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BITS ‘N’ BYTES Vol 1


SOE,CUSAT PRESENTS

BITS ‘N’ BYTES VOL.1 ECSA HEADS

STAFFS INCHARGE:Dr.SHAHANA T.K, Dr.DEEPA SANKAR SECRETARY: NAVEEN A TREASURER: ATHUL V RAJ CREATIVE HEAD: PARVEEN T TECH HEAD: VINEETH K ARTS SECRETARY: GAYATHRI PILLAI SPORTS SECRETARY:SABIQUE P V PLACEMENT INCHARGE: AMJAD MUHAMMED ALUMNI INCHARGE: ARJUN R JOINT SECRETARY: ANJAL SALAM JOINT TREASURER :ANAS MOHAMMED

MAGAZINE COMMITTEE EDITING:

DESIGN:

DRAWINGS:

PARVEEN T SREELAKSHMI S

NAVEEN A PARVEEN.T ATHULJITH

SREELAL SIVAN

NAME SUGGESTED BY: TOM ANTONY ,ALUMNI


BITS ‘n’ BYTES

CONTENTS Message from principal 5 Message from H.O.D 6 From the editor 7 ECSA blog 8 What you should probably want to know 10 EMI/EMC 13 Dreams & desire 15 Unending cycle 16 Codes, codes every where 18 Introduction to FPGA technology 20 The inner evil 29 Serpentine 31 Recent devolopments 37 Drawing 42 Photography 43 Cost efficient solar cell protection 44 My monochrome lover 45 The day dreamer 47 Higgs boson-The God particle 49 Say no to wires 50 ECSA activities 52 Class photo 58 Prasnam illa,pakshe prasnam anu 60 Maranathinayi oru jeevitham 64 Fun facts 65

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Message from Principal...

It gives me immense pleasure to know that the Association of Electronics students is bringing out their first annual magazine, bits n bytes. The magazine is a platform for the students and staff of the division of electronics to express their views, talents, and skill. It also reflects their quest for knowledge and understanding the latest devolopments in the field of electronics engineering. I take this opportunity to appreciate their commitment and dedication in this venture.Even though it is a joint venture of the electronics students, the members of the editorial board have put in extra effort in bringing out this magazine in time. I congratulate them and wish that it will be a memento for the passing out students who will later cherish their achievements and their experience during their studentship in the university.” With best wishes, Dr. P.S. Sreejith Principal, Schol of Engineering.

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Message from Head Of the Division, ECE...

“It gives me immense pleasure to know that the Electronics and

Communication Students Association(ECSA) is publishing their first annual magazine, Bits ‘n’ Bytes. I would like to congratulate all the student representatives for their concerted hard work to bring out this magazine. The magazine gives an oppurtunitiy for the students of ECSA to show their talents and skills. It is also an attempt to showcase the activities of the Electronics and Communication Students Association. I hope that the magazine will be a memorable memento for the final year students, who are going to complete the 4 years of their B.Tech programme. I consider this magazine as a humble attempt to equip our upcoming electronics engineers to face the challenges of the present world and the changing needs of the employment market. I wish all the success for this maiden endeavor.

Dr. R Gopika Kumari, Head, Division of Electronics Engineering, School of Engineering

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From the editor

We are only as strong as we are united, As weak as we are divided.”

J.K Rowling, Harry Potter and the goblet of fire.

I have heard these words quite a number of times, but felt it true only after we started working on this magazine. It is the dedication and hard work of a lot of people which made this venture successful. I was quite apprehensive when I was made the editor of this magazine. It was just an elusive idea in darkness. We had nothing with us, not even a name, but a heart full of enthusiasm and aspiration. It is the support shown by my fellow students, especially the alumni and juniors that made our magazine a dream come true. I am very grateful for the magnificent support they have shown. Bits ‘n’ bytes; the name seems to be very simple. Think over it for a while, it is these patterns of 0’s and 1’s, that forms the basis of digital communication, just as our magazine act as a communicating link between us. We have always believed in learning beyond text books. Collecting articles were an exhausting job as E.C classes are fragmented over the entire Cochin University. But facebook, gmail and whatsapp made our job pretty easy. Editing was never a tough job as our branch is bestowed with wonderful writers and painters. The toughest part was page designing. And frankly speaking, nobody in the whole of electronics branch was acquainted with this art. Then again, google came as our minder. In one click, the software and e-tutorials were in front of our eyes. Some of us learned it and we had tried our best to bring the best out of it. Though each E.C classes are miles apart, though we don’t see each other so often, it had never wane our branch spirit (can be depicted from the continuous victory in Btech arts). So we decided to reflect the same sense of unity in our magazine as well. Thus we arrived at the idea of a tri-lingual magazine, which I think is a new innovation. But unfortunately, due to some reasons we were not able to include hindi articles. I somberly apologize for that and I promise, next year we will definitely include hindi articles too. I cannot wind this up without thanking Dr. P.S Sreejith, our beloved principal, Dr. Gopika kumari, H.O.D,ECE, all teachers of division of electronics and ECSA committee members for their wonderful support and encouragement. I am sure that this will pave a stepping stone and ECSA will be able to bring even better magazines in the coming years.

PARVEEN.T, S8 7


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The Electronics & communication Students’ Blog This blog is just an attempt to showcase our technical and non-technical capabilities online… and to provide some useful information like course syllabus, previous year question papers, online library, placement papers, higher studies helpline, photo albums of ECSA events and group photos, ECSA core committee details and lot more for students.... We need proper supports from your side to make this a great success... So please mail your articles (both technical and non-technical), works (drawings or photography), study materials, suggestions/ feedbacks and any sort of creative ideas to ecsa.cusat@gmail.com

Student zone • Photo album of ECSA events and Alumni Album • Important scholarship details • Internship details

Syllabus Cusat syllabus for BTech electronics and communication entire course

Previous year question papers Previous year question papers for the entire course

DESIGNED BY: ATHUL V RAJ 8


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www.ecsacusat.blogspot.in

UPDATES

Department News, notifications, ECSA Event notices and important updates

Placement

ECSA LIBRARY

• All about preparing a CV/Resume and templates for the same • Placement oriented preparation for * Aptitude skills * Programming language skills * Technical skills, * Interview tips * Previous year placement papers

Online library consisting of books categorized per semester so that students can easily access course textbooks

Higher studies • GATE Syllabus and previous question papers • Preparation materials for CAT exam

2009-13 BATCH 9


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Having entered a college that is

going to leave a strong enough impression to mold you, I should congratulate you. Education is really an attempt to teach you to ask relevant questions. Everything around you can be understood in simple set of 3 words, what, why and how. What are you reading right now, why are you reading this and lastly how do you intend to use what you are reading, kind of simple this way.

