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UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL A DISTANCIA COLEGIO NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA COORDINACIÓN ACADÉMICA

INGLÉS DÉCIMO CÓDIGO: 80019

ANTOLOGÍAS CONED

2011


El CONED agradece a HAZEL

VIVIANA ALFARO SALAS por la elección y presentación

de los temas de la presente antología, así como el aporte a la educación secundaria a distancia. Las denominaciones empleadas en esta publicación y la forma en que aparecen presentados los datos, no implican de parte del CONED o la UNED juicio alguno sobre la condición jurídica de personas, países, territorios, ciudades o de autoridades.

MATERIAL SIN FINES COMERCIALES PARA USO EXCLUSIVO DE ESTUDIANTES DEL COLEGIO NACIONAL DE EDUCACIÓN A DISTANCIA CONED

Dirección General: : Clara Vila Santo Domingo Coordinación Académica: Jéssica Ramírez Achoy Coordinación Administrativa: Jéssica Vega Barrientos Asistente Coordinación Académica: Jonathan Soto Coordinación de Inglés: Olman Alfonso Cantillo Badilla

Teléfonos 22-58-22-09 / 22-55-30-42 / 22-21-29-95 Página Web: http//www.coned.ac.cr

© 2011, CONED.

2


INDEX . 10º LEVEL 1. Achievements of our national athletes…………………………

4

2. Costa Rican Art, music and crafts…………………………………………………………….…

32

3. Costa Rican typical food…………………………………………………………….....

45

4. Holidays and celebrations in Costa Rica with some celebrations in English Speaking countries………….....................................................

74

5. Causes and effects of natural resources misuse……………………………………………………………..

110

6. Tourist attractions offered by Costa Rican Communities……………………………………………………….

137

7. Common illnesses and new diseases and epidemics………………………………………………………….....

160

8. Our Democratic Tradition……………………………………………………………..

186

9. Careers, jobs and lifestyles………………………………………………………...........

200

10. Answer key…………………………………………………………..

222

11. Bibliography…………………………………………………………

225

3


First unit:

ACHIEVEMENTS OF OUR NATIONAL ATHLETES.

4


Objectives 

Making use of new vocabulary and structures encountered in their reading to respond orally and in writing.

Writing coherently and accurately on a range of factual and imaginative topics.

Drawing inferences.

Identifying the purpose of short messages

Understanding short and factual texts.

Understanding ideas and information in the text through making inferences.

Understanding conceptual meaning.

National athletes: lives and achievements.  Information questions: who, when, where, how fast/long, which, etc.  What sports does ____ play?

Are you good at ____?

 What’s his/her best ____?  Sports: swimming, diving, archery, canoeing, etc.  National athletes: achievements, biography, etc.

Functions: Reporting and describing events. Narrating information. Asking for and giving information about national athletes, their lives and achievements.

Sports and Equipment Instructions. Match each of the following sports with the correct picture below: ......skiing

…….cycling

…….badminton 5

…….fishing


……golf

…….darts

…….table-tennis

…….running

……diving

……volleyball

…….hockey

…….boxing

……horse-riding

…….motor-racing …...soccer

…….football

…….ice skating

……basketball

…... baseball

1

2

…….tennis

4

3

5

9

8

7

1 0

6

15

11 12

13 14

16 17

19

20

18

Can you find the following sporting items in the pictures above? Write down the correct numbers! ___boxing glove

___helmet

___snorkel 6

___flippers.


___running track

___baseball bat

___golf club

___skates

___racing car

___hockey stick

___ basketball

___fishing rod

___saddle

___skis

___target

___basket

___net

___shuttlecock

___bicycle

___darts

___basketball

___tennis racket

___table-tennis

___running shoe

___football

___skiing-stick

___horse

___baseball glove

___badminton racket Match the words on the left with the correct definition on the right. 1. score

___person who takes part in a sport or game

2. team

___someone who watches a sporting event

3. amateur

___a person who controls a sports match

4. match

___number of points or goals each team / player has

5. spectator

___someone who plays a sport as a paid job

6. professional

___a large group of peple who watch a sporting event

7. referee

___a group of sportsmen who play together

8. crowd

___an organized game e.g. of football

9. player

___a person who plays a sport for enjoyment, not for money

Sports are very important for many people. If you want to express that someone is nice, fair and a good friend you say,“He is a good sport!“ Are you sporting / sportive / sporty/ a sportswoman / a sportsman?

7


What are your favourite kinds of sports? Write a short text about yourself! How often do you play it? What equipment do you need to play it?

Scuba Diving in Costa Rica Would you like to try scuba diving? Why or Why not? What animals would you like to see in the ocean?

What do you know about this activity? Look at some

important equipment needed to practice it.

8


Taken from: http://louisvillediving.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/scuba-diver2.jpg

Read the following information about diving in Costa Rica.

Diving in Costa Rica The ideal destination for adventure travelers, Costa Rica is filled with plenty to see and much to do. A tropical haven for those who enjoy the outdoors, this small country with its magnificent biodiversity is fast becoming one of the hottest tourist destinations on the planet. Biologically intense on land as well as underwater, Costa Rica offers nature lovers the perfect environment to view a plethora of wildlife species in their natural habitat. One of the best ways to get a first hand glimpse of Costa Rica’s stunning underwater marine life is through a scuba diving tour. Scuba diving is all the rage in Costa Rica at the moment, with many tour groups and travel agencies now offering underwater trips and excursions. A number of dive companies are also found all across the country, and scuba diving facilities in Costa Rica are now world class. With professional PADI instruction courses as well as top quality dive shops with equipment rental services, scuba diving here has reached new heights. 9


Massive schools of fish, an amazing array of marine life and an ideal water temperature throughout the year, has meant that scuba diving conditions in Costa Rica are near perfect. While some of the Pacific Coast of the country does not have much to offer, as the underwater visibility is quite low; in places like Playas del Coco, Playa Hermosa and Playa Ocotal, scuba diving is actually quite good. Here one gets the opportunity to see giant manta rays, swimming alongside brightly colored tropical fish and sharks.

One of the best scuba diving zones on the Pacific Coast is off Bahia Drake or Drake Bay. Visit the Isla del Caño and the Isla del Coco off the bay and you will be treated to some spectacular underwater sights. These two islands have an abundance of marine life off their coast, where one can encounter sharks, turtles and many different species fish. The Isla del Caño is said to be the best place to scuba dive in the country. Home to 18 species of coral, 3 species of dolphin and 57 different species of crustaceans, this tiny island is the ultimate scuba diving spot.

On the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica, scuba diving is a real treat. Unfortunately, this area has not been properly developed and the facilities for scuba diving here are not as good as they are on the Pacific Coast. If you do get the chance, scuba diving here on the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica is well worth your time, as the eastern section of Costa Rica is home to the country’s only coral reef off the coast of the Parque Nacional Cahuita. Though seriously damaged by an earthquake in 1991, the reef here is home to over 123 species of fish, 140 species of mollusk, and 35 species of coral. Taken from: http://www.govisitcostarica.com/category/outdoorRecreation/divingCompanies.asp

10


Now, choose the correct answer to complete each stamement.

1. The word pethora in line 5 is a synonim for the word ___________ a. Poor b. Over abundance c. Lack of d. Needed

2. The

word

stunning

on

line

number

7

is

a

synonym

for

the

word________________________ a. Simple b. Ugly c. Regular d. Breath Taking

3. Dive companies can be found ____________________________ a. Everywhere in Costa Rica b. Only on the Coast c. Only in the Carebbean d. Only on Drake Bay

4. To practice diving in Costa Rica you _________________________ a. Must have your own equipment b. Can rent the necesary equipment c. Must have an international diploma d. Should like animals

5. According to some people _______________ is the best place to practice this sport a. Isla del Cano b. Drake Bay c. Hermosa Beach d. Ocotal Beach 11


6. The _______________ is better than the _______________ to practice this sport a. Pacific Coast – Caribbean b. Caribbean – Pacific Coast c. Parque Nacional Cahuita – Ocotal d. Ocotal – Parque Nacional Cahuita

Answer the following questions based on the reading.

1. What are some factors that makes Costa Rica an ideal place to practice diving.

2. Where is Costa Rica’s only Coral Reef?

3. What can you find in Isla del Cano?

4. Why is it that the Caribbean Coast is not as good as the Pacific Coast?

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GRAMMAR POINT WH- QUESTIONS

We use question words to ask certain types of questions (question word questions). We often refer to them as WH words because they include the letters WH (for example WHy, HoW). Question Word

What

Function

asking for something

information

asking for confirmation

what...for

Example

about

repetition

or

What is your name?

What? I can't hear you. You did what?

asking for a reason, asking why

What did you do that for?

When

asking about time

When did he leave?

Where

asking in or at what place or position

Where do they live?

Which

asking about choice

Which colour do you want?

Who

asking what or which person or people (subject)

Who opened the door?

Whom

asking what or which person or people (object)

Whom did you see?

Whose

asking about ownership

Whose are these keys?

13


Whose turn is it?

Why

asking for what...for

reason,

asking

Why do you say that?

why don't

making a suggestion

Why don't I help you?

How

asking about manner

How does this work?

asking about condition or quality

How was your exam?

asking about extent or degree

see examples below

Distance

How far is Pattaya from Bangkok?

how long

length (time or space)

How long will it take?

how many

quantity (countable)

How many there?

how much

quantity (uncountable)

How much money do you have?

Age

How old are you?

asking for reason, asking why

How come I can't see her?

how + adj/adv

how far

how old

how come (informal)

14

cars

are


Wh- Questions: Word Order Question Word Auxiliary Subject Verb Complement Where

Do

They

Go

to school?

When

Does

Mary

watch T.V.?

What

Did

You

Do

What time

Do

They

get up every day?

Why

Does

John

come late?

Who(m)

Did

Ann

Go

with?

How often

Do

They

play

soccer?

yesterday?

Let’s Practice! Match the items on the right to the items on the left. Click on the boxes in the right hand column and drag them to the appropriate boxes in the left hand column. Where does George usually eat lunch? ( )

1. Because

she's

very

mean to me.

Who do you usually come to school with? ( )

2. At 8:30 a.m.

What do you want to do this weekend? ( )

3. In October

How much does it cost to fly from San Antonio to Mexico City? ( )

. 4. Once a week.

When does Barbara plan to buy a new car? ( )

5. Let's go to the beach.

What time does Helen have to be at work? ( )

6. About 10 miles.

How far is it from here to your house? ( )

7. About $500.

Why do you always complain about your boss? ( )

8. With my brother.

9. At the restaurant next

How often do you go to the mall? ( )

to the shoe store. 15


Complete the questions by inserting DO, DOES, or DID. 1. What time _______________ James call you last night?

2. Where ______________ Karen want to go on her vacation?

3. How long ____________it usually take to drive from San Antonio to Dallas?

4. Why ____________Ken come to school on the bus today?

5. How often ____________ you go grocery shopping?

6. How far ______________ the boys run last Friday?

7. What ___________ Kathy want to do this weekend?

8. Who _____________ the boys go fishing with the other day?

Fill in the blanks to complete the questions.

1. A: What time __________________ in the morning? (you)

B: I get up at 7:30 a.m.

2. A: When__________________? (Tony)

B: He goes jogging every morning 16


3. A: Where___________________? (Randy)

B: He lives across the street from North Star Mall.

4. A: Who_________________with? (Anna)

B: She comes to school with her brother.

6. A: How much___________________to get an oil change? (it)

B: It costs about $30.00.

7. A: What kind of car____________________? (your brother)

B: He has a Ford Taurus.

8. A: What_______________________to buy at the mall? (you)

B: I want to buy a pair of black shoes and some blouses

17


Change the statements to questions using the question word in parenthesis. Check verb tense. Example: The train arrived at ten o’clock. (what time) What time did the train arrive?

1. They do their homework at night. (when) ________________________________________________________ 2. Mr. Robertson came to the party alone. (who) __________________________________________________________ 3. The car is across the street from the house. (where) ________________________________________________________ 4. I like the red blouse, not the blue one. (which) ________________________________________________________ 5. She felt better after she took a nap. (how)__________________________________________________________ 6. That is an English book. (what) __________________________________________________________ 7. My sister called her boyfriend yesterday (when) _________________________________________________________ 8. She talked to him for an hour. (how long) ___________________________________________________ 9. He studies piano at the university. (what) _______________________________________________________

18


10. The party lasted all night. (how long)____________________________________________________ 11. The check was for $5.50. (how much)_____________________________________________________

Reading Before you read the text think about these questions. 1. Who is Lobito Fonseca? 2. What sport did he practice? 3. What do you know about him and this sport? Now read Lobito Fonseca’s story Born on September 3, 1981 in San José, Costa Rica, Fonseca began riding dirt bikes at the age of 5. At 12 years old, his natural talent had led him to the United States for a chance to race in mini-classes where he dominated the 80cc class. At this point, Ernesto decided to move up to the 125cc Pro class, where the powerhouses of Costa Rican motocross such as Adrian Robert, Rodolfo Peña, Arnoldo Beeche, and others had a tough battle for the championship. At first, there was a little controversy since MotoClub de Costa Rica has a rule, that the minimum age to ride 125's was 17. In the end M.C.C.R. modified this rule and Fonseca was perfectly legal in the 125cc class. It was in his first exhibition race in la Guácima where Fonseca showed his talent by beating Adrian Robert. From here on, Ernesto and Adrian Robert were the fans favorites and the all time contenders for the 125cc & 250cc class titles, battling one each other race after race. Ernesto's dominance also gave him several 125cc Latin American motocross championships. Fonseca kept a busy schedule competing in winter Olympics and Loretta Lynn's amateur motocross 19


championships where he met his long time friend Ricky Carmichael. In 1999, Phil Alderton and Erik Kehoe of Yamaha of Troy would hire him to race the AMA Supercross Series East. It was just matter of time for Fonseca to step up to AMA motocross. AMA Pro Racing, and Yamaha of Troy (Y.O.T.), embraced him and made him feel at home. A confidence boost for Ernesto was also that he was understudy of names like Jeremy McGrath, Jimmy Button & others. That season he had certainly proven himself, winning the first five rounds of the series, and the championship. For this, Fonseca was named the 1999 AMA Rookie of the Year award and he went on to win the 125 East division championship (first championship for Yamaha of Troy as a Team) aboard a Yamaha YZ125R. Ernesto's second season at Y.O.T. was full of struggles as he adapted from two to four-stroke bikes. In his third season, now accustomed to his four-stroke bike and the different riding it requires, he went on to win the west conference championship. He became the first rider to win both East and West division championships and also the first rider to win Supercross on a four-stroke. As AMA rules state a rider must move to the 250cc Supercross class if they've won two 125cc Supercross championships, Fonseca joined the American Honda factory racing team in 2002 joining long time friend Ricky Carmichael. At Honda, Carmichael helped Ernesto immensely, helping him improve in the outdoor motocross championship. This was reflected by Fonseca usually finishing in the top five. Tragically, Fonseca's career came to an end due to a practice crash that broke cervicals C5, C6 and C7. Ernesto Fonseca, a tough rider, remains a Costa Rican motocross legend. Taken from: www.wikipedia.com

20


Now choose the best option to answer each question. 1. When did Lobito Fonseca start riding bikes? a. When he was a teenager b. When he was a young adult c. When he was a child d. When he was an adult.

2. Where did he have his first competition? a. In La Guacima b. In the USA c. In Mexico d. In San Jose, Costa Rica 3. For how many seasons did Fonseca participate in motor racing championships? a. One b. Two c. Three d. Four 4. Why did Lobito’s career in motor cross end? a. Because he didn’t want to participate more b. Because he finished on the top five c. Because he got injured in an accident d. Because he needed to be older

21


Answer these questions based on Lobito Fonseca’s bio What was the rule that the MotoClub de Costa Rica have to change? _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ What was Fonseca doing when he got injured? _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ What are some categories Fonseca participated in? _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ What accomplishments did he get on his carrer? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence. Juan Jose MadrigalPacheco us a Costa Rican athlete. He bécame the first Costa Rican to compete in Atlanta’s Olympic Games. He debuted the team’s efforts on July 20 in the 100 meter breaststroke. The 22 year old bachelor had qualified for the Olympics in a test run in Cuba, where he clocked in at 1:05:54. In Atlanta, Juan Jose finished the competition in 34th place. Melissa Mata Corella was 16 years old when she competed in the Olympic Games ran in Atlanta. She was the youngest member of the team and competed on July 26, 1996 in the 20 meter butterfly. Melissa qualified with time of 2:20:53.

22


Andres Brenes Mata was the only tico cyclist to go to the Olympic Games in Atlanta. He had a good shot at a medal after winning the silver Panamerican Games in Mar de Plata Argentina (1995) and the Tour of Costa Rica and Guatemala. 1. Juan Jose and Melissa ______________________________________. a. Competed in the Panamerican Games b. Held the first place in the race c. Won an Olympic silver medal d. Are both swimmers

2. Andres Brenes _______________ in Argentina a. Was born b. Won two medals c. Got the second place d. Qualified for the Olympics 3. Juan Jose Madrigal _________________________________________ a. Is a teenager b. Lives in Cuba c. Got the 22nd place d. Is an unmarried man 4. Andres Brenes _____________________________________________. a. Never competed in the Olympics b. Won a silver medal in Mar de Plata c. Got two gold medals in Guatemala d. Finished 34th place in a competition.

23


How much do you know about surfing? Here are some important facts about it! The art of surfing, called he'enalu in the Hawaiian language, was first observed by Europeans in 1767, by the crewmembers of the Dolphin at Tahiti; however, surfing was a central part of ancient Polynesian culture and predates European contact. Equipment needed: Wet suit and a Surfboard, any other equipment is almost optional.

Surfing Ranking (as April 2007) Costa Rica Name

Gilbert

Category

Open*

Age

23

Brown

Impressive

Favorite

Fact

Wave

2001-2002

Salsa

National

Brava

Experience

Hometown

14

Puerto Viejo

12

Puerto Viejo

10

Jaco

Champion Nino

Open*

21

Myrie

2002-2003

Salsa

National

Brava

Champion

and Pavones

Lisbeth

Women’s

Vindas

Bodyboar

Champion

d **

the

24

5-time National Playa in Escondid

Women’s a

Category Central American Women’s Champion

24


Natalie

Women’s

Bernold

Category

13

2005-2006

Avellana

Junior

Beach

7

Tamarindo

Women’s Champion Century

21

Coastal Estates Charity

Surf

Classic Include all the categories*

** with a smaller board.

1. People in that chart must ____________ to practice their sport

a. Wear spikes b. use a helmet c. Wear swimwear d. practice on a court. 2. “Wave” refers to _____________ in the chart

a. The place where these people live b. the place where they eat c. Their favorite place to surf d. a movement in the water

25


3. The people in the chart are very young, __, they have lots of experience

a. Nevertheless b. even c. however d. in addition

4. A hometown is the place where is the place where the surfers

a. Practice the sport b. live c. Study d. their favorite wave is

5. Based only on the chart, you can infer that there _______ in Costa Rica

a. Are at least 2 categories b. are more than 3 categories c. Is only one surfing category d. are at least 3 categories 6. Based only (not on your geographic knowledge) that ______ is a beach a. Jaco b. Tamarindo c. Puerto Viejo d. Salsa Brava 7. ______________ have been surfing more than half his/her life a. Gilbert and Nino b. Nino and Lisbeth c. Nathalie and Gilberth d. Lisbeth and Nathalie 26


8. ______________ have been surfing more than half his/her life e. Gilbert and Nino f. Nino and Lisbeth g. Nathalie and Gilberth h. Lisbeth and Nathalie Read the text below Young Winners When talking about successful Costa Rican athletes, we usually think of soccer players like Paulo Cesar Wanchope or Gilberto Martinez, or we think of the famous swimmers Claudia Poll or Silvia Poll because their achievements have been truly outstanding, and at the same time they have become a symbol of our national pride. However, sometimes we overlook the accomplishments of other Costa Rican athletes that succeed in other disciplines, and in some cases these people do not receive the recognition they deserve. For example, have you heard of Juan Antonio Marin, Ernesto Fonseca or Marco Aurelio Odio? They are these three men that have put the name of Costa Rica before the word’s eyes and a little has been said about them. Therefore, below you will find in plain words why they deserve credits. First of all, let’s meet Juan Antonio Marin. This expert tennis player obtained the Coqui Bowl Title in 1989 in Puerto Rico. At this time, he announced he would do great things. He indeed kept his word when became the first and only Costa Rican who has won the Copa del Café. In 1992 and 1993, he was twice champion in doubles and by 1996, he had become a professional tennis player. After winning against Marcelo Rios from Chile and Michael Chang from the USA, Marin got his first title of the ATP in the open of Switzerland in Bastad. Secondly, a wolf in champion’s clothing Ernesto “Lobito” Fonseca, was registered in the history as the first motorcycle pilot of the area that won a title at the age of 17. This prize added to his early successful career: five Latin 27


Americans titles, four Central American titles, four amateur tournaments in USA, 12 national titles, and several other categories in motocross. The third man to honor is Marco Aurelio Odio Gallardo, who is considered the greatest Costa Rican bowler in history. He is the only Costa Rican player with five perfect games (line of 300 points) four here in Costa Rica and one in Miami. During his 19 years of career, he won La Raza two times (1989 and 1992). He has won the national tournament twice in 1995 and 96, once the Central American in 1996, and he has won the isthmusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Champion of Champions tournament in times. He has also been to 10 World Tournaments. These great competitors demonstrate that dreams come true when you work hard for them. Adapted from: nacion.com<http://www.nacion.com/In_ee/futbol/milenio/cien9/cien20.html

Based on the previous reading choose the option that best completes the statements or question. 1. The main idea of the first paragraph is __________________________ a.

