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YE Peng B. Eng. Urban Planning Southeast University Nanjing, P. R. China Jan. 2018

SOFT BOUNDARY Soft boundary is defined as a boundary with phenomenal transparency that activates its communicative functions as ties between two separated sides. Much like placing a mirror on the boundaries and attracting people’s focus more on what is going on around the mirror rather than the mirror itself, soft boundaries give birth to easy access to perceiving what is behind the boundaries. The perception of activities from the opposite side is not restricted by the boundaries, and the activities do not neglect the existence of boundaries. That is to say, the activities and boundaries are all penetrable and they do not compromise each other.

























Individual Writing Beijing, P.R.China 2017

Imagine a mirror. As Foucault puts it when talking about heterotopia, the mirror is a placeless place. The mirror is also a borderless boundary. The mirror is real because it isolates me from what is around me - the truth of the mirror comes from the fact that I can not cross it; the mirror is absolutely unreal because the mirror enables me to see myself there where I am absent - the illusion of the mirror lies in the fact that the mirror strives to dispel its true existence in a virtual space. The place occupied by the mirror is both absolutely true and unrealistic. True because it separates the entire space surrounding it, and unrealistic because the surroundings are presented in an unreal space behind the real appearance. In the area from where the mirror really exists, to the place where I stand, the mirror exerts a sort of counteraction that I would like to call soft boundary.


Figure 1: Obvious features in cities mark invisible boundaries.


Hostility to Separate& Desire to Communicate

In nature, animals mark the boundaries of their territories by scent and sound beyond which a particular species does not stray. In human society, such a phenomenon still exists with the increasing hostility between people finding physical barriers, such as the ancient city wall that served as a military defense, the current access controls in urban residential community and so on. In addition, people's quest for connection further prompted the emergence of another kind of boundary: the passage of one link between two points. A passage is established to satisfy the connection between two places but leads to a greater separation – such as railroad tracks. These boundaries, compartmentalizing space rigidly, are what we call rough boundaries1. Boundary is one of Kevin Lynch’s main defining elements of a city2, and acts as a key characteristic in Constant Nieuwenhuys’s New Babylon3. Boundaries define the scope of space, which is a manifestation of the right in space. However, rigid boundaries tend to bring about

many problems. For instance, Guy Debord, the leader of Situationists, mentions psychogeographic boundaries as some limitations that separate people in the city mentally, attitudinally, or emotionally as well as physically. Such boundaries can lead to social segregation. The nature of boundaries does not necessarily involve a pessimistic attitude towards itself. Instead, it is essential that we realize that it is precisely in the contradictory nature of boundaries that lies its hopeful performance. The boundary not only is a dividing line but also can strengthen the ties between the two sides. If the rough boundary is the materialization of human consciousness in the real world, then the desire to pass through of humankind will surely give rise to another form of boundary. Imagine a mirror. As Foucault said, the mirror is a placeless place4. The mirror is also a borderless boundary. The mirror is real because it isolates me from what is around me - the truth of the mirror comes from the fact that I can not cross it; the mirror is absolutely unreal because the mirror enables me to see myself there where I am absent - the illusion of the mirror lies in the fact that the mirror strives to dispel its true existence

1. Rough boundary is defined as some limitations that separate people emotionally or physically without allowing any spontaneous communications. 2. Lynch proposes in his book called “The Image of the City” that maps consist of five elements: (1) paths: routes along which people move throughout the city; (2) edges: boundaries and breaks in continuity; (3) districts: areas characterized by common characteristics; (4) nodes: strategic focus points for orientation like squares and junctions; and (5) landmarks: external points of orientation, usually a easily identifiable physical object in the urban landscape.


in a virtual space. The place occupied by the mirror is both absolutely true and unrealistic. True because it separates the entire space surrounding it, and unrealistic because the surroundings are presented in an unreal space behind the real appearance. In the area from where the mirror really exists, to the place where I stand, the mirror exerts a sort of counteraction that I would like to call soft boundary. As for the soft boundaries as such, how can they be described? Soft boundaries activate their communicative functions as ties between two separated sides, much like placing a mirror on the boundaries and attracting people’s focus more on what is going on around the mirror rather than the mirror itself. Soft boundaries give birth to easy access to perceiving what is behind the boundaries. The perception of activities from the opposite side is not restricted by the boundaries, and the activities do not neglect the existence of a boundary. That is to say, the activities and boundaries are all penetrable and they do not compromise each other. From this perspective, a soft boundary is a boundary with phenomenal transparency5.