WHAT YOU SHOULD PROBABLY WANT TO KNOW??? Before making this sound like a sermon, let me point you to a simple yet highly popular real life story. Steve Jobs as you would know was the founder of Apple Inc, and Pixar, the companies that we have learnt to love. He has created a legacy which will live well beyond our lifetimes. He went to college and asked himself why he is spending his parent’s lifelong earnings on a college education. He could not find an answer to what he could gain out of it and how he could use the knowledge he so gained. This led him into an entrepreneurial journey. Well, as we know this story has become a standard story for any guy/girl who finds studies a waste of time. I happened to incident on a school boy who had a similar notion and would tell his mother

JYOTISH SOMAN,ALUMNI

about Steve Jobs and Bill Gates and the reason for his lack of interest in getting an education. Trust me; I am no saint I laughed at the absolute wrong interpretation of why Steve Jobs did what he did. Having heard the kid’s version and the mother’s version of it, I decided it would be fun to talk to him. I asked him what his ambition is; he said he wants to be a business man. Well I genuinely loved it, and asked him what he wants to do business in, and how Steve Jobs has inspired him finding his calling in life. Well that is where the boy had no answers to my questions. He wanted to be rich, do business, and has no interest in either working hard or making his time count. Well as the reader you

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would find this absolutely amazing. The point is that there is so much garbage on the internet which makes you believe not working is the way to go about greatness. It is a blood bath of laziness that is coming up. The educators across the globe are seriously concerned about this. Well so am I.

where a transistor is sized at 22nm. That is amazingly small and no matter how good your eye sight, you can’t see it. You have to have softwares to design such a transistor

The fact, I talked to a student last week who is doing her masters in Econometrics, a new branch of economics dedicated to the use of softwares. This is the impact of softwares across the world. Nothing is beyond it now. But frankly computers are the dumbest things you will find ever. Electronics students, I would love to explain. Electronics has reached a stage

and model it. It is a necessary skill across the spectrum for electronics. As a matter of fact, I talked to a student last week who is doing her masters in Econometrics, a new branch of economics dedicated to the use of softwares. This is the impact of softwares across the world. Nothing is beyond it now. But frankly computers are the dumbest things you will find ever.

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Let me go through what I have written earlier, I have talked about asking questions, Steve Jobs, wrong impressions and softwares. A lot of things to say in a single article! Frankly, it was not an attempt to confuse you and I am not doped. There is a sense in all of this. Let me talk about it in the same sequence. The most important skill that is there on this planet is the ability to question what we see in front of us, and be dedicated enough to find the answers. Sometimes no one has the answers, and you go about doggedly finding them. Steve Jobs, Bill Gates and every successful entrepreneur have this in common to them. If just finding answers is your primary passion and monetary profit is not really a goal a researcher is born. Either way the world

is made better. Just by a simple action of asking questions and finding answers to them, an act of getting facts right and removing wrong impressions from one’s own head. And right now, softwares help you do that so easily. Google aka jagadguru is a software company you see. Softwares are an easy way to do find answers for a lot of topics; it can help you get your answers. So why not learn how to make it, than just use it. It would be a great thing if you could just try to use your laptops to learn simple python programming. Try creating a GUI so that your parents can use to do their daily accounting, or something as simple as that. Then try doing some more complex things. It would be a fun experience and you would be addicted. Every really good programmer I know really loved the fact that they could create something fun from nothing. It is a simple joy. It allows you to understand the world in a new way. What we do in our youth is always the best work we would ever do. It is a time when we challenge the elder generation in every way possible. Why not use it to question their inability to reach beyond what is known. An impassioned equivalent.

youth

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NITHIN KUNNEPARAMBIL,ALUMNI

C

USAT has been a pioneer in the field of Microwave engineering. Much of the focus of the research in the department of electronics could be traced to RF field. Well, I do remember the days when I listened to the lectures on Electro-magnetic theory by Mridula mam when I was in my fifth semester in complete awe, and am one of the lucky few who could cling on to what I really loved learning. Now, 5 years later since college, when I am in the Industry, I would like to write about one of the many faces of Radio frequency engineering, ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERNCE AND COMPATIBILITY. Well the idea is pretty straight, just think of any electronic product, let us say your TV, don’t you want your TV to display no grains even if your mother turns on the mixer grinder in kitchen or avoid humming noise when your sister speak on mobile phone. Or conversely, do you want your TV becoming a nuisance when you want to listen to “Kelku kelku kettukondirikku… club FM 94.3”. So what I mean to say is that there is some design aspects of a product which needs to be taken into consideration to ensure that

the product works well even if external entities tries to disturb it, at the same time shouldn’t it work properly even if the radio link between the aircraft is active? Also, the altimeter should not cause any corruption of data in other communication links. Another example is Antilock braking systems, being robust to external factors. So there are issues where a single mistake can cost a life. So for this purpose we need to make an electronic product superior in all its might. And this field which deals with it is called as EMI/EMC techniques. Broadly speaking there are two different types of EMI/EMC issues. 1. Emissions 2. Immunity or susceptibility Each of these can be in two different modes, i.e. the emissions can happen in two ways, Conducted emissions, where a noise is been pumped into powernet. (Imagine your mother’s mixer grinder producing conducted emission which are transmitted all the way through power line and tampering your TV’s visual output ) or Radiated emissions ( Your sister’s mobile phone, which she never keeps down, radiating waves and this causes a humming sound in your TV). Conversely when you speak from a TV perspective, TV is not immune to Mixer grinder or mobile phone, hence causing conducted immunity and radiated immunity problems of TV. Now how does a person come up with a good EMC design for a product? The answer for this is not a single line. There are thousands of stakeholders when

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we need to meet with EMC requirement. And mind you, it is not at your discretion to satisfy EMC conditions or not. There are specific authorities like federal communications commission, FCC (Does that ring a bell? Haven’t you seen it on your Mobile chargers, laptops? ) which dictates the amount of radiation that can come out of a household product, that magnitude of radiation a product must withstand etc. Without meeting these demands, you can forget your product seeing daylight in the market. To analyze such a thing like EMC issues, we need to go back to the basics of physics. If a product is crossing the limit to which it can radiate, think of few basic question, what frequency is it radiating? Corresponding to that frequency what is the wavelength? And if that wavelength is emanating, which geometry in the product could be responsible? (Think of dipole antenna, quarter wavelength antennas etc). Once you have established the source, half your work is done. Then do processing in that section, try a better grounding for high frequency, how can the ill effects be bypassed, Think using shields, ferrite beads, and other options which can damp the unintended effects.

With all that being said, things don’t work the way I just explained. No single answer or a step by step solution can be explained for EMC problems. Neither this is the right way how EMC issues are rectified. The EMC concern rectified. The EMC concern starts from the very early stages of a good product design. To become an expert in EMC, you would need a wide-ranging idea about what goes into a circuit and how to mitigate the obvious issues. I would like to end the write up with a small real life incident. This is in reference to EMC performance of ABS which is one of the key safety elements in a car. The ABS in a certain car used to fail when the car is passing over a bridge and a ship is crossing the bridge from below. What could have gone wrong? The radiations coming out of the ship were so strong that it had logged errors and unwanted switching happened in the ABS circuits. Since these are of prime importance for passenger safety, the ABS circuits should be made compatible to emi of the ship. If these are not given proper considerations, the outcome may be very tragic.

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DREAMS AND DESIRE RICHASREE,S6

Treading down the dimly lit lanes, Flickers of memories from past, A heavy heart, moments of despair retain. Shattered dreams is all I have,

Loneliness is all I endure; Pounding heart, pondering over Thoughts, walking all by myself Gloominess assured.

The inferno of unfulfilled desires Outrages me, The unspoken words, this undreamt Would scares me, But I live, I like to dream, I Live to live it, my Karma beckons me.

Laughing out my way through this Distress, my agony now abates, Regaining sanity, in all its serenity My illuminated path to the pinnacle awaits.