There are successful soccer players

b.

Claudia and Silvia Poll represent our National pride

c.

Not all Costa Ricans athletes are recognized

d.

Aurelio Odio has represented the country in the world

2. Juan Antonio Marin is a successful ____________________________ a. Bowler b. Soccer player c. Pilot d. Tennis player

28


3. Marin became a professional player in ___________________________ a. 1992 b. 1993 c. 1989 d. 1996 4. “Lobito” Fonseca made history when he won ______________________ a. a title the same year of his debut b. the Latin American titles c. Central American titles d. An amateur tournament. 5. Marco Aurelio Odio’s greatest achievement was ___________________ a. Winning “La Raza” tournament b. Doing five perfect games c. Winning the isthmus Champion of Champions Tournament d. Being in ten world tournaments 6. What these three athletes have in common is that __________________ a. The three of them are pilots b. The three of them are recognized throughout the world c. The three of them have succeeded at a very young age d. None of them have worked hard for their goals.

29


Now complete the chart below with the information about the athletes mentioned in the article. Athleteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name

Occupation

Sport

Achievements

Solve the following cross-word puzzle with these sentences. Across

Down

3. You need a racket to play ______

1. ______ is one of the most popular sport in the USA

4. Claudia Poll is an outstanding __ 2. Soccer is played on a ________ 5.

An ______ takes part in sport

competitions

3.

Bora and Guimaraes have been

_______ 6. An oxygen tank is needed to

to

the

National

Soccer

Team.

practice _______________ 7. To ______ is to move on ice with 8. Tennis is played on a _________

skates

9. ________ is a sport that requires an arrow

8.

______ requires patience and

concentration

10. You can ________ a wave or the

30

11. A _______ is a point scored when


net.

the ball enters the goal.

13. In England soccer is called ____

12. ______ shows the best athletes in the same category.

14. A _______ is a physical activity 15. 17.

A _____ takes place when a

player

hurts

another

Do you like to __________

soccer?

intentionally

during the game

16. __________ is a form of football played with an egg-shaped ball.

18. To _______ is to fight with gloves

31


Second Topic

COSTA RICAN ART, MUSIC AND CRATS

32


Objectives 

Understanding the communicative value (function) of sentences and utterances.

Linking sentences and paragraphs, structuring ideas.

Expressing a range of responses and attitudes to events, issues or opinions, giving reasons

Making themselves understood with little or no difficulty.

Formulating propositions and answering propositions.

Selecting written material that is appropriate to their competence to read independently.

Art crafts and music in Costa Rica: Wh_ questions: which, when, what, how many, how, why, etc. Who is a famous painter/writer? Where does the ___ play? Yes/no questions Do you like/prefer ____? Is he/she a ____? Types of music: classical, popular. Places: Gallery, theater, etc.

Different Kinds of Music!!

33


There are many kinds of music. Can you match the different styles of music with some of its most famous and representative singers?

(

) Country Music

(

) Heavy Metal

(

) Salsa and Tropical Music

(

) Rap Music

(

) Pop Music

1. EMINEM

2. Marck Anthony

3. Carrie Underwood

4. Beyonce

5.

34


35


Read the following text Vegetables Back on the Scene After two years of silence, Garbanzos is back to give a concert. Ten years ago a group of teenagers got together and decided to form a music group that, with time, would become one of the most emblematic Latin Rock Bands in the Country: Garbanzos. However, two years ago their fans began to suffer the silence of the band. They stopped listening to the lyrics and sounds of Garbanzos. The reasons were several: one of its members Gustavo, got married and left the band. Another had a car accident. “Everything came at the same time”, said one of them but now they’re back: “We’re older, twenty-eight on average but…” according to them “better than ever”. After finishing their studies, the band is giving a concert, it only costs 1500 colones. They’re going to release their new recordings. These are fourteen original songs compiled in a CD titled “Algo en la Vida” (Something in Life). However, they’re going to play their old hits, too. It would be two hours of Garbanzo’s best rock. Choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the text above. 1. The Garbanzo’s have played ____________________ a. for eight years b. for the last ten years c. for the last two years d. since they were teenagers 2. The Band stopped playing because ______________ a. The members became older b. They wanted to finish their studies c. They took time to prepare their new album 36


d. There were changes and difficult situations in some of the band’s members lives 3. The members of the Band Garbanzos are __________ on average a. Teenagers b. 10 years old c. 28 years old d. 38 years old 4. The Band is going to play ____________ during the concert a. Only their new material b. A mixture of their new and old songs c. The music that made them famous ten years ago d. Fourteen songs from their album “Algo en la Vida” Read the following text Jacques who…? Who is he? A writer and a musician, Jacques Sagot has become one of the most prominent personalities in the cultural panorama in Costa Rica. Feeling this passion for both kinds of art, Sagot studied music and became of the most celebrated pianist Costa Rica has ever had. As a writer, he prefers to write short stories and articles for newspapers. Among his works, we can find Cuentos Magicos y Goticos (Magic and the Gothic Tales) published in 1998, where the writer bases his tales on fantasy. Cuentos de Plenilunio (Full Moon Tales) published in 2001, is his second book. This time the author remains faithful to the narrative style and fantastic world shown in his previous publication. Besides these two books, Sagot has published a work titled Ella (She) and the first volume of Pensamiento en forja (Thoughts under Construction), 37


whose second volume was released last year. In these two volumes, he compiles the articles he has published on page 15 for La Nacion from 1988 to the present. So the next time you listen to this uncommon name, you will know who this prolific artist is. Choose the correct option that completes each sentence based on the reading above. 1. The text emphasizes to the work of Sagot as _________ a. A pianist mostly b. A writer exclusively c. A journalist in La Nacion d. Booth a musician and a writer 2. In his second book Sagot ________________ a. Writes magic and gothic stories b. Tries a new way to write short stories c. Keeps a similar style and topic as in his first book d. Continues with the second volume of his first book 3. The two volumes of Pensamiento en Forja have been __________ a. Released in 2006 b. Considered fantastic c. Published by La Nacion d. Written from 1988 to the present Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence. Arts Fest will Go On Organizers of the beleaguered Festival of the Arts, set to begin this weekend in Limon, were plowing forward at press time, despite a local strike which 38


threatened to end the festival before it begins. The Festival of the Arts is set to offer a wide range of local talent and big name San Jose- acts, including a multi-genre mix of music, dance, theater and poetry, with events in Limon, Cahuita and Guapiles from September 19-27 The popular festival was temporarily grounded once before, when Minister of Culture attempted to shut it down, citing a lack of involvement and interest by the national public and decreased performance quality. The Minister subsequently reserved his decision and named a committee to ensure quality and wide range at this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s festival. Festival of the Arts press spokesperson Ana Beatriz Fernandez said organizers hoped the strike would end promptly, but claimed all events would continue as scheduled. The Tico Times, September 19, 2003 (Adapted)

1. The organizers of the Festival of the Arts fear that the ________affects it. a. Strike in Limon b. Absence of music c. Schedule in Cahuita d. Low quality of music 2. The Festival of Arts lasts ________________ a. Nine days b. Nineteen days c. Almost 15 days d. About two weeks

39


3. According to the text, _____________ tried to close the festival because of its low quality. a. Organizers b. Some strikers c. The Minister of Culture d. Ana Beatrice Fernandez 4. The Festival of the Arts ______________ a. Was created by Ms. Fernandez b. Offers diverse events c. Was forbidden by the Minister d. Is an unpopular event. Read the text. Choose the best alternative to complete each sentence. Born in San Jose in 1934, Rafa Fernandez attended the Casa del Artista art school in Guadalupe, a suburb northeast of San Jose, before accepting a scholarship to the School of Fine Arts in Nicaragua. There he studied with Rodrigo Penalba, an influence that would later be reflected in Fernandezâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use of tone and color. Also influencing the artistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s style and expression would be the time spent in Spain studying at the Circle of Fine Arts in Madrid. His works have gained international distinction and have been shown in France, Spain, the United States, Colombia, Honduras, Panama, Nicaragua and Guatemala. In his exploration of the human figure, Fernandez employs a magical realism that is central to his feminine characters. With explosions of color, he creates the archetypal beauty using themes of desire and fascination combined with soft and hard form. The Tico Times, February 4, 2005

1. Rafa Fernandez studied in ___________________ a. Panama 40


b. Colombia c. Nicaragua d. Guatemala 2. Rodrigo Penalba inspired Rafa Fernandez to ____________________ a. Study at the Casa del Artista b. Accept a scholarship c. Use tone and color d. Go to Spain 3. Rafa Fernandez _____________________ in Spain a. Studied with Mr. Penalba b. Got his style and expression c. Gained international distiction d. Worked in the Circle of Fine Arts 4. Rafa Fernandez paints ____________________ a. Human figures b. Antique figures c. Typical portraits d. Colored photographs. Read the text. Choose the best alternative to answer the questions. The three-time Grammy award winning musical trio Editus realized their vision with the opening of the Editus Arts Academy. The Academy has 50 students, and Ednin Solis expects 400 students to be enrolled, working within a broad range of musical styles. Solis’ vision for the academy and the types of courses offered is similar to the trio’s music: a blend of style from across the musical spectrum. Editus, an all-instrumental group, “works in parallel with classical and contemporary music”, Solis said. In keeping with that style, the academy has 41


tried to break from the traditional concept of formal musical training and expand the focus from solely classical to styles such as rock, jazz, Latin and electronic. Not limited to music or convention, the academy lends its unique perspective to Costa Rican artist in the field of theater, dance, painting, literature, film and poetry through workshops. 1. What’s Editus’ main achievement? They ______________________ a. Launched an academy b. Play instrumental music c. Won the Grammy Award d. Got a national trophy twice 2. What’s Editus’ expectation? To ________________ a. Have hundreds of students b. Enroll fifty students c. Open an academy d. Found a new trio 3. What kind of music does Editus play? a. A mix of styles b. Formal music c. Choral music d. autochthon 4. What type of courses does Editus offer in their academy? Courses _____ a. Specialized in formal music b. On musical instruments c. On sculpture and design d. In different art fields.

42


Imagine youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re going to interview Jorge Jimenez Deredia. What would you ask him about his career and achievements? Create a draft youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re your interview with at least 10 questions.

My Interview with Jimenez Deredia ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________

Read the following text carefully.

Sarchi Costa Rica is full of delightful places, but Sarchi stands out for the precision, skill, charm and crafts of its arts which are the best in Costa Rica. Sarchi is alson known for its carpentry. Josefinos come here to buy skillfully crafted wooden chairs, tables and beds. These things might be a bit impractical for foreign visitors to take home, but there are leather comfortable and wood rocking chairs that can be folded to transport. Beautiful and useful bowls, plates, cutting boards, napkin holders and the like of all made of native hardwoods, are also available. 43


The pretty town of Sarchi is most famous for the brightly colored, artfully painted oxcarts, in all sizes, that are made there. Visitors are welcome to enter the â&#x20AC;&#x153;fĂĄbricas de carretasâ&#x20AC;? and watch the master artist at work on miniature versions of the carretas which are famous worldwide.

Now choose the best option to complete the sentences. 1. The reading says that Sarchi ________________________ a. Is full of things that can be folded to transport b. Displays garde ornaments in leather c. Stands for geometrical designs d. Is the place of fine arts 2. A Sarchi article which is famous around the world is the _____________ a. Wood and leather rocking chair b. Miniature version of the cart c. Handmade napkin holder d. Wooden table. Now answer these questions based on the reading about Sarchi 1. Why is Sarchi such a popular tourist site? __________________________________________________________ 2. What size ox-carts are sold? _____________________________________________________________ 3. What items do people buy in Sarchi? _____________________________________________________________ 4. What wooden and leather item is made to for travelers to carry? _____________________________________________________________ 5. What kind of wood do the artisans use to make their crafts? _____________________________________________________________ 44


Third Topic

COSTA RICAN TYPICAL FOOD

45


Objectives 

Understanding relations within the sentence (structure, syntax, morphological, modification of structure and negation) characteristic of spoken language.

Identifying text types.

Identifying the purpose of short messages

Identifying details in familiar material.

Understanding relations between the parts of a text through lexical cohesion devices.

Producing pieces of writing of various lengths on real and imaginary subjects.

Expressing a range of responses and attitudes to events, issues or opinions, giving reasons.

Typical food: 

What are the most popular dishes in your community?

What do you eat for breakfast, lunch, etc. ____?

Which, when, how, what kind of____?

Do/does ____ like ____?

What's typical from____? etc.

Functions: Convincing people to do something.

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Look at these two recipes. One of them is to prepare chili con carne and the other is to prepare pancakes. Arrange them according to the recipe. Ingredients:

Directions: • Simmer uncovered for 45 minutes.

chili powder 1 tbsp salad oil

• In a very big pot add in oil and sauté 1 cup onion 1/2 cup green pepper

garlic, onion, celery, and green pepper

1 lb beans maple syrup

until onion is light brown. • Slowly add the flour into the eggs

1 clove garlic 1-1/2 cups milk

and gradually add milk until everything 1 tbsp butter 1 tbsp sugar

is completely mixed. • Once the vegetables are cooked,

2 cups celery butter for frying

add ground beef. Then cook until

1/2 cup flour 2 cans of tomatoes

brown. 1/2 tsp salt 1 lb ground beef

• Cover the bottom of a frying pan with

2 eggs

butter and spoon in a small amount of pancake mixture. • Stir in kidney beans, tomatoes, salt, and chili powder. • Melt the butter in a small pot. Then sift the flour, salt, and sugar into a large mixing bowl. • Mince garlic and chop onions, green pepper, and celery. • Dig a hole in the center of the flour and break in the eggs. • When the pancake bubbles, flip it over and cook until it is brown Serve with maple syrup.

47


Now write the ingredients and procedures appropriately for each recipe. Chili con Carne Ingredients:

Procedures:

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

Pancakes Ingredients:___________________ Procedures:_______________ _____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

_____________________________

_________________________

____________________________

_________________________

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Fruit Vocabulary

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Grapes Pineapples Bananas Apples Peaches Pears Apricots Plums

9. Grapefruit 10. Oranges 11. Lemons 12. Limes 13. Tangerines 14. Avocadoes 15. Cantaloupes

16. Cherries 17. Strawberries 18. Raspberries 19. Blueberries 20. Papayas 21. Mangoes 22. Coconuts 23. Nuts

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24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Watermelon Dates Prunes Raisins Not ripe Ripe Rotten


Vegetables

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Lettuce Cabbage Carrots Zucchini Radishes Beets Sweet peppers

8. Chili peppers 9. Celery 10. Parsley 11. Spinach 12. Cucumbers 13. Squash 14. Turnips 15. Broccoli

16. Cauliflower 17. Scallions 18. Eggplants 19. Peas 20. Artichokes 21. Potatoes 22. Yams

50

23. Tomatoes 24. Asparagus 25. String beans 26. Mushrooms 27. Corn 28. Onions 29. Garlic


Meat and Poultry

Beef 1. Roast Beef 2. Steak 3. Stewing beef

Beef ribs

Pork

6. Veal cutlets

9. Ham 10. Pork chops

7. Liver

11. Bacon

8. tripe

12. Sausage

4. Ground 5. Beef

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Lamb 13. Lamb Shanks 14. Leg lamb 15. Lamb chops

of


Poultry

16. Chicken

19. breasts

22. drumsticks

17. Turkey

20. wings

23. gizzards

18. duck

21. thighs

24. raw chicken 25. Cooked chicken

Containers and Packaged Food

52


1. Bottle 2. Jar 3. Can 4. Carton 5. Container 6. Box

13. A bottle of soda 14. a jar 15. a can soup

of

16. a carton of eggs

17. a container of cottage cheese 18. a box cereal

of

19. a bag flour

of

20. a package of cookies

7. Bag 8. Package 9. Six-pack 10. Loaf 11. Roll 12. Tube

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21. a six pack of soda 22. a loaf bread

of

23. a roll paper towels

of

24. a tube of toothpaste


Food and drink

2

1

11

1

10

13

12 10

11

5

5

12

4

2

3

7

3

6

7

8

9

9 8

54

4

6


Across

Down

1. Sweet food made by mixing flour, eggs, butter, sugar, etc.

2. Two slices of bread with food between them

3. A sweet brown food made from cacao seeds

4. An oval object with a hard shell

6. A green or purple berry made for making wine

5. A red vegetable often eaten in salads or cooked

8. A vegetable with a stem and cap which grows rapidly

7. A plant with large green leaves

10. A long thin orange vegetable that grows under the ground

9. A white liquid

13. A type of a small cake that is thin, hard and usually sweet

11. A large vegetable with green leaves and a white round centre that you cook and eat 12. A vegetable with many layers and brown skin which has strong smell and taste

Cooking Vocabulary Match the words with the according picture. a

c

b

Pour Stir Cut Fry

e

d

Grill

g

Melt Peel

f g

Bake i

Add Boil

h

j

Read the recipe and complete it instead of the pictures. 55

Chop


Brownies Recipe taken from: http://www.cacaoweb.net/brownies.html

Ingredients 1+1/3 cup _____________________ 1+½ cup _______________________ 4 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder 1 teaspoon baking powder 1 teaspoon vanilla extract ¾ cup (170 g) ______________________ 3 fl oz (0.9 dl) boiling _________________ 3 ____________________ 4 oz (120 g) ___________________ 5 oz (150 g) chopped walnuts or pecan nuts

Frosting 1/3 cup (75 g) ___________________ 8 oz (220 g) sweet or semisweet _______________________ 2 tablespoon light corn syrup 2 tablespoon hot espresso or very strong coffee

56


Method

Preheat

_____________ to 350 deg F (Gas mark 4 or 180 deg C).

Line a 13 x 9 in (33 x 23 cm) cake tin with grease proof or other non-stick paper and grease the tin. Put it in the ________________________

Put the ________________ in a saucepan.

In a bowl mix _________________ baking powder and vanilla extract.

Add

_________ melted

____________,

, cocoa powder,

and hot ________ and stir until smooth.

add _______________ and nuts.

______________ at 350 degrees F until a wooden pick inserted in

center comes out clean, approximately 20-30 minutes.

Cool the __________________ ______________________frosting.

For the frosting, add ___________ and heat in a double boiler until melted.

Mix until smooth and spread over the cake.

57

.

Glace

with

the

,___________syrup and coffee


Label the pictures. Use the word bank. Grilled

roasted

boiled

baked

___________________

______________________

_________________

_______________________

fried

______________________________

Now fill in the blanks based on the pictures above. a. Burgers are grilled on a barbecue b. Water is ______________ in a saucepan on the stove c. Cookies are ____________________ in an oven d. Chicken is ____________________ in a frying pan. e. Hot dogs are ______________ over a fire.

Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Practice the Vocabulary Unscramble these words, use the clues. a. To mix with a spoon ( i t r s ) _____________ b. To combine two ingredients or to put them together ( d a d) ___________ c. To cook something in an oven ( k a b e ) _____________________ d. To heat liquid until it reaches 100 o C ( I b i o ) _____________________ e. To serve a liquid like coffee, tea or water ( u r p o ) ________________ 58


f. To chop, divide or slice something with a sharp instrument like a knife. ( t u c) __________________ g. To liquefy or dissolve by heating (e m t l ) __________________ h. To stir or whisk vigorously ( a e t b ) ______________________

Read the following recipe by writing the appropriate verb. Use the words on the box to complete it. Chocolate Cake

Beat

4 oz of sugar

Pour

4 oz of flour

Cut

4 oz of butter

Add (twice)

1 bar of chocolate

Mix (twice)

2 eggs

Melt

½ tsp vanilla

Bake

_____________ the sugar and butter together in a mixing bowl, then ___________ two eggs and __________ the whole mixture. _____________ flour a little at a time. _________ a chocolate bar in a pan over low heat and _________ to the rest. ___________ this mixture into a greased cake pan, and _________ for 40 minutes at 350o C Then when itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ready _____________ into pieces and offer it to your friends and family! Bon Appetite

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Food Adjectives Bland Sweet Sour green Cylindrical Indian Round Spicy Hot Cold Oval Italian soft Crumbly

Creamy Delicious Japanese Crunchy oily Crispy Cream white Hard Fluffy Chinese Chewy Disgusting purple

Put the adjectives above under the correct tables.

Taste sweet

Shape

Colour

round

green

60

Texture chewy

origin Chinese


What does the apple taste like? Use some adjectives to describe these foods.

Food

Taste

Color

61

Shape

Texture


Read the following excerpt. Costa Rican Cuisine Dictionary Arracache: a delicious root that is cooked in a picadillo, usually eaten with corn tortillas in gallos. Bocas: Complimentary food served with drinks as an appetizer or between meals Ceviche: Diced raw fish mixed with onion, garlic, cilantro and lime juice, usually served as a snack with crackers, ketchup and mayonnaise. Chifrijo: Tender Beans, avocado, toasted tortillas, tomato and fried pork, one of the most popular bocas nowadays. Empanadas: (Corn turnovers) Tortillas folded in two forming a shell and fried in oil, filled with beans, mashed potatoes, pork, sausage, beef, cheese â&#x20AC;Ś or sweet ones filled with pineapple jelly or others. Frescos: Fresh fruit drinks made with sugar, fruit, water or milk. Some of the most popular ones are tamarind, lemon, star fruit, and cas in water; or blackberry, papaya and guanabana (sour sop) in milk. Gallos: Corn tortilla with meat, beef, chicken, beans, white cheese, or picadillo in it. Rice and Beans: Gallo pinto cooked in coconut milk and served with chicken, a typical dish from the Caribbean area. Choose the correct answer to complete each sentence based on the previous excerpt. 1. Bocas are ________ a. Desserts b. Snacks c. Side dishes d. Main course 2. a. b. c.

A difference between empanadas and gallos is that empanadas _______ Are fried, and gallos arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t Are made with corn, and gallos are not. Are prepared with tortillas, and gallos arenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t 62


d. May be filled with cheese and gallos may not. 3. The fact that both ____________ is a similarity between chifrijo and ceviche. a. Are made with fish b. Must be eaten warm c. Are served as appetizers d. Have corn in their preparation.

Can you say whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s in other meals?

Tamales:

Pati:

Hamburguers:

Hot Dogs:

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s your favorite typical food? __________________________________________________________ How often do you eat it? __________________________________________________________ How do you prepare it? __________________________________________________________ 63


Where do you usually eat it? __________________________________________________________ How to prepare a delicious Ceviche Ingredients: 1 lb (450 g) white fish 1 small onion 1 clove garlic Chopped cilantro ž cup of lime juice Ÿ teaspoon of salt Mild pepper Preparation Dice fish. Mix onion, garlic and the chopped ingredients. Add the lime juice. Mix all the ingredients and refrigerate at least two hours. Serving You may serve it with mayonnaise, ketchup and boiled green plantains. Choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the previous recipe. 1. a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d.

Three of the ingredients in the ceviche are ________ Onion, garlic and ketchup Green plantains, fish and chili Chopped fish, lime juice and chopped cilantro Lime juice, mayonnaise and chopped cilantro. In this recipe the fish is ____________ Raw Ripe Fried Boiled Ceviche is a ___________ dish Hot and salted Cold and sweet Salted and cold Sweet and warm

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Read this e-mail Hi, Becky I got your list of questions about Costa Rican typical food. I love cooking and my mom is a great cook too! First of all, the main ingredients of our food are rice, corn, beans, coriander, garlic, oregano, a version of Worcestershire sauce, fresh fruit, meat and vegetables. Our food is usually mild. And every dish is tastier if you prepare it in a wood burning-stove. We usually have breakfast, lunch, dinner and a coffee break. For breakfast, we usually have coffee or sugar cane hot drink, bread, butter, sour cream, cereal or scrambled eggs. The most common dishes are the “gallo pinto” (literally it means spotted roaster! I’ll send you the recipe) and “casado” (married man dish). The casado consists of white rice, black or red beans served with pork, steak, fish or chicken, a portion of salad, some picadillo (chopped vegetables, with or without meat) and / or fried ripe plantain. This dish is usually eaten for lunch or dinner. Other traditional dishes are rice with chicken or with shrimps (my favorite), tripe soup, olla de carne (beef soup), tortillas (like the burrito tortillas you eat in the USA, but made of corn flour), tamales (cornmeal, stuffed with pork or chicken, wrapped in bananas leaves and boiled). Some traditional drinks are horchata (made with ground rice) and resbaladera (made with rice and barley). In addition, we make juice of almost any fruit we have. For example, I love blackberry, mango, and passion fruit juice. Among desserts, the most common ones are rice pudding and fruit salad. For coffee break, people usually have coffee and some pastry or bread with sour cream; I like yoghurt and fresh fruit, though. Hope this information will help with your assignment! Write soon and tell me about American Food.

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Now based on the e-mail read the sentences and write if theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re True or False. Write (T) or (F) or NG if the information is not given. Statement Becky is a good cook

T/F/NG

Carlaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mother can cook Carla has pastry and coffee for coffee break Casado has some kind of meat in it The recipe of gallo pinto is described Mondongo soup is made with beef Picadillo is made with vegetables Food is better if prepared in a wood stove

Imagine you invite a Canadian friend for lunch. Write a well-balanced, typical Costa Rican menu.

66


Read the text and choose the best alternative that best completes each sentence Costa Rica Style with a “Chorreador de Café” We are well acquainted with the traditional way of coffee brewing. Our coffee machines are quite popular throughout the country, many of us are still using the traditional “chorreador de cafe”. You will find those at the Central Market or just email

us,

we

usually

have

on

stock…

ask

for

information

at

costaricatours@earthlink.net The Costa Rican method is simple. All you need is a wooden stand with a round hole at the top. There you place a cloth filter to hold the ground coffee (two tablespoons of fine ground coffee per cup). Bring water to a boil and pour it down the filter and into the coffeepot, which has been placed underneath the cloth filter. It is critically important to bring water to a boil; otherwise coffee will lose its aroma and flavor properties. 1. The use of “chorreador de café” is very ________ in Costa Rica? a. Ancestral b. Restricted c. Uncommon d. Inexpensive 2. The “chorreador de cafe” __________ a. Is made by costaricatours@earthlink.net b. Has a hole on the base c. Is made of wood d. Boils water

3. You need _____ to filter the coffee a. A round hole b. A fabric bag c. Cold water d. A coffeepot 67


4. Using very hot water, makes be _______ a. Acid b. Flavorless c. Bitter and insipid d. Fragrant and savory

Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence.

“Tico” food is neither spicy nor, in many respects unfamiliar. It is built around the basis of rice, beans, corn, vegetables, meat, chicken or fish and usually served with corn tortillas. Breakfast typically features a delicious mixture of rice and black beans known as “gallo pinto” which may be accompanied by eggs, corn tortillas and sour cream. Calorie counters may prefer a tropical fruit plate of papaya, watermelon, pineapple, bananas and, in season, mango or cantaloupe. Casados, popular at midday, are huge plates of white rice, beans, fried plantains, salad, cheese, diced vegetables and your choice of meat, chicken or fish. Hearty soups are a favorite for dinner. Commonly served desserts include caramel or coconut flan, several type of pudding, and a cake called “tres leches”. The fresh fruit drinks, are flavorful and healthy. Any kind of fruit, from strawberries to mango, is mixed in a blender with crushed ice, either water or milk and a little honey or sugar. Adapted from Costa Rica Horizons

1. Costa Rican food is ____________ a. Commonly served with watermelon b. Mainly based on rice and beans c. Based on tropical fruits d. Spicy and unfamiliar

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2. The favorite dish people enjoy at lunch is __________ a. A soup b. A casado c. Diced vegetables d. Several types of pudding 3. A “tres leches” is _____________ a. a mixture of water, milk and honey b. one of the favorites after meals c. made of caramel and coconut d. flavorful and healthy

4. Gallo Pinto is typically served at ________________ a. breakfast b. lunch c. dinner d. any time

Creative Cooking By Christine Dietz – The Tico Times Staff Flat Bread (Makes 2-3 flat loaves) 5 cups wheat flour 5 tbsp dry yeast ½ tsp. salt

Disolve Yeast in 1/3 cup of warm wáter. Place fluor and salt in a bowl and form a well. Pour in yeast. Add rest of water and knead with greased hands (use some olive oil) until the dough becomes soft and non-sticky. Cover bowl with a kitchen cloth and let stand in a warm place for 30 minutes until dough has doubled in size.

1 1/3 cup warm water 1 tsp olive oil 1 tbsp water 1 egg yolk 1 tsp. honey 1 tbsp. linseed 2 tbsp. sesame seeds

Form flats by stretching the dough with your hands, leaving ends thick. Place on a greased baking tray. Press your fingers slightly on the flat, forming rhombic patterns. Mix water, yolk, honey and olive oil in a small cup and spread on the flats. Sprinkle with linseeds and sesame seeds. Preheat oven and bake under minimum heat for 15 minutes and under highest heat for 30 minutes until flats become well browned

69


1. To make flat bread, first you ________________ a. Dissolve flour and salt in warm water b. Spread 1 egg yolk on tray c. Melt 5 tbsp. yeast in water d. Add 5 cups wheat flour 2. After pouring the yeast into a bowl with flour and salt, you _________ a. Add 1 tsp. olive oil b. Grease the bowl with olive oil c. Add more flour and salt and knead it d. Annex more water and mix with oiled hands 3. To bake the bread, you need to ________________ a. Sprinkle the tray with linseeds and sesame seeds b. Preheat the oven for 45 minutes c. Spread honey in the tray d. Heat the oven in advance

Read the information. Choose the appropriate alternative to answer each question. a. I’m going to prepare a special dish today b. What is it? Paella, shrimps or what? a. It’s a ham, potato and cheese soup b. Soup? Let’s see what it includes to be a special dish?

a. You need 12 peeled and cubed large potatoes, two finely chopped onions,

70


two pounds of processed cheese, one pound of cubed ham, ground black pepper, 3 tablespoons of all purpose flour; one cup of milk and water. b. And how do you prepare this special soup?

First, you place the potatoes, onions, and cubed ham in a large pot; a cover them with water. Then, you cook the potatoes until theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re almost tender. Remove about one cup of cooked potatoes and mash in a bowl with the back of the fork. So, you add some of the liquid from the pot along with the flour and cheese until you have a thick paste. Add this back to the pot. Finally, let the soup boil and add pepper to taste.

1. How many ingredients does the person use to prepare the recipe? a. Twenty b. Eleven c. Eight d. Ten

2. What does the person advice to do first? To ____________________ a. Add pepper and cheese b. Mix water and hot milk c. Mash potatoes in a bowl d. Cook the potatoes, onions and ham

71


3. Which ingredients are used to thick the paste? a. Water and rolls b. Milk and black pepper c. Cubed ham and onions d. Flour, cheese and potatoes

4. What´s the last step on preparing the soup? To __________________ a. Cut onions into cubes b. Add pepper when boiling c. Remove the cooked potatoes d. Place potatoes in a large pot.

72


Fourth Topic

HOLIDAYS AND CELEBRATIONS IN COSTA RICA WITH SOME CELEBRATIONS IN ENGLISH SPEAKING COUNTRIES

73


Objectives 

Understanding ideas and information in the text through making inferences,

Identifying the purpose of short messages.

Criticizing.

Summarizing the gist of new items, messages and narratives.

Identifying details in familiar material.

Understanding relations between the parts of a text through lexical cohesion devices

Adapting clearly, formal and informal writing styles at a simple level.

Expressing a range of responses and attitudes to events, issues or opinions, giving reasons

Current events and holiday celebrations: What's your favorite celebration? When is it celebrated? How is it celebrated? My family is used to going /eating, celebrating, etc. on____? I prefer ____, etc. Functions: Reporting on current events and holidays celebrations. Requesting and giving information on current events and celebrations.

74


Holidays Vocabulary

1. New Year’s Day

8. Fireworks

15. Thanksgiving

2. Parade

9. Flag

16. Feast

3. Confetti

10. Halloween

17. Turkey

4. Valentine’s Day

11. Jack-o’-lantern

18. Christmas

5. Card

12. Mask

19. Ornament

6. Heart

13. Costume

20. Christmas Tree

7. Independence Day or 4th of July

14. Candy

A. Plan a party

E. Hide

B. Invite Guess

F. Answer the door

Birthday”

C. Decorate the

G. Shout “Surprise!”

J. Make a wish

H. Light the candles

K. Blow out candles

house

I. Sing “Happy

D. Wrap a gift

the

L. Open the presents

75


Holydays and Festivals Think about these questions and answer them What is the most important celebration in Costa Rica? _______________________________________________________________ How do you celebrate it? _______________________________________________________________ Which country would you like to go to participate in the carnivals? ________________________________________________________________ April Fool’s Day

Rio de Janeiro’s Carnival

April Fool’s Day is celebrated in the USA on April 1st, Americans play small tricks on their best friends and relatives by making them believe facts/things which are not real or by putting them in embarrassing situations that make them feel ridiculous in front of others. One common trick on this day is making an appointment with somebody and then not showing up. These are some other practical jokes. Putting salt in the sugar bowl for the next person to use it. College students set their clocks an hour behind, so their roommates show up at the wrong class. Most April Fool Jokes are in good fun and aren’t meant to offend anyone.

The anual carnaval in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil started around 1840, Brazilians celebrate this famous carnaval at the beggining of february. They offer prizes for both costumes and music; the competition results in a varied and imaginative entries in both categories. It is the most famous carnival in the world.

Barranquilla’s Carnival This carnival is celebrated in Barranquilla, Colombia. It is on the second weekend in February. Colombians have four famous events in the carnival: “The Battle of the Flowers”, “The Great Parade”, “The Orchestra Festival” and the “Vallenato Festival”. They finish the carnival with the death of “Joselito’s Carnival”

76

The Day of the Death The Day of the Death is celebrated in Mexico on nd November 2 . It is when Mexican families spend at the cemetery visiting the graves of their relatives, cleaning up and painting their headstones. They always arrange flowers for the dead and light candle lights. They offer food to their dead and then they have lunch together there.


Fill out the Chart based on the previous information What is the name of the celebration?

Where do they celebrate it? Rio de Brazil

When do they celebrate it?

How do they celebrate it?

Janeiro On November 2nd

Barranquilla’s Carnival April Fool’s Day

Classify the following words or phrases in each group. Wine

dancing

sending cards

candy

Desserts

chicken

putting on a costume

Halloween

Receiving gifts

day of the Dead

Thanksgiving

Christmas

Activities

New Year’s Eve

cake

Food

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Celebration


Jane is talking to her mom, Kate. She couldn’t be with her family on Thanksgiving. Read their conversation

a. Hello,Mom b. Hi, darling. Did you call me this morning? a. Yes I did. But you weren’t at home. Mom, I’m really sorry that I couldn’t be with you last Thursday for Thanksgiving. b. What happened? a. Well, I didn’t book my flight in advance from Washington to Tallahassee. When I went to the airport all the tickets had been sold. What did you do on Thanksgiving? b. Dad, Mary and Sally were at home. We all prayed and had dinner together. We ate turkey, cranberries, sweet potatoes and pumpkin pie. It was a wonderful evening. a. Sounds great! I just stayed at the university dormitories with two friends of mine. In the morning, there was a mass at the university chapel and I went with them b. I hope you come next year a. I promise. I’ll see you in December, Mom. b. Bye, sweetie. Check “Jane” or “Kate” to specify who did each action Jane She

couldn’t

fly

to

Washington She went to a mass She

prayed

with

her

family She

ate

thanksgiving

dinner

78

Kate


The Simple Past Tense Uses USE 1 Completed Action in the Past

Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind. Examples: 

I saw a movie yesterday.

I didn't see a play yesterday.

Last year, I traveled to Japan.

Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.

Did you have dinner last night?

She washed her car.

He didn't wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions

We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happened 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on. Examples: 

I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.

79


He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.

Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past

The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc. Examples: 

I lived in Brazil for two years.

Shauna studied Japanese for five years.

They sat at the beach all day.

They did not stay at the party the entire time.

We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.

A:

How

long

did

you

wait

for

them?

B: We waited for one hour. USE 4 Habits in the Past

The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.

80


Examples: 

I studied French when I was a child.

He played the violin.

He didn't play the piano.

Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?

She worked at the movie theater after school.

They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations

The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to." Examples: 

She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.

He didn't like tomatoes before.

Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?

Here you can see examples of the past form and base form for irregular verbs and regular verbs: V1

V2

V3

base

past

past participle

regular

work

worked

worked

verb

explode exploded exploded

all regular verbs

like

liked

liked

ends in -ed.

irregular

go

went

gone

The past form for

verb

see

saw

seen

irregular verbs is 81

The past form for


sing

sang

sung

variable.

You

need to learn it by heart. You do not need the past participle form to make the simple past tense. It is shown

here

for

completeness only. 

The structure for positive sentences in the simple past tense is:

subject + main verb Past 

The structure for negative sentences in the simple past tense is:

subject + auxiliary verb + not + main verb Did 

Base

The structure for question sentences in the simple past tense is:

auxiliary verb + subject + main verb Did

Base 

The auxiliary verb did is not conjugated. It is the same for all persons (I did, you did, he did etc). And the base form and past form do not change. Look at these examples with the main verbs go and work: subject auxiliary verb

main verb

+ I You -

went

to school.

worked

very hard.

She

Did

not go

with me.

We

Did

not work

yesterday.

? Did

You

go 82

to London?


Did ď&#x201A;ˇ

They

work

at home?

Exception! The verb to be is different. We conjugate the verb to be (I was, you were, he/she/it was, we were, they were); and we do not use an auxiliary for negative and question sentences. To make a question, we exchange the subject and verb. Look at these examples: Subject + I, he/she/it

main verb Was

here.

You, we, they Were -

I, he/she/it

Was

not there.

You, we, they Were ? Was Were

in London.

not happy.

I, he/she/it

right?

you, we, they

late?

Exercises Change the verbs in the following sentence into past tense. 1. Yesterday, I go to the restaurant with a client. ____________________________________________________________ 2. We drive around the parking lot for 20 minutes in order to find a parking space. ___________________________________________________________ 3. When we arrive at the restaurant, the place is full.

4. The waitress asks us if we have reservations.

5. I say, "No, my secretary forgets to make them." ____________________________________________________________ 83


6. The waitress tells us to come back in two hours. ____________________________________________________________ 7. My client and I slowly walk back to the car. ____________________________________________________________ 8. Then we see a small grocery store. ____________________________________________________________ 9. We stop in the grocery store and buy some sandwiches. ____________________________________________________________ 10. That is better than waiting for two hours. ____________________________________________________________

Correct the mistakes in the following sentences:

1. Last night, Samantha have pizza for supper.

2. My pet lizard was died last month.

3. Yesterday I spend two hours cleaning my living room.

4. This morning before coming to class, Jack eats two bowls of cereal.

5. What was happened to your leg?

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Read the text carefully and answer the questions. Well this happened when I was 12. We had a school medical exam, which we had to attend. That day classes were off. It was just the medical. Boysâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; timings were from 9 to 12 and girls from 12 to 2:30. When I reached the medical room to get enlisted it was 10:30. Still I was asked to wait, as only 3 counters were working instead of 5. So I had to wait. When my turn came, it was nearly 11:30 and an attendant who was a young guy took me in. He took me to the boysâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; room and asked me to strip off

my

uniform.

He

said

it

was

customary and it would be only for 3 minutes. As no one had seen me naked that way before, I was feeling shy. The doctor checked me promptly but wanted to get a few x-rays of my appendix done.

I was asked to go to the x-ray room immediately so as to save time. I had

never imagined the x-ray room would be at the far end of the corridor. Luckily no one was around. But when I finished my x-ray, it was already 12 and the gates were thrown open for the girls to come in. They were chatting among themselves when suddenly they saw me. I was shocked and having nowhere to go, I ran back to the x-ray room, where they had already shut the door saying "LUNCH TIME".

