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Edgar E. Benítez ARCHITECTURAL PORTFOLIO


This portfolio shows a selection of my projects between 2001 and 2016. This is mainly about the work where my personal philosophy of design was applied, which is partially introduced in the last page of this document. This also includes an excerpt of my research part of the MSc Sustainable Building Technology at The University of Nottingham. Finally, there are several pages dedicated to my collaboration in the firms Di Vece y Asociados Arquitectos, where I worked for six years in the position of associate director, BUDIC where I worked in the position of project director and IĂąaki EcheverrĂ­a Arquitectos where I work in the same position of project director. The series of projects included represent, in their diversity, a search. They reflect the evolution of a design strategy, or the intent to materialize a philosophy of design. This is a search looking for closing the gap between the thinking architecture and the making architecture, for matching those two fundamental facets of architecture. The background that underlies and unifies the presented plurality is constituted by a way of thinking architecture as a medium for the reflexive meaning making of the life, directed fundamentally to the emotional side of the human being.


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CONTENTS OUR LADY OF SAN JUAN TEMPLE CONFERENCE ROOM OFFICE BUILDING REMODELLING 8TH. ARQUINE DESIGN COMPETITION / SITE MUSEUM ECO RESORT DESIGN COMPETITION FOR THE LIBRARY OF JALATLACO 3RD. ARQUINE DESIGN COMPETITION / JVC SHOWROOM HOUSING DEVELOPMENT SAN MATEO METEPEC HOUSE EMPRESA AUTOMOTRIZ TOLUCA SHOWROOM DIODE EFFECT COLLABORATION IN DI VECE Y ASOCIADOS ARQUITECTOS COLLABORATION IN BUDIC COLLABORATION IN IÑAKI ECHEVERRÍA ARQUITECTOS THINKING ARCHITECTURE

6 10 16 22 24 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 52 56 58


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PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENรTEZ

OUR LADY OF SAN JUAN TEMPLE

The configuration of the temple obeys to the attempt of generating an emotional promenade. The plot is located in the hillside of a mountain in the edge of the town; it has a slope of 14% which was seized to increase the force of the promenade. The visitor access from the lower part of the land, in this point is possible to see the big cross perforated in the center of the faรงade. Here the visitor begins his way to the interior starting with the side ramps that recall the ascent to Calvary. The ramps lead to the lobby which is a small space in height and dimensions with a small fountain in a corner subtly illuminated by a skylight; this is a room that divides the indoor sacred space from the outdoor profane space and prepares the visitor for next space. The small size of the lobby contrast with the big size of the temple, aiming to produce an emotional effect.

TOWN IMAGES

There is a second entrance to the temple from the atrium on top through a porch. This allows the entry and the exit of people in large quantities in short time. The interior is a space of light. It is an all white space filled with light and touched with yellow light produced by the rebound of sunbeams on yellow painted surfaces before they hit the white inner walls. This happens both in the side frames formed by the columns and in the cylinder stuck into the shell which illuminates the crucifix. The perforated cross in the faรงade wall turn into a cross of light in the interior of the temple. The orientation of the temple responds to the desired light effect in the interior space. The large window above the porch in the north fills the temple of soft light. The cross of light faces the south because that orientation has the strongest sunbeams.


LOCATION: SANTA MARÍA LA RIBERA

DATE: 2011

NATURAL LIGHT INLETS

NATURAL LIGHT INLETS

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street

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street

Ground floor plan

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1. Altar 2. Font 3. Tabernacle chapel 4. Confessional 5. Sacristy 6. Lobby 7. Atrium 8. Warehouse 9. Crypts 10. Chapel

9

N Half basement plan

Longitudinal section


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CONFERENCE ROOM

The building was inserted in the centre of the site of a professional college behind the main building. The shape of the building is a compromise between the site composition lines and the internal function of the conference room. The boundary of the building takes the site’s diagonal composition lines while the main internal volume take the best shape for a conference room which is the fan shape. The adopted strategy was the insertion of the main volume into the building boundary. In addition to that, the resulting fusion is crossed by the tunnel of the internal circulation which separates and communicates service areas from the conference room. The requirement for the conference room was to make it divisible in three spaces. Two sliding walls divide the space in three rooms, each one were fan-shaped. All the internal walls avoid parallelism to improve the acoustic performance. The interior finishes of the conference room were chosen to achieve the desirable reverberation time for all the range of acoustic tones. The material selection and the building assemblies design have the goal of improving climate performance of common building solutions in the area. With the goal of diminishing thermal bridge problems the main structure of the building was resolved inside the building without touching the exterior skin. The proposed material for the skin was panels formed by steel wire and a core of expanded polystyrene which is coated with Mexican cantera stone. The main roof is proposed of metal deck with a layer of insolation. Some walls are finished with polished concrete.

PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENĂ?TEZ


LOCATION: TOLUCA

DATE: 2015

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machines room lobby

podium backstage

Meeting space divided

machines room lobby

podium backstage

Meeting space unified


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The internal volume responds to the space function

The boundary of the building responds to the site’s diagonal lines

The building is crossed by the tunnel of the internal circulations

Site plan


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PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENÍTEZ

OFFICE BUILDING REMODELLING The project consisted in an office building refurbishment with energy efficiency as a requisite. The only thing that was preserved was the structure. Recently have appeared the idea of “form follows performance” in contrast to the classic “form follows function”, following that approach the organization of the program started in dividing the volume in thermal zones, based in geometry and orientation. Office zone 1 and Office zone 2 were defined as the more important thermal areas because they require more heating than the communications zone. For the later zone, even though the goal is to give it the best possible thermal conditions, is not expected to reach the same levels that the other zones. The entrance of the building is situated in the space between the office zone and the communications zone, it functions as a transition space between the outdoors and indoors temperatures besides of protecting the building from drafts. From this area is possible to go to the office zone 1 directly or to the communications zone and the office zone 2, or take the stairs to the first floor. The services areas, like storage, machine rooms, kitchenettes or restrooms, were located next to the north wall, trying to maximise the use of solar energy. The office usable space of the building was left as a free plan. it can be used as offices or in another required function. A key point in the design of the building was the envelope. In recent years the skin of the building has become a key element in architectural design; it has increased

its complexity, cost, functions and esthetical qualities. Several architects have built projects with wonderful skins, but very expensive and the money mainly goes to the visual impact. The solar photovoltaic panels have been rejected by architects and public because of esthetical issues; when used in a building usually are hidden or added like a “hat” over the building. An aesthetic point of this project is to make an exercise with the photovoltaic panels as a substitute of expensive façade materials, inspired in what other architects like Frank Ghery in Basel or Arnold Wild in Constance have achieved with excellent results. The chosen material is the polycrystalline panel because it is less expensive, also less efficient, than the monocrystalline panel, but mainly because it has, in its combination of materials, an inherent aesthetic quality. It is important to note that the panels as aesthetical substitute of a facade covering, were applied not only in the areas where the energy efficiency criteria would suggest but also to the north facades, where they keep generating energy but only from the solar diffuse radiation. The starting point in the materials selection was to folloe cradle to cradle values which consists in choosing materials that are beneficial to the human health and to the environment when used in the building and throughout its life cycle. Cradle to cradle products innovation institute has its own product certification, even though for this work it was used greenspec certification because it has the same qualities, has bigger variety and it was developed in UK, thus it is more appropriate for Edinburgh.


LOCATION: EDINBURGH

DATE: 2012

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Dividing the volume in thermal zones

communications zone

office zone 1 office zone 2

buiilding entrance

services

greenhouse


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1. Soil. 2. Drainage, aeration and water storage layer. 3. Building protection mat. 4. Felt. 5. Foamglas® T4 insulation board alumino silicated cellular glass density of 120 kg/ m3 k-value = 0.042 W/mK 300 mm. 6. Sunpipe®. 7. Structural concrete slab made with slag cement. 8. Pro clima intello plus, vapour check and airtight membrane. 9. Multicrystalline, 3-bushar cell thickness 200 +/-40 µm, temperature coefficients: output -0.43 %/K, open circuit voltage -0.36 %/K, short circuit current 0.06 %/K, solar cells color silver, curent class as per I (Vfix) = CH 50 4801, efficiency [%] = 9.9, output at (Vfix) [Wp] = 2.40, I (Vfix = 500 mV) [A] = 4.80. 10. Facade metallic sub-structure. 11. Alphawin Optiwin, whole window U value 0.68 W/m2K, timber/alu-clad windows & doors. 12. Foamglass® Wall insulation board alumino silicated cellular glass, density of 105 kg/m3, k-value = 0.04 W/mK 300 mm. 13. Ecoterre™ Earth Bricks, size 220 x 105 x 133mm, compressive strength 2.9 N/ mm2, weight 6.0 Kg, density 1940 Kg/ m3. 14. Claytec Fine-Finish plaster, blend of clay, fine aggregate and organic fibres. 15. Pro clima intello plus, vapour check and airtight membrane. 16. Desso C2C carpet tiles, cradle to cradle solution dyed carpet tiles. 17. Floor finishes. 18. Concrete slab made with slag cement. 19. Foamglas® floorboard insulation, alumino silicated cellular glass k-value = 0.038 W/mK, density of 120 kg/m3, 300 mm.

