European Christmas Traditions FROHE WEIHNACHTEN VROLIJK KERSTFEEST VESELA KOLEDA SRETAN BOŽIĆ KALA CHRISTOUYENNA VESELÉ VÁNOCE GLÆDELIG JUL RÕÕMSAID JÕULUPÜHI HYVӒӒ JOULUA JOYEUX NOEL FROHE WEIHNACHTEN KALA CHRISTOUYENNA BOLDOG KARÁCSONYT SÁSTA NOLLAG BUON NATALE PRIECÍGUS ZIEMASSVÉTKUS LINKSMŲ KALĖDŲ SCHÉI KRËSCHTDEEG IL-MILIED IT-TAJJEB VROLIJK KERSTFEEST WESOŁYCH ŚWIĄT FELIZ NATAL CRÁCIUN FERICIT VESELE VIANOCE VESEL BOŽIČ FELIZ NAVIDAD GOD JUL HAPPY CHRISTMAS
The idea of this booklet came after participating in the ‘European Christmas Tree Decorations Exchange’ project with the collaboration of the Gozo College Gharb Primary School. This ongoing project involves groups of 30 schools from different European countries where they exchange Christmas tree decorations and information packs about the celebration of Christmas in their country. After receiving so much information about how Christmas is celebrated in different countries, I thought that all this information should be collected in a booklet and shared with other citizens.
I hope that you will enjoy reading, trying out recipes and learning more about Christmas traditions celebrated in all the 28 European member states.
Marlene Muscat Europe Direct Manager
AUSTRIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Vienna 8,579, 747 (2015) 1st January 1995 German
The Krampus Legend originates in the Germanic Alpine regions. Krampus is Santa’s evil twin whose job is to punish all the children who have misbehaved and warn them to be nice. In Austria, on De‐ cember 5th, men dress up in scary devil‐like costumes and run around towns chasing people to en‐ sure that the legend lives on. GLUEHWEIN The secret to get a great ‘’Gluehwein’’ is the right mixture of Red Wine, cinnamon s ck, sugar, orange and cloves. INGREDIENTS: 2 bo les of red wine 2 cups of water Juice of 2 lemons 6 cloves 150g sugar 2 cinnamon s cks 2 oranges INSTRUCTIONS: Put all ingredients in a pot and bring it close to boil. For addi onal taste, cut 2 oranges into bite‐size pieces and add to the wine. Let simmer. Remove clove and cinnamon s ck before serving it into lightly pre‐warmed glasses. Decorate glasses with an orange slice.
BELGIUM Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: 2 oﬃcial languages:
Brussels 11,239, 755 (2015) 1st January, 1958 French and German
VROLIJK KERSTFEEST DUAL SANTAS Belgium is known for having 2 Santas. The 2 figures are known as: ‘Pere Noel’ (Santa Claus) and ‘Sinterklaas’ (Saint Nicholas). St Nicholas visits kids two mes not once. First, on 4th December to check their behavior and returns on 6th December with presents for those who are good. To a ract St Nicholas, kids put straw, carrots and water in a small basket or shoe which is placed close to the front door of each home. The figure of Santa Claus is also known for visi ng twice, following the same procedure of St Nicholas rou ne. A few lucky people had the opportunity to get gi s from both, St Nicholas and Santa Claus.
COUGNOU: Bread shaped in the form of Baby Jesus. INGREDIENTS: 250g flour 15g yeast ¾ cup of milk 1 egg + 1 yolk 50g sugar 75g bu er INSTRUCTIONS: In a large bowl, filter the flour so to produce like a small mountain. Soak the yeast with the tepid milk. Pour the liquid yeast on flour and add the egg yolk. Add salt and sugar. Start mixing the flour with the yeast and add the so ened bu er a li le at a me. Work the paste with your hands to obtain a smooth and elas c paste. Cover and leave to rest for 1 hour un l doubled in size. Work dough again quickly to create the 2 heads. With the biggest part of the dough, make the body and add the 2 heads by gripping the ball slightly so as to form the neck. Preheat oven at 210⁰C. Whitewash the cougnou with the beaten egg. Put in the oven for about 30 minutes in a bu ered dish. Let cool.
BULGARIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Sofia 7,114,956 (2015) 1st January, 2007 Bulgarian
VESELA KOLEDA One belief that is central to Bulgarian culture is the legend that the Virgin Mary bore Christ on Christmas Eve, but only announced his birth the day a er, on Christmas Day. Legend also says that Mary was in labor from December 20th un l the birth of Christ. Also, in Bulgaria people have ‘’budnik’’. This word comes from ‘’budeshte’’ which is future in Bulgarian. The budnik is a mythical tree with roots deep in the ground and with branches touching the sky. Leaves on this tree are made of gold and silver. It is believed that Christ arrives down this tree on Christmas and brings good fortune to everyone in the family.
MEDENKI Honey spice cookies typically cut into fanciful shapes. INGREDIENTS: 3 cups all‐purpose flour 200g sugar 1 tsp baking soda 1 tsp ground cloves 1 tsp cinnamon Pinch of salt 3 large eggs ⅓ cup honey 50ml oil 1 beaten large egg white INSTRUCTIONS: In a large bowl, mix together flour, sugar, baking soda, cloves, cinnamon and salt. In a separate medium bowl, beat together eggs, honey and oil. Add to flour mixture and form into a smooth dough. If dough is too so , wrap in plas c and refrigerate for an hour or so. Preheat oven to 180⁰C. Roll dough 1/4 inch thick between sheets of parchment paper. Cut into desired shapes, leaving 1 inch of space in between. Bake for 10 minutes or un l slightly golden around the edges. While cookies are s ll hot, brush with the beaten egg white and sprinkle with colored sugars or decora ons of your choice. Let cool.
CROATIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Zagreb 4,256,693 (2015) 1st July, 2013 Croa an
SRETAN BOŽIĆ On St. Lucy's Day, December 13th, the mother of the family plants wheat grains in a round dish or plate and are le to grow. By Christmas Eve the sprouted grains are around 8 inches tall and are ed in a red, white and blue ribbon. These are spread around the floors and under the tablecloth for the Christmas dinner. Some mes a candle is lit and placed within the wheat along with other symbolic items. It is said that the light that is seen through the wheat is a symbol of the soul with‐ in every person. According to popular custom, a prosperous new year is predicted if the wheat grows strong and green by Christmas Eve. COTTAGE CHEESE PIE A tradi onal Croa an dessert consis ng of light cheese filling with wonderful lemon‐vanilla taste aroma/scent between two crumbly shortbread crusts.