85


Practically every girl who had turned up saw me naked. To make things worse my clothes were all in the dressing room, which was now occupied with girls so I couldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t go there too. At last 2 matrons came and dragged me by my arms right through the crowd. I still feel mortified by that incident.

Decide weather the following statements are true or false. a) The boy had to wait for his turn. ___________________ b) A young attendant asked him to get undressed. ___________________ c) The doctor checked him and sent him home immediately. __________ d) The girls saw him naked. ___________________ e) The dressing room was occupied with boys. ___________________

Find evidence in the text to support the following statements: a)

That day there were no classes.

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

b)

The boy was asked to take his clothes off.

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

c)

The girls were talking to each other.

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

d)

He was seen naked by every girl on the corridor

.____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

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e)

He still doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like to think about the incident

____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

Give complete answers to the following questions: a) How old was the boy when this incident happened? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ b) Why werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t there any classes that day? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ c) Why did the boy feel embarrassed? ____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Make questions to the following answers. Mind the underlined words or phrases. a) He was 12 years old when the incident happened. ___________________________________________________________? b) This incident happened in March. ___________________________________________________________? c) He met the doctor at 10:30. ___________________________________________________________? d) The boy went home. ___________________________________________________________? e) The Doctor told the boy to go away. ___________________________________________________________? 87


Rewrite the following sentences in the negative form: a) This happened a long time ago. ____________________________________________________________ b) I was shy. ___________________________________________________________ c) Did you have my clothes? ____________________________________________________________

Complete the sentences with the Simple past of the given verbs. a) The teacher ______________________ (take) him to the boyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s room. b) The girls ___________________________ (see) him naked c) He ________________________________ (ask) questions. d) He ._____________________________ (finish) the medical exams. e) He ______________________________ (go) home. Fill in with the Past Simple of the given verbs: 1. Do 2. Go 3. Big 4. Put 5. Start 6.Begin 7.Tell 8.Buy 9.Think 10.Cry 11.Understand 12.Write 13.Read

88


14.Smile 15.Eat 16.Speak 17.Drink 18.Bring 19.Like 20.Cook 21.Run 22.Hear 23.Cut 24.Walk 25.Catch 26.Wake up 27.Sleep 28.Play 29.Say 30.Fall 31.Study 32.Get 33.Feel 34.Miss 35.Work 36. Wash 37.Travel 38.Fly

89


39.Feed 40.Watch

“A very Special Date” What do you know about Saint Valentine’s Day? _________________________________________________________________ How do you celebrate it? _________________________________________________________________ What did you do last February 14th? _________________________________________________________________

Match the word with its corresponding definition Definition 1. A

loved

person,

Word (

boyfriend,

) gift

girlfriend, wife, etc. 2. A present, something given

(

) to cut out

3. To give or to take one thing in

(

) exchange

(

) wallpaper

return for another one 4. Decorative paper for the walls of a room (

5. To cook in dry heat, in an oven

) sweetheart (

6. To wait in a standing position

90

) to stand


7. To

remove

something

(

from

) to bake

something else by cutting all around it.

Saint Valentine’s Day It is a special day, celebrated on February 14 th, mainly in the USA and Canada. On this date, people send greetings, mainly in the USA and Canada. On this date people send greeting cards called Valentines to their sweethearts, friends and members of their families. Many valentines have romantic verses, and others have humorous pictures and sayings like: “Be my Valentine!” On Valentine’s Day many people give candy, flowers and different gifts to their friends. How do people celebrate it? In the United States and Canada, children exchange valentines with their friends. In some schools, children have a classroom party and put all valentines into a box decorated beforehand. At the end of the day, the teacher or one of the students distributes the cards. Many children make their own valentines from red paper wallpaper, and pictures cut out from magazines. In Europe, they celebrate Valentine’s Day in many ways. British children sing special Valentine’s Day songs and received gifts of candy, fruit or money, and in some areas people bake cakes. In Italy, they hold a Valentine’s Day Feast. In Great Britain and Italy, some unmarried women stand by their window, waiting for a man to pass. They believe that the first man they see, will marry them in the future. In Latin America they do different things. In Colombia, for example, people give and receive cards and presents and they play “Secret Friend” at School or at 91


Work. To do it, people put their names in a bag and then they take out a different name to give him/her a present. At the end of the game, they try to identify who his/her secret friend was.

Scan the text and complete these statements a. In the USA, people celebrate _____________________________________ b. On this date, they _____________________________________________ c. In Colombia, people ____________________________________________ d. In Europe, children ____________________________________________ Answer the following questions based on your own experience. 1. Do you celebrate Saint Valentineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Day in your country? ____________________________________________________________ 2. When is it? ____________________________________________________________ 3. Does it have the same name? If not what is it called? ____________________________________________________________ 4. Do you know how did your parents and grandparents celebrate it? ____________________________________________________________ Complete this postcard that Barbara wrote to a friend in Canada using the words in the box. Dear Sandy, Last week we ____________ St. Valentineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Day at school. We _________ a great party. I __________ a beautiful ________ to my friend Betty. I decorated it with colorful paper. She liked it very much. My classmates brought _____________ and our French teacher __________ a 92 delicious ________________. What about you? What did you __________ on that day? Write soon.

Do

celebrated Had

gift

Gave

cake

Candy

prepared


Write the words below in the appropriate group. You can repeat words.

Cake

turkey

Christmas

Cards

candy

Halloween

Tricks

costume

birthday

Pumpkin pie gifts Candle

tree

lights

carols

Christmas

Guess the antonyms and fill in the crossword puzzle. 3

5.

2 1

D

2 1 3

4

C O M

4

P 5

L E T E

93

A

R

K


DOWN

ACROSS

1. Incomplete

1. Light

2. Happiness

2. Sad

3. Untidy

3. Dirty

4. Old

4. Fast

5. Interesting

5. High

Before reading Do you know how do people celebrate Christmas in other countries? Write an example. _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Reading Scan the text to get specific information and fill in the chart. Christmas Eve

Native

American

British People

People

Latin American People

Date of the Celebration Typical Food and Customs

Christmas Christmas a religious holiday reminds Christians the story of an angel who 94


appeared to shepherds announcing Jesus Christâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s (The Savior) birth in a manger in Bethlehem. In many places in Latin America manger scenes are set up. Families and people get together and pray and sing Christmas carols around it. People also get Christmas Trees on which they

hang lights and ornaments.

This tradition began long ago.

On

shortest day of the year people

brought pines into their houses

to symbolize life and light.

Today people put wrapped

December

21st,

the

presents under it. In

Latin

America,

people

celebrate Christmas Even on

th

December 24 with a special dinner, fireworks and presents. In England and the U.S.A, they celebrate it on December 25th.The sit by the Christmas Tree and open presents that day. In England, there is a Christmas lunch with its traditional turkey and Christmas pudding. In the States, there is a special dinner with turkey or ham and desserts like pies. In

Europe,

Saint

Nicholas,

Father

Christmas

or

Sinter

Class (Santa Claus in the

States) comes into houses and

leaves

the

children. In England, there is a

custom of hanging Christmas

stockings near the fireplace for

Santa to fill with candy and

presents. Americans have this

presents

for

custom, too.

Based on the reading complete these sentences 1. Christmas is a Christian celebration of _____________________________ 2. People meet around manger scenes and sing _______________________ 3. Christmas Trees are decorated with _______________________________ 4. The traditional Christmas meal in the USA and England is _____________ 5. Traditional symbols of life and light are _____________________________

95


Writing Choose the holiday or celebration of the year you like the most. Brainstorm for ideas in the diagram below, if necessary draw more lines.

When

What (activities)

Where (place) HOLIDAY

Who (you

How (Preparations)

and who else) Why (Reasons)

Read the following information and choose the alternative that best answers each question. The annexation is not the only fiesta happening in the northern province of Guanacaste. Right now, the town of Liberia is celebrating the golden anniversary of the annual â&#x20AC;&#x153;ExpoLiberiaâ&#x20AC;? fair. Now in its 50th the fair is sponsored by the Livestock Breeders Group of Liberia, started on July 18 and will continue until the end of the month. Featuring bullfights, horse shows and concert, the festival offers an opportunity for horse breeders to show off and sell their stock. Rodeos, bullfights and horse shows are the stars of Liberia Festival. This year, Adolfo Rivas, secretary of the livestock breeders group, said that groups of breeders from Nicaragua were also coming to show their horses. 96


“We have a history of raising horses”, Rivas said. “Horses were here before Spaniards arrived” The festival will continue until Saturday, July 27. For more information, contact the Livestock breeders Group of Liberia at 2666-2469 1.

What’s the main idea of the text? a. The annexation festival in Liberia b. Cowboys celebrate fair’s 50th c. Nicaraguan breeders show in ExpoLiberia d. The bullfights and concerts in ExpoLiberia

2.

Who supports the 50th ExpoLiberia Fair? a. The Livestock Breeders Group of Liberia b. The Nicaraguan Livestock Breeders c. A group of Spaniards d. Adolfo Rivas

3.

How long does the ExpoLiberia fair last? a. Eighteen days b. About a month c. Almost fifteen days d. A month and a week

97


4.

What does Adolfo Rivas do? He _______________________ a. Is a Nicaraguan breeder b. Raises horses in Spain c. Is the secretary of livestock breeders group d. Features bullfighta, horse shows and concerts.

Read the Information and choose the alternative that best answers each question Days of Importance Rash Hashanah is traditionally celebrated with snacks and apples and honey, symbolizing the hope of a sweet new year. It is a day to give and ask for forgiveness and promise to make changes. The shofar, a ram’s horn blown like a trumpet, is sounded 100 times as a call for repentance, and the Torah scrolls are removed twice during the services Tradition says that on Rosh Hashanah, God inscribes all names in the book of life, and on Yom Kippur the book is sealed with God’s judgments. Yom Kippur, or the “Day of Atonement”, is observed 10 days after the celebration of Rosh Hashanah. It is a somber way to atone for the sins of the year by fasting, not working and praying and cleansing the spirit. It is also a day to forgive each other and begin anew. Yom Kippur services end with an extended blowing of the shofar and proclaiming Next Year in Jerusalem. Amanda Schoenberg- The Tico Times, September 19, 2003

1.

What’s the purpose of Rosh Hashanah? To __________________ a. Follow a tradition rope b. Give and receive forgiveness c. Eat snacks of apples and honey d. Celebrate the promise of a new year. 98


2.

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s one of the activities during Rosh Hashnah? a. The trumpet is blown twice b. People sounds the ramâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s horn c. People seals the Torah scrolls d. The shofar is removed 100 times

3.

How is Yom Kippur celebrated? People _________________ a. Fast and pray b. Work only ten days c. Promise to visit Jerusalem d. Promise not to sin in the next year.

99


Read the following text then answer the questions. Christmas is a holiday held on December 25 to commemorate the birth of Jesus, the central figure of Christianity. The date is not known to be the actual birth date of Jesus, and may have initially been chosen to correspond with either the day exactly nine months after some early Christians believed Jesus had been conceived, the date of the winter solstice on the ancient Roman calendar, or one of various ancient winter festivals. Christmas is central to the Christmas and holiday season, and in Christianity marks the beginning of the larger season of Christmastide, which lasts twelve days. Although nominally a Christian holiday, Christmas is also widely celebrated by many non-Christians, and some of its popular celebratory customs have preChristian or secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift-giving, music, an exchange of greeting cards, church celebrations, a special meal, and the display of various decorations; including Christmas trees, lights, garlands, mistletoe, nativity scenes, and holly. In addition, Father Christmas (known as Santa Claus in some areas, including North America, Australia and Ireland) is a popular folklore figure in many countries, associated with the bringing of gifts for children. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world. Taken from www.wikipedia.com

1. According to the reading, can we be sure Jesus was born on December 25th? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 100


2. What are some possible causes people chose December 25 th to point as Jesusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; birth date?

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

3. What are some modern popular celebrations people acquired about Christmas trough the years?

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

4. Why has Christmas become more an economical activity than a religious and spiritual time?

_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

101


Read the following poster

You’re invited to the National Sports Day on March 30th, 2007. In Metropolitan Park, La Sabana – Starting at 8 am

For AThletes, sports fans, visitors … Yes Everybody! Activities: Wall Climbing –Costa Rican traditional indigenous games – judo, taekwondo, karate, cheerleader and gymnastics exhibitions – rugby match – swimming. Big Event: National Beach Volleyball Championship Final New Attractions: Canopy tour from 8 a.m., to 5 p.m., under the supervision of Green Mountain guides and 35 minutes long –Kayak exhibition in the lake – Outdoor spinning lessons. Closing Activity: Concert Corporation from 1 p.m. on

with

the

group

Sponsored by the Costa Rican Sport and Recreation Institute with the support of different associations a and federations dedicating to promoting sports in Costa Rica, together with elementary schools and high schools from all over the country

Choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the poster above 1. ________________ are invited to take part in the activities a. All people b. People from schools and federations exclusively c. Athletes, sports fan, visitors, and nobody else d. Only members of associations that promote sports in Costa Rica

102


2. National Sports Day activities last ______________ a. 8 hours b. 9 hours c. 35 minutes d. We don’t know how long

3. ________________ is one of the sponsoring organizations a. Green Mountain b. Group Corporation c. Metropolitan Park La Sabana d. Instituto Costarricense del Deporte y la Recreación

Read the story

Thanksgiving September 1620. One hundred and two men, women and children, known as the Puritans, left the port in Plymouth in England. Their goal was to reach the Promised Land: a place where they could build a new community. The “Mayflower” was the name of the old ship that took them through a stormy voyage. For two months they sailed until they landed in America, in Cape Cod (now in the State of Massachusetts) and settled near that place. They called their colony Plymouth Plantation.

103


At the very beginning things were really hard. Half of them died during the first winter because they did not have the right equipment or facilities to survive. However, the other half survived because of the local American Indians helped them: the Indians taught them how to grow corn pumpkins and beans, how to hunt deer and turkeys and fish. A year passed. The colonist (now called pilgrims) got their first harvest. So thankful they were to the Indians and God for their survival that they invited their native friends to a great feast. This is the

true story of the first Thanksgiving in all of

Day.

Today

people

the

United

States celebrate this day

with a family gathering and a special meal. It is now a national holiday in that country.

Choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the story above. 1. The Puritans sailed for ____________ a. England from America b. Cape Cod to Plymouth c. America from Massachusetts d. Plymouth Plantation from Cape Cod

104


2. The American Indians ____________ a. Gave colonist a hard time b. Taught the colonist how to survive c. Shared their food and shelter with the colonist d. Waited a winter before they decided to help the colonists.

3. Half of the Pilgrims died ___________ a. During a stormy voyage b. Two months after their arrival c. Because of American Indians help d. Because of the lack of appropriate equipment.

Read the text August 2nd, a Costa Rican Holiday There is no doubt August 2nd, our Lady of the Angel’s Day, is an important holiday for Costa Ricans of different ages and lifestyles For some people the pilgrimage to our virgen de los Angeles Basilica in Cartago is really religious, they want to thank, to be healed, that a close relation be healed, or something else. That is why they pay a visit to the “negrita”, a black Madonna who is the patron saint of Costa Rica For others, is just a pretext for a walk with a group of friends, relatives, colleagues … or by oneself. Days before August 2nd one can listen to students in their high schools or to elderly people planning their “trip” and ideas for that day. And the day after, these same people recall the pilgrimage, in spite of their aching feet. 105


Pilgrimage: journey to visit a religious place to ache: to feel pain To heal: to become healthy again/ to recover your health

Now choose the correct option to complete each sentence based on the text. 1. To ________________ may be a reason for going to Cartago on August 2nd a.Get better b. Follow a tradition c. Admire our Lady of the Angelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Basilica d.Connect young students with elderly people.

2. The celebration of our Lady of the Angelsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Day is a tradition for _______ exclusively. a.Elderly Costa Ricans b.High School Students c. Really religious people d.People of different religions and ages

3. The pilgrimage is ____________ a. An easy pain free trip b. A tiring soaring journey c. A short relaxed time d. A time to go for a walk to kill time

106


Complete this chart about Festivals or Holidays in Costa Rica.

Holiday or Festival

When is it?

107

Traditions or things that happen


FIFTH TOPIC

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF NATURAL RESOURCES MISUSE

108


Objectives 

Discussing alternative possibilities and their consequences.

Understanding a range of imaginative and factual material that includes some complex sentences and unfamiliar language.

Understanding the communicative value (function) of sentences and utterances.

Redrafting writing tasks already given, with support guidance.

Expressing and justifying ideas, opinions or personal points of view

Natural resources: We should ____. A solution could be ____. I think/believe that ____. I agree/don't agree ____. It's better to ____. What about ____, etc. ____ may be correct ____. I would ____. etc.

Functions: Instructing others to do something. Stating cause and effect. Expressing opinions

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Most Common Environmental Problems

Water Pollution and Air Pollution

Trash Can Deforestation

Reforestation

Littering

Ozone Layer

110

Recycle Can you name another?


1

2

Match the words with the corresponding picture.

3

____ Floods ____Fire ____Volcano Eruption 4

5

6

____ Litter ____Hurricane ____ Earthquake ____ Smoke ____Sound Pollution ____Sewage

7

8

9

____ Global Warming ____ Deforestation ____ Air Pollution ____ Acid Rain _____Droughts

10

11

12

Complete the gaps with words about environmental threats mentioned above.

13

14

15 111


1. The Amazon rainforest has been facing the problem of _____________. Too many trees have been cut down. 2. Many countries face great __________ because of the constant rain. Many people die and others lose their belonging. 3. In Africa people face constant __________. It hardly rains there. 4. ____________ is the worldwide warming of the atmosphere. 5. People shouldn`t put their __________ everywhere. They should put it in the rubbish bin. 6. When there is a ______________ many people have to leave their homes because of the dust and the lava that is released. 7. _______________ causes the death of many fish and sea animals and plants. 8. In Australia many people died because of the great ________ fires that devastated some places. 9. Many factories release __________ into the atmosphere through their chimneys.

Environment Crossword Puzzle What is the missing word in each sentence below? Find the number of each word in the puzzle. The FIRST letter of that word goes in the box with the corresponding number. Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t forget you need to print off this crossword puzzle to work on it.

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List of Words

Air

animals

away

cars

earth

environment

hurts

insects

litter

noise

rags

trees

turn

ugly

everyone Fish

give

glut

Off

people

plants

Waste

water (2 times)

Across

Down

1) “Every litter bit -----.”

2 & 11) When you leave a room,

3) Trash tossed away where it doesn’t belong is called ------. 8) The

------------

is what every living thing 5) The air and water now on

Save them. 13)

--------

-----

have

always been here; no new supplies

are good to use for cleaning.

----

(two words) the lights to save energy. 4) Paper is made from -----.

needs for life. 9)

----|---

come from space. 6) The environments of many wild

needs to help keep the

environment clean.

have been hurt by man. 7) Loud

14) Each living thing must have

-----

to

16) Dirty water from factories can kill

----

-------

-----

bothers people and hurts

their ears.

survive.

. 18) People, animals, and

10 & 19) Don’t throw away good, used items you no longer need.

------

live on

earth.

them

----

so others can use them. 12)

21 & 22) When you run the shower too

----

Too many

environment.

113

------

have hurt the


long, you -----|----- (two words).

15) Living things need fresh

23) When something like garbage or dirty water is not nice to look at, it is ----.

---

in the

environment. 17) Many birds eat -------.

24) Emissions from ---- can make the air 20. Save resources; donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be a ----. dirty www.meskwaki.org/.../Natural%20Resources%20Environmental%20Crossword%20Puzzle.

Environmental Verbs: Take Action Do you consider yourself an earth activist? Talking about environmental issues is difficult to do in a foreign language. Learning the following verbs will help you express your thoughts and concerns in English. Word

Meaning

Example sentence

Ban

disallow an action or thing in a specified area

The school banned water bottles because they are bad for the environment.

Carpool

when people take turns driving instead of taking two or more cars to the same location

I carpool to work with two of my neighbours who also work downtown.

clear cut or chop down

to remove trees from a forest

It is important to plant new trees in nearby areas after clear cutting.

Compost

put certain types of waste (vegetable peels, newspapers, dry leaves) into a large container that will break down into reusable soil

Since we started composting we've reduced our garbage by half.

Commute

travel from home to work (either by public transit or driving)

Imagine how much pollution you cause in a lifetime by commuting two hours a day?