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THE UNENDING CYCLE SANDEEP MENON ,S6

“Y

ou have to get good marks for your 10th exam, only then can you choose what stream you want to join.” Blah! The same old story. This is for sure one of the many advices any of your parents would have given. This is their signature advice. Finally after all the pressure you start working and end up with a decent score for your 10th. Thinking that “Oof! My job is done. All I need is to step into high school and I’ll be a junior Rupert Murdoch!” Oh, what fun if it had been that way! Alas, it never turns out that way. A bigger devil awaits you in 2 years time – your 12th exam. Screwed right? Well sadly, if your parents are successful and have a good academic background, it is either – Engineering, engineering, engineering - or

Medicine, medicine, medicine. So, you not only have to be good in school but also all the entrance tests. Again, you slug it out, miss your favourite James Bond movie, and end up in front of a blackboard trying to figure out the nth cube root of unity or the mass no. of Zinc. What a twist!! Again if you are a regular student with not more than 1 girlfriend or boyfriend at a time, getting an average score won’t be a big deal. But is that enough? Nooooo! Then comes the next commonly used phrase – “It is a highly competitive world out there. How do you think you will survive?” You are screwed once again! The most intelligent ones drop out of the rat race at this juncture. They join for degree courses and save themselves from getting broiled over the next 4 to 5 years all in the name of being a sure-shot billionaire someday. What a fairytale!

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You finish your exams, get 1 month holiday and have the time of your life. For all those AC/DC fans – “I’m on a Highway to Hell” will make sense only after you have joined somewhere. If your dad is Mr. Richie Rich, you can get yourself enrolled in a private college and live a jailed life or have a great blast at a Govt. College. Yes, life starts at college. You meet the girl of your dreams or the monster of your life. It is all the same matter anyway. Time hardly flies when you do a “professional course” like emergency. Now, if you were a bright student at school, you might lose your focus and end up in the “The Land Of The Supplies”. This is a turning point in most peoples’ lives – for good or bad is upto each one of us. Oh, I nearly forgot the infamous popular statement – “Look at the level your friends are. Having a good time at NITs or IITs.” I, for one, could never figure out when the IITs and NITs became the baap of Engineering colleges. Why? The corridors of these colleges aren’t paved with gold (as far as I know). Now the only silver lining is that 25k per month job that awaits you. For all those people with supplies, you are saved. But for those unlucky people with no supplies – hell is getting even better. Thus arrives the third runner-up in the ‘Most Popular Statement ever Competition’ – “These days ever guy who passes out is an Engineer. It is just a normal degree now-a-days. How will you make a life out of it?” Once again, you are doomed!

Well, people, even corporate houses revise their budgets every year! So, I think keep rowing hard and you might reach somewhere (or you may not!)

,

Because this is an unending cycle.

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C

ODES, CODES EVERYWHERE TATHAGAT YASH,S8

I think everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer

because it teaches you how to think. — Steve Jobs, the Lost Interview

You may think this is a computer science article, but think over it again. The vari-

ous softwares that you use to simulate your circuit are made up of codes. Each and every component you place on Pspice or any other software is like a function written to emulate that particular component. So think again before ignoring the C thought in your first year. Learning to code is useful, no matter what your career ambitions are. You may do specialization in VLSI, DIP or DSP, where codes are extensively used in everywhere. Gone are the days of paper and pen, this is the era of computers, where we use it for small to big issues. Did you know that the entire electronics part of F -16 jet fighter was made using Pspice?? Specific components were made using code to in-cooperate in the design for simulation.

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Learning to write programs stretches your mind, and helps you think better, cre-

ates a way of thinking about things that I think is helpful in all domains. -Bill Gates,

Now you may think who has got the time for this, as we already have 42 subjects to study in 4 years. Don’t worry; there are lots of websites on internet to study each program thoroughly. Here I will mention one in particular “code.org”. This is a non-profit foundation dedicated to growing computer programming education. It has got a list of free, as well as paid tutorials of almost every programing language in the world. Nowadays, there is a new trend in electronics industry – the programmable chips. This is a miracle as you can write a program to make a piece of hardware to do a particular function. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Complex Programmable Logic Device (CLPD), etc. are some examples. So start flexing your logic muscles in your brain along with the electronics one to be updated in your stream.

Whether you want to uncover the secrets of the universe, or you just want to

pursue a career in the 21st century, basic computer programming is an essential

skill to learn. -Stephen Hawking,

Theoretical Physicist, Cosmologist, and Author

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INTRODUCTION TO FPGA TECHNOLOGY VEDANT NARAYAN,S8

Overview FPGA stands for Field Programmable Gate Array. An FPGA is an integrated circuit (IC) that can be programmed and configured by the embedded system developer in the field after it has been manufactured. FPGA is a semi-conductor device which is not limited to any pre-defined hardware function; it is rather highly flexible in its functionality and may be configured by the embedded system developer according to his design requirements. FPGAs use pre-built logic blocks and programmable routing channels for implementing custom hardware functionality depending upon how embedded system developer configure these devices. FPGAs are programmed and configured using hardware description languages (HDL) like Verilog and VHDL, similar to that used for an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). FPGAs give a lot of flexibility to the embedded systems developer to program features and functions of their FPGA based product even after the FPGA based product has been installed in the field. This is the reason why FPGA is termed field programmable, as FPGA may easily be reconfigured and reprogrammed in the field according to new features and end-user’s requirements. FPGAs are being widely used in digital electronic circuits and embedded systems design and FPGAs have a well-defined place in every embedded system developer’s toolbox. FPGAs may be used to implement any logical functions and features that an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) could possibly be utilized to implement. But in terms of flexibility of upgrading and modifying the functionality and features of FPGAs, even after the FPGA based product has been shipped to the end-user, FPGAs really have an edge over ASIC.

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Internal Architecture of FPGA There are several different families of FPGAs, manufactured by different semiconductor companies like Xilinx, Altera and Actel etc., that are currently available in market. These device families, when compared with one another, show slight variations in their features and architecture. Despite the slight differences in their architecture and features, on the whole, these device families follow a common design methodology. A brief description of internal architecture of FPGA is given below. The FPGAs are composed of hundreds or thousands of logic cells. A “logic-cell” in turn is composed of three basic components: a small Lookup Table (LUT)

As shown in Figure 1, if required, the Multiplexer may be used to bypass the flip-flop. Flip-flops are binary shift registers, which are used to synchronize logic and save logical states between clock cycles. On every clock edge a flip-flop latches a 1 or 0 value on its input and holds that value constant until the next clock edge. A LUT may be regarded as a small RAM which is capable of implementing any logic function. Each logic-cell when taken individually may of little use. However, a large number of logic-cells when connected together may be employed for implementation of complex logical functions. FPGAs are equipped with fairly a large number of routing resources (Multiplexers or wires placed around the logic cells) for connecting together a huge number of logic cells for implementation of complex and useful logical functions. The IOBs (IO Blocks), which are implemented at the boundary of the FPGA chip, provide connection between internal logic and the package pins for interfacing the internal logic cells with the components connected externally with the FPGA chip.

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Figure 2: Programmable Routing Channels The IOB features inputs and outputs signals of the FPGA chip, which support a variety of I/O signal standards like LVTTL, LVCMOS2, PCI, GTL,GTL+, HSTL Class I, HSTL Class III, HSTL Class IV,SSTL3 Class I and II, SSTL2 Class I and II,CTT and AGP-2X etc. These IO cells are shown in Figure 3.