FILLING: INGREDIENTS: 3 egg whites
250g flour 150g margarine 100g sugar 1 tsp baking powder 3 egg yolks ½ tsp grated lemon zest 1‐2 tbsp milk (if necessary)
500g co age cheese 200g sugar 1 tsp vanilla ½ tsp grated lemon zest 4 tbsp flour or 2 tbsp semolina
INSTRUCTIONS: DOUGH: Combine all ingredients, mixing them gently un l they are blended together. FILLING: Beat egg whites un l s ﬀ. In another bowl, mix co age cheese with sugar, vanilla and
lemon zest un l smooth. Add flour and mix. Fold in beaten egg whites. ASSEMBLE: Divide the dough in half and roll it out. Press the dough into the bo om of the pan and up the sides. Spoon in cheese filling. Cover with the top crust. Bake at 190⁰C for 30 minutes or un l crust is golden.
CYPRUS Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Nicosia 1,192,921 (2015) 1st May 2004 Greek
A tradi on in which some naughty scary dwarfs visit Earth during the 12 days of Christmas. They are believed to emerge from the centre of the earth to tease and play tricks on people and cause havoc to everyone. They also sneak into houses through the chimney and do plenty of bad things such as ex nguish the fire, braid horse’s tail and sour the milk. To keep these spirits away, a fireplace hearth is kept burning whole day and night. Also, housewives hang olive branches blessed by the village church outside their doors. MELOMAKARONA Honey cookies. INGREDIENTS: FOR THE SYRUP: 3 cups sunflower oil 1 cup honey 8 cups flour 1 ½ cup water 1 cup fresh orange juice 1 ½ cup sugar ½ cup brandy 1 cup sugar 1 tbsp cinnamon and clove powder 5‐6 tbsp baking powder 1 tbsp salt INSTRUCTIONS: Add all the ingredients in a bowl and mix them together. The dough must feel oily. Form round or oblong shapes and put them in a pan. Do not bu er the pan. Bake for 30 minutes. When they're cold enough prepare the syrup as follows: Boil the honey, water and sugar ll they get foamy. Put the melomakarona in the hot syrup for about 15‐20 seconds, drain them and then wrap them in the crushed walnuts mixed with cinnamon.
CZECH REPUBLIC Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Prague 10,468,735 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Czech
VESELÉ VÁNOCE Some of the Czech’s Christmas customs include the foretelling of the future and predic ng the well ‐being of the family. Li le boats are made out of empty walnut shells and each family member plac‐ es a li le burning candle into a shell. Everyone’s shells are then floated on a bowl of water. If the shell makes it across the bowl, its owner will live a long and healthy life. A shell that sinks brings bad luck to its owner. Another custom is the cu ng of the apple. A er the Christmas dinner, every person present at the table cuts an apple in half. Both halves are shown to everyone around the table. If the core is shaped as a star, it means that everyone will get together next year in happi‐ ness and health. A four pointed cross means that someone at the table will fall ill or die within a year.
VANOCKA A tradi onal Christmas braided bread.
INGREDIENTS: 1 cup heated milk ½ cup bu er 1 cup sugar ½ tsp salt 2 packages ac ve dry yeast ¼ cup warm water 2 large eggs, beaten 5 ½ cups all purpose flour ½ cup golden/dark raisins ½ cup blanched sliced almonds ⅓ chopped citron
FOR TOPPING: 1 large egg, beaten 2 tbsp blanched sliced almonds Confectioner’s sugar
INSTRUCTIONS: Add bu er, sugar and salt to heated milk. S r to combine and let cool. Place yeast and warm water in the bowl of a stand mixer and s r. Add milk mixture and 2 eggs and combine. Add 3 cups flour and beat un l smooth. Add raisins, almonds, citron and remaining flour and mix for 3‐5 minutes un l smooth. Dough will be s cky. Place it in a greased bowl. Turn over and cover with plas c wrap and let rise un l doubled. Punch down dough and turn out onto lightly floured board. Divide dough into 3 large pieces and 5 smaller ones. Roll each piece into a rope, about 14 inches long. On a parchment‐lined baking sheet, braid the 3 larger pieces and pinch ends together. nd Braid 3 of the smaller rolls together and place on top of 2 braid, tucking ends under the large braid. Cover with cloth or greased plas c wrap and let rise. Heat oven to 200⁰C. Brush with beaten egg and sprinkle with 2 tbsp almonds. Bake for 15 minutes, reduce heat to 190⁰C and bake for another 30‐45 minutes. Let cool. 8
DENMARK Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Copenhagen 5,638,948 (2015) 1st January, 1973 Danish
GLÆDELIG JUL Most Danish homes take part in the count‐down to Christmas Eve by ligh ng a calendar candle eve‐ ry day and by ligh ng the Advent wreath on the last four Sundays before Christmas. The calendar candle is a Danish tradi on which was first suggested as something to make at home with the chil‐ dren in 1935, but since 1942 it has been produced industrially. With its four candles, the Advent wreath marks the four Sundays in the Chris an Advent, which is the New Year period of the Church.
RICE à L’IMPéRATRICE A cold rice pudding. INGREDIENTS: 1 plateful of cold rice pudding 25‐50g almonds 1‐2 tbsp sugar vanilla‐flavored sugar 200g double cream Cherry sauce INSTRUCTIONS: Boil 75g rice pudding in ½ litre of milk. Blanche the almonds and chop them roughly. S r almonds, sugar and vanilla into the rice pudding. To taste, flavour with a li le sweet sherry or port. Whip the cream and fold it into the rice pudding. Serve with cherry sauce or other fruit sauce.
ESTONIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Tallinn 1, 307, 519 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Estonian
RÕÕMSAID JÕULUPÜHI One of the most important Estonian tradi ons involves bringing home Christmas straw into the house and to make Christmas crowns resembling Church chandeliers. It is common to visit the graveyard on Christmas Eve and light candles at the graves of loved ones. Also, children put their slippers on their windowsill in the evening to discover that ‘Pakapikk’ (Father Christmas’ Elf) has le some sweets in there by morning. They are not only responsible for gi s but they also need to check whether the kids are good or not so they can tell everything to Father Christmas.
