious people or nonswimmers. Don’t retract victim Lifesling Rescue distance: 40 feet Provides floatation: Yes Retractable: Yes Price: $120 Considerations: The rescue distance is limited by the rescuer’s energy. Requires practice to increase accuracy. Not for unconscious people or nonswimmers. 53


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Personal Flotation Device (PFD) Analysis Type 1 PFD Off-Shore Life jacket Best for open, rough or remote water, where rescue may be slow coming. Advantages : Floats the user better than other PFD. Turns most unconscious wearers face-up in water. Highly visible color. Disadvantages : Bulky, uncomfortable.

Type 2 PFD Near-Shore Life jacket Good for calm, inland water, or where there is a good chance of fast rescue. Advantages : Less bulky. Turns some unconscious wearers face-up. More comfortable than Type I PFD. Disadvantages : Not for long hours in rough water. Will not turn unconscious wearers face-up.

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Type 3 PFD Floatation Aid Good for calm, inland water, or where there is a good chance of fast rescue. Advantages : Generally, the most comfortable type. Designed for activity marked on the device. Available in many vest styles. Disadvantages : May have to tilt head back to prevent floating with face-down position. Wearerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s face may be covered by waves. Not for extended survival in rough water.

Type 4 PFD Throwable Device For calm, inland water with heavy boat traffic, where help is always nearby. Advantages : Can be thrown to someone. Good back-up to wearable PFDs. Some can be used as a seat cushion. Disadvantages : Not for unconscious persons. Not for nonswimmers or children. Not for many hours in rough water. 55


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Type 5 PFD Special Use Device Only for special uses or conditions. Equal to either Type I, II, or III performance as noted on the label.

Advantages : Made for specific activities. Least bulky of all types. High flotation capability when inflated. Good for continuous wear.

Disadvantages : May not adequately float some wearers unless partially inflated. Requires active use and care of inflation chamber. Required to be worn to be counted as a regulation PFD.

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Pounds of Buoyancy How can a PFD with 22 pounds of buoyancy hold up a 200 pound person in the water? Approximately 80% of the human body is water. Water in the body has no weight in the water 200 lbs. X 80% = 160 lbs. 200 lbs.- 160 lbs. = 40 lbs. On average, the human body has 15% fat and fat is lighter than water. 200 lbs. X 15% = 30 lbs. 40 lbs.- 30 lbs. = 10 lbs. So, a 200 pound person only weighs about 10 pounds in the water. The 22 pounds of buoyancy in the PFD is more than enough to keep the person afloat.

FAT 15% WATER 80%

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Color Study By research the currerent rescue equipment, there are four color options which provide hightist contract and visibility in the dark enviroment.

Color options

Red

Orange

Yellow

White

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DeSIGN Process

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Early Stage Ideation

RUBBER CUSHION

FLOATATION BUOY

RUBBER CUSHION

LAUNCH BUTTON

RESCUE LINE FLOATATION BUOY

CONTROL HANDLE

NON-SLIP PAD

SAFETY HANDLE

STRAP

AIR CHAMBER

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ELECTRONIC JET MOTOR


NYLON WEBBING STRAPS

AIR CHAMBERS

BACK VIEW

SIDE VIEW

FLOATING POSITION CARRYING POSITION

INFLATED

NYLON WEBBING STRAPS

BACK VIEW

SIDE VIEW

AIR CHAMBERS

CARRYING POSITION

RUBBER CONTROL HANDLE

FLOATING POSITION INFLATED

ELECTRONIC JET MOTOR

VICTIM

RESCUER

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Early Stage Ideation

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Design Concept Increase the rescue distance and area. The most common emergency situation for recreational boating is when a person falls overboard. My concept is to deploy the rescue device before approaching the victim.Therefore, when the boat is near the victim the rescue device is already in the water ready to rescue the drowning victim. This rescue device not only increase the rescue distance but also shorten the rescue time.