Figure3: IO Cells In addition to general purpose routing resources, the FPGAs also have high speed dedicated lines in between neighboring logic cells. The most common type of high-speed dedicated lines is “carry chains”. Carry chains are particularly useful in implementing arithmetic functions like adders and counters with high efficiency, achieved through high operating speed and low logic usage.

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In addition to logic cells, all new FPGAs are equipped with dedicated blocks of internal Static RAM. This Static RAM is distributed among and controlled by the logic elements. There are two types of internal RAMs in an FPGA: Block RAMs and Distributed RAMs. The size of the RAM needed in system design usually determines which type of RAM should be used. Broadly speaking, FPGAs have two types of pins: “user pins” and “dedicated pins”. The user pins are usually called “user I/Os” which are user programmable and may be configured either as inputs, outputs or as bidirectional pins. Each IO pin is connected with the IO cell inside FPGA. Unlike user pins, the “dedicated pins” are hard-coded to dedicated functions like for power input, FPGA configuration and clock input etc. These pins can only be used for their dedicated functions. Figure 4: Carry Chains

Figure 5: Internal Static RAM

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In addition to the digital functions, some FPGAs are also equipped with analog features like programmable slew rate and drive strength on each output pin. Another common analog feature is differential comparators on input pins designed to be connected to differential signaling channels. A few mixed signal FPGAs even feature integrated peripheral Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs) and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs) with analog signal conditioning blocks thus allowing them to function as a system-on-chip.

FPGA Manufacturers The internet sources claim that there are at least five companies in the world that involved with the manufacturing and fabrication of FPGAs. These companies are: 1. Xilinx 2. Altera 3. Lattice 4. Actel 5. SiliconBlue Among these companies Xilinx is the biggest name, as it invented the FPGAs in 1984 and may be deemed as global technology leader in the field of FPGAs.However, Altera is not a small name either. Statistics available on internet reflect that both Xilinx and Altera hold the major FPGA market share. As compared with the first two companies Lattice, Actel and SiliconBlue are small players.

Key Benefits of FPGA Technology The global market of FPGAs is growing at an enormously high rate and popularity of FPGAs is growing day by day. A unique feature of FPGA is that it combines the best parts of ASICs and processor-based systems. The most compelling advantages of FPGAs are very short time-to-market, low start-up cost, low financial risk and flexibility of updating the design as FPGAs are programmed and configured by the end-user. Some of the key advantages of FPGAs are: 1. High Performance 2. Short Time to Market 3. Cost Effective Solution. 4. Reliability 5. Long-term Maintenance 24


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Applications of FPGAs Application areas of FPGAs are quite diverse and wide ranging. Broadly speaking, major application areas of FPGAs are: Digital Signal Processing (DSP), video processing, software defined radio, control systems engineering, bioinformatics, aerospace and defense systems, computer vision, speech recognition and processing, medical imaging, computer hardware emulation, ASIC prototyping, reconfigurable computing and radio astronomy etc. Traditionally, FPGAs are utilized in applications where the volume of production is small and development resources and expenses required for creating an ASIC for that low-volume application are prohibitively high. With advancement in FPGA technology the areas of application of FPGAs are growing day by day. FPGAs are particularly suitable in applications or implementation of algorithms where parallel processing offered by the architecture of FPGA may be utilized to deliver high performance. Due to the inherent parallelism offered by the internal architecture and logic resources, FPGAs are capable of delivering high throughput even at low clock rates. With advancement in FPGA technology and availability of sophisticated development tools application areas of FPGAs are growing at a very high rate and it is anticipated that in future this technology may even replace ASIC.

Summary This article is a brief introduction to FPGA technology. This article discusses the internal architecture of FPGA chip, renowned manufacturers of FPGAs, the metric to choose an FPGA chip and key benefits of FPGA technology as compared with Digital Signal Processor and microprocessor and major areas of application of FPGAs.

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Electronic speed governor on FPGA Now a days Field programmable gate array (FPGA) is getting very popular with the designers. With increasing NRE costs and with the long turnaround times, ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) designs have become high-risk projects. At the same time, FPGAs are getting bigger and faster and many companies have therefore decided to use only FPGAs. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is an Integrated circuit designed to be configured by a customer or a designer after manufacturing—hence “field programmable. FPGAs contain programmable logic components called “logic blocks”, and a hierarchy of reconfigurable interconnects that allow the blocks to be “wired together. FPGAs give a lot of flexibility to the embedded

systems developer to program features and functions of their FPGA based product even after the FPGA based product has been installed in the field. FPGAs are being widely used in digital electronic circuits and embedded systems design and FPGAs have a well-defined place in every embedded system developer’s toolbox. FPGAs may be used to implement any logical functions and features that an Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) could possibly be utilized to implement. But in terms of flexibility of upgrading and modifying the functionality and features of FPGAs, even after the FPGA based product has been shipped to the enduser, FPGAs really have an edge over ASIC.

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1. SPEED GOVERNOR A speed governor is an attachment to a machine for automatic control or limitation of speed or a device giving automatic control. Governors serve three basic purposes: Maintain a speed selected by the operator which is within the range of the governor, Prevent overspeed which may cause engine damage, Limit both high and low speeds. With the highspeed development of electronic technology, the electronic speed governor has a transition from analog to digital governor gradually. In the past, the circuits of the measurement and control system by the hardware are complex, low reliability, difficulty adjustment and lack of control flexibility. With the development of single-chip microcomputer and computer control technology, software algorithm controllers are widely used. However, the calculation speed of a variety of computer senior languages is much slower than the parallel hardware speed due to the order implementation of computer, A/D and D/A modules are very difficult to integrate, which reduces the accuracy and reliability of the system. In recent years, the measurement and control technologies based on the software control algorithm are turning to the digital, intelligent, high reliability development. Therefore, it is of great significance to design electronic speed governor based on the high-performance FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) technology. Design is simulated and implemented using VHDL and then chip can be designed on any of the EDA and design tools available from different vendors such as Altera, Xilinx, Actel etc. 2. ELECTRONIC GOVERNOR STRUCTURE The system is composed of five parts, namely, speed detection, PID regulator, D/A conversion, servo actuator and controlled object. Function block diagram is shown in Figure 1.