MULGIKAPSAS A tradi onal fes ve dish with Pork and Sauerkraut (sour cabbage). INGREDIENTS: 1kg Sauerkraut ½ cup uncooked pearl barley 2 chopped onions 1 bay leaf Pinch of salt 1 tsp sugar or honey Water 400‐500g chopped bacon 3‐4 smoked bacon ribs 1‐2 tbsp oil INSTRUCTIONS: Put Sauerkraut in a saucepan with barley and meat. Cover it with water and simmer un l barley is so and meat is cooked. Add salt, sugar/honey to taste. In a separate pan, fry the onions in oil. Add them to the Sauerkraut/pork mixture. Remove pork bones and bay leaf. Serve with boiled potatoes.
FINLAND Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial languages:
Helsinki 5, 427, 658 (2015) 1st January, 1995 Finnish and Swedish
In Finland, Santa might also be known as ‘’Jouluppukki’’. This really means ‘Christmas Goat’. There is an old myth describing him as an old man dressed in a goat costume who used to frighten the kids. On Christmas Eve, people in Finland a end a mass and go to sauna. Finns have a custom to visit their dead family members and put lit candles on their graves. Finns also have Christmas por‐ ridge of their own and the person who finds an almond inside his/her bowl of porridge has to sing a song.
PORKKANALAATIKKO A tradi onal hot side dish made with carrot and rice as main ingredients and stewed in the oven. INGREDIENTS: 750g carrots 1 cup short grain rice 3 eggs 1 cup cream 25g melted bu er 1 tsp salt Breadcrumbs and a few knobs of bu er for the top INSTRUCTIONS: Preheat oven to 175⁰C. Boil rice. Peel and grate carrots. Lightly beat eggs and cream together, add to carrots. Add rice, bu er and salt to carrots and combine. Pour into a lightly greased oven dish. Sprinkle with breadcrumbs and throw on a few knobs of bu er Bake in oven for 50‐60 minutes un l golden brown.
FRANCE Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Paris 66, 805, 830 (2015) 1st January, 1958 French
MISTLETOE AND HOLLY In France, mistletoe is hung above the door, on beams and luminaries during the Christmas period to bring good fortune throughout the coming year. The legend goes that when Jesus and his family fled Egypt, as the soldiers of Herod where about to catch them, the holly extended its branches to hide Jesus and his parents. Marie thus blessed the holly, announcing that it would remain eternally green, a symbol of hope and immortality. BUCHE DE NOEL A Christmas cake shaped like a log. INGREDIENTS 2 cups heavy cream ½ cup confec oner’s sugar ½ cup unsweetened cocoa powder 1 tsp vanilla extract 6 egg yolks ½ cup white sugar INSTRUCTIONS: Preheat oven to 190⁰C. Line a jellyroll pan with parchment paper. In a large bowl, whip cream, ½ cup confec oners' sugar, ½ cup cocoa, and 1 teaspoon vanilla un l thick and s ﬀ. Refrigerate. In another large bowl, beat egg yolks with ½ cup sugar un l thick and pale. Blend in ⅓ cup cocoa, 1 ½teaspoons vanilla, and salt. In a large glass bowl, whip egg whites to so peaks. Gradually add ¼ cup sugar, and beat un l whites form s ﬀ peaks. Immediately fold the yolk mixture into the whites mixture. Spread the ba er evenly into the prepared pan. Bake for 12 to 15 minutes. Dust a clean dishtowel with confec oners' sugar. Run a knife around the edge of the pan, and turn the warm cake out onto the towel. Remove the parchment paper. Star ng at the short edge of the cake, roll the cake up with the towel. Cool for 30 minutes. Unroll the cake, and spread the filling to within 1 inch of the edge. Roll the cake up with the filling inside. Place seam side down onto a serving plate, and refrigerate un l serving. Dust with confec oners' sugar.
GERMANY Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Berlin 79, 863, 392 (2015) 1st January, 1958 German
FROHE WEIHNACHTEN There is an old German legend sta ng that only those of pure heart can see that on Christmas Eve rivers turn to wine, animals can speak, tree blossoms bear fruit, mountains open showing large quan es of gems and bell ringing can be heard from the bo om of the sea. There is a belief in Germany that Baby Jesus sends a messenger on Christmas Eve who is known by the same Christkind. The messenger appears as an angel in white robes and crown and gives gi s to children. She is believed to be a pre y fair‐haired girl with a crown of candles and have ‘Christ’ like quali es. In Nurnberg, every year, a girl is chosen to dress as Christkind wearing a long white and gold dress with long, blonde and curly hair. It is said some mes, she wings like an angel. Before Christmas she visits hospitals, old age homes and children’s nurseries. It is a tradi on in Germany that children write le ers for Christkind on their windowsills decorated with glue and sprinkled with sugar so that they sparkle.