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Structural column Air barrier Insulation Free plan (office) Services Green roof Circulation Circulation

FIRST FLOOR

GROUND FLOOR


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PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENĂ?TEZ / ALEJANDRO GASCA

8TH. ARQUINE DESIGN COMPETITION / SITE MUSEUM The fundamental idea that guided the conception of the project was of it being an active reflection regarding the place, accepting their forces and energies. The premises were to avoid figurative languages and self-neglecting that are used as a contextualize devices. The solution raised dialogue with the archaeological site from the platform of the contemporaneity.

The lineal configuration of the project results in a perforation in the thickness of the jungle. This configuration produces a thin frontage to the archaeological site, in this way minimizing the impact on the site. The dialogue with the ceremonial centre is set by means of its alignment to the main altarplatform, becoming the museum in just a beholder in the context of the audience integrated by the temples, but from their distant role of an observerstudious alien to the protagonist actors. The project submerges in the natural environment; the visitor’s experience of touring through the museum will be like penetrating in the jungle. The proposal is to create an additional attractive to the archeological site and the beautiful natural context, the proposal is a spatial and sensorial experience inside a contemporary building. Open halls

Administrative areas

Public services

Exhibition halls


LOCATION: TULUM

6. Viewing point. At the end of the journey, after having known the museum, and inside it the Maya culture that inhabited Tulum, nothing better than appreciate the whole of the beautiful archaeological site cut against the sea.

DATE: 2006

3. Temporary exhibition hall. After crossing the centre of the museum, the only one vertical space in the building, we penetrate the glass volumes. The first of them, the upper platform, harbour the temporary exhibition.

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4. Permanent exhibition hall. After descending a ramp and faced against the thickness of the jungle, we begin the coming back in our journey in this hall. The same than the previous halls, this one provides the wavy surface over which there will place the museum’s pieces.

5. Return corridor. It has the function of communicate the static areas of the museum, in this order: warehouses, offices, store, cafĂŠ and bathrooms. Besides of this we cross again through the vertical central space that divides transversely the building, here we find a stair that functions as a shortcut and garden pause. 1. Lobby. This is the start of the journey; from the very beginning the curvilinear sensation is experimented. From this site we can see different paths that blend each other. As a background we see the glass volume of the closer hall of the museum.

2. Open-air exhibition hall. This is a covered area that comes up as a sequence of the lobbyreception. Environmentally is an open area, the same as a big percentage of the building, the delimitation given by the metallic lattice (against human and naturals intrusions) does not prevent the circulation of the air. From the climate point of view this solution contributes to cool the building by the cross ventilation.


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ECO RESORT

The land, for sights and slope was divided in zones. The villas were allocated to good view areas. The central building, which has the main public areas, was allocated also to good views areas but, because of the dimensions and features of its program, its allocated area have lesser slope. That is to say, the land, the place is the element that configures the project. The forces of the places: the dam, the slopes, the sights and so on define the location of the program elements. The materiality was a key element in defining the final shape of the project. The central building and the villas design approach started in the study of the section plan and their constructive assembly. A second approach to the place was in regard to their climate and fauna. The final shape of the section plan of the buildings and the way their constructive elements are connected counteracts the undesirable characteristics of the climate (high temperatures) and the fauna (insects, etc). For this purpose the design of the section allows the air flow through the building avoiding hot air accumulation in the interior. The materials were selected and located in the way that they work as important perceptive elements. The materials inherent characteristics were highly respected. Each of them contributes a texture and a colour to the project. The tile roof is a worthy of note point; it is not a hostile material to the landscape, it does not reflect light and has thermal advantages. It is important to note that the choice of the tile roof does not intend to imitate the old constructive techniques of the area, but integrate the building with the landscape.

PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENÍTEZ

The tectonics was another important factor in project decisions. The heavier material, exposed concrete, was always located in the ground level, connected to the earth. The light elements, white walls and wood elements were always located in the first level or even flying like the wood and steel headers of the “hingespaces” of the principal building. In these headers the tectonics is also applied in their location just below the roof, appearing to act as floating force field that sustains the slope roof. The spatiality was also a decision factor in the project. The principal building has space richness and surprise elements throughout the promenade, inside you can find changes of level that configure spaces, that are continuous to but separated from other spaces. The level changes avoid spatial isotropy. Moreover there are events throughout the promenade. Materials changes, light games, shadows, colours, direction changes, etc. The “hinge-spaces” of the principal building contains the more relevant events. These spaces articulate the sectors of the building; each of them is a spatial pause with a sensitive element, fountains, interior gardens, lobby or bar.