Consume

take into our bodies or homes

Americans consume more than their share of the earth's resources.

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D贸nate

give money or items to an organization or individual in need

When you donate money to this fund, the animals' habit is protected.

Emit

to give off or out

Cars emit harmful pollutants into the atmosphere.

Fertilize

treat plants and green spaces (lawns and fields) with special chemicals that helps them to grow

If you are going to fertilize your lawn, make sure to use an organic fertilizer.

Minimize

make as little as possible

We can minimize pollution by walking instead of driving to work and school.

Pollute

put dangerous substances into the ground and the air

Fumes from factories pollute our lakes and oceans.

preserve

keep in its natural state

We need stronger laws in order to preserve our forests.

Protect

keep from harm

It is important to protect your skin from the harmful UV rays of the sun.

Protest

voice concern about; fight against an issue or decision

The environmentalists will protest if the road builders don't make a bicycle lane.

Recycle

to take materials from garbage and form it into something new that can be used

Please recycle your junk mail instead of throwing it in the garbage.

Reduce

use less

You can reduce your household waste by buying products with less packaging.

Reuse

use again

We reuse the inner bags from the cereal boxes inside our small garbage can.

throw away

put in the garbage

Don't throw away your grass clippings; leave them on your lawn.

use up

use until there is no more

We are using up the earth's natural resources faster than ever.

Waste

throw away something that is still useful

Don't waste toilet paper; use one or two sheets instead of three or four.

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Now let´s practice the vocabulary. Choose the correct option to complete the sentence 1

Garbage incinerators _________harmful pollutants into the atmosphere. a. Minimize b. Donate c. Preserve d. Emit

2

You can __________plastic bags over and over until they get holes in them. a. Reuse b. resume c. reduce d. reproduce

3

Americans _______ many products that are sold with excess packaging. a. Chop down b. consume c. protect d. pollute

4

You can __________household waste by having a compost bin in the garden. a. Clear out b. preserve c. protect d. minimize

5

Instead of throwing away your clothes, _______them to a used clothing store or thrift shop. a. Use up b. consume c. emit d. donate

6

They are__________in order to make room for the new theatre complex. a. Clear cutting b. protecting c. reducing d. using up

7

Though the city is growing, they are doing a good job of ________the countryside. a. Reusing b. preserving c. minimizing d. recycling 116


8

We will _____________if the green initiatives do not get approved at the meeting. a. Protect b. prevent c. provide d. protest

9

____________ your bottles and cans at the town depot. a. Recycle b. reduce c. throw away d. reuse

10

Exhaust from cars ____________ the atmosphere and causes global warming. a. Emits b. pollutes c. preserves d. conducts Taken from:http://www.englishclub.com/environment/environmental-verbs-quiz.htm

Read the following passage Nowadays, air is getting more and more polluted because of the industrialization and noxious gases released from cars. You can hardly breathe clean or fresh air in cities. People are getting dirtier and dirtier. They throw rubbish wherever they can. They donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t even use tins or bags. We can also talk about the boats which transport oil and sink in seas and oceans. They cause great damages in the submarine world. Everything polluting the air causes acid rains which damage the forests. If these disappear, great changes in the climate will be caused because the trees are chemically very active as they provide us with oxygen. So let us safeguard the nature or it will be an environmental suicide for humanity and especially for the ozone layer which is so important for the world. lf this layer is destroyed , people will be threatened to be affected by any kind of skin diseases . Say whether the following statements are true, false or not mentioned: a- People use tins and bags to throw rubbish. _____ b- The ozone layer protects people from skin diseases. _____ c- Trees give us oxygen. ______ 117


d- Man is responsible for the climatic change. ______ Answer the following questions according to the text: a- Why is air getting polluted? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ b- Why is the sub-marine world damaged? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ Match each word with its synonym: Words

Synonyms

1. Rubbish

(

) Menaced

2. Provide

(

) Give

3. Destroyed

(

) Damaged

4. Threatened

(

) Waste material

Match each word with its opposite Words

Opposites

1. More

(

) passive

2. Clean

(

) less

3. Active

(

) death

4. Life

(

) dirty

118


Reorder the following words to get a coherent sentence: ozone- from- damaged- which- the- layer- being – protects- radiation – us- ultraviolet__________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________________

Forming Comparative and Superlative Adjectives One-syllable adjectives. Form the comparative and superlative forms of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er for the comparative form and –est for the superlative. One-Syllable Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Tall

taller

Tallest

Old

older

Oldest

Long

longer

Longest

Mary is taller than Max. Mary is the tallest of all the students. Max is older than John. Of the three students, Max is the oldest. My hair is longer than your hair. Max's story is the longest story I've ever heard. If the one-syllable adjective ends with an e, just add –r for the comparative form and –st for the superlative form.

119


One-Syllable Adjective with

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Large

larger

Largest

Wise

wiser

Wisest

Final –e

Mary's car is larger than Max's car. Mary's house is the tallest of all the houses on the block. Max is wiser than his brother. Max is the wisest person I know. If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, double the consonant and add –er for the comparative form; and double the consonant and add –est for the superlative form. One-Syllable Adjective Ending with a

Comparative

Superlative

Form

Form

Big

bigger

Biggest

Thin

thinner

Thinnest

Fat

fatter

Fattest

Single Consonant with a Single Vowel before It

My dog is bigger than your dog. My dog is the biggest of all the dogs in the neighborhood. Max is thinner than John. Of all the students in the class, Max is the thinnest. My mother is fatter than your mother. 120


Mary is the fattest person I've ever seen.

Two-syllable adjectives. With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most. Two-Syllable Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Peaceful

more peaceful

most peaceful

Pleasant

more pleasant

most pleasant

Careful

more careful

most careful

Thoughtful

more thoughtful

most thoughtful

This morning is more peaceful than yesterday morning. Max's house in the mountains is the most peaceful in the world. Max is more careful than Mike. Of all the taxi drivers, Jack is the most careful. Jill is more thoughtful than your sister. Mary is the most thoughtful person I've ever met. If the two-syllable adjectives ends with –y, change the y to i and add –er for the comparative form. For the superlative form change the y to i and add –est. Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -y Happy

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

happier

Happiest

121


Two-Syllable Adjective Ending

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Angry

angrier

Angriest

Busy

busier

Busiest

with -y

John is happier today than he was yesterday. John is the happiest boy in the world. Max is angrier than Mary. Of all of John's victims, Max is the angriest. Mary is busier than Max. Mary is the busiest person I've ever met. Two-syllable adjectives ending in –er, -le, or –ow take –er and –est to form the comparative and superlative forms. Two-Syllable Adjective Ending

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Narrow

narrower

Narrowest

Gente

gentler

Gentlest

with -er, -le, or –ow

The roads in this town are narrower than the roads in the city. This road is the narrowest of all the roads in California. Big dogs are gentler than small dogs. Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest.

122


Adjectives with three or more syllables. For adjectives with three syllables or more, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most.

Adjective with Three or More

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Generous

more generous

most generous

Important

more important

most important

Intelligent

more intelligent

most intelligent

Syllables

John is more generous than Jack. John is the most generous of all the people I know. Health is more important than money. Of all the people I know, Max is the most important. Women are more intelligent than men. Mary is the most intelligent person I've ever met. Irregular adjectives. Irregular Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Good

Better

Best

Bad

Worse

Worst

Far

Farther

Farthest

Little

Less

Least

123


Irregular Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Many

More

Most

Italian food is better than American food. My dog is the best dog in the world. My mother's cooking is worse than your mother's cooking. Of all the students in the class, Max is the worst. Two-syllable adjectives that follow two rules. These adjectives can be used with -er and -est and with more and most. Two-Syllable Adjective

Comparative Form

Superlative Form

Clever

cleverer

Cleverest

Clever

more clever

most clever

Gente

gentler

Gentlest

Gente

more gentle

most gente

Friendly

friendlier

Friendliest

Friendly

more friendly

most friendly

Quiet

quieter

Quietest

Quiet

more quiet

most quiet

Simple

simpler

Simplest

Simple

more simple

most simple

Big dogs are gentler than small dogs.

124


Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest. Big dogs are more gentle than small dogs. Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the most gentle. Now let´s Practice 1. Mount Everest is__________than Cerro Aconcagua. (high) 2. I like music. To me, music is _______________(interesting) than maths. 3. Cheetahs are__________than tigers or lions. (fast) 4. The Parana is a long river...The Amazon is longer. But the Nile is the________in the world. 5. Mariah Carey is a bit _________ than Madonna. (young) 6. This Ferrari is the____________ expensive car in the world! 7. Which is the heaviest? Gold, silver or aluminum? "Gold is the________ of the three" 8. The giraffe is______________than the elephant. (tall) 9. Laurel and Hardy were____________than the Simpson" (funny) 10. Albert Einstein was ___________than our former president..."Anyone was" (intelligent) 11. Pluto is____________than Mars (cold) 12. Mercury is the____________planet to the Sun. (close) 13. The Atacama Desert is__________than the Amazonian region. (dry) 14. The Saharan desert is the ____________ one in the world. (big) 15. A horse lives longer than a dog...But a tortoise lives the___________

125


16. Which is smaller, China, Argentina or Monaco? "Obviously Monaco is the____________of the three"

Read the following text

The Earth Our planet â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Earthâ&#x20AC;? is the third planet from the sun. The Earth is the fifth largest planet in the solar system. The Earth has 7 continents: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. Asia is the (1) largest continent. Australia is the (2) smallest. There are about 195 countries in the world, but no-one can agree on the exact number. Russia is the (3) largest country. Vatican City is the (4) smallest. Ukraine is the largest country in Europe. Malta is the smallest country in Europe. China has the largest population in the world with 1,335,960,000 people. The smallest population is found on the Pitcairn Islands with only 50 people. The (5) smallest city in the United Kingdom, is in Wales, it is called St David's and the Cathedral Close. The second smallest city in the UK is the City Of London! (not to be confused with Greater London). The City Of London is roughly 1 square mile and is where London started. Tokyo in Japan is the (6) most expensive city in the world to live. Johannesburg in South Africa is the (7) cheapest city in the world to live. Natural facts: Mount Everest is the (8) highest mountain in the world and is 8,848 metres above sea-level. 126


Baikal is the (9) deepest lake in the world. Baikal is in Russia and is 1,637 metres deep. Man-made facts: The Weihe Grand Bridge is the (10) longest bridge in the world. The Weihe Grand Bridge is in China and is 79,732 metres long. The Burj Khalifa is the (11) tallest building in the world. The Burj Khalifa is in Dubai and is 828 m tall. The Delaware Aqueduct in the USA is the (12) longest tunnel in the world and is 137 km long. An Aqueduct is something that carries water from one place to another. References from: www.wikipedia.com https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html

Superlatives exercise Complete the sentences based on the previous reading and choose the most suitable adjective from the box. 1.

Asia is the largest continent in the world.

2.

Australia is the _________ continent.

3.

Russia is the _________ country in the world.

4.

Vatican City is the _________ country in the world.

5.

The _________ city in the United Kingdom is in Wales.

6.

Tokyo is the _________ city in the world to live.

7.

Johannesburg is the _________ city in the world to live.

8.

Mount Everest is the _________ mountain in the world.

9.

Baikal is the _________ lake in the world.

10. The Weihe Grand Bridge is the _________ bridge in the world. 11. The Burj Khalifa is the _________ building in the world. 12. The Delaware Aqueduct is the _________ tunnel in the world.

127


Read the following letter. Fill in the blanks with words from the column on the left.

Wildlife

Dear Readers of the Tiquicia News,

Tourist spot

Last Weekend I visited Tarcoles for the second time. My first time there was in 1985. I am outraged by what I saw! Before, Tarcoles was a popular _______________ due to surf and ___________ ____________. However, the extreme __________ of the Tarcoles River is literally __________ tourists away.

Sewage Pollution Urban Health Scaring Crocodiles Environmental

This river gets untreated _________ water from the __________ areas of the country. This brings about ____________ risks for humans and deteriorates the _____________ conditions for local species of the area, such as the Tarcoles ________. The tour of the river was the highlight of the trip to Tarcoles. Now, this river has become the town´s nightmare. Someone has got to do something! A very Angry Tourists

Read the following text. The 4 Rs Treating garbage in landfills has become a problem worldwide. Here are some possible solutions.

High

Deep

Long

Large

Small

Large

Tall

Long

Small

Small

expensive

Cheap

128


The 4 Rs Reduce

If we reduce the amount of garbage, there will be less garbage to dump in landfills. Packaging is a serious part of the problem. We should buy products that have no packaging , donate old clothes and goods, recharge batteries, share books and newspapers … If we can’t reduce, we can reusee. This means

Reuse

repairing

damaged

appliances,

using

empty

containers, any buying durable goods (as opposed to disposable ones) When a thing cannot be reused, we can recycle it –

Recycle

that is, reprocess it as a new object. We should buy recyclable products. Recover

Industries can recover energy from non-reusable waste. An example is energy recovery from landfill gas.

The international symbol for

recycling is a mobius loop.

This band, with only one side

and

discovered in 1858 by the

German

August

create a model by taking a

Mobius.

You

can

one

edge,

was

mathematician

paper strip giving it a half twist and then gluing the ends of the strip together to form a single strip. How can we put into practice the 4 Rs? Let’s talk a little a bit about paper. To reduce pollution and save innumerable trees, forest habitants and biodiversity, it is vital to use less paper products. When we have to use them, we should try to reuse them (for example, write on both sides of a sheet). And it is imperative to use recycled paper. Recycled paper can be manufactured from 100% pre-consumer waste (made out of paper scraps that have never been used and are left over after the paper 129


manufacturing process), 100% post costumer waste (PCW) (made out of paper that has been used by the consumer), and a mixture of the two. The higher the PCW percentage, the better. 100% recycled, 85% PCW means that the paper is 100% recycled, with 15% preconsumer waste and 85% post- consumer waste. 50% recycled 30% PCW means that the paper is 50% recycled, with 20% pre-consumer waste and 30% postconsumer waste Choose the correct alternative to complete the sentences based on the previous text. 1. The 4Râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s concept refers to the problem of _____________________ a. Garbage b. Reducing c. Industries d. Landfill gas 2. Repairing an appliance instead of buying a new one is an example of ____ a. Reusing b. Recycling c. Reducing d. Recovering 3. August Mobius discovered ___________________ a. The half twist b. The process of recycling c. The concept of pre-consumer content d. A band with only one side and one edge 130


4. An example of ____________ is not buying things wrapped in plastic a. Reusing b. Recycling c. Reducing d. recovering CORAL REEFS Coral reefs are one of the most complex and colorful tropical ecosystems, rivaling rain forests in their richness of life. Coral reefs organisms build massive and intricate physical structures that are home to some of the most fascinating plants and animals in the world. Coral reefs are one of the most spectacular and fragile of underwater environments, covering less than one percent of the ocean floor but supporting an estimated twenty-five percent of all marine life. Even though they are located in the tropics, coral reefs can benefit people and the natural world far beyond their boundaries. Adapted from P Z Guide Costa Rica.

1. Coral reefs are considered ______ ecosystems.

a.

the least colorful

b.

among the ugliest tropical

c.

less complex than rain forest

d.

among the most complex and vivid

2. Coral reefs host ______________.

a.

a great variety of aquatic plants and animals

b.

three different species of land creatures

c.

many animals which live on land only

d.

a few organisms

131


3.

Coral reefs benefit ___________

a.

the unnatural world

b.

people, plants and animals

c.

only life within their boundaries

d.

sea creatures of the tropics exclusively

"Earth Song"

Did you ever stop to notice The crying Earth the weeping shores

What about sunrise What about rain

I used to dream

What about all the things

I used to glance beyond the stars

That you said we were to gain...

Now I don't know where we are

What about killing fields

Although I know we've drifted far

Is there a time What about all the things

Hey, what about yesterday

That you said was yours and mine...

(What about us)

Did you ever stop to notice

What about the seas

All the blood we've shed before

(What about us)

Did you ever stop to notice

The heavens are falling down

The crying Earth the weeping

(What about us)

shores?

I can't even breathe (What about us)

What have we done to the world

What about apathy

Look what we've done

(What about us)

What about all the peace

I need you

That you pledge your only son...

(What about us)

What about flowering fields

What about nature's worth

Is there a time

(ooo, ooo)

What about all the dreams

It's our planet's womb

That you said was yours and mine...

(What about us)

Did you ever stop to notice

What about animals

All the children dead from war

(What about it) 132


We've turned kingdoms to dust

(What about us)

(What about us)

Can't you hear them cry

What about elephants

(What about us)

(What about us)

Where did we go wrong

Have we lost their trust

(ooo, ooo)

(What about us)

Someone tell me why

What about crying whales

(What about us)

(What about us)

What about babies

We're ravaging the seas

(What about it)

(What about us)

What about the days

What about forest trails

(What about us)

(ooo, ooo)

What about all their joy

Burnt despite our pleas

(What about us)

(What about us)

What about the man

What about the holy land

(What about us)

(What about it)

What about the crying man

Torn apart by creed

(What about us)

(What about us)

What about Abraham

What about the common man

(What was us)

(What about us)

What about death again

Can't we set him free

(ooo, ooo)

(What about us)

Do we give a damn

What about children dying What environmental problems does the song describe? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the songâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main idea? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

133


What do you think is the most important or biggest problem mentioned in the song? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

What should each one of us do to help preserving wildlife and natural resources? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

134


Sixth Topic

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS OFFERED BY COSTA RICAN COMMUNITIES

135


Objectives 

Identifying the purpose of messages.

Noting key items or interpreting the gist in messages, dialogues and basic personal information.

Responding to messages and dialogues in short simple sentences in a range of context.

Understanding conceptual meaning.

Content Tourist attractions: 

Do you like ____?

Have you ever ____?

Have you gone/liked/enjoyed ____?

Why don't you ____?

Would you_______ ?

You should ____.

There is/are ____.

Let me show you ____.

The place offers you ____. etc.

136


What is your favorite place in Costa Rica to go on vacation? Hereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a guide of some of the most popular and beautiful places tourist visit when they come to our beautiful Costa Rica Arenal Volcano National Park - Arenal Observatory Lodge Originally a private observatory established in 1987, this is the only lodge within the Arenal Volcano National Park boundaries. The lodge is found on a macadamia nut farm on the south side of the volcano. Many researchers from around the world have stayed here to study the active volcano. From the lodge there are excellent views of the volcano and Arenal Lake in the opposite direction. Many hikes can be taken from the area, including some to waterfalls, as well as old and recent lava flows. The lodge is a good choice for accommodation, and there are varying options. Hobbies & Activities category: Waterfall, cascades; Hiking opportunity; Towers, monuments, observation deck

Samara Beach This beach is gaining in popularity and has a reputation of being one of the most attractive and safest beaches in Costa Rica. The white-sand beach offers gentle waters, but has less shade and wildlife than other beaches in the area. Snorkelling, diving, kayaking and sportfishing are popular activities. Hobbies & Activities category: Beach; Scuba or snorkel opportunity; Fishing opportunity; Swimming & water activities; River rafting, canoeing, kayaking

Tortuguero The inland, Intercoastal Waterway offers access to the northern Caribbean coast. Generally, travelers embark from the port of MoĂ­n and continue to Tortuguero National Park and beyond. By 1974, canals had been connected to existing natural waterways thus linking the entire system. Today, it is no longer necessary to go offshore in order to travel north, a much safer alternative. Apart from being the most convenient way to travel in the region, riding the Intercoastal Waterway offers travelers another option for observing scenery and wildlife. Hobbies & Activities category: Boating, sailing, water craft activities; Dam, bridge, lock, waterway 137


Now based on the previous text answer the following questions

1.

Why is Arenal Observatory Lodge look for people to stay when they

visit Arenal? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

2.

What can you do in Arenal?

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

3.

Write some reasons why Samara Beach is a great place for a vacation?

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

4.

What are some hobbies and activities you can enjoy in Samara Beach?

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

5.

Why is it that riding the Intercoastal Waterway is a better option to get to

Tortuguero? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

6.

What activities can you do in Tortuguero?