LEBKUCHEN German spice, candied citrus peel, hazelnut and almond cookies. INGREDIENTS: ⅓ cup diced candied orange peel ¾ cup all purpose flour ⅓ cup diced candied lemon peel ½ tsp baking powder 4 medjool dates, chopped and pi ed ¼ tsp salt 85g almond paste, crumbled in small ½ tsp ground cinnamon pieces ½ tsp ground ginger ⅓ cup apricot jam ½ tsp ground mace 3 large eggs ¼ tsp ground cloves ¾ light brown sugar ⅓ cup blanched almonds, toasted ½ cup and 3 tbsp confec oner’s sugar ⅓ cup blanched hazelnuts, toasted INSTRUCTIONS: Mix together flour, baking powder, salt and spices. Mix almonds and hazelnuts in a food processor un l finely chopped. Add candied peels and dates, mix un l finely chopped. Add almond paste mix to combine. Add jam. Add eggs and brown sugar. Add flour mixture. Transfer dough to an air ght container and refrigerate overnight. Preheat oven to 165⁰C. Using a 2‐inch ice cream scoop (¼ cup) drop the dough onto a baking sheet and bake un l golden brown, for about 14 minutes and let cool. Beat together confec oner’s sugar and milk and brush over cooled cookies. 13
GREECE Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Athens 11,123,806 (2015) 1st January, 1981 Greek
KALA CHRISTOUYENNA St Nicholas is important in Greece as the patron saint of sailors. According to Greek tradi on, his clothes are drenched with brine, his beard drips with seawater, and his face is covered with perspi‐ ra on because he has been working hard against the waves to reach sinking ships and rescue them from the angry sea. Greek ships never leave port without some sort of St Nicholas icon on board. Christmas Trees in Greece are not tradi onal but are becoming more popular. Instead most houses will have a shallow wooden bowl with a piece of wire suspended across the rim. A sprig of basil wrapped around a wooden cross hangs from the wire. Some water is kept in the bowl to keep the basil alive and fresh. Once a day, someone, usually the mother of the family, dips the cross and bas‐ il into some holy water and uses it to sprinkle water in each room of the house. KOURABIEDES Greek bu er cookies. INGREDIENTS: 500g unsalted bu er 1 large egg 2 ½ tsp almond extract 8 tbsp powdered sugar ⅛ tsp baking soda 5 cups flour Pinch of salt INSTRUCTIONS: Preheat oven to 180⁰C. Beat bu er in a stand mixer on medium high speed for 20 minutes. Add egg and almond extract, mix un l combined. Si powdered sugar and baking soda together in a small bowl. Add to bu er and egg and beat for another 10 minutes. Si 5 cups of flour and salt in a large bowl. With low speed, add flour a li le bit at a me un l completely corporate. TO FORM: Roll about 2 tbsp of dough into crescents and place on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper. Bake for 15‐20 minutes un l pale brown and cooked through.
HUNGARY Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Budapest 9, 863, 976 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Hungarian
BOLDOG KARÁCSONYT Hungarians make a rather special wooden chair. They start to make it on 13th December, which is St Lucia Day. The chair has to be finished un l Christmas Eve. Real purpose of this chair can be seen at the mass during Holy Night. A person who steps on it will be able to see witches. As soon as he/ she sees them he/she has to run towards his/her home and the witches will chase him/her. But this can be stopped by dropping some poppy seeds or millet. Witches will have to stop to collect them and the person will have me to reach his/her home. 2 days a er Christmas, Hungarians observe a tradi on called ‘’borszenteles’’ or ‘’blessing the wine’’. Wine is brought to church for a priest to bless it. It is believed that such wine has special powers, for example to heal a sick person. BEIGLI Walnut rolls. INGREDIENTS: (makes 3 loaves) FILLING: DOUGH: 1 cup whole milk 5 tbsp white sugar 1 cup white sugar 1 cup unsalted bu er 2 ½ cups chopped walnuts 3 egg yolks 1 lemon, zested 1 container sour cream ⅔ cup golden raisins 4 cups self‐raising flour 1 egg 1 package ac ve dry yeast INSTRUCTIONS: Combine the 5 tbsp sugar, bu er, egg yolks and sour cream in a bowl of a food processor. Add flour and yeast. If dough feels wet, add more flour; if dry, add milk a tablespoon at a me. Shape the dough into a ball and cover with damp towel and set aside MAKING THE FILLING: Heat the milk and 1 cup of sugar in a saucepan un l sugar dissolves. Add chopped walnuts and s r to combine. Remove saucepan from heat; s r in lemon zest and rai‐ sins; let cool. Divide dough in 3 pieces. Roll one piece of dough out on a lightly floured surface to form a long rectangle about ¼ inch thick, keep remaining dough covered. Spread ⅓ of walnut filling on dough, leaving about an inch of dough at each edge. Roll to form a log and press to seal. Place dough, seam‐side down, on a parchment‐lined baking sheet. Repeat with remaining dough and filling. Beat egg with tbsp of water to make an egg wash. Brush loaves with egg wash and let rest for 1 hour in a warm place. A er dough has risen, brush again and put the baking tray in refrigerator for 30 minutes. Preheat oven to 190⁰C. Bake loaves un l golden brown for about 35‐45 minutes. 15
IRELAND Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Dublin 4, 799, 892 (2015) 1st January, 1973 Irish
SÁSTA NOLLAG On Christmas Eve, families in Ireland tradi onally light a candle and place it on their window. It was a symbol of welcoming Mary and Joseph as they travelled looking for shelter. According to tradi on this candle should be lit by the youngest member of the family. A er the Christmas Eve meal the Irish set the table again. This is called the Laden table. People put bread with caraway seeds and raisins, some milk and a big lit candle. Everything is meant for Mary and Joseph or some wanderer that may arrive. MINCE PIES A small fruit‐based sweet mince meat pie. INGREDIENTS: (Makes 18 pies) 280g mince meat 350g plain flour 100g golden caster sugar 225g bu er, diced 1 small egg Icing sugar to dust INSTRUCTIONS: To make pastry, rub bu er into flour, then mix in golden caster sugar and pinch of salt. Combine pastry into a ball. Press small balls of pastry into the pa y ns’ holes and spoon the mincemeat into the pies. Preheat oven to 200⁰C. Take slightly smaller balls of pastry than before and pat them out be‐ tween your hands to make round lids, big enough to cover the pies. Top the pies with their lids, pressing the edges gently together to seal. Beat 1 small egg and brush the top of the pies. Bake for 20 minutes un l golden. Leave to cool. Lightly dust with icing sugar before serving.
ITALY Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Rome 60, 385, 175 (2015) 1st January, 1958 Italian
BUON NATALE Children in Italy believe in a female version of Santa Claus called ‘La Befana’, an old woman who flies on a broom and carries a bag of gi s. According to Italian Legend, the Three Wise Men asked La Befana for direc ons to Betlehem. She was asked to join them but she was too busy cleaning her house so she declined the oﬀer. It took an unusually bright light to convince her that she must join the Wise Men, but she was too late. She never found the Child Christ and has been searching ever since. Like Santa Claus, she supposedly climbs down the chimney to leave gi s for children and she is also known to leave behind a piece of coal or ash for those who have been naughty. AMARETTI Almond taste cookies. INGREDIENTS: (20 amare ) 125g ground almonds 165g white sugar Egg whites ½ tsp vanilla extract Few drops of pure almond oil 20 almonds INSTRUCTIONS: Mix all ingredients in a food processor to get a thick almond paste. Use a pastry bag and press small circles of dough on a pastry sheet covered with parchment pa‐ per. Put one almond on top of each cookie. Bake for about 15 minutes un l lightly golden. Let cool.
LATVIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Riga 1,993, 629 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Latvia
PRIECÍGUS ZIEMASSVÉTKUS The most famous Latvian Christmas tradi on is called ‘’mumming’’. Mummers, led by a ‘’father’’ go from village to village wearing masks usually disguised as some kind of animal. The most tradi onal are horses, bears and goats. Mummers bring a home blessing, encourage fer lity and frighten away any evil spirits. Another Christmas tradi on is dragging the Yule Log. This is explained as the symbolic collec ng and burning of last year’s problems and misfortunes. Log burning involves groups of people dragging a log around the house during the day, burning the log all night and singing rituals. It is one of the most an cipated ancient Latvian Christmas Tradi ons.
PIRAGI Latvian bacon rolls. INGREDIENTS: 8 ounces (240ml) milk 3 ¾ cups flour 25g yeast ¼ tbsp sugar ¼ cup bu er Salt 4 cups chopped ham 500g chopped bacon Onion Black pepper 4 eggs, lightly beaten INSTRUCTIONS: Make the yeast dough by blending the flour, milk, yeast, sugar, bu er and salt. Leave it to rise, covered, in a warm place. Chop bacon and onion together and add pepper. Fry ham, bacon, onion and pepper. Set aside. Turn the risen dough out onto a lightly floured surface and roll in a long rope. Cut into equal siz‐ es and roll each piece into a ball. Fla en each piece, place bacon mixture in the middle and fold the ends together, pinching to seal. Form into a crescent shape. Bake at 180⁰C. Let rise for 5 ‐ 10 minutes, then brush with beaten egg.
LITHUANIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Vilnius 2, 960, 066 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Lithuanian
On Christmas Eve in Lithuania, people set an extra plate for a family member that was not able to come or has died in the past year. The meal served includes 12 dishes, which symbolizes the 12 Apostles. Straw of diﬀerent length is put under the tablecloth which is drawn out by family mem‐ bers. It is believed that the length of one’s life can be predicted that way.
KŪĈIKUAI Cookies baked for Christmas Eve Supper, served with poppy seed milk. INGREDIENTS:
450g flour 180‐200ml warm water 2 tbsp oil 10g fresh yeast 2 tbsp poppy seeds 6 tbsp sugar Pinch of salt
INSTRUCTIONS: In a large bowl blend yeast with sugar. Add warm water and half of the flour. Dust the top of the ba er with flour and let rise un l doubled in size Add salt, remaining flour, oil and scalded poppy seeds. Mix everything and knead un l dough is not s cky. Place it in a bowl and let rise. Roll dough into 1cm thick rolls and cut into small pieces. Place dough pieces on floured baking sheet and bake un l golden brown.
LUXEMBOURG Luxembourg 551, 632 (2015) 1st January, 1958 French and German
Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial languages:
SCHÉI KRËSCHTDEEG The giving of presents is done on December 6th, St. Nicholas Day. If the children have been good, St. Nicholas comes the night before and leaves candy and gi s. If there is a knock on the door, that means the children have been bad and Black Peter is coming. Black Peter is an old man dressed in black. He carries a big basket full of twigs, s cks and black coal. If the children have been really bad black Peter may chain them to his belt and carry them oﬀ kicking, screaming and crying throughout the village so that every one will know which children were bad the last year. Once Black Peter has visited a child he or she will usually be good the next year.
STOLLEN A rich sweet bread containing fruit and citron. INGREDIENTS: 2 tsp dried ac ve baking yeast 50g currants 175ml warm milk 50g sultanas 1 large egg 50g red glace cherries, quartered 75g caster sugar 175g diced mixed citrus peel 1 ½ tsp salt 200g marzipan 75g unsalted bu er 1 tsp icing sugar 350g bread flour ½ tsp ground cinnamon INSTRUCTIONS: In a small bowl, dissolve yeast in warm milk. Let stand un l creamy for 10 minutes. In a large bowl, combine the yeast mixture with the egg, caster sugar, salt, bu er and ¾ of the bread flour; beat well. Add the remaining flour a li le at a me. When the dough has begun to pull together, turn it out onto a lightly floured surface, and knead in the currants, sultanas, dried cherries and mixed peel. Con nue kneading un l smooth for 8 minutes. Lightly oil a large bowl, place the dough in the bowl and turn to coat with oil. Cover with a damp cloth and let rise in a warm place un l doubled in size. Lightly grease a baking tray. Deflate the dough and turn it out onto a lightly floured surface. Roll the marzipan into a rope and place it in the centre of the dough. Fold the dough over to cover it, pinch the seams together to seal. Place the loaf, seam side down, on the prepared baking tray. Cover with a damp towel and let rise un l doubled for 40 minutes. Meanwhile preheat oven to 180⁰C. Bake in preheated oven for 10 minutes, then reduce heat to 150⁰C and bake for another 30 to 40 minutes or un l golden brown. Let cool and sprinkle with cinnamon and icing sugar. 20
MALTA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Valle a 424, 785 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Maltese
Most people in Malta are Catholics. The Maltese usually a end the tradi onal Midnight Mass Ser‐ vice which is held in each locality on Christmas Eve. One Maltese Christmas tradi on is the 'Priedka tat‐Tifel' which means 'the sermon of the child'. A boy or a girl, normally aged 7 to 10, does the preaching of the sermon at the midnight mass instead of the priest. The children learn the sermon by heart and start learning it four or five weeks before they preach on Christmas Eve. The boy or girl tells the story of the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem and is encouraged to give their sermon a personal delivery which will touch the hearts of the church‐goers.