Blurred Walls Polysemous Gallery Volunteer Prisoners

Through phenomenal transparency, soft boundaries give birth to interpenetration between various systems without compromising each. Such creations have been identified in many cases. House N is a good case in point6. Sou Fujimoto had doubts about streets and houses separated by a single wall, and wondered if a gradation of rich domain accompanied by various senses of distance between streets and houses could be a possibility. For example, a place inside the house that is fairly near the street, a place that is a bit far from the street, and a place far off the street, in secure privacy. The house itself comprises of three shells of progressive size nested inside one another, creating a semi-indoor garden and interior space. Therefore, a distinct boundary is nowhere to be found, except for a gradual change in the domain. One might say that the outdoor space feels like the indoors, and vice versa. Sou Fujimoto’s intention is to make an architecture that is not

Figure 2: Idea Process to Activate Cross-border Development. In Choreographic Borders by Min Jung Kim, Department of Urbanism, TU Delft

3. As Constant explained in a 1964 essay called “New Babylon: An Urbanism of the Future”, “Every element would be left undetermined, mobile, and flexible. For the people circulating in this enormous social space are expected to give it its ever-changing shape; to divide it, to vary it, to create its different atmospheres and to play out their lives in a variety of surroundings.” 4. Foucault uses the idea of a mirror as a metaphor for the duality and contradictions, the reality and the unreality of utopian projects. A mirror is metaphor for utopia because the image that you see in it does not exist, but it is also a heterotopia because the mirror is a real object that shapes the way you relate to your own image.


Figure 3: Researchers Related to the Topic of Boundaries

about space nor about form, but simply about expressing the riches of what are “between” houses and streets. That is to say, the walls are blurred and turned into soft boundaries by providing various senses of space. Another case of soft boundary is Cultural Center of Beicheng Central Park in Hefei, China7. The architect tries to create a new connection between the building and its external space, which he calls "ambiguous boundary." Two elements of the traditional Chinese courtyard, the wall and the porch – which have different spatial characteristics, are combined to make the courtyard space better in providing diversity. The designer finally strikes a balance between these contradictory elements - creating a gallery of short walls that, along with the combination of different forms and moduli, forms a defined boundary of diversifying the courtyard space and at the same time constitutes polysemy place experience. When the boundary has the thickness that can be entered, daily life and artistic activities have a space carrier. It can be a paradise for children to hide and seek after school, or a community art gallery. When people see this boundary, someone might interpret the white wall on which bamboo casts its shadows, while some might picture the corridors of the twists and turns; some

see the colorful painting exhibition on the wall, and some vision the pedestrians hurrying in the passage. With the rise of polysemy, the soft boundary is formed. It is also instructive to create such a boundary on a city scale. Koolhaas, in his Exodus, or the Voluntary Prisoners of Architecture8, inserts a long strip of body in London to metaphor the Berlin Wall that had yet to be overthrown, creating an ambiguous space to entice people. He divides the enlarged strip into several square spaces, giving each space a different theme. Fleeing people, according to their preferences, choose a space to dwell. This metaphorical wall turns into an amusement park that separates political attitudes. "The Wall was a masterpiece." 9 The wall created by Koolhaas becomes a soft boundary where people on both sides are curious about the ideal life on the other side so much that they all want to explore it. In the middle of the strip, they are tempted to enter and stay there as voluntary prisoners of the wall. Such a boundary may only be a specious carnival rather than a bright future that urban design has to offer, but it invites far more thoughts than its practicality – an irony that architecture and urban planning have been passively made political tools, forming an invisible wall in itself.

5. The term phenomenal transparency, as opposed to literal transparency, originates in Colin Rowe's book "Transparency". Rowe defines literal transparency as the physical translucence inherent in a material or structure. There is no ambiguity as to the form or that which lies behind the plane of the transparent surface. Conversely, phenomenal transparency exists when a designer deliberately abstracts space, not through the use of overlaying transparent planes, but through the reorganization of multiple spacial grids that would normally define a plane. 6. House N is designed by Sou Fujimoto and is available at 7. This case is designed by Shenzhen Huahui Design Co. Ltd and is available at 8.The title of the project alludes to Cold War West Berlin, a restricted enclave encircled by a forbidding wall—in effect, a prison on the scale of a metropolis, and one in which people sought refuge voluntarily. Exodus proposes a walled city in a long strip, with tall barriers that cut through London’s urban fabric—an intervention designed to create a new urban culture invigorated by architectural innovation and political subversion. Here Koolhaas and his collaborators use collage to create vivid scenes of life within these visionary urban confines.