LOCATION:BEJUCOS

DATE: 2004

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Lot zoning Plateau: elevated level expanse of land With sights: for public areas Without sights: For sports and camp areas Hillsides: slope of the hill area With sights: for rooms Glen: deep area between hillsides Close to road: for parking areas Far from road, facing the dam: For swimming pool and plaza areas Far from road, far from dam: For ranch recreational area

1. Parking 2. Villas (rooms) 3. Plaza 4. Swimming pool 5. Entrance 6. Ranch recreational area 7. Camp 8. Sports area 9. Theatre 10. General public areas 11. Pier 12. Changing rooms and baths

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Services Public areas

Sights

Sights

Sights

Sights

Full volume Penultimate contour line Sights

Sights

Land shape adjusted

Sights

Sights

Sights Sights

Sights

Sights

Motor lobb y

Sights

Sights Sights

Hinges

Sights

Sights

Sights

Sights Sights

Sights


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n 1.Lobby 2.Nursing room 3.Motor lobby 4.Machines room 5.Dry rubbish room 6.Wet rubbish room 7.Warehouse 8.Maintenance workshop 9.Laundry 10.Service crew areas 11.Kitchen 12.Cold rooms 13.Meeting rooms 14.Terrace

Ground level

15.Offices 16.Lobby-reception 17.Stores 18.Bar-discotheque 19.Bar 20.Game room 21.Restaurant

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Administration-nursing section 0

1.5

Mosquito net window

Secretary room

Porch

Waiting room

Lobby

Lobby

Meeting room

Auscultation room

Porch


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Restaurant-kitchen section 0

1.5

The tile roof, as it has the colour of the earth, allows integration with the landscape. It is also a local construction material and works thermally allowing air to flow below the roof. Metal lattice to reduce insolation.

Mezzanine

Metal lattice to reduce insolation.

Balcony

Restaurant

Cold kitchen

Buffet

Waiters corridor

Pastry cold room

Drinks cold room


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PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENĂ?TEZ

DESIGN COMPETITION FOR THE LIBRARY OF JALATLACO

The small town of Jalatlaco, located between Mexico City and Toluca City, needed a library for expanding their cultural program. For this purpose it released a competition and designated a lot populated by trees in the centre of the town. The lot was inhabited by big trees; the idea behind the project was to take advantage of these trees by placing the lecture areas in front of the treetops. The public areas of the program were elevated and opened to make possible this experience.

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1. Auditorium. 2. Cafe. 3. Kitchen. 4. Lobby-reception. 5. Acquisition and classification. 6. Binding and repair. 7. Warehouse. 8. Infant hall. 9. Playgroup. 10. Library. 11. Array. 12. Music library and video library. 13. Information desk. 14. Xerox. 15. Computation hall. 16. Map library. 17. Newspaper library. 18. Offices. 19. Workshop. 20. Multiple uses.

15 14

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First level plan

19 18 20

16

17 Second level plan


LOCATION: JALATLACO

DATE: 2001

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The second box contains offices, music library and video library

The first box contains the computation and workshop halls

The third box contains the main part of the program: the library

A volume traverses the second box in order to allow vertical communication between the three levels

The curve volume, compounded by a series of parallel walls, is the element that functions as a base over which the three white boxes lie. Auditorium, infant areas, services and lobby are hosted inside this part of the building.


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PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENĂ?TEZ / DANIEL HERNĂ NDEZ / ALEJANDRO SIERRA

3RD. ARQUINE DESIGN COMPETITION / JVC SHOWROOM In 2001 the Arquine magazine released a competition for the design of a building that would function as a space for showing the progress of the JVC Cultural Centre Project in Guadalajara. The intended location of the building was in a plaza shared with a project of a restaurant designed by Coop Himmelblau. The space assigned for the showroom was a square of 10 x 10 ms in the middle of the plaza. The proposed showroom was thought as a counterpoint of the restaurant, a cube that in addition acts as an articulation point of the pedestrian plaza. The project consists of two intercepted volumes; one of them contains the vertical circulations, while the second, shaped as a square prism, contains the rest of the program. The exterior permeates through two skins: the first, vitreous, allows the control of the temperature, whereas the second, solid, besides of holding the structural elements of the building, is configured in a way that operates as a control and arrangement of the insolation, illumination and sights. A dynamic and fluid spatial continuum proceeded from the utilization of open and double-height spaces; this happen the same in the lobby level as in the showroom level. One of the intentions of the project was to arouse the perceptive sensations of the visitor; the mechanisms to get that goal are materials with high tactile quality and the light game that permeates throughout the building.


LOCATION: GUADALAJARA

DATE: 2001

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Boardroom Elevator

Restrooms

Stairs

Warehouse

Lobby

Shop

Showroom

Warehouse

Marble wall Stairs volume Translucent glass Interactive room

Showroom

Solid skin Optional entrances

Entrance

Skylight

Roof

Transparent glass skin


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PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENÍTEZ

HOUSING DEVELOPMENT SAN MATEO This is a project for a modular housing prototype. Because of its commercial purpose the program and construction system were preestablished.