RESCUE DEVICE

CURRENT

BOAT MOVEMENT

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This concept uses a similar theory as flying kites.

WIND

MOVEMENT

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Design Concept Increase the rescue distance and area.

RESCUE AREA

RESCUE AREA 66


Concept Research In order to design a rescue device which can deflects the water and moves on the water surface, I study surving and water ski to learn how the user operate the equipment. Possible related water sports: â&#x20AC;˘ Surfing â&#x20AC;˘ Water ski

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Concept Research The design features of existing water equipment are possible be apply on my design. • Surfboard (Long/Short) • Paddle board • Water ski board • Fin designs

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Concept DEVELOPMENT • Ideation • Mockups • Testing • Finding • Refine

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Concept Development Ideation sketches

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Mockups Test the function by understaning how the different shapes and sizes of the fin effects its performance.

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Concept Development Mockup Testing / User Feedback • The size of the product is too big. • The product should be horseshoe shaped for the victim to wear.

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The mockup moves out.


Compare the mockup with existing product to understand the size limitation.

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Concept Development Refine Mockup and Testing Key Finding • The size of fin should be bigger than 18x1.5 inches. • Understand the geometrical relationship between fin and pulling point. 1/4

PULLING POINT

FIN

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Control the mockup by two ropes

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Concept Development Ideation Sketches

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Concept Development Mockup Testing and Feedback • Could have bigger back support • Should have larger opening for users • Every edge should be rounded • Should have longer armrests

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Concept Development Ideation Sketches

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Concept Development Mockup Testing and Finding • When the opening faces the current, it catches too much water and decreases performance. • The mockup doesn’t have enough buoyancy to float device completely.

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This mockup moves to the middle of the river.

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Concept Development Ideation Sketches Change the orientation of the opening.

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Mockups In this mockup the orientation of the opening changes to face sidewise in order to fit different size od users.

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Concept Development Mockup Testing and Finding • Changing the opening to the side could increase the size of opening space to fit different users. • Could design the surface to prevent catching too much water. • Could have a secure strap to prevent victim falling out from the opening during the rescue process.

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This mockup moves out further than previous mockup.

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Concept Development Ideation Sketches

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Mockups In this mockup the position of fin is changed in order to balence the weight.

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Concept Development Mockup Testing and Finding

â&#x20AC;˘ The fin could be integrated into the shape to provide comfort to the user. â&#x20AC;˘ The shape could be more hydrodynamic in order to increase its stability when it is moving on the water.

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This mockup moves faster than previous mockups.

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Concept Development Ideation Sketches Integrate the fin desing into the body.

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Mockups This mockup is to test the limit requirement of the size of the fin and observe how the surface deflects the water.

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Concept Development Mockup Testing

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The mockup moves parallel with the boat.


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Concept Development Ideation Sketches Integrate the fin desing into the body completely.

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Mockups This mockup is to test the performance of the fin concept into the overall shape.

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Concept Development Mockup Testing and Finding • This mockup shows the best performance. • The opening space is big enough to fit different users • The back support is enough to support the victim comfortably.

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The mockup came close to reaching the other side of the river.

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Concept Development Appearance Mockup

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Handle, Ropebag, Development

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Concept Development Mockup Testing

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Testing the handle attatch to the railing.


Test the handle system on the river.

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Studies were conducted to understand how the user can operate the device without any instruction.


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Design Refinement Main body

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Design Refinement Rope Bag and Carabiner

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FINAL DESIGN

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Design Detail The surface deflects water to help the device be navigating on the water.

High reflective tape increases visual contact during the rescue process.

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The bumper is designed to protect the device during handling.

The rope attachment hole secures the rope tie on the device.

The grove stabilizes the rope from rotating.

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The narrow rope holes increase the friction to stabilize the rope.

The strap allows the rescuer to hold the bag more easily.

The rope bag stores and prevents tangling the rope.

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The handle helps the rescue to retrieve to rope easier.

The carabiner connects on the railing and provides a strong connection between the device and the boat.