Figure 4: Koolhaas's Exodus, or the Voluntary Prisoners of Architecture Figure 5: The Wall and the Porch As Two Elements of the Traditional Chinese Courtyard Figure 6: Sou Fujimoto's House N Project

4 5



Tokyo 35.68°N, 139.76°E

Amsterdam 52.37°N, 4.90°E


London 51.52°N, 0.04°W

New York 40.77°N, 73.97°W

Washington, D.C. 38.89°N, 77.03°W

Berlin 52.60°N, 13.37°E

What Makes It Soft?

A soft boundary should have the following elements: What comes first is the rough boundaries as the foundation in space. We should note that constructing a soft boundary does not entail denial of the impenetrable one; it involves a certain manner of dealing with what we call separation and segregation. A rough boundary provides the reason for the existence of a new boundary. We recognize the existence of a rough boundary and explore a way to minimize their negative effects as well as to make communication happen. It is not about tearing down the boundary, instead, it is about reshaping the boundaries’ form and meaning. In the traditional way of treating boundaries, we can clearly see that the easiest way to promote communication is to break it. However, such a method exposes both sides to each other's perspective, resulting in an overly straightforward relationship that wastes the boundary's potential. On the contrary, a clear boundary promotes communication, just as the saying goes "distance produces beauty," the ambiguous gap increases the desire of people in communicating with each other.

Paris 48.86°N, 2.30°E

Beijing 39.91°N, 116.39°E Figure 7: Axes and Cores in the Cities

the assignment remains undetermined and the belonging to one or the other remains a mailer or choice.’’10 In a soft-boundary context, the relations can be the mutual infiltration of spatial images by different elements on the boundary or the different roles of the boundary itself in different systems. As Kazuyo Sejima once said: "Transparency means creating relationships. It does not have to be looked through." This fits in perfectly with the phenomenal transparency demonstrated in soft boundaries. The overlap of multi-layered systems does not mean that these systems are simply to occupy their own z-axis, but penetrating with one another. This characteristic has the ability to guide people to use their imagination to grasp different understandings of what is in front of them. A soft boundary may not be the best way to treat the boundaries in cities, but it will surely help those seemingly negative barriers fit in and make some differences to the city.

Another one is the overlap of multi-layered systems. ‘‘Transparency exists where a locus in space can he referred to two or several systems of relations - where

9. This is a sentence following the background. The "masterpiece" created by the walls creates a new urban culture whose magic draws people away from their old habitat and begins a frenzied escape. The irresistible magic came from the wonderful Eden-like fantasy it created. All facilities here are friendly and pleasant, adapting to the needs of different individuals, each of whom is voluntarily and enjoyably isolated in a personalized world. 10. This is the generalization of transparency according to Bernhard Hoesli. He thinks it as a universally applicahle criterium for characterizing form-organization just as for instance symmetry or asymmetry.


Figure 8: Classification of the Top 100 Cases Related to Boundaries on

Bibliography 1. Rowe, C., & Slutzky, R. (1963). Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal. Perspecta, 8, 45-54. doi:10.2307/1566901 2. Debord, G. (1955). Introduction to a critique of urban geography. Les Levres Nues, 4(4), 206-207. 3. Foucault, Michel (October 1984). "Des Espace Autres". Architecture, Mouvement, Continuité. 5: 46–49

6. Lee, C. C. (2014). The Border as a City. In Lee, C. C(Ed.), Common Frameworks: Rethinking the Developmental City in China Part2: Macau (pp. 10-23). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Graduate School of Design 7. Lynch, Kevin (1960). The Image of the City. The MIT Press. ISBN 0-26262001-4.

4. Koolhaas, R., with Madelon Vriesendorp, E. Z., & Zenghelis, Z. (2001). Exodus, or the Voluntary Prisoners of Architecture. Perfect Acts of Architecture, 14–33.