______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

138


Tourism Related Vocabulary Accommodation

Alojamiento

admission fee

costo de la entrada

Brochure

Folleto

camping site

sitio para acampar

car rental (US)

alquiler de autos

car hire (GB)

alquiler de autos

car park (GB)

estacionamiento

city centre (GB)

centro de la ciudad

Cruise

Crucero

double room

habitación doble

double room with twin beds

habitación doble con dos camas

downtown (US)

centro de la ciudad

Flight

Vuelo

Fortnight

Quincena

Guesthouse

casa de huéspedes, pensión

Guide

Guía

hiking trail

sendero de caminata

holidays (GB)

vacaciones

Holidaymaker

veraneante, turista

Hostel

Hostal

Hotel

Hotel

hotel chain

cadena de hoteles

Inn

Posada

motor-home

casa rodante

one-way ticket (US)

viaje de ida

package deal

Paquete

parking lot (US)

estacionamiento

Resort

lugar de vacaciones

return ticket (GB)

viaje de ida y vuelta

round ticket (US)

viaje de ida y vuelta

Season

Temporada

sightseeing tour

visita con guía

single ticket (GB)

viaje de ida 139


single room

habitaci贸n simple

ski resort

estaci贸n de esqu铆

sun lotion

bronceador

Sunglasses

gafas de sol

Sunblock

filtro solar

Sunburn

quemadura de sol

theme park

parque de diversiones

time-sharing

tiempo compartido

tour operator

empresa de viajes

tourist office

oficina de turismo

travel agency

agencia de viajes

travel agent

agente de viajes

vacation (US)

vacaciones

waiting list

lista de espera

youth hostel

albergue juvenil

to book

Reservar

to confirm

Confirmar

to drive

Conducir

to fly

Volar

to go on holiday (GB), vacation (US)

irse de vacaciones

to go abroad

irse al extranjero

to go camping

ir de camping

to go climbing

ir a escalar

to go hiking

ir a dar una caminata

to go mountaineering

hacer alpinismo

to go sightseeing

visitar lugares de inter茅s

to go skiing

ir a esquiar

to go swimming

ir a nadar

to go to the beach

ir a la playa

to have a good time

pasarlo bien

to have a bad time

pasarlo mal

to make a reservation

Reservar

to hold a reservation

mantener una reserva

to plan

Organizar 140


to rent a car

alquilar un auto

to stay

Permanecer

to sunbathe

tomar sol

to take a holiday (GB), vacation (US)

tomarse vacaciones

to take a photograph

tomar una fotografía

to travel

Viajar

Present Perfect FORM [has/have + past participle] Examples: 

You have seen that movie many times.

Have you seen that movie many times?

You have not seen that movie many times.

Complete List of Present Perfect Forms USE 1 Unspecified Time Before Now

We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

141


Examples: 

I have seen that movie twenty times.

I think I have met him once before.

There have been many earthquakes in California.

People have traveled to the Moon.

People have not traveled to Mars.

Have you read the book yet?

Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.

A: Has there ever been a war in the United States? B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.

How Do You Actually Use the Present Perfect? The concept of "unspecified time" can be very confusing to English learners. It is best to associate Present Perfect with the following topics: TOPIC 1 Experience You can use the Present Perfect to describe your experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is NOT used to describe a specific event. Examples: 

I have been to France. THIS

SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF BEING IN

FRANCE. MAYBE YOU HAVE BEEN THERE ONCE, OR SEVERAL TIMES. 

I have been to France three times. YOU CAN ADD THE NUMBER OF TIMES AT THE END OF THE SENTENCE. 142


I have never been to France. THIS SENTENCE MEANS THAT YOU HAVE NOT HAD THE EXPERIENCE OF GOING TO FRANCE.

I think I have seen that movie before.

He has never traveled by train.

Joan has studied two foreign languages.

A: Have you ever met him? B: No, I have not met him.

TOPIC 2 Change Over Time We often use the Present Perfect to talk about change that has happened over a period of time. Examples: 

You have grown since the last time I saw you.

The government has become more interested in arts education.

Japanese has become one of the most popular courses at the university since the Asian studies program was established.

My English has really improved since I moved to Australia.

TOPIC 3 Accomplishments We often use the Present Perfect to list the accomplishments of individuals and humanity. You cannot mention a specific time. Examples: 

Man has walked on the Moon.

Our son has learned how to read. 143


Doctors have cured many deadly diseases.

Scientists have split the atom.

TOPIC 4 An Uncompleted Action You Are Expecting We often use the Present Perfect to say that an action which we expected has not happened. Using the Present Perfect suggests that we are still waiting for the action to happen. Examples: 

James has not finished his homework yet.

Susan hasn't mastered Japanese, but she can communicate.

Bill has still not arrived.

The rain hasn't stopped.

TOPIC 5 Multiple Actions at Different Times We also use the Present Perfect to talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times. Present Perfect suggests the process is not complete and more actions are possible. Examples: 

The army has attacked that city five times.

I have had four quizzes and five tests so far this semester.

We have had many major problems while working on this project.

She has talked to several specialists about her problem, but nobody knows why she is sick.

Time Expressions with Present Perfect When we use the Present Perfect it means that something has happened at some point in our lives before now. Remember, the exact time the action happened is not important. 144


Sometimes, we want to limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with expressions such as: in the last week, in the last year, this week, this month, so far, up to now, etc. Examples: 

Have you been to Mexico in the last year?

I have seen that movie six times in the last month.

They have had three tests in the last week.

She graduated from university less than three years ago. She has worked for three different companies so far.

My car has broken down three times this week.

NOTICE "Last year" and "in the last year" are very different in meaning. "Last year" means the year before now, and it is considered a specific time which requires simple past. "In the last year" means from 365 days ago until now. It is not considered a specific time, so it requires Present Perfect. Examples: 

I went to Mexico last year. I WENT TO MEXICO IN THE CALENDAR YEAR BEFORE THIS ONE.

I have been to Mexico in the last year. I HAVE BEEN TO MEXICO AT LEAST ONCE AT SOME POINT BETWEEN 365 DAYS AGO AND NOW.

USE 2 Duration From the Past Until Now (Non-Continuous Verbs) We use the Present Perfect to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect.

145


Examples: 

I have had a cold for two weeks.

She has been in England for six months.

Mary has loved chocolate since she was a little girl.

Although the above use of Present Perfect is normally limited to NonContinuous Verbs and non-continuous uses of Mixed Verbs, the words "live," "work," "teach," and "study" are sometimes used in this way even though they are NOT Non-Continuous Verbs. ADVERB PLACEMENT The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc. Examples: 

You have only seen that movie one time.

Have you only seen that movie one time? Present Perfect Forms Positive

Negative

Question

 I have traveled.

 I have not traveled.

 Have I traveled?

 You have

 You have not

 Have you

traveled.  We have traveled.  They have

traveled.  He has traveled.

traveled.  We have not

traveled.  They have not

traveled.

traveled?  Have we traveled?  Have they

traveled?  Has he traveled?

 She has traveled.

 He has not traveled.

 Has she traveled?

 It has traveled.

 She has not traveled.

 Has it traveled?

 It has not traveled.

146


Simple Past / Present Perfect Using the words in parentheses, complete the text below with the appropriate tenses. 1. A:

Did you like the movie "Star B: I don't know. I (see, never)_____________ that movie.

Wars?"

2. Sam (arrive) _____________________in San Diego a week ago.

3. My best friend and I (know)________________each other for over fifteen years. We still get together once a week.

4. Stinson is a fantastic writer. He (write)________________ten very creative short stories in the last year. One day, he'll be as famous as Hemingway.

5. I

(have, not)_____________________this (be)________________________a kid.

much

fun

since

I

6. Things (change)_________________a great deal at Coltech, Inc. When we first (start)___________________working here three years ago, the company (have, only)_____________________six employees. Since then, we (expand)______________________to include more than 2000 full-time workers.

7. I (tell)____________________him to stay on the path while he was hiking, but he (wander)_________________off into the forest and (be)___________________bitten by a snake.

8. Listen Donna, I don't care if you (miss)_________________the bus this morning. You (be)____________________late to work too many times. You are fired!

147


9. Sam is from Colorado, which is hundreds of miles from the coast, so he (see, never)___________________the ocean. He should come with us to Miami.

10. How sad! George (dream)_________________of going to California before he died, but he didn't make it. He (see, never)______________________the ocean.

11. In the last hundred years, traveling (become)________________much easier and very comfortable. In the 19th century, it (take)_______________two or three months to cross North America by covered wagon. The trip (be)_______________very rough and often dangerous. Things (change)_______________a great deal in the last hundred and fifty years. Now you can fly from New York to Los Angeles in a matter of hours.

12. Jonny, I can't believe how much you (change)_____________since the last time I (see)______________you. You (grow)____________________at least a foot!

13. This tree (be)________________planted by the settlers who (found)_________________our city over four hundred years ago.

14. This mountain (be, never)________________climbed by anyone. Several mountaineers (try)__________________to reach the top, but nobody (succeed, ever)_________________. The climb is extremely difficult and many people (die)____________________trying to reach the summit.

15.

I

(visit, never)______________Africa, but I (travel)________________to South America several times. The last time I (go)__________________to South America, I (visit)_______________Brazil and Peru. I (spend)_________________two weeks in the Amazon, (hike)_______________for a week near Machu Picchu, and (fly)_______________________over the Nazca Lines.

148


Check the places you should visit according to your likes and dislikes, based on the previous ads. La Fortuna Hiking Biodiversity Aboriginal You like

history Climbing Eating at good restaurants Biking Hiking Walking in nature Indigenous history

You dislike Climbing Eating at good restaurants Biking

149

Mt. Chirripo

Gold Museum


Read the text and answer the questions. THINGS TO SEE IN LONDON Hyde Park is London's largest and most fashionable park. It was once a royal hunting forest. There are a lot of restaurants and bars at each end of the lake. You can swim or hire a boat on the Serpentine. Downing Street Number 10 Downing Street has been the home of the British Prime Minister since 1735. The Houses of Parliament Its official name is the Palace of Westminster. Most of the building was built in 1840 after fire in 1834 destroyed the old palace. At the north end of the building by Westminster Bridge is the famous clock tower, Big Ben. In fact Big Đ&#x2019;en is really the name of the bell in the tower not the clock. The Tower of London is London's oldest building. Since it was built by William the Conqueror in the 11th century, this castle has been a royal palace, a prison, a place of execution, a zoo, the Royal Mint and an observatory. Today it's a museum and houses the Crown Jewels. Gift shop. Open Monday - Saturday 9.30 - 5.45, Sundays 2 - 5.45 The National History Museum is situated in Kensington. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s one of London's greatest museums. Here you can see a huge collection of animals and plants, including a quarter of a million butterflies, a blue whale and the famous dinosaur skeletons. Cafeteria, gift shop and book shop. Open daily 10 - 5.45 Madame Tussaud's, Marylebone Road This famous waxworks has models of famous people from pop stars to prime ministers. It has displays

150


of battles and Chamber of Horrors. Gift shop. Open every day 10 - 5.30, except Christmas Day The Royal Observatory, Greenwich is 10 miles outside London on a hill above the River Thames. The Observatory contains telescopes and displays

about

international

meridian

line

runs

through

the

Observatory. It has video theatre and souvenir shop. You can have a picnic in Greenwich Park and take a river boat to Greenwich from Westminster Bridge. Open 10.30 a.m. - 5.30 p.m., closed 25-28 December.

1. What is the Serpentine? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 2. What is the Palace of Westminster? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

3. What is the Prime Minister's address? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 4. Where is the National History Museum? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 5. Where can you stand with one foot in the western hemisphere and one foot in the eastern hemisphere? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 6. At how many places can you buy something to eat? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 7. At how many places can you buy souvenirs? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 151


8. Where can you see butterflies? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 9. Which building is nine hundred years old? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 10. Which places open at half past ten in the morning? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 11. Find two places where you can see the Prime Minister? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 12. Which place is not open on Sunday mornings? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

Read the postcard. Pay attention to the rules of writing the address. Dear Mom and Dad! Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m having a great time here in London. We are staying at a nice hotel. I have a lot of things to do. Yesterday we visited the Tower of London and walked along

Jane and Tom Green

the streets. Tomorrow we are going to Covent Garden

55 Oak Lane

where I hope Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll buy some presents for you.

Manchester

On Saturday we are going to a barbecue party

MO 26 19YH

near Wimbledon. I think it will be great!

Miss you, Ann

152

England


Now, write your own post card to a friend telling him what he can do here in Costa Rica

Read the information and choose the alternative that best answers each question. Research and tourism in Uvita Island Located just off the port of Limon on the Costa Rican Caribbean, Uvita Island will become a tourist attraction and a biological research station, through a cooperation agreement between the Board for the Development of the Atlantic Basin (JAPDEVA, in Spanish) and the local government of the canton of Limón. A national heritage, the development will be strictly controlled according to the authorities, in order to preserve its marine and land resources. The small island boasts of lush vegetation, and it is surrounded by coral reefs. Even though it has received different names since 1512, when Christopher Columbus visited the area, its most popular one Uvita, that translates roughly as “small grape”- is due to the fact that there grows a tree that is unique to the Caribbean and whose fruit resembles grapes. La Nación Digital

153


1. Why will the provincial expert control rigorously the biological reserve a.

To keep both marine and land resources

b.

To create a new touristic attraction

c.

Because it is an agreement

d.

Because it is an island

2. What natural resources can a visitor find in Uvita? a.

Small islands

b.

Surrounded islands

c.

Different types of fruits

d.

Exuberant vegetation and coral reefs

3. Where did the island take its name from? a. Christopher Columbus gave the Island this name b. It is a Caribbean name for grapes c. It derivates from a particular tree d. Visitors grew grape trees 4. Who joined efforts to make Uvita a tourist attraction? a.

JAPDEVA and the local government

b.

La Naci贸n and national authorities

c.

The fruits vendors

d.

The marines

154


Read the following texts and do the exercises that follow Trip to the Rainforest

Have an Unforgettable Adventure

Visit Costa Rica’s classic rainforest This

classic

multi-sport

itinerary

areas, starting on a jungle cruise explores some of Costa Rica’s more through

the

Caribbean

coastal rugged terrain and is designed for

waterways of Tortuguero known for active travelers who are in good its protection of endangered sea shape.

Hike and ride horseback

turtles. Feel the mist of refreshing trough Rincón del la Vieja National waterfalls of La Paz on route to the Park,

known

for

its

spectacular

steamy lowland rainforest of Arenal scenery, picturesque waterfalls and Volcano, where you will have a bubbling mud pots warmed by an chance to soak in mineral rich hot active volcano. springs, heated by the active volcano.

Descend to the rainforest of Costa

Take a memorable walk in the clouds Rica’s northern zone and enjoy a day at Monteverde cloud forest, preserve of mountain biking in the rainforest and explore the forest canopy on an surrounding Lake Arenal.

Take a

exciting tour of Sky Walk, a series of free day in Arenal to opt in to suspension bridges offereing birds- adventure activities in the area. eye view of the cloud forest habitat. Spend your last days on a high Explore the white sands beaches and adrenaline

rafting

trip

on

the

rainforest of Manuel Antonio National stunningly beautiful Pacuare River Park, on Costa Rica’s Central Pacific (Level coast.

III-IV),

flowing

through

a

rainforest canyon

Taken from: www.ticotimes.net

Answer the following questions about the readings (“Trip to the Rainforest” and “Have an Unforgettable Adventure”)

155


1. What are the classic rainforest areas? 2. Where can you do bird watching? 3. Where does the multi-sport itinerary begin? 4. What can you do in the last days of the multi-sport trip? Fill out the following chart with the information from the readings (“Trip to the Rainforest” and “Have an Unforgettable Adventure”) Tourist Site

Characteristics of the Activities you can Place

do there

Protected endangered species Take a bath in the hot springs La Paz

156


Seventh Topic

COMMON ILLNESSES AND NEW DISEASES AND EPIDEMICS

157


Objectives 

Drawing inferences.

Identifying the purpose of short messages

Formulating propositions and doubts and answering questions.

Understanding a range of imaginative and factual material that includes some complex sentences and unfamiliar language.

Structuring ideas.

Linking sentences and paragraphs.

Content Common illnesses, diseases, epidemics and prevention: What's the matter? How do you feel? Have you seen a doctor? Do you know about ___? You need to take/drink/stay in bed etc. What are the symptoms of ____? What are some sexual diseases? Etc.

158


At the Doctorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

Read, translate and label the right pictures!

159


11. to examine a patient with a

1. to weigh

stethoscope

2. to stay in bed

12. to take (check)

3. to have a finger prick blood test

temperature

4. to put a bandage

13. to take an x-ray

5. to examine one's eye

14. to suffer from heat

6. to examine a patient with a tongue depressor

exhaustion

7. to give an injection to a patient

15. to measure height

8. to have an arm in a sling

16. to have a dental checkup

9. to use an inhaler

17. to do (leg) exercises

10. to have a rash

18. to have a scar 19. to take blood pressure 20. to give first aid

160


Health, Illness and Injuries A disease is used for serious condition caused by an infection and illness is a more general word

The illness I’ve got a cold

I’ve got flu

I’ve got hay fever ……….. I’ve got diarrhoea I feel sick I’ve got a hangover …… I’ve got a constipation ….

The symptoms The cause I’ve got a sore throat A virus ……...., sneezing …………, a cough ………….. The same symptoms A virus as a cold and also aching muscles and temperature …………… Sneezing, runny nose, Allergic sore eyes reactions to Blowing my nose all pollen the time …… I keep going to the Often food, or toilet ………… a virus I want to vomit Food, alcohol, ……………… Headache, feeling Too much sick,… alcohol. I don’t go to the toilet Little exercise everyday and water

WRITE THE NUMBERS IN THE TABLE.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 For these illnesses we can buy something in the chemist or the doctor may give us a prescription.

161


Serious Illness

Aches and Pains

Doctors believe that smoking is the major We can have a headache, a stomachcause of lung cancer. ache, toothache, backache or earache BUT we have a pain in the other parts of Hepatitis is a liver disease. my body: Asthma has become more common.

I feel really bad, I’ve got a pain in my leg and a terrible headache.

Cholesterol is the main cause of heart attacks. WOUND and INJURY are both used to describe damage to the body, but wound is generally caused by a weapon and it is usually intentional.

He shot the man and now he has a serious bullet wound in the chest. He stabbed the boy and now he has a serious knife wound in the back. He got into a fight and got beaten up. He had a black eye and two broken ribs.

My back aches or hurts and also I hurt my back playing baseball. And I had an injection yesterday and it was painful. I don’t

An is damage to painless. part of your body, know injury why because but it is usually usually caused by an accident at home, on the road or during a game (for instance during a football match). GIVE SOLUTIONS TO THESE INJURIES THE PROBLEM I cut finger

ORIGIN

RESULT

SOLUTION

my Using a It’s A ……………… knife bleeding

I cut my leg I fell It’s bleeding badly over a lot

A ………………

I twisted Running I can’t rest for the walk my ankle bus easily

I broke my I fell off I can’t ………………. arm my bike use it and a …………… I’ve got a Playing concussion football

162

I’m rest confused

I burnt my hand

Cooking It’s very painful

I’ve got a bruise on my arm

I hit it on the side of my desk

It’s swollen and black

Special cream

…………………


Now it’s your turn: 1. I hit my hand on the desk and it really 2. They say she died of a heart ………… 3. He had some apples that weren’t ready to eat ………………………..

and now she’s got stomach-

4. I’ve got this terrible ….......................in my neck. 5. He died of ……………… cancer even though she never smoked a cigarette in his life. 6. I went to the doctor and she gave me a

…………………… for some tablets.

7. Pollution makes her ………………………….. worse and it’s to breathe.

difficult for her

8. There are different forms of hepatitis; one is a ………………………………… than the other.

more serious

9. I hurt ……………. …………………… when I fell off that COMPLETE THE TEXT WITH THESE WORDS

10. My back ……………….. from sitting at the computer

chair.

all day.

Blood tests - ambulance - collided - stitches

SOLUTIONS

- unconscious - cuts - knocked himself unconscious

SLING

BANDAGE

PLASTER PLASTER

ICE PACK

John fell off a chair, hit his head on the floor, and …………………………………………………... His wife called an ……………………… but John was still ……………………… when it arrived. He was rushed to hospital where they kept him for two days for ………………... I jumped for the ball and …………………………….. with another player. We both had ……………………. on our head, but I had to go to hospital for eight ………………………………..