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First, to compare the set speed and the actual speed detected obtains their error e(k) as a PID regulator input, after the control algorithm, the system gets the value u(k), then after D/A conversion, the value will be transmitted to the servo actuator and finally the actuator regulates the speed of object. PID algorithm A PID controller is the heart of a speed governor. A PID controller reads the sensor signal and converts the measurement to engineering units. It then subtracts the measurement from a desired set point to determine an error. The controller performs the PID mathematical functions on the error and applies their sum to a process after digital to analog conversion. The discrete form of a PID controller can be derived as follows: u1<=u_prev+(k1*e_in)+(k2*e_prev1)+(k3*e_prev2), where k1,k2 and k3 are tuning constants which can be determined by various methods according to the need of the system. Design process First of all the block level description of the system is identified. For the speed governor system the block diagram is shown in Fig. 1. After the block diagram is finalized, we go for VHDL design. In this process, VHDL code is written and the desired functionality is checked on an EDA (entry and design automation) tools. There are many simulators available from different vendors such as Altera maxplus2, Altera Multisim, Altera Quartus , Altium Designer etc. In this project the VHDL code is written for the implementation of discrete PID controller that gives a regulated speed which follows the set speed with very less error. Error can be minimized by using better tuning mechanism of PID. After the simulation is successfully completed we can synthesize the system on the FPGA by using EDA tools. For a code to be synthesizable it should be written at RTL or below. The final waveform of the speed governor will look like as follows:

Fig.2 PID control

In this way we can design an efficient speed governor on a FPGA which has wide applications in car automation industry. The ease in VHDL design and thereafter programming an FPGA using EDA tools are gaining wide popularity with the designers due to its inherited advantages. 28


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THE INNER EVIL SANDEEP MENON,S6

T

he jerk and jolt of the halting train distracted me from my vacuum dream. The curtains of my eyes opened into the persisting darkness of my compartment. I looked around, envying my coupe-mates who were sleeping like logs, lost in their dreams. I scanned the platform for a sip of coffee, but my eyes paused at the sleeping figure of a poor, homeless girl. Her clothes were aggressively ragged and dirty, but still much tidier than the platform s**t she slept on. I kept gazing at her face. She was shivering, maybe of the northern winter, or maybe of fright. I found my metals of sympathy being severely magnetized by her woe. Moments later, I noticed a hefty policeman walking towards the same platform, his drunken legs aimed at the lone, helpless slum-girl. With no regret for his action, with no shame for his sacred uniform, he wasted no time in trying to strip the girl of her clothes. She got up with a shiver of fright and cried. The unwelcome music of her hapless cry pierced my ears and seemed to kill me. The policeman made a second attempt, this time with more brute force to quench his macabre recreation. Blood heated my cheeks; I nearly drowned in a pool of fury. I should somehow save this girl. I should get out of the train, run to the platform and save the girl.

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Or should I? Should I welcome trouble? Why should I worry about this slum-girl? Who is she to me? Not my sister, not my mother, not my love. She is no one. She is nothing. But she is too young. Too young to be raped, too young to die. Get out of the train and kill that thug. No. I foresee wastage of money, wastage of time and even danger to life. The hefty policeman is too much for me. It is better for the girl to die alone than to kill me too. It is her fate. The fate decided by God. Only he can save her. Yes, only God can save her. But what if I am that God-appointed person? What if he wants me to save the girl? No!! No!! I am not God. I have no right to save her. Now see, the train has started moving. I have no time, no chance to save the girl. Forget her. Maybe, I should jump out of the train and save the girl. I think I have a last chance. No!! No!! I shouldn’t jump from a moving train. Forget her. This is her fate. I have no time to save her. But..But.. The train moved far away from the screams of the tortured girl. I closed my eyes for a sleepless night. I closed my door against humanity... 30


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SERPENTINE sreelekshmi.s, S6

He had always loved her. Of course, he didn’t realise it at first. They were childhood friends. They had known each other all their lives. They had known each other from when they had baby-fat and cute dimples and a craving for milk. They had known each other when they grew up more and hated homework and had a penchant for mischief. They had known each other when they grew up even more and they stole covert glances at each other and watched the river flow by and sang romantic Bollywood songs off-key. They had known each other as they grew up to be adults, with shyer, yet bolder looks and smiles and small caresses and big dreams. They had known each other all their lives. She was very heavy. She was so petite and small and so very beautiful, yet she was so heavy. He could barely hold her up as he coaxed her hand under the steady stream of chlorine water from the grimy plastic tap. He watched with a morbid mesmerisation as the blood slowly unglued from her hand and flowed along with the water. The thick crimson red blood slowly turning thinner and lighter red (almost a dark pink) as it swirled in the tiny whirlpool in the wash basin. It was almost as if they were little red snakes going down the drain. Round and round and round and down and down and down... Little red snakes. They were five. She was chubby with a soft nose and cute dimples, her long black hair in pigtails whereas he was lanky and thin and tall for his age. He almost looked like he was drawn out of geometric shapes – an angle for an elbow, a line segment for arms, a square for his shoulders and chest, a triangle for his nose. He was all sharp and precise and deadly. They were playing house. She was cooking the tastiest stew with random tufts of grass and leaves and semi-dead flowers as ingredients in a miniature steel pan with an imaginary fire. And he had gone to office. He returned home to find her out of their make-believe home all vexed and anxious, and he asked what the matter was. There is a snake in our house, she had said, clasping the tip of her imaginary sari to her nose. What? He had asked incredulous, and then added heroically, Don’t worry, wife, I’ll get it out.

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BITS ‘n’ BYTES It turns out that the snake was actually a centipede, which had invaded the corner of the bicycle shed that was their pretend home. He bravely snapped a twig out of the nearest shrub and removed the “snake” from their home, and dumped it a few paces away. She had called him, My brave husband. He had smiled. They were sixteen. He had gotten a brand new walkman which was a gift from a cousin abroad and was showing it off to her. Soft Hindi songs began playing with a slight blur from the static and irregular bass. She was as tall as his chin now. Her skin was a gorgeous olive colour and her smile a little bit more guarded, a little bit more shy. She still had long black hair that she tied up using scarves. He was taller, with more mass built onto his shoulders and chest. He had a strength that he hadn’t yet realised was his. It was nearly sunset; the river meandering languidly before them. It reflected the glorious sunset without any thought, its waters turning a deep orange, nearly vermillion as it indolently mirrored the blood red violence of the dusky sky. It wound side to side in the yellow ochre plains; like a teasing caress to the dry earth. It provided livelihoods yet took away lives. He vaguely remembered that two children drowned in the river the year before. Her black hair was darker in the sunset. He wished that she hadn’t tied her hair; he wished that he could see it flutter in the breeze. The soft songs played on. He thumbed at the back of his left hand absentmindedly. The crinkly cellophane skin wrinkled under his thumb. He stared at the charred skin and tortured flesh, it was hideous. It was horrendous, scaly and thick. He wished that the burnt skin would peel away. He looked at her smiling at the river. She was so beautiful. Her smile was redder than the sun. Her eyes more scorching. She pointed at the river. He looked at her hands. Her hands were perfect – soft and smooth and dainty – just like that of a lady. Isn’t the river so pretty in the evenings? She had asked, her voice soft but tempting. Almost like a hiss. Yes, he agreed as he looked at the vermillion river, with the soft diamond waves reflecting the light just so that they looked like big shiny red scales... like that of a dragon... on the back of something thick long and serpentine moving slowly through the plains. Yes. They were eleven. She was taller than him, and she had become petite. He was smaller, wiry and more nimble. He used to run around and cause all sorts of trouble. He was a naughty child; something that his mother reminded him over and over again as her 32