8. Breitung, W. (2011). Borders and the City: Intra-Urban Boundaries in Guangzhou (China). Quaestiones Geographicae, 30(4), pp. 5561. Retrieved 5 Dec. 2017, from doi:10.2478/v10117-011-0038-5

5. Hoesli B. (1997). Transparent form-organization as an instrument of design. In Rowe C., Slutzky R., Hoesli B.(Eds.), Transparency (pp. 85–97). Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser.

9. Christine Noe. (2010). Spatiality and ‘borderlessness’ in transfrontier conservation areas. South African Geographical Journal, 92(2), 144159.

10. Newman D. (2002). Boundaries. In: Agnew J. et al. (eds), A companion to political geography. Blackwell, Malden: 123-137.

14. Huang T.-Y. (2004). Walking between slums and skyscrapers. Illusions of open space in Hong Kong, Tokyo and Shanghai. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong.

11. Hartmann, E. (1991). Boundaries in the mind: a new psychology of personality. Basic Ny. 12. Constant (1974). New Babylon: a Nomadic Town. In: Haags Gemeentemuseum exhibition catalog. Available at http:// html 13. Wu F. (2005). Rediscovering the "gate" under market transition: From work-unit compounds to commodity housing estates. Housing Studies, 20(2): 235-254.



ABANDONED BOUNDARY AS A HETEROTOPIA Teamwork with LIU Qi Concept 50%, Analysis 75%, Drawing 50%, Presentation 75% Hangzhou, P.R.China 2017

The Wall was a masterpiece. In Exodus, or the Voluntary Prisoners of Architecture, the wall created by Koolhaas becomes a soft boundary where people on both sides are curious about the ideal life on the other side so much that they all want to explore it. By envisioning such a closed heterotopia, Koolhaas shows us what boundary can bring about when it becomes a city. In Hangzhou, this attempt is made again as a habitat for agriculture. From a historical perspective, land use planning has built walls in the past by segregation and devaluation, which creates social inequality and urban sprawl, and now this theory tries to right its wrong through mixed-use strategies. However, most mix use strategies focus on the mix of general urban land use categories and very few on the mix with agriculture. In Chinese cities, millions of famers leave their rural homes and work in the city, but few of them actually do agriculture related jobs, and even fewer end up to be accepted as citizens. This become a social issue that’s caused by the segregation of urban and agriculture activities. This project tries to challenge the notion that urban and agriculture land are incompetent. It aims at reusing the abandoned rail and build an ecosystem for farmers migrating into the city to better support themselves. The system covers the process of growing, harvesting, processing and catering, where in each section, a farmer can always find his most matched position. It demonstrates that farmers have the right to be incorporated into the city’s everyday process not through selling cheap labor, but the expertise they are good at.


When Hangzhou Railway Station was completed, the scale of Hangzhou city was small, mainly on the east side of West Lake. This railway served as a connection between Hangzhou and other cities.

Later, after the founding of New China, Xiaoshan Station was completed and became an enclave across the Qiantang River.

During the Cultural Revolution from 1966 to 1976, China's urban development was almost stagnant. After the catastrophe, Hangzhou's two regions began to develop toward each other.

Nowadays, the expressways and subways have replaced the original railway in connecting the two stations. The new high-speed rail line further pushed the old railroad tracks to be abandoned.

Historical Timeline The track, originally used for transportation, was abandoned with the development of the city.


Rail Track as a Boundary in the City The remains of the railroad track not only shatters the architectural fabric of the city but also influences the surrounding activities, as the peaks in cellphone signaling tend to hit a minimum near the track.


Garden City of Tomorrow The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which selfcontained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard. His idealised garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail.

Obsolete Tracks as Grand Avenue The outskirts of the city of Hangzhou are surrounded by farmland, which shows the initial shape of Garden City. However, going deeper, the essence of garden city theory in enhancing the quality of life is not only to surround the city with farmland, but to promote the relationship between human and nature. By transforming obsolete railroad tracks into urban farms as Grand Avenue in the theory, a new type of man-land relationship will be created, and land-use patterns that combine the productive, living and ecological functions in high density areas become possible. 14




The site is surrounded by supporting strip houses and covered with farmland. Farmhouses divide farmland into modules, with public buildings in the center of each farming module.


