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UK


Culture of UK


The culture of the United Kingdom is the pattern of human activity and symbolism associated with the United Kingdom and its people. It is informed by the UK's history as a developed island country, liberal democracy and major power, its predominantly Christian religious life, and its composition of four countries—England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales—each of which has distinct customs, cultures and symbolism. The wider culture of Europe has also influenced British culture, and Humanism, Protestantism and representative democracy developed from broader Western culture. British literature, music, cinema, art, theatre, media, television, philosophy and architecture are influential and respected across the world. The United Kingdom is also prominent in science and technology. Sport is an important part of British culture; numerous sports originated in the country, including the national game, football. The UK has been described as a "cultural superpower",[3][4] and London has been described as a world cultural capital. The Industrial Revolution, with its origins in the UK, had a profound effect on the socio-economic and cultural conditions of the world. As a result of the British Empire, significant British influence can be observed in the language, culture and institutions of a geographically wide assortment of countries, including Australia, Canada, India, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, Nigeria, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States. These states are sometimes collectively known as the Anglosphere, and are among Britain's closest allies.[9][10] In turn the empire also influenced British culture, particularly British cuisine. As a result of the history of the formation of the United Kingdom, the cultures of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are diverse and have varying degrees of overlap and distinctiveness. Important parts of British folklore include Robin Hood, the Arthurian myth and Jack and the Beanstalk.


Education.


By law, all children of compulsory school age (5 to 16) must receive a full time education that is suited to their age, ability, aptitude and special educational needs (SEN). Until 1988 schools were free to decide what they taught their pupils, with Religious Education being the only compulsory subject. As a result of the Education Reform Act 1988 The National Curriculum of England was developed and then introduced in 1992. Its aim was to make sure that all pupils had a balanced education by stating the topics that should be taught and the standards expected to be attained by pupils. The National Curriculum defines four Key Stages, which breakdown as follows: Key Stage 1: Years 1 and 2 (up to age 7) Key Stage 2: Years 3, 4, 5 and 6 (age 7 to 11) Key Stage 3: Years 7, 8 and 9 (age 11 to 14) Key Stage 4: Years 10 and 11 (age 14 to 16) The Foundation Stage, which represents early years learning (age 3 to the end of Reception Year, which is pre-Year 1) became part of the National Curriculum in 2002. Key Stage 1 and 2 are usually taught in primary schools and Key Stage 3 and 4 are usually taught in secondary schools. Most pupils transfer from primary to secondary school at age 11 years. However, a system of middle schools also exists: here pupils are transferred from primary school at either age 8 or 9 years, then onto secondary education at age 12 or 13 years. The National Curriculum consists of a set of core and foundation subjects. The core subjects are English maths and science, and the foundation subjects are design and technology, information and Understanding the UK education systemcommunication technology (ICT), history, geography, art & design, music, physical education, modern foreign languages (Key Stage 3 only) and citizenship (Key Stages 3 and 4 only). Religious education is taught according to agreed local syllabus. All pupils in England, except those at independent (i.e. fee paying or private) schools and the new academies are required to adhere to the National Curriculum. Wales and Northern Ireland largely follow the National Curriculum requirements, with the exception that Welsh is also a core subject in Wales and that in Northern Ireland schools can develop additional curriculum elements to meet the needs of their pupils. Pupils are assessed by National Curriculum tests at the end of each Key Stage, with Key Stage 4 being assessed by levels of achievement acquired at General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) level. Having completed GCSEs, pupils have a choice of whether to continue with further education at school or college through AS-level, A-level or vocational qualifications or to undertake employment.


SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY


What did Isaac discover? Isaac Newton is arguably one of the most influential scientists in history. Though he lived in the late 1600s, many of his discoveries still affect us in the present. His various theories still hold true even centuries after his death and countless experiments. The scientists able to improve upon his work became famous themselves. Some would say that he was the greatest product of the Enlightenment, the explosion of intellectual knowledge that occurred in his century. So what did Isaac Newton discover? Sir Isaac Newton’s largest contributions were in the areas of science and mathematics. Newton discovered many of the laws and theories that not only furthered our understanding of the universe, but also gave future scientists the tools to discover how to enter space. He discovered gravitational force and established the three Universal Laws of Motion. By tying these discoveries to the work Johannes Kepler and his Laws of Planetary motion, he established classic mechanics the beginning of modern Physics. This was huge in many ways as he proved definitively the heliocentric model first proposed by Copernicus. He also was the first to propose a set of laws that described the motion of all things in the universe. This served as the basis for our understanding how the universe functions and why it is the way it is. For his time and even now this was a major breakthrough. His discoveries in mathematics were just as important. He came up with the Binomial Theorem and was one of the two creators of calculus. These discoveries represented a quantum leap in the fields of math and science allowing for calculations that more accurately modeled the behavior of the universe than ever before. Without these advances in math, scientists could not design vehicles to carry us and other machines into space and also plot the best and safest course. Calculus gave scientist the tools to set up a theoretical model of a situation and still account for varying factors. This basic knowledge would help scientist such as Einstein to be able make even greater discoveries such as the Theory of Relativity and Nuclear Fission. In the end, when we look at Newton’s discoveries we must realize that we are looking at one of the core foundations of the modern sciences. What did Newton discover? He opened humanity’s eyes to new possibilities and even though his work is over three hundred years old it still helps to guide the advance of technology and our scientific understanding of the earth and the universe around us.


MUSIC


The Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962 who were in the vanguard of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the US from 1964–65 and an integral part of the counterculture of the 1960s. The Rolling Stones were also instrumental in making blues a major part of rock and roll, and of changing the international focus of blues culture to the blues typified by John Lee Hooker and by Chess Records artists such as Muddy Waters, writer of "Rollin' Stone", the song after which the band is named. American music critic Robert Palmer said the Rolling Stones' "remarkable endurance" stems from being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music" while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone". The first settled line-up had Brian Jones on guitar and harmonica, Ian Stewart on piano, Mick Jagger on lead vocals and harmonica, Keith Richards on guitar and backing vocals, Bill Wyman on bass and Charlie Watts on drums. Jones left the band about a month prior to his death in 1969, and was replaced by Mick Taylor, who was replaced by Ronnie Wood in 1975. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, bassist Darryl Jones has been a collaborator rather than an actual band member. They were considered to be symbols of rebellious youth in their mid-1960s heyday, and were portrayed as the "Anti-Beatles". During this time they scored a string of hit singles, many reaching the top of the international charts, particularly in the UK and US. They received a great deal of backlash upon the release of Their Satanic Majesties Request (1967), created as a reaction to The Beatles' Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Into the late 1960s and early 1970s the band released the studio albums Beggars Banquet (1968), Let It Bleed (1969), Sticky Fingers (1971) and Exile on Main St. (1972). This string of four albums is considered to be the band's "Golden Age", and generally regarded as their finest work. After a period of criticism during the mid-1970s, they revived their commercial fortunes and popular appeal with 1978's Some Girls, their best-selling studio album. Since this time through band friction and solo projects, they have released material less frequently, but have remained commercially popular and continue to embark on highly successful worldwide tours. The Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated album sales are above 250 million. They have released twenty-nine studio albums, eighteen live albums and numerous compilations. Sticky Fingers (1971) was their first of eight consecutive number one studio albums in the United States. Let It Bleed (1969) was their first of five consecutive number one studio and Live albums in the UK. In 2008 the Rolling Stones ranked 10th on the "Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists" chart. In 2012, they celebrated their 50th Anniversary with the release of new Greatest Hits album GRRR! featuring two new singles, including chart hit "Doom and Gloom". In 2013, along with Arctic Monkeys and Mumford & Sons, they headlined the Glastonbury Festival.

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