QAGĦAQ TAL– GĦASEL Qaghaq ta’ l‐Ghasel or ‘Honey Rings’ are sweet pastry rings filled with a treacle mixture. FILLING: INGREDIENTS: 400g treacle PASTRY: 150g sugar 400g flour 1 tbsp chopped candied fruit 75g semolina Grated rind of an orange or tangerine 1 egg yolk Grated rind of a lemon 100g unsalted bu er 1 tbsp cocoa 1 tbsp sugar 1 tbsp aniseed liqueur Water A li le semolina Pinch of cloves 2 cups water
INSTRUCTIONS: MAKING THE PASTRY: To make pastry, sieve the flour in a bowl with the semolina. Rub in the unsalted bu er and pour in the egg yolk and sugar. Mix and knead well to form a dough. If necessary add some water. MAKING THE FILLING: Mix all the ingredients except for the semolina in a saucepan. Bring to a boil slowly and simmer. Add semolina gradually to the mixture un l you get a thick consistency. It is very important that you keep s rring the mixture constantly. Let the mixture cool down before con nuing. MAKING THE HONEY RINGS: First roll out the pastry thinly. Cut it in rectangles (approx. 20 cms x 8 cms). Now take some of the filling and place down the middle of the pastry rectangle strips and form into cigar like strips. Then roll the pastry over the filling and bring the ends together to form a ring. Cut short slits into the pastry at intervals. While baking, some of the filling will come out of these slits and transform the rings into a rac ve black and white rings. Put the rings into a floured baking tray. Bake in a moderate oven un l the pastry is barely colored (usually takes about 20 minutes).
NETHERLANDS Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Amsterdam 16, 965, 032 (2015) 1st January, 1958 Dutch
VROLIJK KERSTFEEST In the Netherlands many of the Christmas tradi ons are related to St Nicholas or ‘Sinter Klaas‘ who wears Bishop’s clothes and rides a white horse. It is believed that he is accompanied by ‘Black Pe‐ ter’. His face is covered in soot (dirty black powder) and has horns and red eyes and rides a mule. When Dutch children meet him they are told that Black Peter was a devil who became a servant of St Nicholas. According to Dutch tradi on, St Nicholas and Black Peter arrive on 5th December and enter homes through chimneys. They leave presents for kids. Kids fill their shoes with straw, carrots or sugar to a ract them.
SPECULAAS Moulded ginger cookies. INGREDIENTS: (makes about 2 dozen) ½ tsp baking soda 3 cups flour ½ tsp salt 2 tsp ground cinnamon ¼ tsp ground white pepper 1 ½ tsp grated nutmeg 12 tbsp unsalted bu er, so ened 1 tsp ground coriander 1 cup light brown sugar 1 tsp ground ginger ⅓ cup milk ½ tsp ground cloves INSTRUCTIONS: In a bowl, mix together the flour, spices, baking soda, salt and white pepper. In a mixer, beat together the bu er and sugar. Add half of the flour mixture and mix. Add milk and the remaining flour mixture. Form into 2 disks, chill and leave them covered for 2 hours. Heat oven to 180⁰C. Working with 1 disk at a me, break oﬀ chunks and press into a floured speculaas mould; scrape away excess dough and invert mould to free dough. Brush away flour from mould. Transfer imprinted dough pieces to parchment paper‐lined baking sheets. Bake un‐ l golden brown, 16‐18 minutes. Let cool.
POLAND Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Warsaw 38, 454, 145 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Polish
WESOŁYCH ŚWIĄT In Poland, Christmas Eve is par cularly important. The Polish begin Christmas Eve supper at twilight as soon as the first star appears in the sky. This star is par cularly an cipated by children. Accord‐ ing to an old tradi on, 12 dishes should be placed on the table on Christmas Eve which symbolizes the 12 Apostles. During Christmas Eve supper, the whole family gathers in a room at a table cov‐ ered with a white table cloth. According to tradi on, bits of hay are spread beneath the tablecloth as a reminder that Jesus was born in a stable. The oldest person starts praying, reading a part about Jesus birth. Then everyone at the table shares a piece of wafer with each member and they wish each other a Blessed Christmas. PIERNIKI Spicy smelling, sweet cookies. INGREDIENTS: 1 kg flour 250g margarine 5 eggs 1 ½ cup sugar 1 middle jar honey 2 tbsp cocoa 2 tbsp gingerbread spices 1 tbsp cinnamon 1 packet ammonia 2 tbsp instant coﬀee 1 packet baking powder INSTRUCTIONS: Melt the margarine and cool down. Dissolve ammonia in small amount of cold water. Boil the coﬀee in a small cup and cool down. Add to flour, margarine, eggs, sugar, honey, cocoa, gingerbread spices, cinnamon, ammonia, baking powder and coﬀee essence. Blend all and leave it in a cool place for a night. Next day bake it for about 7‐10 minutes.
PORTUGAL Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Lisbon 10, 590, 070 (2015) 1st January, 1986 Portuguese
FELIZ NATAL Portuguese families gather around the Christmas Tree singing songs in the praise of the Lord and help each other doing the crib. The crib is considered to be a very important part. Tradi onally, the children are in charge of collec ng the materials and help the adults set it up. It is also a tradi on to a end Masses at church, par cularly, the Midnight Mass. Another special Christmas tradi on in the region of Penamacor known as Christmas Madeiro takes place on Christmas Eve. Young men who are about to enroll in the army have to steal whole trees and make the tallest fire in their neigh‐ bourhood. The fire is lit just before the Midnight Mass or during it to warm Baby Jesus. It also gives people a warm place to meet friends, chat and sing carols a er the Mass. The Madeiro is some‐ mes so big that it keeps on burning for Christmas Day as well.
RABANADAS Portuguese French toast. FOR COATING: INGREDIENTS: 250g sugar 12 slices of good quality crusty loaf 1 tsp vanilla essence 750ml full fat milk 2 tsp cinnamon powder 1 tbsp bu er 300g sugar 1 cinnamon s ck 1 tsp nutmeg 1 tsp vanilla essence 1 lemon peel 1 tbsp port wine 5 eggs Vegetable oil INSTRUCTIONS: Put milk, sugar, bu er, lemon and spices into a pan and let slowly simmer for 5‐10 minutes. Take out and let cool. In a slightly deep dish, beat the eggs and bath each slice on them, both sides. Fry slices on a pan in hot vegetable oil, turning each one when golden. Let dry and cool. Put sugar, vanilla essence and cinnamon powder in a dish and mix. Roll each slice and transfer to a large deep dish. With me, sugar coa ng will dissolve and a beau ful tasteful syrup will emerge on the bo om of the dish.
ROMANIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Bucharest 19, 906, 696 (2015) 1st January, 2007 Romanian
Each year on 20 December, Romanians celebrate St Igna us Day. On this day a pig is slaughtered/ killed. A pig is chosen for this purpose and fed to make it grow fat. It is one of the most important rituals leading to Christmas. A sign of the cross, marking the arrival of Jesus Christ is made on the pig’s forehead. Families sacrifice their pig in order to have a rich meal for Christmas. A feast is held where all family, friends and neighbours are invited so the meat can be shared with them. th
COZONAC Romanian nut‐filled sweet bread. INGREDIENTS: DOUGH: NUT FILLING: 4‐5 cups bread flour 2 ½ cups ground walnuts 1 cup milk 1 cup whole milk 3 eggs ¾ cup sugar 2 ½ tsp instant yeast ¼ cup rum 170g bu er 1 tsp vanilla extract ¾ cup sugar 1 tsp orange extract Pinch of salt 2 tsp orange peel Lemon/orange peel ½ tsp ground espresso Rum and vanilla extract ¼ cup cocoa INSTRUCTIONS: FOR THE NUT FILLING: In a pan, warm up the milk and sugar un l the sugar dissolves. Then add your crushed walnuts. It should reduce quite a bit with not too much liquid le on low heat for 15 minutes. Add cocoa and flavorings, s r and con nue to cook for a few more minutes. FOR THE DOUGH: Start by pu ng the yeast in some hot water and put aside. Warm up the milk, sugar and bu er in a sauce pan un l the bu er melts. Put in the fridge to cool it down a bit. Toss the eggs into a bowl and mix. Add the rum and vanilla extract. Then mix in the milk/sugar/bu er mixture and add the yeast/water mixture. Add flour one cup at a me and mix un l it starts to take shape. Cover the dough with a towel and let rise somewhere warm for about 1‐2 hours. To braid the dough, cut it into 4 parts, two parts for each braid. Put some oil on your hands and stretch the dough out un l you have a long flat strip. Spread the nut filling and roll it up. Pinch the two pieces together at the top and do a loose one‐over‐the‐other braid. Use the en re batch at once by curling it around itself and egg wash the top of it. Cook in the oven un l golden brown. 25
SLOVAKIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Bra slava 5, 428, 912 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Slovak
In every Slovakian family, one place is always reserved at the dinner table for a guest or traveller that might come. No one is allowed to leave the dinner table before the supper is over because it is believed that somebody may not be present the next year. Also, they surround the table and chairs with chains, as a part of their tradi ons. According to Slovakian Christmas tradi ons, ea ng in the morning of Christmas Eve is forbidden. The Slovakians fast during the day. Some fas ng prac ces involve ea ng everything else except meat.
PARENE BUCHTY Steamed buns with jam filling. INGREDIENTS: (makes 24 buns) 250ml milk 450g flour 1 egg 350g jam 25g yeast 2 tbsp sugar Pinch of salt 1‐2 tbsp vegetable oil INSTRUCTIONS: Heat up the milk, (a bit warmer than room temperature) and melt the yeast in half of it. Add the egg, sugar, salt and the rest of the milk. Beat it with an electric mixer and blend it a bit by hand. Cover the dough and leave for 30‐40 minutes un l it rises to double size. Roll it out to 7mm thick and cut it into 24 square pieces. Put teaspoon of jam to each piece. Seal the buchtas by folding them as envelopes and put them on a flour‐sprinkled surface. Boil 2 cups of water in saucepan and place the steamer over the boiling water. Brush the steamer with a bit of vegetable oil so it will not s ck. Put a few buchtas to the steamer, but don’t forget to leave some space between them as they will grow during cooking. Keep the water boiling and cook them for 20 minutes. Serve them with melted bu er and chocolate or other type of dressing of your choice.
SLOVENIA Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Ljubljana 2,045,881 (2015) 1st May, 2004 Slovenian
VESEL BOŽIČ The Winter Christmas celebra ons in Slovenia begin with St Nicholas Day on 6th December. St Nich‐ olas is accompanied by devils that warn bad children while he passes out small gi s of candies and fruit to the good children. On Christmas Eve the family gathers around the Na vity Scene to pray. Each room of the house is blessed with Holy Water. The family a ends the Midnight Mass along with other villagers where they proceed to church carrying lighted torches singing Christmas carols.
POTICA A rolled‐up cake made with a very thin yeast dough, filled with a sweet walnut filling. INGREDIENTS: 2 tbsp yeast 1 ½ cup milk 1 tbsp salt 3 ½ cup flour 1 tbsp cinnamon 1 ½ cup sugar 2 ½ cups ground walnuts 7 tbsp bu er 4 tbsp heavy whipping cream 4 beaten egg yolks 4 egg whites, beaten INSTRUCTIONS: Separate the eggs, keeping the yolks in one bowl and the whites in another. In another bowl, combine the yeast with the milk. Add ½ cup sugar, salt and flour and mix to form a dough. Cover with a plas c wrap and let rise in a warm place for about 30 minutes. Prepare the filling by creaming the bu er, 1 cup sugar and egg yolks together. Add the cinna‐ mon, cream and ground walnuts. Preheat oven to 180⁰C. On a floured surface, roll out the dough, to form a large rectangle and spread the filling in the centre. Roll up the dough and place seam side down, onto a baking sheet. Brush the pastry with egg white. Bake for 1‐1½ hours or un l golden brown.
SPAIN Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Madrid 47, 671, 564 (2015) 1st January, 1986 Spanish
In Spain, the 3 Wise Kings/Magi; Melchior, Gaspard and Balthazar, give presents to children on 6th January, the Feast of Epiphany. Children fill their slippers with food for the Wise Men and barley, carrots and straw for the camels and place them on doorsteps or windowsills of their home. They hope to exchange presents with these men. Toys are given to good children while the naughty ones get coal.
MANTECADOS Tradi onal Spanish Christmas mini crumble cakes. INGREDIENTS: 800g flour 400g lard (pig fat) 400g powdered sugar 200g almond flour 1 tsp cinnamon INSTRUCTIONS: Toast the flour in the oven (spread it out on a baking sheet and bake at 250⁰C un l top layer browns. Remove the flour, mix and spread, and bake again un l golden. Repeat process for 4‐5 mes. Toast almonds in some lard in a pan. Remove when golden brown and let cool. Once all ingredients are cooled, mix them all. The ‘dough’ should be able to be formed into shapes, but should easily fall apart so add a li le more lard to achieve the right texture. Put the dough in the fridge for about 15‐20 minutes. Roll out the dough to around half an inch thick. Cut the dough with cookie cu ers; typically round. Bake in oven for 12‐15 minutes at 180⁰C un l golden brown.