The vertical ranch rings and public rings serve as the main character of the space and are equipped with farmhouses. The rest of the open space is filled with open grassland which can be used as a grazing site or park.


A public building that provides accommodation and recreational services to workers is located in the center of the area. The plants built for large enterprises are arranged around the public building, with plants built for the smaller ones in four corners.


Processed plants are arranged along the tracks to facilitate the receipt of agricultural products. Shared kitchens are arranged in the periphery, surrounding the public space together with the plants.

Architectural Prototypes The railroad tracks are preserved and land along the route is integrated into urban farms, covering all aspects of planting, breeding, processing and marketing. Therefore, an industry chain is attached to the old tracks. Production forms are determined by the identity in industry chain 17

FARM Food safety has aroused widespread concern in the Chinese society. Also, the transportation costs of transporting agricultural products from the outskirts of the city also generate additional costs for the people. Therefore, the introduction of arable land for farming in the cities might be an option. The Farm section is located in the densely populated area of Hangzhou City, where the negative impact of the tracks is particularly serious. The abandoned land along the original railroad





tracks here is transformed into open farmland not only to produce fruits and vegetables but also to creat green parks. Various activities such as cultivation, sale, entertainment, agriculture related education and experience can all be found here. While obtaining assured agricultural products, citizens also have access to farmland landscapes often excluded from urban land use planning.

Modular Farmland

Residences are built to divide farmland which can serve as not only planting land for fruit and vegetable but also the city's green parks. Products can be sold locally or transported by train to other parts of the city.


Agricultural Society Restoration

Building Fabric Typology Being in the downtown makes the program focus on providing a variety of spaces. Different building types satisfy different space requirements, making the new farm a place for almost everyone in the city.

Farmhouse Typology Farmers are the protagonists in this program and the agricultural experience is one of the important activities here. The construction of different farmhouses not only meets the needs of all kinds of farming but also diversifies the street landscape. 19

PASTURE This section is close to the densely populated urban areas, but because of the abandonment of the stations along the tracks, a large amount of vacant land can be freed up for livestock breeding.

the circle was replaced by the open green space, so the building became ring-shaped. In a further deduction, the ranch rings have different variations to accommodate different types of animal breeding and space needs.

The idea of a vertical ranch ring comes from Foucault's theory of prison. He believes that the circular space of centripetality can bring about the supervisory convenience and the concentration of rights. In order to create a more comfortable space, both for human beings and animals, the center of









Ranch Typology Different types of animal breeding provide different uses for the city, leading to different space needs. Such as enclosed but spacious vertical pastures, public buildings with viewing platforms and fisheries suitable for aquaculture.


Ranch Visit Day





Rings in the Green Circular space of vertical patures are set against residential areas within open green space.


PROCESSING PLANTS The Processing Plants section lies on the outskirts of the city center and the production of the factory will not affect nearby residents. At the same time, as it is close to the Qiantang River, in addition to transporting agricultural products by rail, the finished agricultural products can be easily transported to other cities by water. The buildings here are divided into three categoriesa collective living building and two types of processing plants. The living building provides

accommodation and entertainment space for workers, while two types of processing plants are built for different types of industries and different strength of the enterprise. Mature enterprises can contract an entire processing plant, while small and micro enterprises can rent a separate cell. The industries here cover slaughtering, canning, soy products processing and other agricultural products processing industries, as well as scientific research and cultural industries. Plants Type 2 For SME

Plants Type 1 For Large Enterprises

Public Space

Rail Tracks


Collective Living Building

Architectural Prototype

Processing Plants View The plants are lined with the living building and the workers work in an orderly manner. Nearby schools occasionally organize activities to visit and learn about the process of processing agricultural products. 22





Modular Plants Processing plants for enterprises of different types or strengthes are arranged in the site.


SHARED KITCHENS The last node in the industry chain is surrounded by hi-tech zone and urban villages, where railroads have rigidly separated the urban context. The Shared Kitchen program is not to eliminate the difference between these two sides, but to explore the possibility of symbiosis between them. By using the agricultural products transported from the first three sections, the office workers and the village inhabitants here can have mutually beneficial relations. Office workers can order takeaway food and the village inhabitants can take it as a job to

cook and deliver the takeaway. Also, citizens are allowed to pay for the food transported by rail and use the kitchens to cook meals for themselves. The design of public spaces has also eased the current situation of the shortage of leisure spaces in urban-rural areas. Anyone in the city can find their favorite activities here, just like farmers have the right to be incorporated into the city.


