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Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Denis Loncke Co-author Sjoerd Donders

4/12/2013| Veldhoven


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 2 December 4, 2013


Key to Moore’s Law: Making smaller transistors Public Slide 3 December 4, 2013

Transistor length has shrunk by a million

The first integrated circuit on silicon, on a wafer the size of a fingernail

Today: More than a billion transistors on the same area

(Fairchild Semiconductor, 1959)

(Intel, 2012)


Lithography is critical for shrinking transistors Public Slide 4 December 4, 2013

Like a photo enlarger of old, lithography forms the image of chip patterns on a wafer


Photolithography – how an ASML system works Public Slide 5 December 4, 2013


How does a modern chip look like A modern chip has more than just one layer

Public Slide 7 December 4, 2013


The manufacturing loop Public Slide 8 December 4, 2013

Ion implantation

Stripping Deposition

Etching

Photoresist coating

Developing Exposure


Keeping up with Moore’s Law requires constant technology upgrades: Continuous shrink

Public Slide 9 December 4, 2013

Trick:

“Shrink” / half pitch, ResolutionResolution [nm] "Shrink"[nm] / half pitch,

200

Feb-2012

NAND 17%

DRAM 13.9%

Logic 14.1%

100 AT:1200

80

60 50 40

XT:1400 XT:1700i XT:1900i NXT:1950i 2 NXT:1960Bi NXE:3100 NXE:3300B 3 NXT:1970Ci

30 20

4

10 6 2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

Year of Production start *

2016

2018

2020

* Note: Process development 1.5 ~ 2 years in advance


Keeping up with Moore’s Law requires constant technology upgrades: Improved productivity

Public Slide 10 December 4, 2013

200

Throughput [WPH]

450mm? 160

300mm 120

80

150

200

40

0 1985

1990

1995

2000

Year of introduction

2005

2010

2015


Drivers in semiconductor Litho industry Pushing the ASML system to the limit

Public Slide 11 December 4, 2013

• Shrink – reduces lithography costs • Productivity – increases efficiency of lithography systems  precision, thermal stability, dynamics  lightweight, increased design & functionality density


Impact on system design Position measurement

Position control đ?‘“đ??ľđ?‘Š

Stiffness (k)

Mechanical disturbance Fd

đ??šđ?‘Žđ?‘?đ?‘Ą = đ?‘š. đ?‘Ž đ?‘“đ??ľđ?‘Š ~ đ?‘“đ?‘› =

Fd

Mass (m) Actuation

Thermal disturbance Td

Point of interest POI (đ?‘’đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘œđ?‘&#x;đ?‘ƒđ??ś )

Public Slide 12 December 4, 2013

Td

T stability

s,v,a,j

1 đ?‘˜ 2đ?œ‹ đ?‘š

đ?‘’đ?‘&#x;đ?‘&#x;đ?‘œđ?‘&#x;đ?‘ƒđ??ś 1 = đ??šđ?‘‘ 0.5. đ?‘š. (2đ?œ‹đ?‘“đ??ľđ?‘Š )2

System drivers:

Influenced by:

Requiring:

• Precision

• Disturbance forces

• Reduction of disturbances

• Productivity

• Dynamics

• Light & stiff design

• Temperature variations

• Thermal control


Contribution of AM: reduction of disturbances Freedom of design and manufacturing to eliminate flow induced disturbance forces

Public Slide 13 December 4, 2013

Smooth corners and transitions

Sharp corners and transitions

90% disturbance force reduction by flow optimization PEEK Conventional machined part

Titanium Additive manufactured part


Contribution of AM : improved thermal control Freedom of design and manufacturing to integrate cooling for improved thermal control

Public Slide 14 December 4, 2013

Efficient cooling • Cooling channels close to heat source • Maximal contact area of coolant Additional benefit • Integration of parts • Increased robustness • Reduced lead-time and cost


Contribution of AM : lightweight & stiff design Freedom of design and manufacturing to optimise weight and functionality

Public Slide 15 December 4, 2013

Conventional design

Flow optimized

Ti 170x170x15

Ti 170x170x15

200g

100g

AM design

Ti 52,3x18,3x13 11g

Ti 35x21x21 6g PC 223,5x116,5x40


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 16 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 17 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 18 December 4, 2013

Roadmap alignment and CFT2.0 program HT SMEs

Kunde

Academia

• • • •

Materials Processes Modelling Design tools

Industrial development

Equipment development (B2B)

Polymers / Metals / Ceramics • • •

Materials Machines (Alfa equipment) Processes

Source: 130703 CFT2 0 AMT oems.pptx Brainport Industries

Brainport Industries

Additive Industries

TNO / ECN

Basic research

AM-SMART STW

kassa

Industrial application and supplying

Addlab (AI & BI) Shared AM facility • • •

Redesign • Prototyping on existing equipment Bèta equipment

Roadmap alignment

Industrialization and supplying to endcustomers

Demand articulation

Kennis

End Users (OEMs)


AM roadmap alignment for the high tech industrie Participants

Public Slide 19 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 20 December 4, 2013

AM roadmap alignment goal and status

Goal: Definition and execution of a joint research program on additive manufacturing technology to enable the production of future parts.