The ordinary scheme for units of this size in Mexico’s housing developments is to merge longitudinally the living and the dining rooms and a U-shaped staircase enclosed by walls in three of their sides. The design objective was to increase the visual size and quality of the interior spaces. The proposed solution turn the stairs into a sculptural element integrated with the living / dining space in the front half of the house resulting in a continuous 35 m² room that flows upstairs. In the first level the main bedroom increase its visual size due to the height of the sloping roof. The arrangement of the spaces makes possible to include a family room and three bedrooms. All the bathrooms have natural ventilation. The objective in the façade design was to blend the residential units understanding the housing development as a whole instead of the ordinary fragmented composition of commercial houses.

staircase powder

living -dining room

TYPICAL COMMERCIAL LAYOUT

staircase

kitchen

service

powder

service kitchen

living -dining room

PROPOSED LAYOUT


LOCATION:SAN MATEO ATENCO

DATE: 2006

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kitchen

dining room

powder

garage

living room courtyard

service bedroom bathroom

GROUND LEVEL PLAN

family room

bathroom

bedroom main bedroom

bedroom bathroom

FIRST LEVEL PLAN


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METEPEC HOUSE

There are two main ideas behind the design of this house: The first one is to use a clear and clean geometry both inside and outside (facades) the house. This principle is applied to each designed element. The second one is to take advantage of the conditions of the land to generate the best climate conditions for its inhabitants. This can be seen in a open facade to the south (main garden) and a closed facade to the north. The whole perimeter of the house should have a continuous insulation.

PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENĂ?TEZ


LOCATION:METEPEC

DATE: 2016

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PROJECT: EDGAR E. BENĂ?TEZ

EMPRESA AUTOMOTRIZ TOLUCA SHOWROOM The Empresa Automotriz Toluca dealership has an excellent location between two of the most important avenues of Toluca city, but one of them is not exploited because the exhibition building only face Hidalgo Avenue, while the faceless walls of the auto repair shop fronts onto Morelos Avenue.

The project aims to give more exhibition space to the company with the minimum architectural program since the original exhibition building covers the most of the needed requirements. The intention of the proposal was to achieve maximum visual impact to the car drivers. The scheme was generated with three parallel curve walls that face the driving direction of Morelos Avenue. The space created between the corner and the first curve wall is occupied by three flying glass boxes where the automobiles exhibition takes place. One of the design aims was to propose a building featuring a higher texture quality in comparison to the ordinary prototypes for this architectural typology made of glass and metal. This idea has no reference with the previous EAT exhibition hall because there is not visual connection between them, this differentiation makes possible to renovate the corporate image and attend a different market.

Plan

Section


LOCATION: TOLUCA

DATE: 2005

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RESEARCH: EDGAR E. BENITEZ

DIODE EFFECT OR DIFFERENTIATED RESPONSE TO CYCLIC

Simulations with WUFI software were made to evaluate the ability of building assemblies made up of a small capillaries surface coating material over a base material with larger capillaries (concrete brick) to respond differently, in order to prevent moisture accumulation risk, to cyclic moisture loads, i.e. to produce a diode effect. Surface coating materials with different properties were tested aiming to find the specific influence of capillaries sizes on moisture movements under the different conditions chosen for the simulation. The results strongly suggest the ability of the studied building assembly, compared with one with a large capillaries surface coating material, to reduce moisture accumulation in

highly risky winter condition. The drying process seems to imply high water vapour condensation in small capillaries and water surface diffusion in opposite direction to vapour diffusion. The results under lower relative humidity conditions indicate a diminishing influence of capillaries size role in moisture flows and a growing influence of water vapour diffusion resistance factor, this change of material properties roles together with direction changes in moisture potentials, makes possible the diode effect. Low seasonal oscillation of interstitial relative humidity in the assemblies with small capillaries suggests the presence of the diode effect.

Relative humidity at 0.1195 m from the exterior surface of the south oriented assembly without insulation for an initial relative humidity of 90%.

Relative humidity at 0.2009 m from the exterior surface of the south oriented assembly with insulation and air layer for an initial relative humidity of 90%.

Moisture fluxes of the south oriented assembly without insulation, 90% initial relative humidity.

Moisture fluxes comparison between the two layers and the four layers (with insulation) assemblies, both south oriented and with 90% initial relative humidity.

Cross section profile of the four layers south oriented assembly without insulation with regular lime stucco as surface coating in the month of January of the second year of simulation.

Cross section profile of the four layers south oriented assembly without insulation with regular lime stucco as surface coating in the month of January of the second year of simulation.