BITS ‘n’ BYTES patience ran thin. She was quiet and obedient and disciplined and walked along with him with a holier-thanthou attitude. He decided that he didn’t like it one bit. He put a rubber snake in her school-bag to teach her a lesson. She was afraid of snakes. She was afraid to death of snakes. He knew that. He had laughed at her as she bawled her eyes out. His laughter thick and powerful as it ran through his veins. She hit him repeatedly in anger, in frustration, with her bony arms punching into his back and her pigtails lashing onto his face. But he had laughed because there were tiny rivulets of fearful tears running down her cheeks. The tear tracks twisting and winding in the small space of her cheeks. Of course, she had tattled the whole event to her mother who complained to his mother and he was lashed with his father’s leather belt that night. But as the belt snapped and slithered across his back creating long angry red welts, he thought that it was worth it to see the winding tears in her eyes. They were twenty eight. He had had a long day and she was at home waiting for him. She waited on him hand and foot and tried to cheer him up by serving his favourite dish. He appreciated her. He really did. This beautiful delicate angel who had become his wife through some miracle. After dinner, they were watching a film when she tried to hold his hand in the couch. He immediately retracted his hand. But she is stubborn; she is as intractable as she is beautiful. She is everything he is not. She reached for his hand and clasped it between her beautiful ones. I don’t like holding hands, he said with his voice heavy and broken. But I do, she answered before raising his hand to her soft pink lips and kissing it. He flinched as he felt her supple moist lips in contact with the charred scales of his serpentine hand. I do, she repeated before wrapping her ophidian arms around him and twining her fingers in his hair. They were thirty two. It was night. His eyes glowed like a yellow moon in the night. He was tired of it. He was tired 33


BITS ‘n’ BYTES of her talking to (flirting with) other men. They were shouting at each other. She was shouting at him with her hissing voice and words dripping venom. It was corroding his mind, his senses sublimed by acidic tone of her voice. She raised her beautiful tantalizing hands and slapped him across the face as she hissed, you’re ugly. His eyes glowed green and something snapped inside him. They were fourteen and he was now taller than her. She was curvier and soft and he was all hard plains and growing rugged. She kept talking on and on about this new film she had seen, something about snakes and revenge and he wasn’t really listening. Her hair was tied up in a scarf (for the first time). It irritated him. Her hair was black and shiny and he liked it when it was free of constraints and slithering freely across the bare skin of her long neck. They were at the river bank. The slowly winding river was doing tortuous things to his mind. And he just kept thinking if only he could free her hair, he would be free. She talked on and on her teeth glistening white like fangs and suddenly his hands were moving out of its own volition. His hands tugged her scarf loose and threw it into the river and watched in satisfaction as it slithered through the surface of the river. Brown with yellow polka dots swaying wetly in the river. They were thirty two. Something had snapped inside him and his scaly hands suddenly twined across his wife’s hair. She hissed in pain, and he flicked his tongue. His other hand, the good one wraps across her nose and mouth and soon her eyes are as wide as saucers, pleading him silently. He holds on and crushes her body towards his chest, arms clutching at his shirt desperately and he thinks of anacondas wrapping around its prey and suffocating it slowly, lovingly... They were fourteen. He saw beauty in the ophidian scarf swimming through the river. His hand moves towards her long black hair and entangle it in them. She gasped, her eyes wide in shock. His palm and fingers completely entrenched in her hair. And he nearly smirked. He gazed adoringly at the little tresses of black hair slipping on his wrists, small black snakes birthing on his hands and he grinned. He pulled her closer. Then, she shouted. 34


BITS ‘n’ BYTES They were thirty two. He watched as he saw his wife struggling to maintain consciousness and smothered her tightly. Her eyes went limp and he eased his grip. Suddenly she sprung back to life and drove her knee between his legs. He groaned in pain as she stumbled onto the kitchen wheezing and whimpering. Her hands were just closing around the knife as his hands wrap around her gorgeous wrist. She should’ve known it was over then, but she is as stubborn as she is beautiful, so she tried to fight him. His hands were firm and hard and all angles and geometry... all deadly and suddenly the knife cut something soft. Something soft and curvy... And she gasped as she watched her blood coat her hands. They were fourteen. And she shouted. Within moments her father is there, angry and red and big and raging like a bull. He knew that he was in for a hellish night even before he set foot upon his home. The night was black and quiet and he could hear the wheeze of his father’s rancid alcoholic breath even from outside his home. It vaguely sounds like a quiet angry hiss. That night he got his first taste of alcohol. He got his first taste before it was poured onto his left hand. Alcohol flowing over his skin and veins like a meandering river, like a scarf floating in water, like a centipede crawling fast, over his hand which was in Medusa’s hair a few hours ago with black snakes hissing and biting at his wrists... Alcohol flowed over his hand before it was set aflame. Later, after all the crying and whimpering, he looked at the charred, bloated, sticky skin of his hand and decided that it wasn’t worth it. They were thirty two. She was very heavy. She was so petite and small and so very beautiful, yet she was so heavy. He could barely hold her up as he coaxed her hand under the steady stream of chlorine water from the grimy plastic tap. He watched with a morbid mesmerisation as they blood slowly unglued from her hand and flowed along with the water. The thick crimson red blood slowly turning thinner and lighter red (almost a dark pink) as it swirled in the tiny whirlpool in the wash basin. It was almost as if they were little red snakes going down the drain. Round and round and round and down and down and down... Little red snakes. 35


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chlorine water from the grimy plastic tap. He watched with a morbid mesmerisation as they blood slowly unglued from her hand and flowed along with the water. The thick crimson red blood slowly turning thinner and lighter red (almost a dark pink) as it swirled in the tiny whirlpool in the wash basin. It was almost as if they were little red snakes going down the drain. Round and round and round and down and down and down... Little red snakes. No matter how he tried he couldn’t get the blood out from under her fingernails. He harrumphed in frustration. Nothing ever went right. But it’ll have to do. It will have to do. He carefully laid her back on the ground and rushed to find the soft terrycloth towel to dry her hands. Once dried, he discarded the towel and placed her hand above his. Her palm resting on the back of his hand. He looked at his brand new hand – all smooth, and soft and dainty and so pretty. And he smiled. . . .

He had always hated her. Of course, he didn’t realise it at first. ..

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RECENT DEVOLOPMENTS

LEO PAULY,S4

Google Glass : Way to Augmented Reality Google Glass (stylized simply as GLASS) is an augmented reality wearable computer with a head-mounted display (HMD) that is being developed by Google in the Project Glass research and development project. It takes a step further toward ubiquitous computing, which is the idea that the Internet and computers will be accessible anywhere at any time without having to use one’s hands. Google Glass displays information in a smart phone-like format hands-free, can interact with the Internet via natural language voice commands, and uses Google’s Android operating system. While the frames do not currently have lenses fitted to them, Google is considering partnering with sunglass retailers such as Ray-Ban orWarby Parker, and may also open retail stores to allow customers to try on the device. Glass is being developed by Google X Lab, which has worked on other futuristic technologies such as driverless cars. The project was announced on Google+ by Project Glass lead Babak Parviz, an electrical engineer who has also worked on putting displays into contact lenses; Steve Lee, a project manager and “geolocation specialist”; and Sebastian Thrun, who developed Udacity as well as worked on the self-driving car project. Google has patented the design of Project Glass. Thad Starner is a Technical/Lead Manager on the project. Isabelle Olsson, Industrial Designer of the product, is responsible for a number of the design decisions, such as the Glass color scheme. Development: Though head-worn displays for augmented reality are not a new idea, the project has drawn media attention primarily due to its backing by Google, as well as the prototype design, which is smaller and slimmer than previous designs for head-mounted displays. The first Glass demo resembles a pair of normal eyeglasses where the lens is replaced by a head-up display. Around August 2011, a Glass prototype weighed 8 pounds; the device is now lighter than the average pair of sunglasses. In the future, new designs may allow integration of the display into people’s normal eyewear. According to several Google employees, the Glass was originally predicted to be available to the public for “around the cost 37