163


Common Ailments Complete the following Chart problem / symptom

part(s) of body

cause(s)

Sprain Cut Break Sore -ache Infection Arteries Heart Runny Rash Diarrhea Obesity nausea Stiff Indigestion

164

remedy / treatment


Common Treatments

Pills

Antibiotics

Medicine

cream / ointment

Band Aid

plaster cast

operation / surgery

Physiotherapy

acupuncture / other traditional treatment

Ice

Bandage

Liposuction

Injection

lifestyle changes changes in diet

165


English-Spanish

Spanish-English

ankle

el tobillo

la axila

Armpit

arm

el brazo

la barba

Beard

armpit

la axila

el bigote

moustache

back

la espalda

la boca

Mouth

backbone

el espinazo

el brazo

Arm

beard

la barba

la cabeza

Head

belly

el vientre

la cadera

Hips

blood

la sangre

la cara

Face

body

el cuerpo

la ceja

Eyebrow

bone

el hueso

el cerebro

Brain

brain

el cerebro

la cintura

Waist

cheek

la mejilla

el codo

Elbow

chest

el pecho

el corazón

Heart

ear

la oreja

el cráneo

Skull

elbow

el codo

el cuello

Neck

eye

el ojo

el cuerpo

Body

eyebrow

la ceja

el dedillo

little finger

eyelash

la pestaña

el dedo

Finger

face

la cara

el dedo anular

ring finger

finger

el dedo

el dedo del pie Toe

fist

el puño

el diente

Tooth

foot

el pie

la espalda

Back

forefinger

el índice

el espinazo

backbone

forehead

la frente

el esqueleto

Skeleton

166


hair

el pelo

el estómago

Stomach

hand

la mano

la frente

forehead

head

la cabeza

la garganta

Throat

heart

el corazón

el hígado

Liver

heel

el talón

el hombro

shoulder

hips

la cadera

el hueso

Bone

intestines

el intestino

el índice

forefinger

kidney

el riñón

el intestino

intestines

knee

la rodilla

los labios

Lips

leg

la pierna

la lengua

Tongue

lips

los labios

la mano

Hand

little finger

el dedillo

la mejilla

Cheek

liver

el hígado

la muñeca

Wrist

lung

el pulmón

el músculo

Muscle

moustache el bigote

el muslo

Thigh

mouth

la boca

la nariz

Nose

muscle

el músculo

el nervio

Nerve

nail

la uña

la nuca

Occiput

neck

el cuello

el ojo

Eye

nerve

el nervio

la oreja

Ear

nose

la nariz

el órgano

Organ

occiput

la nuca

la palma

Palm

organ

el órgano

el pecho

Chest

palm

la palma

el pelo

Hair

ring finger

el dedo anular

la pestaña

eyelash, lashes

167


shoulder

el hombro

el pie

Foot

skeleton

el esqueleto

la piel

Skin

skin

la piel

la pierna

Leg

skull

el cráneo

la planta

Sole

sole

la planta

el pulgar

Thumb

stomach

el estómago

el pulmón

Lung

temple

la sien

el puño

Fist

thigh

el muslo

el riñón

Kidney

throat

la garganta

la rodilla

Knee

thumb

el pulgar

la sangre

Blood

toe

el dedo del pie

la sien

Temple

tongue

la lengua

el talón

Heel

tooth

el diente

el tobillo

Ankle

waist

la cintura

la uña

Nail

womb

el útero

el útero

Womb

wrist

la muñeca

el vientre

Belly

168


169


Ailments 1. bruise 2. backache 3. fever 4. high blood pressure 5. burn 6. cut 7. sprain (as in sprained ankle) 8. rash

9. toothache 10. earache 11. cough 12. cold 13. stomach ache 14. sore throat 15. dizziness 16. headache

170


Giving Advice / Remedies You should... 1. Use a heating pad, get bed rest, and don’t lift heavy things. 2. Drink hot tea with lemon and don’t talk too much. 3. Drink a lot of liquids and stay in bed. 4. Lie down, put a pillow under your foot, and use an ice pack on your ankle. 5. Take two aspirin and lie down to rest. 6. Take cough syrup. 7. Take … A letter from the hospital Read the letter and then answer the questions. Tower Hamlets Hospital NHS Outpatient Department Stepney Road London E2 6SF Ms Hawa Ahmed 20 Cromwell House Canter Road London E1 4BX 30th June Dear Ms Ahmed, You have an appointment for a scan. Clinic: Antenatal (baby clinic) Doctor: Dr Riley Date: Tuesday 14th July Time: 10:30 am Please bring any medicines you are taking. If you cannot attend, please telephone the Outpatients Department on 020 6700 5211 to make another appointment. Yours sincerely, 171


Mary Carr Clinic Administrator

1. What is the appointment for? ……………………………………………………………………………………… 2 What date is the appointment? ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3 What time? ……………………………………………………………………………………… 4 What is the name of the doctor? ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5 What must Hawa bring? ……………………………………………………………………………………… 6 What must Hawa do if she can't go? ……………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………… Read the following text then answer the questions Human Body Your heart is really a muscle. It's located a little to the left of the middle of your chest, and it's about the size of your fist. There are lots of muscles all over your body - in your arms, in your legs, in your back, even in your behind. But this muscle is special because of what it does - the heart sends blood around your body. The blood provides your body with the oxygen and nutrients it needs. It also carries away the waste that your body has to get rid of. Your heart is sort of like a pump, or two pumps in one. The right side of your heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side of the heart does the exact opposite: it receives blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the body. By the time you're grown up, your heart will be beating (pumping) about 70 times a minute. How does the heart beat? Before each beat, your heart fills with blood. Then it 172


contracts to squirt the blood along. When something contracts, it squeezes tighter - try squeezing your hand into a fist. That's sort of like what your heart does so it can squirt out the blood. Your heart does this all day and all night, all the time. Every day, an adult heart pumps 2,000 gallons (7,500 liters) of recycled blood by filling and contracting. The heart is one tough worker! _________________________________

1. Where is your heart located?

_________________________________

2. Where else can you find

_________________________________

muscles in your body besides the

_________________________________

heart?

_________________________________ 3. Why do we need a heart?

_________________________________ _________________________________

_________________________________ 4. Which organ(s) directly works _________________________________

with the heart?

_________________________________

173


Read the following text ANDREA WHO USED TO BE ANOREXIC

I was a chubby child and I had a perfectly skinny twin sister. She seemed to receive all my parents’ attention, because she was thin. I felt ignored which developed my shyness. So, I thought that going on a diet would increase my self-esteem and get people to notice me. I started to eat a bowl of cereals for breakfast so my parents would think I was eating properly. I didn’t have lunch. After school I always went to practise tennis on an empty stomach and exercised as much as I could for two hours. At dinner, my family always ate together so I had to eat a full meal, but then I rushed to the bathroom to induce vomit. I lost weight and people gave me the nicest compliments. The compliments felt so good, so I kept dieting. But my parents and friends noticed my bad eating habits and they forced me to eat and didn’t leave my side. I denied my eating problem for a long time until last year. I received a terrific support from my family and especially from my boyfriend, which I think helped me a lot through my problem. I now try to have a balanced diet instead of getting the fewest calories possible. I now feel more confident about my body and have higher self-esteem. Andrea

174


COMPREHENSION

A- Say if the following sentences are True or False. Correct the False ones. T F 1. When Andrea was a child, she was fatter than her sister.

 2. Andrea wasn’t a sociable child.

 3. Andrea didn’t have breakfast while she was dieting.

 4. She practised tennis because she wanted to be a good tennis player.   5. Andrea believed she didn’t have a problem for a long time.

B- Match the words taken from the text with their synonym or explanation. 1. self-esteem

a) correctly

1.

2. properly

b) eating disorder

2.

3. eating problem

c) help

3.

4. support

d) the feeling of being satisfied with

4.

5. higher

e) better

5.

175


C- Answer these questions with complete answers. Use your own words as far as possible.

1. What was Andrea like when she was a child? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

2. Why did Andrea start to diet? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 3. What did she do to lose weight? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 4. Did Andrea achieve her goals? Account for your answer with a sentence from the text. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 5. How did she recover from her problem? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 6. Is Andrea a happier person now? Justify. ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

176


Doctors don’t always know what causes high blood pressure which is also called hypertension, but we do know a few things about this disease. For example, more men than women have it, and it usually begins in middle or old aged persons. It sometimes runs in families. Many people have high blood pressure without knowing it, because there are usually no clear symptoms. If you want to know whether you have high blood pressure, ask your doctor to check it with a blood pressure instrument. If you have high blood pressure, what can you do about it? If you are heavy, losing weight will help. Some patient’s blood pressure goes down when they reduce eating over salted food. Other people can improve by learning how to relax and by doing the right kind of exercise. Fortunately, it is possible to control high blood pressure today with proper medicine. If not controlled, high blood pressure can lead to serious problems, like heart disease. Answer the questions below based on the previous passage: 1- What is hypertension? ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………. 2- Name four things a patient of high blood pressure should do? a. ……………………………………………………….. b.

……………………….………………………………

c.

………………………………………………………..

d.

………………………………………………….….. 177


B) Choose the correct completion: a.

It is not

_____ for a person to discover he is suffering from

hypertension. a. important. b.

b. interested.

c. clear.

________ women than men suffer from high blood pressure. a. More.

b. As many as.

c. Fewer.

3- Hypertension requires. the patient to eat food with less________ a. sugar.

b. salt.

c. fresh juice.

4- When you reduce something, you make it ________ a. better.

b. more.

c. less.

5- Heart disease can be caused by ____________ . a. hypertension.

b. relaxing

.

c. diet.

6- When you improve something, you make it ___________ . a. worse.

b. ugly.

c. better.

7- When a patient sees a doctor, the doctor usually asks him about ____. a. the symptoms. b. the treatment.

c. his family

8- The pronoun â&#x20AC;&#x153; theyâ&#x20AC;? on line 10 refers to ______ a. doctors.

b. patients.

178

c. medicines.


C) Put ( true ) or ( false ): 1- Only old people suffer from hypertension.

(

)

2- Hypertension is almost controlled with the proper medicine. (

)

3- It is hard for doctors to know the real cause of high blood pressure

(

4- It is not possible to control high blood pressure. D) Find the antonyms of the following words from the passage:

1- low

X

…………………………

2- less

X

…………………………

3- wrong

X

………………………..

4- up

X

………………………..

5- unfortunately

X

…………..……….......

6- with

X

………………………...

7- young

X

…………………………..

8- impossible

X

…………………………..

179

)

( )


Read the following text Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually transmitted diseases (also called STDs,) are infections that can be transferred from one person to another through sexual contact. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are over 15 million cases of sexually transmitted disease cases reported annually in the United States. There are more than 25 diseases that are transmitted through sexual activity. Other than HIV, the most common STDs in the United States are chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, hepatitis B, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Adolescents and young adults are the age groups at the greatest risk for acquiring an STD. Approximately 19 million new infections occur each year, almost half of them among people ages 15 to 24. Some STDs can have severe consequences, especially in women, if not treated, which is why it is so important to go for STD testing. Some STDs can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, which can cause infertility, while others may even be fatal. STDs can be prevented by refraining from sexual activity, and to a certain extent, some contraceptive devices, such as condoms.

Herpes Virus: Herpes is another STD that presently has no cure. Or is there a cure for Herpes? Today, treatment is available and there are a number of things you can do yourself at home to help relieve your genital herpes, as well as natural herpes treatment. Herpes symptoms include blisters or sores that periodically break out on the genitals.

HIV/AIDS: One STD that many people are worried about getting is HIV. While new ways of treating this infection can significantly prolong an infected person's life, for far too many people this infection eventually progresses to AIDS and, ultimately, death. More than 40 million people worldwide are infected with the HIV virus; women account for 50% of those infected. 180


Recently, studies have found a link between the use of hormonal birth control and HIV. In the US, African Americans account for a disproportionate number of HIV cases. Many people may not realize they are infected, as the HIV virus is often asymptomatic for the first few years. HIV testing is the only sure way to know if you are infected. However, you can take steps to help prevent the infection. Find out about a new method that could prevent an HIV infection in women using the cervical cap and microbicides.

Syphilis: Throughout history, cases of syphilis have been recorded. While this STD has not always been effectively dealt with, nowadays, syphilis can easily be treated and cured. However, as history has shown, without treatment, syphilis symptoms can progress and affect the nervous system and brain leading to dementia and even death.

Sometimes

STD

symptoms

can

be

confused

with

mononucleosis.

Characterized by a fever, sore throat, and extreme weakness, mono is a viral infection that needs to be treated right away. If you think you have the illness, seek mono treatment as soon as possible. Also, yeast infection can cause painful itching and burning, and can even be transmitted sexually According to the reading answer the following questions 1.

What is the meaning of sexually transmitted diseases?

……………………………………………………………………………………… 2.

Why are sexual diseases spreading?

………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.

Which illnesses are caused by bacteria?

…………………………………………………………………………………………

181


4.

Which illnesses are caused by a virus?

............................................................................................................................. 5.

How is syphilis treated?

............................................................................................................................. 6.

What does HIV cause in the body?

………………………………………………………………………………………… 7.

Which diseases are mortal for humans?

............................................................................................................................. 8.

What are some possible consequences STD may have?

………………………………………………………………………………………… Complete the following chart with information from the reading. Include the disease, some symptoms and treatment. Disease

Symptoms

182

Treatment


EIGHTH TOPIC

OUR DEMOCRATIC TRADITION

183


Objectives Understanding relations within the sentence (structure, syntax, morphological, modification of structure and negation) characteristic of spoken language. Identifying text types. Discussing alternative possibilities and their consequences. Criticizing. Identifying details in familiar material. Understanding relations between the parts of a text through lexical cohesion devices.

Content Costa Rican Democracy : What do you understand by ____ (democracy, freedom, sovereignty, etc.)? What do you think about ____ (democracy, politics, the right to vote/ speak, etc.? It's the government for the people, by the people and of the people. Parties, voters, ballot, ballot process, citizenship, ruler, laws, etc. Qualities of democracy/equality,

184


Read the following text Our Democracy Costa Rican national pride has its roots in the historical origins of its democracy; our people have always believed in reform rather than revolution and repression. A foundation stone of Costa Rican democracy is the 1949 Constitution in which this country is declared a Democratic Republic. This body of laws can be considered one of our strongest democratic bases. It guarantees citizens as well as foreigners basic rights: the right to own property, the right to petition and assembly, the right to habeas corpus and the freedom of speech. Another pillar of our democratic system is the governmental division of powers, which are independent from one another. The government is separated into an executive, a legislative and a judicial branch. The executive branch includes a President, two vice presidents and seventeen members of the Council of Government. The Legislative Assembly includes judges that have been appointed by the Legislative Assembly to serve for a minimum of eight years. Last but not least, there is a Special Electoral Tribunal with three judges that oversee the sacred right to vote and to hold elections Our democracy is not a stroke of luck, it has been woven throughout all these years and it is the consolidation of our ancestorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; dreams and hopes. Adapted from: http://www.infocostarica.com/general/democracy.html

Choose the best option that best completes each statement. 185


1. Costa Ricaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s national pride is its __________________ a.

Constitution

b.

Government

c.

President

d.

Democracy

2. The Constitution guarantees some basic rights to ___________ a.

Costa Ricans and citizens

b.

Its citizens

c.

Costa Ricans and foreigners

d.

Its foreigners

3. One basic right that Costa Ricans have is ______________ a.

The government

b.

Freedom of speech

c.

The executive power

d.

Democratic system

4. The government is divided into -----------------------a.

Eight years

b.

Two branches

c.

Three branches

d.

Seventeen members

Based on the previous reading, look for the words below the match the concept in column A to its definition in column B. 186


Column A

Column B

1. Freedom of Speech

(

) a rule that tells the way

society should behave

2. Reliance

(

3. Law

) people who live in a particular

country

4. Judge

(

) people who come from

5. Foreigners

another country

6. Citizens

(

) confidence in something or

someone (

) the right to express your

opinions publicly (

) a person who decides who is

guilty and who is innocent. Politics Vocabulary Act Ballot Bill Budget Cabinet civil servant Campaign Capitalist Candidate Centrist Coalition colonialist communist Congress congressman democracy democratic dictator election electoral roll/register electorate

Ley Voto proyecto de ley Presupuesto Gabinete empleado public Campaña Capitalista Candidato del centro Coalición colonialista comunista Congreso congresista democracia democrático dictador elección padrón electoral electorado 187


fascist government to govern imperialist King left-wing Member of Parliament Minister Ministry monarchy nationalist opposition Parliament Party policy political politician politics Poll president Prime Minister Prince Princess Queen referendum republic right-wing Secretary Secretary socialist too close to call totalitarian to elect to vote to call an election to vote to run for president Voter Democratic Party US Republican Party US Conservative Party Labour Party (GB) democrat (US) republican (US) Tory (GB)

fascista gobierno gobernar imperialista Rey de izquierda parlamentarista ministro ministerio monarquía nacionalista oposición Parlamento partido política, plan de acción político (adjetivo) político (sustantivo) política encuesta presidente Primer Ministro Príncipe Princesa Reina referendum república de derecha secretario secretaría socialista muy ajustado para dar un ganador totalitario elegir votar llamar a elecciones votar ser candidato a presidente votante partido demócrata partido republicano partido conservador partido laborista demócrata Republicano miembro del partido conservador 188


Topic: Politics, elections, voting (common terms and expressions)

Choose the best response:

1. A close race = A ___________ a. tight b. close-knit

2. Many senators support his ___________ ( = attempt) to become president. a. Bid b. bead

3. Her campaign is gaining ________ = Her campaign is becoming more and more effective/successful a. quickness b. momentum 4. The probable nominee = The ________ nominee a. likely b. likeable 5. That victory established him as the clear front-________. a. Runner b. place

6. Voter ________ was very high = A lot of people voted a. appearance b. turnout 189


7. The senator said that he would ________ ( = support) the other candidate. a . Back b. back-out 8. The presidential election will be ________ on November 1st. a. Located b. held 9. The other candidate for mayor claimed that he was ________ to improving recycling in the city. a. Bound b. committed 10. She was able to ________ a lot of money for her campaign. a. Raise b. rise

Read the following text Laura Chinchilla won Costa

Rica's presidential election

Sunday with 47 percent of

the vote, becoming the first

woman to lead the Central

American

Costa Rica reports that her

two

conceded before even half

the

nation.

male votes

Inside

opponents had

been

counted. Chinchilla, 50, is a career politician who has held numerous positions in the Costa Rican government and served on the cabinet of outgoing President Oscar Arias. She was previously a public safety minister, a congressional deputy, vice president of the cabinet, and a justice minister. She supports 190


liberalizing the nation's economic policies and its state-run electricity and telecommunications industries.

According to Reuters, Chinchilla is a social conservative who opposes gay marriage and has pledged to keep the Roman Catholic Church as the country's state religion. Throughout the campaign she wore a rosary for good luck and was often showered with them by supporters on the trail Answer these questions based on the reading When has Chinchilla worked in politics before? ______________________________________________________________ What are some things Chinchillaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s government support? ______________________________________________________________ What controversial issues do Chinchilla have to deal with being a conservative? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

What did she wear during her campaign as a sign of good luck? ______________________________________________________________ Read the information and choose the alternative that best completes each sentence. Today Costa Rica is governed by the Constitution of November 7 th, 1949. While this Constitution made many advances over previous ones, perhaps its most outstanding provision, and the one that is even beginning to be emulated by other countries, is that which prohibits the existence of a standing army. 191


The Constitution provides for a President, exercising Executive power. He or she is elected by popular vote for a period of four years. There are two VicePresidents and a Board of Ministers, but no Prime Minister. The Congress is a single chambered legislature whose members are elected form candidates chosen by the different political parties, by popular vote. There are 57 congressmen elected to four years terms. The most important judicial body in the nation is the Supreme Court. Its 47 members are selected by the legislature for a minimum of 8 years. Other court of great importance is the Electoral Tribune, which ensures the fairness of elections. Adapted from Join Us Magazine

1.

The current Costa Rica constitution _____________ a. Promotes an army in other countries b. Prohibits wars in the country c. Is better that previous ones d. Became worst than others

2. People vote to choose the _______ a. Executive powers b. Political parties c. Prime Minister d. Ministers 3. The text states that ____________ a. the congress is a non political chamber b. the political parties choose the congressmen 192


c. citizens choose candidates to the congress d. the legislative chamber is elected by the people 4.

The Costa Rican congress _____________ a. Selects the members of the Supreme Court b. Ensures the fairness of elections c. Belongs to the judicial body d. Is made up of 17 members.