YEAR: 2013

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MOISTURE LOADS OF BUILDING ASSEMBLIES

The simulations outputs of the interstitial relative humidity at the most critical point of the basic case with south oriented two layers assemblies with an initial relative humidity of 90 per cent reveals the ability of the materials with small porosities to avoid moisture accumulation in winter, contrasting with the assembly with gypsum board. The ability of the assembly with Portland cement-lime mortar to avoid moisture accumulation implies that water vapour diffusion resistance factor is not intervening in this behaviour because the value of this property for this material is similar to the value for gypsum board. It appears that the material water storage capacity participates in reducing moisture storage risks, and that water surface diffusion, which in the surface coating material is only driven by relative humidity potential, reduces water content in the assembly. The readings of the moisture fluxes showed the contrasting ability of the assemblies with small capillaries materials as surface coating to dry inwards compared with the assembly with gypsum board. The contrasting performance implies that the drying effect in the assemblies with small capillaries is due to capillaries sizes and not because of materials porosity, water vapour diffusion resistance factor or liquid transport coefficient. The dimension of the ability of small capillaries materials to suction moisture from the large capillaries materials is difficult to determine because it is mixed with the surface diffusion driven by relative humidity potential of the whole assembly, the readings of relative humidity at the point in the concrete brick separated 2.1 cm from the surface coating material suggest the presence of the suction effect because the assembly with gypsum board has clearly the greater relative humidity, but it also suggests the growing influence of the vapour diffusion resistance factor when the interstitial relative humidity diminishes. Short term oscillation of interstitial relative humidity should be consequence of the vapour diffusion resistance factor in the hygroscopic domain and liquid transport coefficient in the capillary domain; the results seem to confirm the influence of the vapour diffusion resistance factor because the materials with the lower values of this property are the ones with higher short term oscillation. Cross section analysis seems to reflect that water vapour diffusion resistance factor is the most important material property in the buffering of the relative humidity through the surface coating material. It also confirms the role of the water storage capacity to reduce moisture condensation risks. The effects of orientation and rain on the interstitial relative humidity and moisture fluxes are minimal. The effect of an internal moisture source on the same measure is also minimal and increases in the materials with higher water vapour diffusion

resistance factor. The readings of the assemblies with vapour barrier as surface coating material show that this assembly has a very good performance in all the simulations, in some of them showing the lower relative humidity levels compared with other assemblies, but the simulations with an internal moisture source and those comparing different initial relative humidities suggested the potential risks present in this kind of assemblies, and the readings of the relative humidity at the indoor surface of the two layers south oriented assembly reached 100 per cent relative humidity. The readings comparing different initial relative humidities showed that the assemblies with the surface coating material with the lower resistance to vapour diffusion were the ones that equilibrated their interstitial relative humidity with the one imposed by exterior conditions in less time. The moisture fluxes readings for these cases showed that at lower relative humidity the influence of the capillaries size diminishes because the output of the assembly with Portland cement-lime mortar get closer to the output of the assembly with gypsum board. The presence of exterior insulation in the building assembly increases assembly temperatures and consequently saturation vapour pressure, this change increases the ability of the assembly to dry in summer. Because of the lower values of interstitial relative humidity the graphs of relative humidity and water content at monitored points suggest an increasing influence of water vapour diffusion resistance factor compared with the influence of size of capillaries because the readings of the assemblies with Portland cement-lime mortar as surface coating material are closer, especially in summer, to the readings of the assembly with gypsum board. Moisture fluxes readings for this case suggest influence for this output of both, capillaries sizes and water vapour diffusion resistance factor because the assembly with Portland cement-lime mortar as surface coating is the one with greater moisture fluxes followed by the other two assemblies with small capillaries surface coating materials, i.e. the output seems not to be the direct consequence of any material property. The ability of the assemblies with small capillaries as surface coating material to respond differently to different seasons, i.e. diode effect, could be presumed with its ability to reduce seasonal oscillation compared with the assembly with large capillaries material. This is true for the case with two layers which has higher interstitial relative humidity and less true for the case with four layers, which is logical because in the later winter conditions does not produce high interstitial relative humidity and therefore it does not activate the ability of the assembly to dry when high moisture accumulation risk is present.