BITS ‘n’ BYTES of current smartphones” by the end of 2012, but other reports stated that the Glass was not expected to be available for purchase by then. The Explorer Edition is available to testers and Google I/O developers in the United States for $1,500, to be delivered in early 2013, while a consumer version will be available by the end of 2013 for “significantly less” than the Explorer Edition. The product began testing in April 2012. Sergey Brin wore a prototype of the Glass to an April 5, 2012 Foundation Fighting Blindnessevent in San Francisco. In May 2012, Glass was demoed in the first test video shot with the eyewear, demoing the 720p HD first-person video recording capabilities of the augmented reality display. Sergey Brin demoed the Glass on The Gavin Newsom Show, and California Lieutenant Governor Gavin Newsom also wore the Glass. On June 27, 2012, he also demoed the Glass at Google I/O where skydivers, abseilers, and mountain bikers wore the Glass and live streamed their point of view to a Google+ Hangout, which was also shown live at the Google I/O presentation. In February 2013, Google released a demo video showcasing the voice-augmented display of the Glass filming various experiences in first-person.

SURFACE COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY With Surface, Microsoft has established a new branch of computer technology known as surface computing. The goal of surface computing is to recognize touch and objects on the screen’s surface and to interact with those objects seamlessl. If you’re using a surface computer, you shouldn’t need a mouse, keyboard or even aUSB port connected to the device. We’re probably already familiar with the concept of a graphical user interface (GUI). A GUI, like the windows and menus on your computer, presents information to you on a screen and prompts you to use an attached keyboard, mouse, touchpad or other input device to enter information. Surface computing implements a Natural User Interface (NUI), which lets you interact in ways that what comes naturally to you. A NUI is driven by the direct touch of the user or object it’s interacting with rather than separate input devices connected to the computer.

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The Surface has implemented its NUI with a combination of hardware and software all packed inside a single device. The Surface 1.0 hardware features a series of cameras that sense a user’s touch or other objects placed on the tabletop. The Surface software processes the data from those cameras and then responds as appropriate for the application you’re currently using. Surface shows the resulting interaction on its display, which is actually a projection of the screen from underneath the tabletop. As part of its NUI, Surface also includes multi-touch technology. This means that Surface can detect and process several touch points simultaneously. Therefore, if you have several people browsing through pictures at one time, they can each drag, zoom and turn photos at the same time without waiting for each other. Multi-touch technology has been in existence for decades, and Apple made it famous by using it in its iPhone and iPod Touch devices. Surface computing brings that technology into a large, collaborative environment that can fully realize the multi-touch potential • • • • • • • • • • •

40-inch (1-meter) LCD screen 4-inch (10.2-centimeter) unit depth/thickness for easier horizontal mounting 2.9 GHz 64-bit AMD Athlon X2 dual core processor 1 GB AMD Radeon HD graphics processor 4 GB DDR3 RAM 320 GB hard drive Wired (1 GB Ethernet) and wireless (802.11 and Bluetooth) network hardware Physical connectors include HDMI, stereo RCA, USB and SD card Embedded 64-bit Windows 7 Professional operating system Corning Gorilla Glass to protect the surface Recognition for more than 50 simultaneous touch points

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RASPBERRY PI ($35 COMPUTER) The Raspberry Pi is a credit-cardsized single-board computer developed in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation with the intention of promoting the teaching of basic computer science in schools. It’s a capable little PC which can be used for many of the things that your desktop PC does, like spreadsheets, wordprocessing and games. It also plays highdefinition video. We want to see it being used by kids all over the world to learn programming. Raspberry PI is about the size of a credit card, has a 32-bitARM processor and uses a Fedora distribution of Linux for its default operating system (OS). It can be programmed withPython or any other language that will compile for ARM v6. The Raspberry Pi computer is essentially a system-on-a-chip (SoC) with connection ports. It can be operated by hooking up a USB keyboard and plugging the computer into a television. The Raspberry Pi Foundation has said it will be issuing two version of the computer: Model A will cost $25 and come with 256Mb RAM and one USB port but no network connection. Model B, which is already available and costs $35, has 256Mb RAM, comes with two USB ports and can be connected to an Ethernet network.

How powerful is it?

The GPU provides Open GL ES 2.0, hardware-accelerated OpenVG, and 1080p30 H.264 high-profile decode.The GPU is capable of 1Gpixel/s, 1.5Gtexel/s or 24 GFLOPs of general purpose compute and features a bunch of texture filtering and DMA infrastructure. That is, graphics capabilities are roughly equivalent to Xbox 1 level of performance. Overall real world performance is something like a 300MHz Pentium 2, only with much, much swankier graphics.

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ARDUINO BOARDS Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. It’s an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board. Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs. Arduino projects can be stand-alone, or they can be communicate with software running on your computer (e.g. Flash, Processing, MaxMSP.) The boards can be assembled by hand or purchased preassembled; the open-source IDE can be downloaded for free. The Arduino programming language is an implementation of Wiring, a similar physical computing platform, which is based on the Processing multimedia programming environment. Why Arduino? There are many other microcontrollers and microcontroller platforms available for physical computing. Parallax Basic Stamp, Netmedia’s BX-24, Phidgets, MIT’s Handyboard, and many others offer similar functionality. All of these tools take the messy details of microcontroller programming and wrap it up in an easy-to-use package. Arduino also simplifies the process of working with microcontrollers, but it offers some advantage for teachers, students, and interested amateurs over other systems: • Inexpensive - Arduino boards are relatively inexpensive compared to other microcontroller platforms. The least expensive version of the Arduino module can be assembled by hand, and even the pre-assembled Arduino modules cost less than $50 • Cross-platform - The Arduino software runs on Windows, Macintosh OSX, and Linux operating systems. Most microcontroller systems are limited to Windows. • Simple, clear programming environment - The Arduino programming environment is easy-to-use for beginners. • Open source and extensible software- The Arduino software is published as open source tools, available for extension by experienced programmers. • Open source and extensible hardware - The Arduino is based on Atmel’s ATMEGA8 and ATMEGA168microcontrollers. The plans for the modules are published under a Creative Commons license, so experienced circuit designers can make their own version of the module, extending it and improving it. 41