Office Workers

Transfer Station

Takeaway Orders

Delivery Workers

Get Paid from Completing the Orders




Self-Service Ecosystem Between Identities The inhabitants and the agricultural products brought here by rail form a system of supply and demand






Kitchens with a handful of proce 24

Public Space as a Vitality Generator


Sports Field

Weekend Market

Art Gallery

Outdoor Movies


Festival Celebration

Recreation& Retail

Public Space Typology


essing plants define public spaces. 25

Abandoned, or a Labor Fo

Things that are not compat expelled or turned into part of railroad tracks as much as 26

orce in the Industry Chain

tible with the city are either the system. This works for the it works for urban farmers. 27

The Old Track Re


egains Its Vitality




City walls that used to served for military purpose have lost their original roles with the development of society and technology. The remains of the walls are often preserved as historical memories. Such protection prompts the government to introduce many policies and spend a lot of money. But the protected walls tend to become a boundary, not only limit the traffic, but also creat folded spaces that the public can not reach. Nanjing is one of the cities in China preserving ancient city walls. In the past few years, Nanjing has made strict protection plans for the wall and even tore down residential buildings nearby in order to repair damaged walls. Why do we want to rebuild something abandoned by history? Why do we not allow new changes on the walls? Why can't we treat them with diversity? By creating a deceptive bridge, this program aims at arousing people's awareness who is the really deceptive one? The architecture? The wall? Or everything we have ever seen?


WHEN THE BOUNDARY NO LONGER HOLDS The city walls of Nanjing has already lost its role as a military defense facility. However, the existence of the walls still plays a decisive role in almost every aspects of urban planning. As a historical heritage, almost all urban construction gives way to it. In an environment that emphasizes historical preservation, it is commonplace to fold space under the name of historical preservation. But in a situation where shortage of space is getting increasingly serious, how much our reverence for history should interfere with the decision-making process remains a mailer or choice.


Parts Close to Buildings

Existing Gates

Climbable Walls

Crossing Roads or Tunnels

Planniing of Public Space

Tourist Resources

Parks Variation

Points of Interest

Building Height of the Inner City

Walls in the Mind The City wall of Nanjing has become a blind spot in the mind of urban planners as well as ordinary citizens. The physical wall turns into an insurmountable wall in ideology

Preservation Becoming Absurd Actions The historical boundaries have been abandoned by the times, yet our protection of the walls has become ANOTHER BOUNDARY. 33

"Seeing Is Deceiving"


A mirror is attached to the wall to create infinite space, misleading people to think that this bridge offers a way to the other side. The appearance of the device is designed as a drawbridge of an ancient city wall, which strengthenes the illusion.

The glass gate used in the entrance contrasts strongly with the darkness inside the passageway, giving one a sense of being deceived.

A spiral outer skin is given to the bridge, boasting its ambitions to penetrate the wall.

The tower built on the city wall uses the same material as the bridge's outskin. It indicates that there might be some overlaps of space inside the wall.

Deceptive Elements Architecture is an art of feeling. But what if the feelings offered are not in conformity with reality? In this scenario, several deceptive elements are applied to create an illusion opposite to the truth.



Site Plan


N 0 1 2



The Dead End

A Mirror That Leads to Nowhere The bridge ends at the wall but the interior uses a mirror and spiraling lights to create an illusion as if people could penetrate the wall. 37

Overlaps of Reality

The inertial way of thin Chances are that what seems s And what we take for granted


y and Virtual Space

nking creates illusions. so impending might never come. d might slip out of our control.



LANDFILL AS A FADING BOUNDARY Teamwork with ZHANG Gan Concept 50%, Analysis 50%, Drawing 50%, Presentation 50% Zhenjiang, P.R.China 2017

The outskirts of the city have always existed as ancillary land for the city. Something that contaiminates the urban environment is often arranged in these places. Paradoxically, the outskirts of cities often retain a lot of natural appearances. Throwing out obsolete things in the city stops people from experiencing outstanding natural beauty. As time passes, people began to equate the suburbs with dirty lands. Zhenjiang is an example. Since its completion in 1990, the Chengdong Landfill has taken up a large area of the city on the edge of Yangtze River, hindering the city's interaction with nature. Luckily, the landfill was shut down in 2016, bringing hope to the land. Since landfill waste takes a long time to degrade, this program tries to introduce time-latitude into traditional urban design methods. With the deepening of the degree of land decontamination, the landfill serves as a venue to accommodate different activities of different groups at different times. As Landscape Urbanism firmly believes, the landscape system is bound to be constantly updated in the time dimension of the ever-changing freedom.