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PROJECT: PAOLINO DI VECE

COLLABORATION IN DI VECE Y ASOCIADOS ARQUITECTOS

LH house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

LH house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

LH house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

LH house Project Manager

LH house Project Manager

LH house Project Manager

LH house Project Manager

LH house Project Manager

LH house Project Manager


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CDA house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

CDA house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

CDA house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

CDA house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

CDA house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

CDA house Project Manager (from schematic design to construction supervision)

Ceiba de peñas house Architect (Construction Documents)

Ceiba de peñas house Architect (Construction Documents)

Ceiba de peñas house Architect (Construction Documents)


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LS house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

LS house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

LS house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

Nuevo Vallarta house Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

Nuevo Vallarta house Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

Nuevo Vallarta house Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

Nuevo Vallarta house Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

LS house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

Nuevo Vallarta house Project Manager (design development and construction documents)


PAGE 47

M+M house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

M+M house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

M+M house Project Manager

M+M house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

M+M house Project Manager

M house Project Manager (construction documents and construction supervision)

M house Project Manager

M house Project Manager

M house Project Manager (construction documents and construction supervision)

M house Project Manager (construction documents and construction supervision)


PAGE 48

Chapel Lago del Bosque Senior manager (construction documents)

Chapel Lago del Bosque Senior manager

Chapel Lago del Bosque Senior manager

Gatehouse Lago del Bosque Architect (construction documents)

Clubhouse Lago del Bosque Project Manager

Clubhouse Lago del Bosque Project Manager

Clubhouse Lago del Bosque Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

Clubhouse Lago del Bosque Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

Clubhouse Lago del Bosque Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)


PAGE 49

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

Ajijic House Renovation Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

Clubhouse Architect (schematic design)

Clubhouse Architect (schematic design)


PAGE 50

Tepic auditorium Architect (schematic design and design development)

Maver corporate building Project Manager (construction documents and construction supervision)

Tepic auditorium Architect (schematic design and design development)

Maver corporate building Project Manager (construction documents and construction supervision)

Corporate building Domus Senior manager (schematic design and design development)


PAGE 51

Terranova building Senior manager (design development and construction documents)

Terranova building Senior manager (design development and construction documents)

LDT building Architect (schematic design)

Shopping center Aleph Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

Apartment building Architect (schematic design)


PAGE 52

PROJECT: FERNANDO PEREZ VERA

COLLABORATION IN BUDIC

ByA house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

ByA house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

ByA house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

ByA house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

ByA house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)

ByA house Project Manager (design development, construction documents and construction supervision)


PAGE 53

Corporate building Constituyentes Project Manager (schematic design)

Corporate building Constituyentes Project Manager (schematic design)

Strip Mall Merida Project Manager (schematic design)


PAGE 54

Clubhouse La Nueva Laguna Architect ( construction documents)

Clubhouse La Nueva Laguna Architect ( construction documents)

Clubhouse La Nueva Laguna Architect ( construction documents)

Clubhouse La Nueva Laguna Architect ( construction documents)

Apartment complex in Monterrey Project Manager (schematic design)

Apartment complex in Monterrey Project Manager (schematic design)


PAGE 55

Esfera City Center apartment complex Architect (design development and facade contractors coordination)


PAGE 56

COLLABORATION IN IĂ‘AKI ECHEVERRĂ?A ARQUITECTOS

Sonora 99 Office Building Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

Sonora 99 Office Building Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

Sonora 99 Office Building Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

Sonora 99 Office Building Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

Sonora 99 Office Building Project Manager (design development and construction documents)

Sonora 99 Office Building Project Manager (design development and construction documents)


PAGE 57

Infonavit housing development Architect (design development)

Infonavit housing development Architect (design development)


PAGE 58

THINKING ARCHITECTURE

The theoretical position behind my architecture is all about a design procedure. My approach to architectural design is phenomenological; it starts from the perception, through the body1, of concrete things in specific time and space situations2; this is a conscious experience3 from the concrete subject. The end is to create architectural spaces to be phenomenologically experienced, and through this experience create an emotional uplifting4. As I see it, this emotional content, which is a human necessity5, is the essence and ultimate purpose of art. This approach could only produce art with complex and ambiguous contents instead of clear ideas of easy lecture6. It represents the release from conventions or rules of general applicability7 and the overcoming of the pretence of architecture as a medium of representation8 or as a system of signs9. An embodied experience of the place produces buildings that grow from its cultural and physical environments as it comes to be an extension of the place. But this place is no longer a permanence; it is a continuum in which there are flows and events of several types. In this dynamic place a work of architecture is like a fecundation, a shock, a point of encounter, a fold that extends its vibrations in the continuum of the place10. The projective mechanisms to make this architecture are those that allow the immediate emotional experience11: Materiality understood as the creation of physical objects from the very nature of the building material and from the sensorial experience that this material can produce. Tectonics which is an inherent feature of the architecture created on a planet with gravity. Light, colour, sound, temperature, humidity, textures, flavours and any other perceptual element. Spatiality, dynamic and anisotropic, that in the figure-ground organization has the figure position, leaving the matter the background position; and, through its variations, and contrasts creates kinesthetic sensations and elicits creative behaviours12. Edgar E. Benítez 1 Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Fenomenología de la percepción. Fondo de Cultura Económica. México. 1957. 2 Solà-Morales, Ignasi de. Diferencias. Topografía de la arquitectura contemporánea. Gustavo Gili. España. 1995. 3 Husserl, Edmund quoted in Xirau, Ramón. Introducción a la historia de la filosofía. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México. 1976. 4 Goeritz, Mathias quoted in González Gortázar, Fernando et. al. La arquitectura mexicana del siglo XX. Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes. México. 1994. 5 Van Eyck, Aldo quoted in Solà-Morales, Ignasi de. Op Cit. 6 Venturi, Robert. Complejidad y contradicción en arquitectura. Gustavo Gili. España. 1972. 7 Solà-Morales, Ignasi de. Op Cit. 8 Eisenman, Peter. The end of the Classical. Perspecta nº 21. Estados Unidos de América. 1984. 9 Tarkovsky, Andrey. Esculpir el tiempo. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México. 1993. 10 Solà-Morales, Ignasi de. Op Cit. 11 Albrecht, Johannes. Una crítica a la manera actual de interpretar arquitectura. Arquine nº 14. México. Invierno 2000. 12 Geuze, Adriaan. Accelerating Darwin quoted in Paisajes artificiales. Arquitectura, urbanismo y paisajes contemporáneos. edited by Ibelings, Hans. Gustavo Gili. España. 2000.