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ABHAYA ,S4

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BITS ‘n’ BYTES ATHULJITH,S4

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COST-EFFICIENT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION A.S PADMAPRIYA,S4 The competition in the photovoltaics market is fierce. Fraunhofer researchers are designing new coating processes and thin layer systems that, if used, could help to reduce the price of solar cells significantly. Inexpensive environmentally-friendly solar cell-based power is of great demand in today’s market. For this reason, a veritable price war is raging among the makers of photovoltaic cells. The researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Surface Engineering providing support to the German companies for the production of cost efficient solar cells that is affordable by all. They are engineering the coating processes and thin film systems to lower the production costs of solar cells drastically. The photovoltaic industry is pinning its hopes particularly on high-efficiency solar cells that can achieve efficiencies of up to 23 percent. These “HIT” cells (Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin layer) consist of a crystalline silicon absorber with additional thin layers of silicon. Until now, manufacturers used the plasma-CVD process (short for Chemical Vapor Deposition) to apply these layers to the substrate: the reaction chamber is filled with silane (the molecules of this gas are composed of one silicon and four hydrogen atoms) and with the crystalline silicon substrate. Plasma activates the gas, thus breaking apart the silicon-hydrogen bonds. The now free silicon atoms and the silicon-hydrogen residues settle on the surface of the substrate. The researchers at IST have now replaced this process: Instead of using plasma, they activate the gas by hot wires. “This way, we can use almost all of the silane gas, so we actually recover 85 to 90 percent of the costly gas. This reduces the overall manufacturing costs of the layers by over 50 percent. The price of the wire that we need for this process is negligible when compared to the price of the silane,” explains Dr. Lothar Schäfer, department head at IST. “In this respect, our system is the only one that coats the substrate continously during the movement – this is also referred to as an in-line process.” This is possible since the silicon film grows up at the surface about five times faster than with plasma CVD – and still with the same quality of layer. At this point, the researchers are coating a surface measuring 50 by 60 square centimeters; however, the process can be easily scaled up to the more common industry format of 1.4 square meters. Another advantage: The system technology is much easier than with plasma CVD, therefore the system is substantially cheaper. 44


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MY MONOCHROME LOVER SREELAKSHMI,S6

You woo me with your tales of glory,

Tales of fire, of untruths and lie. You wooed me from when I was young, Wide eyed and bright smiled and pink nosed. You do not have a heart, my dear, No bleeding pumping organ that Churns out these desperate feelings that sear, Like an eructation from a scorned crater. You do not bleed crimson, But cobalt and black, Seep into the hellish white, Of our combined soul. You cannot weep, my love, Tenderness doesn’t cloud your eyes, Your eyes do not water, your voice doesn’t falter, Like mine do, But how you speak! You murmur honeyed vows, ardently, You drip mercury into my ears, And I drown in your words of destruction.

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Chaos always enthralled me, So did order, You are a concoction of both, in the perfect ratio, It was inevitable that I was reeled in. I am past the Event Horizon, This is the fall, Black and damned and freeing and blinding, Concurrently. My monochrome lover, With your ophidian arms wrapping around My neurons like moon-fire, Soothing yet exacerbating. My monochrome lover, Who bleeds black like the night, Immortal, Divine and Amorphous, Yet words are your form; You who appears in snatches in my dreams, Whose formlessness slips through my lips and fingers, Like half-whispered secrets and flitting mirages, Would you? Would you accept my devotion and ardour?

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DAY DREAMER JAYARAM JAYDEV,S1-S2

R

ight to my coffee desk An Angel came! Like an awesome day-dream I went on spin! Smiling me a spoon of Sugar, She turned my world gone Upside down! She switched on the candles, Made my heart swing.. And all that I could do there was sitting bewildered! As Science fails, maths die, Laws break and Then Angels fly! I got an Ice burnedFine mixedCaffeine sipped-like-Cardiogram! Uff, right to my coffee desk An Angel came! Like an awesome day-dream I started to sing! It turned a fairy tale As she said to marry her! I found my lucky star got Scooped in the vanilla clouds! Mr.Titanic met Ms.Iceberg And thus I got my Heart wrecked! 47


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But I’m not gonna woo I’m not gonna dance I want no Angels And a fake fortune! In short, That was the birthday-eve Where my Juliet was born! I’m waiting for her And my blue rose Ring Where no Angels make twists! She had no glowy hair No snowy wings, Yet got a human heart That pumps the Red of love! Right at my coffee desk The Angel has gone Like an awesome day dreamer I watched her fly! My poem has this fairy end: Romeos won’t ever get Angel-ized They are taken by the Juliet tides! I’m happy I made Shakespeare proud That I know Angels are Fake...

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HIGGS BOSON-THE GOD PARTICLE

Finally, physics’ zoo of subatomic particle is full. Scientists have almost certainly

snared The HIGGS BOSON, the last particle waiting to be roped into the fold. Decades after it was proposed, the HIGGS emerged in the shards of the particle collisions at the world's most powerful accelerator, the large hadron collider at the Cern laboratory near Geneva. Physicist announced the discovery on July 4 during a seminar at the lab. "We have found the last missing cornerstone of the standard model," said Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Cern's director-general." It is the beginning of a long journey to investigate all the properties of this interesting particle." The particle mass is around 125 billion electron volt, or about 133 times the mass of a proton. Cern captured the HIGGS in two huge experiments each of which independently reached the gold-standard statistical level for confirming the particle's discovery. In respect, finding the HIGGS BOSON simply confines the standard model, physicist' framework for understanding the particles that make up the universe and the forces that govern them. But the discovery also opens new areas to explore, including alternate versions of the standard model that could explain some of the biggest unanswered questions about the cosmos. The combined findings of two teams at the proton-smashing large hadron collider(LHC) should help explain why objects in our universe have mass-and in doing so, why galaxies, planets, and even humans have any right to exist?

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SAY NO TO WIRES!!! NITHIN VASANTH,S1S2

W

ireless charging is considered by some to be old hat now, and it makes perfect sense. We are still very much living in a wired charging system, but advances is being made where wireless charging is concerned. But in the last one year, smartphone technology has evolved with leaps and bounds and giants like Samsung, HTC, Nokia, Qualcomm and others are giving it a push for commercial sale. In fact, wireless charging is already infused as an option with the Lumia 920 and the Lumia 820, and the Samsung Galaxy S IV is also rumoured to come with wireless charging abilities. Seemingly, it is likely to become a standard feature on smartphones. However, there are some hurdles to pass before that finally happens. The WiTricity is a system that allows you to juice up your smartphones, tablets and other compatible consumer electronics devices as long as they remain within an 8-foot radius. It is speculated that the WiTricity system might eventually see action this year as well. Just how does the WiTricity system function? Clearly, the future possibilities are numerous. Instead of dedicated charging panels, it would be great to just plac In fact, wireless charging is already infused as an option with the Lumia In fact, wireless charging is already infused as an option with the Lumia e our handset or any other device on a board room table or a bedside table which will automatically start charging it. In fact, imagine a hotspot area similar to a Wi-Fi hotspot, putting you in an area where you don’t even have to place your phone on a charging panel and the device gets charging while you are speaking. However, the technology has yet to develop ,but shows great promise.Futuristic possibilty – At office, just place your device in the charging area or wireless charging-induced desk

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Disadvantages • • • •

Less efficient if not properly tuned Additional cost Restricted movement No de facto standard (unlike USB or microUSB)

Advantages • • •

No possibility of electric shock No clutter of wires/cords; just place it in the charging area Reduced wear and tear

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ECSA . . . e l i m t... s e h w g i r f e e h t w e g her o T et g o T

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ACTIVITIES

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MOMENTS OF MOMENTS O F FAREWELL TO SENIORS

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MERRIMENT... MELANCHOLY... OUR BELOVED

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Alumni meet

Mini Project exhibition

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-------Talk by Nampoori Sir

ONAM CELEBRATION

************other activites********** --------talk on entrepreneurship devolopment & oppurtunities during recession,by Mr. C.J george -------workshop on layout plus -------workshop on simulink -------workshop on matlab 57


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2008-2012 batch

2009-2013 batch 58


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2010-1014 batch

2011-2015 batch 59


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VISHNU.B,S6

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FUN S... T C A F

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BITS 'n' BYTES vol.1