SWEDEN Stockholm 9,571, 714 (2015) 1st January, 1995 Swedish
Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
Swedish children are told that ‘Jultomten’, the Swedish version of Santa Claus, brings gi s on Christmas Day. He is a dwarf with a white beard dressed in a red robe. Children light candles and place them over the windowsills to guide Jultomten to their houses. They also leave a bowl of por‐ ridge outside for him. Many believe that if this custom is not followed, he will bring bad luck upon the family. A er the Christmas Eve dinner, a member of the family dresses up like Jultomten to trick the children and then distributes the gi s to everyone.
LUSSEKATTER Swedish saﬀron buns. INGREDIENTS: 50g fresh yeast 200g bu er 1g saﬀron 300ml milk 200ml heavy cream 180g sugar 1 large egg ½ tsp salt 1kg flour 1 beaten egg Raisins for decora on INSTRUCTIONS: Crumble the yeast into a bowl. Melt the bu er, add saﬀron, milk and cream and heat un l barely warm to the touch. Add a li le of the liquid of the yeast and s r un l dissolved, then add the rest of the liquid. Add egg, sugar and salt and s r un l dissolved. Add some flour and work into a smooth dough. Leave it to rise, covered for 45‐60 minutes. When it has doubled in size, it’s ready. Divide buns into equal por ons and shape each bun like an ‘S’. Cover with a cloth and leave to rise for 30‐45 minutes. Put 2 raisins in each bun and bake for 7—10 minutes. Brush with a beaten egg and let cool.
UNITED KINGDOM Capital city: Habitants: EU member since: Oﬃcial language:
London 64, 809, 955 (2015) 1st January, 1973 English
Christmas Day in the UK is spent with family members with whom they exchange gi s and cards. Children wake up to find a sock or stocking filled with small gi s supposedly brought by a mythical figure called 'Father Christmas' or 'Santa Claus'. He travels in a sleigh pulled by reindeers and enters houses by climbing down the chimney. Meals prepared on Christmas Day include roast turkey, potatoes and vegetables. As a dessert, Christmas pudding is o en eaten. Mince pies are also popular. Christmas symbols in the UK include leaves and berries from the holly tree and mistletoe bush, pine trees, candles and small lights.
CHRISTMAS PUDDING A pudding containing dried fruit, spices and brandy. INGREDIENTS: 250g bu er 50g fresh breadcrumbs 155g brown so sugar 250g raisins 4 eggs 250g sultanas 250g self raising flour 250g currants 250g plain flour 125g mixed peel and cherries ½ tsp each nutmeg and mixed spice 25‐50 ml brandy/whisky INSTRUCTIONS: Beat the bu er and sugar in a large bowl un l creamy. Add the eggs one at a me bea ng well a er each one. In another bowl, mix together the flours, spices, breadcrumbs and dried fruit. Add this to the bu er and egg mixture and pour in whisky or brandy. Mix well. Dip a 60cm square (approx) piece of unbleached co on cloth in boiling water then lay it over a bowl. Put the pudding mixture in the cloth and then e the cloth securely with string, leaving 4cm or so space at the top between the pudding and the string for the mixture to expand. Place the pudding into a large pot of boiling water and cook for 5 hours. Check it every half hour or so and top up with more boiling water if required. Remove from water and hang immediately in a cool place ll Christmas day. On the day, boil for 2 hours ll hot, then serve with ice cream, custard or brandy bu er.
Word Search Christmas
J C X D C T C E O B O Y T I V I T A N Z
N O Y E K R U T D P E A A S P K O J S E
G R W U S A S Q K R P L B L G N Z P Y D
X J Q U Z D W C K E J N J O V K E S X N
H P E P M I E T O S H E O R Z N A A K S
G F R U I T C A K E R T Z A J W F N P K
ANGELS BABY-JESUS BELLS CAROLS CHRISTMAS CRIB DECORATIONS ELVES
C V B V S I F O Y N W U A C P B O B T G
S S C R O O G E R T B N D E E F Z B H X
I P N E P N Q N W S W X J O R E L V E S
W K I P I S K N Q I V G H V L W C B F N
S N O I T A R O C E D T B E A P S J N J
D O I Q I C Y L B U U I K G J M H X B M
FROSTY FRUITCAKE LIGHTS NATIVITY PINECONE PRESENTS RUDOLPH SCROOGE
B M E O N S H A A P R A L N L G F M E E
D E F D L A B R I C L X I I A F Y F E D
G Q L E I Y C N I F N F G K I C R S C S
P S G L J T E U W S R U H C Z V T S L I
S N K E S C E O S O T X T O F K V T C C
A M S Y O X N L S M A M S T I I E Q K H
K U C N K S T T U F C F A S Y B X E J V
SNOWFLAKE STOCKING TRADITIONS TURKEY WREATH YULETIDE
S C E T T D Y G M Y F K F S T G J K X I
Europe Direct Information Centre – Victoria Gozo is one of nearly 500 EDICs, active in all the 28 Member States, which informs European citizens about the European Union and to promote partici‐ patory citizenship at local and regional level. We promote public awareness of other information networks and contact points of the European institutions. We also organize seminars, workshops and school visits, use social media and disseminate EU publications. Questions about the EU? Freephone: 00 800 67891011 Email: europedirect.europa.eu European Commission Representation in Malta Phone: +356 2342 5000 Email: comm‐rep‐email@example.com Europe Direct Information Centres (EDICs) In Malta there are 3 EDICs which you can contact: Europe Direct Information Centre ‐ Victoria Gozo Address: 27 Republic Street Victoria, VCT 1014 Gozo, Malta Phone: +356 2156 3389 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.europedirectgozo.org Facebook: Europe Direct Information Centre‐ Victoria Gozo Opening Hours: Monday to Friday from 08.00 h – 12.00 h Europe Direct Information Centre Valletta Address: GRTU, Exchange Buildings, Republic Street Valletta Malta Phone: +356 2122 8843 Email: email@example.com Website: www.euroopedirectvalletta.eu Europe Direct Information Centre Central Malta Address: Local Government Building Triq il‐Gvern Lokali, Marsa Industrial Estate Marsa, Malta Phone: +356 2596 8200 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.ediccentralmalta.eu