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3D Model

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Rescue Rope

Rope Bag

Handle

Carabiner

Nylon Strap

Draw String 116


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User scenario

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Physical Model

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Use Case

1

2

3

The boat is moving in a high

A passenger falls overboard

The victim is floating in the cold

wave and high wind open water.

accidentally.

water and still ingesting water.

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8

9

The rescue device can float on

The rescue device deflects water

The rescuer controls and the

the water surface and provides

and moves out from the side of

boat makes the device close to

buoyancy to the victim.

the boat.

the victim. The victim can grab the device or rescue rope.

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4

6

5

The boat keeps moving until

The rescue device is hanging on

The rescuer throws the rescue

there is enough room and turns

the railing at the back of the

device into the water.

the boat to approach the victim.

boat.

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10

12

The victim can hold the device or

The rescuer retrieves the rope

If the deck is too high, the

wear the device to float

and pulls the victim close to the

rescuer can tie the rope and

themselves on the water surface.

boat.

keep the victim away from the water to prevent hypothermia until the rescue team arrives.

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Exploded View

High Reflective Plastic Tape

Urethane Foam

Aluminum

HDPE

Aluminum Aluminum Grommet Nylon Webbing Strap

Urethane Foam 126

Plastic Line Stopper


Bill Of Material (B.O.M)

Quantity

Price/Each

Total

Parts

Material

Body

Urethane Foam

1

$10/cubic ft

$8.25

Body

HDPE

1

$0.463/lb

$1.5

Strap

Nylon webbing strap

1

$1.6/2yd x1 inch

$3.2

Rope

Polypropylene

1

$0.13/ft

$19.5

Rope bag

Polyester

1

$0.003/square inch

$0.15

Handle

Aluminum

1

$0.4/lb

$0.72

Carabiner

Aluminum

1

$0.4/lb

$1.2

Grommet

Aluminum

1

$0.3/item

$0.3

Reflective Tape

Plastic

4

$0.05/square inch

$4

Approximately $38.82

Retail Price: $194

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Orthographic Main body

4.8 inches

20 inches

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25 inches


Handle

4.8 inches

3 inches

6 inches

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Orthographic Rope bag

10 inches

6 inches

6 inches

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14 inches


Carabiner

0.5 inches

3.5 inches

6.5 inches

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REFERENCE

Books • Lifeguarging • U.S. Coast Guard addendum • U.S. Coast Guard rescue manual • Manufacturing processes for design professional • Transmaterial • Making it

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Websites • Boating Statistic

http://www.uscgboating.org/statistics/default.aspx

• Man overboard procedures and device

http://monitor.hubpages.com/hub/Man-Over-Board

• Water rescue

http://wn.com/water_rescue

• Lifeguarding

http://faculty.deanza.edu/donahuemary/Lifeguardingreviewquestionschapter5

• Shropshire rescue service

http://www.shropshirefire.gov.uk/the-emergency-service/rescue-service/water-safety/training

• Team lifeguard systems

http://www.teamlgs.com/

• Boating basic

http://www.boat-ed.com/al/handbook/boatemergency.htm

• United states lifesaving association

http://www.usla.org/

• Swift water rescue

http://cbrocato.home.comcast.net/~cbrocato/Water.htm

• Man overboard gear

http://www.myboatsgear.com/newsletter/20061118b.asp

• Limitation of rotational molding

http://www.firstratemold.com/about-us/newsshows/815-limitations-of-rotational-molding-andmaterial-requirements.html

• Personal flotation device & lights

http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg5214/pfd-lights.asp

• Code of federal regulation

http://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/

• Part Design and tooling of Rotational Molding

http://www.blue-reed.com/Rotational-Molding-Design.pdf

• SOLAS Regulation

http://europe.seascout.org/eurosea/10/presentations/Belgium-SOLAS_Chapter_V.pdf

Documents

http://www.he-alert.com/documents/published/HE00085.pdf

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Edison Wang Thesis Project