“Art addresses everybody, in the hope of making an impression, above all of being felt, of being the cause of an emotional trauma and being accepted, of winning people not by incontrovertible rational argument but through the spiritual energy with which the artist has charged the work. And the preparatory discipline it demands is not a scientific education but a particular spiritual lesson”. [Tarkovsky, Andrey. Esculpir el tiempo. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. México. 1993. p.p. 41]. In the phonomenological approach “the architecture is refered to the concrete particular conditions of every specific situation in a precise space and time”, so that “within the phenomenological tradition, the first datum is the intentionality of the consciousness”; this ideas derived from the fact that “with the overthrow of general principles, the aesthetic was transformed from the imitation of a model to the subjective production of elementary perceptual experiences, capable of generating signification through emotion.””. [Solà-Morales, Ignasi de. Diferencias. Topografía de la arquitectura contemporánea. Gustavo Gili. España. 1995]. “A valid architecture evokes many levels of meaning and combinations of focus: its space and its elements become readable and workable in several ways at once… has a special obligation toward the whole: its truth must be in its totality or its implications of totality. It must embody the difficult unity of inclusion rather than the easy unity of exclusion. More is not less.” [Venturi, Robert. Complejidad y contradicción en arquitectura. Gustavo Gili. España. 1972. p.p. 25-26]. “(event is) the undulation of an element that extends across those that follow it, establishing, like a light or sound wave, a system of harmonics in the air that subsist for a time before dissipating...(also is) a point of encounter, a conjunction whereby the lines of a limitless itinerary cross with others to create nodal points of outstanding intensity... is a grasping, the action of a subject who, within the chaotic flux of events, arrests those moments that most attract or impel, in order to hold on to them. It is a subjective action, producing a moment of pleasure and fragile plenitude” [Solà-Morales, Ignasi de. Diferencias. Topografía de la arquitectura contemporánea. Gustavo Gili. España. 1995 p.p. 122]. “Not in order to shock, but to elicit creativity. The new public spaces must expose preconceived behavior and discretion, must provoke and disorient the user… the users can no longer revert to programmed acts. This type of space transforms anonymity into exhibitionism, spectators into actors ...” [Geuze, Adriaan. Accelerating Darwin. in Paisajes artificiales. Arquitectura, urbanismo y paisajes contemporáneos. edited by Ibelings, Hans. Gustavo Gili. España. p.p. 256]. “The places of present-day architecture cannot repeat the permanences produced by the force of the Vitruvian firmitas. The effects of duration, stability, and defiance of time’s passing are now irrelevant. The idea of place as the cultivation and maintenance of the essential and the profound, of a genius loci, is no longer credible in an age of agnosticism; it becomes reactionary. Yet the loss of these illusions need not necessarily result in a nihilistic architecture of negation… production of place continues to be possible… as the production of an event…. places produced out of the meeting of present energies, resulting from the force of projective mechanisms capable of promoting intense, productive shock… Place is, rather, a conjectural foundation capable of fixing a point of particular intensity in the universal chaos of our metropolitan civilization” [Solà-Morales, Ignasi de. Diferencias. Topografía de la arquitectura contemporánea. Gustavo Gili. España. 1995 p.p. 125].


Edgar E. BenĂ­tez Rivera A r c h i t e c t edgararq@yahoo.com T. +52 55 4619 6546


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