Status: •

Agreement on the consolidated AM technology roadmap Definition of workgroups for the definition of research programs

OEM Topology ASML x DAF Eesa x FEI x Fokker x OCE x Philips Consumer x Philips Healthcare x Philips Healthcare Philips Lighting x Philips PiNS Philips Research Sulzer Thales Cryogenics x Research Cranfield ECN KULeuven NLR Sirris TNO TUD VITO

Materials BASF DSM/chemelot Sabic

Large Metals x x

x

x x

x x

Small Metals x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Plastics x x

Ceramics x

Hybrids x

x

x

x x

x

x x x

x x x x x

x x x x x x

x

x x x x x

x

x

x

x

x x x

x x x

x

x x x x x

x x x x x x x x


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems ASML AM roadmaps ďƒ  consolidated roadmap

Public Slide 21 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Consolidated roadmap metals • Materials Ti grade 5, 316L, Al T7075, Al T6082, Invar, Inconel, Mo, Ta, W, T800MarM509, Hardmetals, Cu, Au, Ag, solder

• Small parts (<5000cm3) driven by - precision

- feature size - freedom of design

• Large parts (>1m) driven by - buy to fly ratio = cost

• Common drivers - material quality consistency and surface finish - resolution +/- 0.05 mm (large parts) to 0.02 mm (small parts)

Public Slide 22 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 23 December 4, 2013

Possibilities for metal additive manufacturing Powder bed based (SLM)

Blown powder based (3d cladding)

Wire Arc based (WAAM)

• • • • •

• • • • •

• • • • • •

High level of complexity Low deposition rates Small parts High part costs Quality and flaw issues

Medium deposition rates Large parts Thin walls Hybrid products Medium level of complexity

Source: Vito

High deposition rates Low part costs Large Parts Hybrid products Low level of complexity Post processing

Source: Cranfield


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 24 December 4, 2013

Possibilities for metal additive manufacturing Powder bed based (SLM)

Blown powder based (3d cladding)

Wire Arc based (WAAM)

• • • • •

• • • • •

• • • • • •

High level of complexity Low deposition rates Small parts High part costs Quality and flaw issues

Medium deposition rates Large parts Thin walls Hybrid products Medium level of complexity

Source: Vito

High deposition rates Low part costs Large Parts Hybrid products Low level of complexity Post processing

Source: Cranfield


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 25 December 4, 2013

Cost reduction and function integration in metal AM • Reduction of machining cost for large Ti Parts  reduce buy to fly ratio • Function integration  less connections  reliability improvement

+ large Ti parts (~50 dm3)

= function integration

monolithic part


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Consolidated roadmap plastics High tech plastics - PEEK, PEI, POM, PA12, PFA, PC - ABS, PBT, PMMA, Viton, teflon, ECTFE, PVDF

Driven by needed properties - mechanical properties, porosity, flammability, outgassing, ageing, thermal properties, optical properties

Quality level comparable with SLA process - surface, porosity, topology

Needed resolution - +/- 0.05 mm

Public Slide 26 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Restrictions for plastics

Public Slide 27 December 4, 2013

FDM: + thermoplastics, ># structural materials, flammability certified materials - Design freedom, material cost

SLA:

New technology is needed that combines the advantages of available processes and design freedom

+ thermoset plastics, design freedom, porosity - Ageing, brittleness, color changing, flammability certified materials

SLS: + high tech plastics, design freedom

- porosity, surface quality, material cost, flammability certified materials


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 28 December 4, 2013

Consolidated roadmap ceramics Materials like Al2O3, ZrO2, SiC, SiSiC, Si3N4, AlN, Cordierite, Zerodur

SiSiC,

Size: Small parts from 4x4x8cm to from 1x1x0.2m

large parts

Needed resolution +/-0.05mm (large parts) to 0.01mm small parts

Processes are relative new and still under development


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Consolidated roadmap ceramics

• VAT polymerization •

Current printable size is still small but has freedom of design

• Lamination process •

limits the design freedom but suitable for larger parts

Public Slide 29 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Consolidated roadmap hybrids • Functional hybrid materials • • • • •

Mechanical inserts Graded transitions Thermal and electrical isolation Tailored electrical conductivity/capacity & EMC shielding Integrated light guides and sensors

• Materials • • •

Polymer - Polymer, Polymer - Metal Ceramic - Ceramic, Ceramic – Metal Metal - Metal

• For the hybrid materials the sizes and resolution is the same as for the pure materials.

Public Slide 30 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Consolidated roadmap design & process tooling File interchangeability print tools (stacked layer)

3D design file

Design optimization tools (point cloud)

CAD/CAE tools (parametric)

Public Slide 31 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Consolidated roadmap design & process tooling: optimization example 1. Define problem: - Objective? Constraints? - Domain? Boundary conditions? - Loadcases?

2. Discretize and parameterize material distribution

Public Slide 32 December 4, 2013

Maximize stiffness Use only 50% material

ď ˛i

3. Optimize material distribution for best performance

4. Evaluate / fine-tune result (postprocessing, shape optimization)

Load Source: Fred van Keulen (TUD)


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems

• Optimization methodology improves performance • Organic shapes can not be conventional machined • Can a human handle / improve these complex shapes?

Load case definition: • Volume claim • Actuator position • Load Cases • Optimization parameters

?

Public Slide 33 December 4, 2013

3D Topology optimization translated to a ASML part

1 day Processing time Optimized result Freeform Organic design


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Public Slide 34 December 4, 2013


Additive Manufacturing for high tech systems Shaping the future

Public Slide 35 December 4, 2013

> 30 parts in production is a good start but further attention is needed on • • • •

Particle cleanliness Surface finish & porosity Consistency of materials & process Definition of quality verification and geometric accuracy • Part size • Materials & processes • Design tools


Thank you for your attention Denis Loncke, Sjoerd Donders


Additive manufacturing for high tech systems