REDEMPTION OF LANDFILL Zhenjiang is a city on the edge of the Yangtze River with beautiful natural scenery. However, the interaction between this city and the Yangtze has been cut off by the industrialization and the urbanization. The pursuit for profit compelled a large number of factories to occupy the edge of the city. The situation was worsened by the Eastern Landfill in the 1990s, where the original views of the riverside were completely blocked and replaced by rubbish. The possibilities for human activities disappeared, and a boundary was created. Fortunately, the government realized the Yangtze River's outstanding resources for ecosystem. And the landfill has ceased operation in 2016, opening up new opportunities to explore new possibilities for the interface between city and nature.











Boundary Thickness Changing in Process

Ecological Industrial Residential Land Land Land

Ever-Changing Ecosystem The quality of the ecosystem of the site continued to deteriorate with the deepening of industrialization. This program aims to gradually rehabilitate the damaged ecosystem in the coming decades. 42

Landfill as a Boundary As time passes, the landfill becomes a boundary in the dimension of time and spaceas as bobody remember that this used to be a beautiful place near Yangzte River.

Residential Buildings

Industrial Buildings

Landfill Area


Green space

Wetland Beach


Pollution Capacity

Hardness Level

Degradation Capacity Planting Soil

New Soil

Rammed Earth

Existing Soil

Planting Soil


Rammed Earth

Existing Soil

Planting Soil


Pollution Capacity

Hardness Level

Degradation Capacity

Pollution Capacity

Hardness Level

Degradation Capacity

Rammed Earth

Construction Waste

Garbage Disposal Strategies Strategy 1. Rubbish that heavily polltutes the environment and is hard to degrade is transferred. And the original contaminated soil is replaced with fresh soil. Strategy 2. Garbage of medium pollution capacity is buried in the site and a series of technical processes are carried out to ensure that there will not be further contamination during degradation of the waste. Strategy 3. Construction waste that has little or no pollution to the environment can be piled up and covered with a layer of soil to create a hillside for human activity.


Existing Soil

Facilities and Buildings Construction Period: 25 Years

Transport network Construction Period: 3 Years

Modified terrain Construction Period: 1 Year

Natural terrain Construction Period: Existing

Program Construction Period: 25 Years

Site Construction Period: Existing

Urban Transformation as a Progressive System Just as the degradation of pollutants takes time, the construction of the city also requires a certain period of time. Phased system construction gives the possibility of flexible development.


Staging Views Different periods of construction have different landscapes, inviting different types of activities.

Native Plants with High Purification Capacity








Native Plants with High Landscape Value




Imported Plants with High Landscape Value

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Woodland Gradual Diversification In early years of construction, native plants with high purification capacity are planted in the site. After several years, as the degree of purification of the land slowly increases, new landscape plant varieties will be planted in overlapping ecotonal bands on existing soil to build the woodland rim. 46

Revisiting an Old Haunt As time goes by, the once barren land will eventually turn into a beautiful place.


N 0 50



New Interface on the Riverside The refurbishment of the landfill activated the vitality of the riverside. The once abarren boundary becomes a gravitational field that draw possibilities that this land has once lost.






Staging Site Plans With the reduction of pollution in the coming decades, increasing activities are introduced into the site and eventually make it a complete vitality area.



Waterfront Facilities

Clay Buildings

Hillside + River


Historic Buildings

Hillside + River + Beach


City Complex

Hillside+ River + Beach+Walkways

Viewing Platform

Industrial Park

Landform Typology For different topography with different combinations of natural elements, the most suitable construction is arranged. The complex venues are transformed into land that accommodates diverse activities.