Read the following text Americans may have forgotten what democracy looks like. Our current president was chosen in 2000 not by the voters -- Al Gore won the popular vote by a comfortable margin of more than 500,000 ballots -- but by a Supreme-Court

John Nichols

dictated Electoral College vote. Another Electoral College "win" came in 2004, when George Bush secured a second term on the "strength" of Ohio results that, while more

Breaking news and analysis on political, social, economic and cultural activism that mainstream media commonly ignore.

favorable to the Republicans than the 2000 numbers from the battleground state of Florida, were so dubious in their generation and so uncertain in their accuracy that the congressional certification was challenged by Ohio representatives and the ranking member of the House Judiciary Committee. Our Congress, which was elected in 2006 to end the war in Iraq, has rejected the will of the people and handed the Bush-Cheney administration more money than it requested to maintain the occupation of a sovereign land where the people would prefer to guide their own affairs. And even as the vast majority of Americans -- including six in ten Republicans

--

oppose

trade

policies

that

offshore

jobs,

devastate

communities in the U.S. and abroad and batter the environment, an 193


unconscionable president and an unresponsive Congress pursue new agreements designed to empower corporations rather than citizens. If Americans want to find evidence of democracy, they might look south to the Latin American republic of Costa Rica -- where voters will decide Sunday on whether they want their country to sign onto the Central American Free Trade Agreement that is currently being promoted by the White House, The Wall Street Journal and the multinational corporations that are the generous the patrons of both those institutions. Imagine that: In Costa Rica, the people are being invited to participate in the debate over their economic future. Democracy has never had many friends among the elites. But Sanders is right to celebrate the fact that, as he notes, "On Oct. 7, Costa Rica will become the first country where citizens have the opportunity to vote for or against a trade agreement. Despite being heavily outspent by the moneyed interests, despite opposition from the Costa Rican government and the U.S. ambassador, despite an extremely hostile media, the latest polls have the election as a tossup. Incredibly, just the other day, in a nation of only four million people, well over 100,000 marched in opposition to the treaty -- a sign of the deep grassroots opposition there to CAFTA." Make no mistake, Sanders is being attacked for expressing deeply-rooted American values. Instead of threatening Costa Rica, our leaders should renew those values by borrowing a page from our good neighbor to the south. If Costa Rica can democratize the trade debate, why not the U.S.? Answer these questions Is the author criticizing Costa Ricaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s government or the USAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s government? How can you tell? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 194


What event has put Costa Rica in the map as a real democratic country according to the article? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

What are some issues the American Congress havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t paid attention despite citizenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s pleas? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ What are some values the author encourages USA government to look in Costa Rica? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Write your opinion about what real democracy is? How should the government be? What citizen rights would you implement and what would you eliminate? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

195


Ninth Topic

CAREERS, JOBS AND LIFESTYLES

196


Objectives

Understanding ideas and information in the text through making inferences

Understanding a range of imaginative and factual material that includes some complex sentences and unfamiliar language.

Understanding the communicative value (function) of sentences and utterances.

Expressing and justifying ideas, opinions or personal points of view and seeking the views of others.

Expressing a range of responses and attitudes to events, issues or opinions, giving reasons. Content

Careers, jobs, lifestyles: Which professions are ____? What professions do you ____? What do you know/think of ____? Are there as many ____ as ____? Which are the benefits of ____? I'd like (to) ____ because ____. How much does a ____ earn/cost at ____? What does he/she do? Where can you major in ___? ____ is better than ____.

197


198


199


What do they do? A police officer

200


Where do they work?

Now write a small paragraph describing what these people do and their functions and where do they work?

201


Match the jobs on the left to their definitions on the right. _____ Journalist

1) Person who drives a bus. 2) He/she works in a school and

_____ Teacher _____ police officer

teaches students. 3)

Rescues

people

from

burning

buildings and helps put out fires. _____ accountant

4) Works in hospital and helps doctors. 5) Defends people's rights in court.

_____ Business person

6) Flies an airplane.

7) takes people's orders in a restaurant and serves them food. _____ doctor 8) Works in a police station and _____ nurse

maintains public security. 9) Works in a bank and keeps records

_____ pilot _____ taxi driver

of money. 10) Works in a hospital and treats patients.

_____ bus driver

11) Answers phone calls and does office work for his/her boss.

_____ manager _____ chef

12) Drives a taxi. 13) Person who reports news on TV, radio or Newspaper.

_____ actor

14) Does the cooking in a restaurant or hotel.

_____ actress _____ firefighter

15) A woman who plays a role in a movie. 16) Manages the affairs of a company

_____ lawyer

or business. 17) One who does business.

_____ secretary

18) A man who acts in a movie.

202


CAN YOU FIND THESE OCCUPATIONS ON THE CROSSWORD PUZZLE? W

R

R

E

H

C

A

E

T

V

E

T

P

E

W

A

I

T

E

R

I

I

Z

R

P

T

U

N

U

V

A

C

S

N

E

C

L

H

C

V

R

C

G

O

G

V

L

A

U

G

W

O

T

U

L

W

I

D

A

R

M

I

Z

O

W

D

O

R

G

O

W

P

B

F

R

T

I

B

D

H

F

C

Y

E

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F

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F

M

T

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N

R

R

R

H

S

C

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D

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T

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I

N

U

M

R

H

Z

L

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D

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B

F

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A

F

B

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B

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203


1. Read the story carefully paying attention to the verbs, Tenses, articles and prepositions. 2. Circle 5 verbs in the Past Tense. 3. Underline 5 verbs in the Present Simple. 4. Using a RED pencil mark at least 5 prepositions 5. Using a BLUE pencil mark at least 5 articles. 6. Using a GREEN pencil mark at least 5 verbs in the Present continuous. 7. Translate the text and find 5 Cognates or transparent words. 8. Write a short paragraph about what you understood about the main idea of the text. 9. Find more information about this JOB, its characteristics, graduation, salary, uniform A police motorcycle cop stops a driver for running a red light. The guy is a real jerk and comes running back to the officer demanding to know why he is being harassed by the Gestapo! So the officer calmly tells him of the red light violation. The motorist instantly goes on a tirade, questioning the officer's ancestry, sexual orientation, etc., in rather explicit terms. The tirade goes on without the officer saying anything. When he gets done with writing the ticket he puts an "AH" in the lower right corner of the narrative portion of the ticket. He then hands it to the 'violator' for his signature. The guy signs the ticket angrily, and when presented with his copy points to the "AH" and demands to know what it stands for. The officer says, "That's so when we go to court, I'll remember that you're an asshole!" Two months later they're in court. The 'violator' has such a bad driving record he is about to lose his license and has hired a lawyer to represent him. On the stand the officer testifies to seeing the man run the red light. Under cross examination the defense attorney asks; "Officer is this a reasonable facsimile of the ticket you issued my client?"

204

Officer responds, "Yes, sir, that is the defendant's copy, his signature and mine, same number at the top." Lawyer: "Officer, is there any particular marking or notation on this ticket you don't normally make?" "Yes, sir, in the lower right corner of the narrative there is an "AH," underlined." "What does the "AH" stand for, officer?" "Aggressive and hostile, Sir."

"Aggressive and hostile?" "Yes, Sir? "Officer, are you sure it doesn't stand for Asshole?" "Well, sir, you know your client better than I do!"


Jobs

Who am I?

1. I fly aeroplanes. I travel quickly. I am a _ _ _ _ _ . 2. I look after your teeth. I really won't hurt you. I am a _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 3. I work in the fields with animals. I drive a tractor. I am a _ _ _ _ _ _ . 4. I have a job on a boat. I use nets and rods. I am a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 5. I sometimes work in a hospital. I help people who are ill. I am a _ _ _ _ _. 6. I work under the ground. I dig for coal. I am a _ _ _ _ _. 7. I get up very early in the morning. I make bread and cakes I am a _ _ _ _ _. 8. I bring you letters and parcels. I visit many houses. I am a _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 9. I am very brave. I put out fires I am a _ _ _ _ _ _ _. 10. I sell meat and sausages. I am a _ _ _ _ _ _ _. BAKER - PILOT - POSTMAN - NURSE - DENTIST - FIREMAN - BUTCHER - FARMER â&#x20AC;&#x201C; MINER - FISHERMAN

205


Read the following passage UK’s Happiest Jobs When it comes to happiness at work, hairdressers are a cut above the rest according to this year's City & Guilds' 'Happiness Index.' On the other hand, secretaries/PAs/admin workers like their jobs the least. The saying 'Money can't buy you happiness' certainly seems true. Almost a third of people in the £10 - £15k bracket rated their job 10/10, while less than 5 per cent of workers earning £40

- £45k gave their jobs a 10.

"It may come as a surprise to some that financial reward doesn't always mean a happier working environment or employee" comments Chris Humphries, director general of City & Guilds. Both (hairdressers and beauty therapists) attributed their contentment to strong relationships with their colleagues. Salon professionals also value having an interest in what they do for a living, which 100 per cent of hairdressers believe is important to on-the-job happiness. Contributing to happiness in the workplace is the ability to meet lots new people and being made to feel appreciated. Secretaries, PAs, administrators and others working in the business support sector feel the least appreciated. So what factors do make us whistle while we work? 19 per cent of us would like to do something worthwhile and almost 15 per cent just want a more flexible workday. Humphries found, "Some of the happiest workers are those who feel they have a lot of opportunities for professional development." "Nowadays true job satisfaction and happiness is about fulfilling your full potential, tapping into your own creativity, and feeling that you can make a difference."

206


Here, then, are the UK's 20 happiest jobs to work in, according to City & Guilds (average happiness rating in brackets) :

1) Hairdresser (8.7) 2) Beauty Therapist (8) 3) Early Years/Childcare (7.8) 4, 5) Doctor/Dentist (7.5) 6) Plumber (7.4) 7) Electrician (7.3) 8) Construction (7.2) 9) Leisure/Tourism (7.2) 10) Media/Creative (7.2) 11) Accountant (7) 12) Law (6.8) 13) Marketing/PR/Advertising (6.8) 14) Nursing (6.8) 15) Teaching/Education (6.7) 16) Automotive (6.6) 17) Human Resources (6.5) 18) Banking/Insurance/Finance (6.4) 19) Catering (6.3) 20) Secretarial/PA/Admin (6.1)

Work on these exercises based on the reading

According to the text, why are hairdressers and beauticians the happiest professions? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

207


Why are secretaries less satisfied with their jobs? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Is your dream job or your parentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; job on the list? What do you think about its rating? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Write two types of comparative sentences using data from the survey. e.g. Plumbers are happier than accountants. Accountants are not as happy as plumbers. 1. Teachers vs. nurses ______________________________________________________________ 2. Lawyers vs. childminders ______________________________________________________________ 3. Media workers vs. electricians ______________________________________________________________ What do the underlined words mean in the text? Match by joining phrases with a line. rated (v.)

being partly responsible for

financial reward (n.)

satisfaction

worthwhile (adj.)

money

potential (n.)

useful

contentment (n.)

valued

appreciated (v.pp)

scored

contributing (v.)

ability 208


What is important to you when choosing a career? Number from 1 to 6 from the most to the least important for you. Money Independence Doing something useful Meeting new people Colleagues Perks and benefits

Write a paragraph describing your dream job and its characteristics, and elements should have ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

209


Read the following job advertisements:

1. Needed: Full time secretary position available. Applicants should have at least 2 years experience and be able to type 60 words a minute. No computer skills required. Apply in person at United Business Ltd., 17 Browning Street.

4. Teacher Needed: Tommy's Kindergarten needs 2 teacher/trainers to help with classes from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Applicants should have appropriate licenses. For more information visit Tommy's Kindergarten in Leicester Square No. 56.

2. Are you looking for a part time job? We require 3 part time shop assistants to work during the evening. No experience required, applicants should between 18 and 26. Call 366 76564 for more information.

3. Computer trained secretaries: Do you have experience working with computers? Would you like a full time position working in an exciting new company? If your answer is yes, give us a call at 565-987-7832.

5. Part Time work available: We are looking for retired adults who would like to work part time at the weekend. Responsibilities include answering the telephone and giving customer's information. For more information contact us by calling 897-980-7654.

6. University positions open: The University of Cumberland is looking for 4 teaching assistants to help with homework correction. Applicants should have a degree in one of the following: Political Science, Religion, Economics or History. Please contact the University of Cumberland for more information.

210


Answer these comprehension Questions Which position is best for these people? Choose ONLY ONE position for each person.  Jane Madison. Jane recently retired and is looking for a part time position. She would like to work with people and enjoys public relation work. The best job for Jane is_________________________________________  Jack Anderson. Jack graduated from the University of Trent with a degree in Economics two years ago. He would like an academic position. The best job for Jack is ________________________________________  Margaret Lillian. Margaret is 21 years old and would like a part time position to help her pay her university expenses. She can only work in the evenings. The best job for Margaret is _____________________________________  Alice Fingelhamm. Alice was trained as a secretary and has six years of experience. She is an excellent typist but does not know how to use a computer. She is looking for a full time position. The best job for Alice is _________________________________________  Peter Florian. Peter went to business school and studied computer and secretarial skills. He is looking for his first job and would like a full time position. The best job for Peter is _________________________________________  Vincent san George. Vincent loves working with children and has an education license from the city of Birmingham. He would like to work with young children. The best job for Vincent is _______________________________________ 211


Read the following conversation Harry: What are you working on? Susan: Oh, I'm just studying for history class. Harry: I hate history. Susan: I don't. It's interesting. I'm reading about the Romans. Harry: Do you mean the people from Romania? Susan: No, stupid. The Romans as in 'Julius Cesar'. You know, people from ancient Rome. Harry: Oh, those Romans... Susan: You are hopeless. So, what are you doing? Harry: I'm preparing for a meeting tomorrow. Susan: When's the meeting? Harry: I'm driving into London tomorrow morning. The meeting is scheduled for 10 o'clock. Susan: ...and what are you preparing? Harry: I'm giving a Susan: Which new account?

presentation

on

the

new

account.

Harry: Well, we're working on a new account in Southern England this week. Susan: Work, work, work. That's all you ever do! Harry: Come on, that's not true. I like reading books, Susan: Oh, really? Which book are you reading at the moment?

too.

Harry: Well, as a matter of fact, I'm reading 'Football in England: The Very Best'. Susan: Football? That's not reading

212


Choose the best answer based on the previous dialogue 1. Which statement is true? a.

Harry enjoys studying.

b.

Susan enjoys studying but hates history.

c.

Susan enjoys studying about history

2. Romans are people _____________________ a.

from Romania

b.

from ancient Rome

c.

from London

3. What does Harry do? a. He's a student. b. He works for a company. c. He plays football 4. What does Susan say about Harry? a. He hates working. b. He works too much. c. He studies too Little 5. What type of book is Harry reading? a.

A book about history

b.

A book about sport

c.

He's not reading anything

213


Reading Comprehension

I WANT TO BE A FIREFIGHTER My name is Terry. I want to be a firefighter. Why do I want to be a firefighter? I have many reasons. I like all the important things that firefighters do. Firefighters are heroes. Sometimes buildings catch on fire. Firefighters put out fires. I want to put out fires. If someone is trapped in a burning house, firefighters save them. I want to save people. Sometimes people have accidents. Sometimes people get sick. Firefighters help them. I want to help people. Firefighters drive big trucks. Fire trucks have loud sirens. I want to drive a big truck. Firefighters put out fires. Firefighters save people. Firefighters help sick people. I want to be a firefighter and do all those things. Then I would be a hero, too! Answer these questions. Tick on the correct answer 1. Why does Terry want to be a firefighter? a. Terry wants to put out fires. b. Terry wants to help people. c. Terry wants to drive a big truck. d. All of the above 2. What do fire trucks have? a. loud sirens b. televisions c. dogs d. whistles 3. Terry thinks firefighters areâ&#x20AC;Ś a. busy b. heroes c. good looking d. popular 214


Read the following article

Bilingual Job Fair this Weekend in Costa Rica Multinationals will offer 3,000 jobs to Costa Ricans The Costa Rican Investment Promotion Agency (CINDE) will be hosting the 4th Bilingual Job Fair this weekend March 7 through 9 at the National Cultural Center in San Jose. Companies such as Procter & Gamble, Intel, IBM, Dole, Western Union, DHL, Fujitsu, HP, Alienware, Language Line, People Support, Sykes and Oracle will be recruiting over 3,000 new employees for positions in administration, accounting, electric, electronic and industrial engineering, programming, client service, translation and technical support, among others. The focus is on anyone with English as a second language; however they will also be recruiting

people

that

speak

French,

Portuguese, Italian, German, mandarin and Cantonese. Entrance is free for anyone who wishes to attend. CINDEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s website www.cinde.org offers more information about the specific positions available, so applicants should prepare their resumes specifically for the companies they wish to apply to. The Fair is an opportunity to submit your resume and start the interview process, but the hiring process will take place afterward. It is expected that companies in the service industry will be offering about 8,000 new jobs in Costa Rica this year, 3,000 of which will be offered at the bilingual job fair. This is about 3,000 more positions overall than last year. The last bilingual job fair held in Costa Rica was put on by the Costa Rican North American Cultural Center (CCCN) and offered 2,000 jobs. 215


Based on the article answer the following questions: 1.

Who is organizing this event? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.

What is the main requirement to apply for these positions? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.

How many jobs are available for ticos in this fair? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.

Is Costa Rica a new country on the job fair issue? Explain ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.

What can you do on the fair? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.

What should you take to the fair? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

7.

Where can you more information about this fair? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

216


Multiple Choice Answers Unit 1: Achievements of Our National Athletes

1. B

1. C

1. C

1. C

2. D

2. B

2. C

2. D

3. A

3. C

3. C

3. C

4. B

4. C

4. B

4. A

5. B

5. D

5. B

6. A

6. D

6. C

7. A/B

Unit 2: Costa Rican Art, Music and Crafts

1. D

1. D

1. A

1. C

1. A

2. D

2. C

2. A

2. C

2. A

3. C

3. C

3. C

3. C

3. A

4. B

4. A

4. B

4. B

Unit 3: Costa Rican Typical Food

1. B

1. C

1. A

1. B

1. C

1. C

2. A

2. A

2. B

2. A

2. D

2. D

3. C

3. C

3. B

3. B

3. A

3. D

4. D

4. A

217

4. B


Unit 4: Holidays and Celebrations in Costa Rica and English Speaking Countries

1. D

1. B

1. A

1. C

1. B

2. B

2. B

2. B

2. C

2. C

3. A

3. C

3. B

3. A

3. B

4. C

4.

Unit 5: Causes and Effects of Natural Resources Misuse

1. D

1. A

1. D

2. A

2. A

2. A

3. B

3. A

3. B

4. D

4. C

5. D 6. A 7. B 8. D 9. A 10. B

Unit 6: Tourist Attraction offered by Costa Rican Communities

1. A 2. D 3. C

4. A

218


Unit 7: Common Illnesses and New Disease and Epidemics

1. C 2. C 3. B 4. C 5. A 6. C 7. A

8. B

Unit 8: Our Democratic Tradition

1. D

1. A

1. B

2. C

2. A

2. B

3. B

3. B

3. D

4. C

4. B

4. A

5. A 6. A 7. B 8. B 9. B 10. A

Unit 9: Carrees Jobs and Lifestyles

1. A

1. D

2. B

2. A

3. B

3. B

4. B 5. B

219


Bibliography Books Tulio Villegas, Marco Tulio. Inglés Prácticas para la Prueba de Bachillerato, Farben Grupo Editorial Norma, 2007 Calderón Quesada, Teresita. Traveling Solutions for Bachillerato, EDUVISION E.V.N, 2007 Tulio Villegas, Marco Tulio. On your Mark. Farben Grupo Editorial Norma, 2004. Quesada Alvarado, M. and Duarte Bonilla, M. Traveling Reading Strategies, EDUVISON E.V.N, 2007 English Practice Book for the MEP Exam, Santillana 1 ed. Editorial Santillana 2007 Barrera P., Duque M., Teenagers: New Generation 9 and 10. Editorial Norma S.A, 2008 Websites

www.wikipedia.com www.library.thinkquest.org/26026/Environmental_Problems/air_pollution__solutions.html www.eflnet.com/tutorials/adjcompsup.php www.clafoti.com/imagenes10/compa_1.htm www.englishpage.com www.thenation.com/blogs/thebeat/240265 www.e-spanyol.hu/en/vocabulary/words_body.php www.eltbase.com www.inspirationalfilms.com//wttw/pdf/lesson8-handouts.pdf www.saberingles.com.ar/lists/politics.html www.politicsdaily.com/2010/02/08/laura-chinchilla-elected-first-female-presidentof-costa-rica/ www.learnenglishfeelgood.com/vocabulary/esl-politics-elections-voting3.html www.bogglesworldesl.com www. eslprintables.com www.esl.about.com www.abcteach.com www.costaricapages.com/blog/business/2008-job-fair/667

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Antología de Inglés Décimo