Flood Protection Ⅲ Flood Protection Ⅱ Flood Protection Ⅰ

Sewage Treatment

Constructed Wetland

Leachate Drainage System

Planting Soil Anti-seepage Layer Original Contaminated Soil Refuse Anti-seepage Membrane Anti-seepage Clay Rammed Soil

Leachate Drainage System

Landfill Gas Collection System

Ecological Infrastructures




Identity is the mechanism by which people identify themselves and defend themselves. With the reform of China's production system, more and more regrets can be heard about unfamiliar neighborhoods. The ultimate reason is that social identities are no longer the reason for choosing a domicile. People living in a community often come from different work units and they do not feel the necessary to communicate with each other. From this perspective, identity becomes a boundary that limits the interaction between people. However, since it is a boundary, it can also serve as a breakthrough between different groups. This program is to design a community center in an old neighborhood, trying to break the identity boundaries between people with the help of the transformation of the spatial form. The core concern of the program falls on the unique spatial elements in the neighborhood - the courtyard, which is inextricably linked with identification because a variety of subconscious cognitions of courtyard space is expected to develop in the crowds through their daily life. To provide a feeling of comfort, the program should be able to provide their subconsciously recognized courtyard space. When enough courtyard needs are overlaid on the site, creating a multi-courtyard building becomes a priority. Thus, a multi-courtyard public space was introduced into the building, preserving the only remaining neighborhood in this fragmented society.







Differentiated Courtyards The Old East Gate block is a traditional residential area in Nanjing where many styles of buildings with different crowds are gathered together.

Walking Routes of Random Individuals According to a research about the walking routes of randomly selected individuals in the neighborhood, courtyard space is the space that the residents of this neighborhood must pass through in their daily life. 54
















Courtyard-Oriented Identities A variety of subconscious cognitions of courtyard space is expected to develop in the crowds through their daily life.To provide a feeling of comfort, the program of a community center should be able to provide their subconsciously recognized courtyard space. When enough courtyard needs are overlaid on the site, creating a multi-courtyard building becomes a priority. 55

Axial Space Break The monotony of courtyards in the traditional buildings lies in the single direction of walls, This program use vertical walls combined with horizontal ones to form courtyards in a single building program.


Courtyard Generation Throug h different spa c e d etails, these different courtyards accommodate a wide range of activities that are fluid with each other and promote the ininteraction of people of different identities while maintaining the psychological security of the individuals. 57











N 0 2 4



First Floor Plan







Courtyard Sections


Courtyard Generation Cour tyards are no longer the secondar y space of architecture here, but the core of this community center.


Truss Variation Due to the different internal space requirements, the truss has different construction methods

Physical Model


YE Peng B. Eng. Urban Planning Southeast University 2# Sipailou Nanjing, P. R. China +86 136-0516-2484



Prof. Yang Junyan’s Design Studio

Shanghai Urban Design Challenge: Panyu Road Urban Regeneration Design in Changning District

Nanjing, China | Aug. 2017 Overall Urban Design of Dengfeng City Overall Urban Design of Ecotourism Resort in Heilongtan

Urban Planning & Design Institute of Shenzhen Shenzhen, China | Jun. 2017 Overall Urban Design of Shenzhen City

Shanghai, China | Sep. 2017 Chief Designer

International Competition of Young Designers for Open Space leading down the East Bund of the Huangpu River Shanghai, China | Apr. 2016 Team Leader



Survey on Gentrification of Residential Historic Blocks Regeneration

Nanyuan Street Community in Nanjing City

Nanjing, China | Jun. 2016

“Embracing Subway even in a Narrow Dwelling” A Study on the Residents’ Commuting Modes of the Affordable Housing Complex in Nanjing Nanjing, China | Sep. 2014

Nanjing, China | Nov. 2017 Community Planner

Academic Camp on Baba Nyonya in Malaysia Malacca, Malaysia | Oct. 2016 Camper

2016 (Melaka) World Min Nan Culture Festival Malacca, Malaysia | Oct. 2016 Head of the Chinese Volunteer Group



Outreach Department of Student Union

Excellent Paper Award

Nanjing, China | Sep. 2013 – Jun. 2015 Chief Secretary

Malacca, Malaysia | Oct. 2017 Academic Camp on Baba Nyonya

Excellent College Bound Tutors Alliance

Outstanding Class Leader

Xiamen, China | Sep. 2013 – Jun. 2014 Founder

Nanjing, China | Aug. 2015 Southeast University

Course Scholarship Nanjing, China | Jun. 2014 Southeast University

Yip‘s Portfolio of Urban Design Works  
Yip‘s Portfolio of Urban Design Works