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Diversity is Stability Agroecotourism: A Market Linked Method to Increase and Protect Biodiversity The North American Ecotourism Conference 2007 Strengthening Community, Business, and Conservation through Ecotourism

Christina T. Cavaliere The International Ecotourism Society (TIES) Director of Training and Education Madison, Wisconsin September 26-28, 2007

Presentation Overview TIES and Ecotourism •

What is Ecotourism?

Agroecotourism •

Pressures on Biodiversity


What is TIES?

Why Agroecotourism?

What is Agroecotourism? The Technical, Economic, Ecological, Sociocultural Emphasis

Mission and Projects

Who is an Agroecotourist? Tourists and Activities

Where does Agroecotourism occur? Best Practice Examples of Agroecotourism

How does Agroecotourism promote change? Benefits and Outcomes/Results

What Is Ecotourism? “Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment and improves the well-being of local people." ¶ Minimize impact, ¶ Environmental & cultural awareness and respect, ¶ Positive experiences for both visitors and hosts, ¶ Direct financial benefits for conservation, ¶ Financial benefits and empowerment for local people, ¶ Sensitivity to host countries' political, environmental, and social climate.

Ecotourism is

to mass tourism‌

Costa Rica

what the Hybrid is

to the Hummer‌

WHAT IS TIES? • Founded in 1990 • Largest and oldest ecotourism organization in the world • Headquartered in Washington, DC • Members in nearly 100 countries • Umbrella for 4 dozen national ecotourism associations

TIES Mission • Creating an international network of individuals, institutions and the tourism industry; • Educating tourists and tourism professionals; • Influencing the tourism industry, public institutions and donors to integrate the principles of ecotourism into their operations and policies.

TIES Main Projects •

Research & Consulting – – – – –

Training & Education – – – – – –

Ecotourism certification Consultancies Carbon offsets and sustainable transportation Environmental and social footprints of tourism enterprises Indigenous and community-based ecotourism Conferences and forums International on-site training programs & training program design Classroom and distance learning courses Publishing research, books and outreach materials UCFC program Outreach

Membership – Network of professionals, institutions and businesses – Newsletters – Experts Bureau (speakers, consultants, lecturers)


Why Agroecotourism? Pressures on Biodiversity

What is Agroecotourism? The Technical, Economic, Ecological, Socio-cultural Emphasis

Who is an Agroecotourist? Tourists and Activities

Where does Agroecotourism occur? Best Practice Examples of Agroecotourism

How does Agroecotourism promote change? Benefits and Outcomes/Results

Pressures on Biodiversity ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶

Poverty, Corporate Extraction of Natural Resources, Conventional Monocrop Agriculture, Livestock, Inappropriate Protected Area Management, Loss of Understanding of Traditional Land Management, Lack of Environmental Education and Interpretation.

“The fate of birds, mammals, frogs, fish and all the rest of biodiversity depends not so much on what happens in parks but what happens where we live, work and obtain the wherewithal for our daily lives” (Tuxill, Tuxill, 1998 as quoted in McNeely and Scherr, 2003).

What is Agroecotourism? Âś Agroecotourism is a market-linked method of increasing and protecting biodiversity and sustainable rural community development. Âś Agroecotourism is an element within sustainable agriculture operations that addresses the acute threat to biodiversity by increasing landscape diversity, implementing the core principles of ecotourism, and incorporating the essential practices of ecoagriculture and permaculture.

Organic Cocoa Farm for Specialty Chocolate in Costa Rica

Agrotourism vs. Agroecotourism

Agroecotourism Agroecotourism combines the four major components of successful ecosystem rehabilitation and sustainable landscape management: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶

Technical Economic Ecological Socio-cultural

The Technical Emphasis

Sustainable Agroforestry: Âś Science used for designing agricultural systems that provide the ecological functions of natural systems.

The Technical Emphasis PERMACULTURE adopts techniques and principals from: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶

Ecology, Appropriate technology, Sustainable organic agriculture, Agroforestry, Wisdom of indigenous peoples and traditional ecosystem interactions. “The key to efficient design is observation and replication of natural ecosystems, where designers maximise diversity with polycultures, stress efficient energy planning for houses and settlements, using and accelerating natural plant succession, and increase the highly productive edge zones.” - Bill Mollison

The Economic Emphasis Agrotourism: Âś A symbiotic relationship between tourism and agriculture, where farmers and farms are an integral part of development and provide a positive economic approach to rural development.

Agroecotourism: Âś Sustainable agro-ecosystem landscapes offer additional economic resources for environmental protection.

The Ecological Emphasis Agroecotourism involves: ¶ Organic agricultural practices, ¶ Attracting diversified wildlife and preserving heritage and native species of plants, ¶ Opportunities for ecologically sound development, through the reduction in agricultural pollutants released into surrounding protected areas, ¶ Polycrop organic farms that include all elements of the natural landscape and introduce hundreds of biome-appropriate species of flora and fauna for food production and long term investments such as timber.

Recreation Areas and Trials

Riverbanks And Natural Waterways

Irrigation Canals

Drainage Ways


Areas of Wild Biodiversity Habitats within Sustainable Agroecosystems

Access Areas

Strips within Crop Areas

Sites conserved for cultural value

Windbreaks and Corridors

Community or Natural Woodlands

Grasslands and Gardens Agroforests

The Socio-cultural Emphasis Agroecotourism: Âś As community based businesses, these organic farms boost local economies through job creation and increased revenue for local goods and services. Âś Creates the opportunity to sell other value added cultural products and handicrafts.

Who is an Agroecotourist? Nature & eco/travelers who seek an in-depth understanding of: ¶ Low-impact lifestyles, ¶ Local communities, ¶ Sustainable ecoagriculture.

Agroecotourism activities promote: ¶ Non-extractive interpretation-based activities, ¶ Visitor appreciation of land-use planning, ¶ Environmentally conscious businesses practices, ¶ Renewable energy projects, ¶ Community development initiatives, ¶ Social services projects, ¶ The production of natural, handmade, and locally grown products.

Agroecotourism Activities and Tools ¶ Ecological Architecture, ¶ Landscape Planning, ¶ Consumption and Selling of Organic Foodstuffs, ¶ Educational Programs and Training, ¶ Organic Gardening, ¶ Wild Herb Collection and Drying, ¶ Traditional Food and Beverage Processing, ¶ Naturalistic Didactical Activities, ¶ Demonstrative Laboratories,

¶ Sustainable Natural Resource and Energy Use Examples, ¶ Visits to Nearby Protected Areas, ¶ Flora and Fauna Observation and Identification, ¶ Ecotourism Certifications and Ecolabling, ¶ International Permaculture Certification Courses, ¶ Interaction with Indigenous Peoples and Culture, and ¶ Compost and Vermiculture Production.

Equatorial Case Studies Costa Rica • •

Punta Mona Permaculture Center For Sustainable Living & Education THE TALAMANCA TRANSOCEANIC CORRIDOR PROJECT

Tanzania Case Study

Nicaragua Case Study

Far North Queensland Australia

Poverty Permaculture


Ecosystem Regeneration and increase in soil top layers

Increase in Biodiversity Ecosystem Stability

Income Generation from Agrodiversity: AGROECOTOURISM


How does Agroecotourism promote change? ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶

Benefits include: Creation and preservation of genetic diversity, Increased net income, lowered risk and improved capitalization, Creation of biological corridors, Environmental and cultural preservation and education/interpretation, True Ecotourism in Practice, Exchange of indigenous knowledge, Public\Private partnerships, Local and non-governmental initiatives, Restoration and revegetation of cleared lands, and Watershed protection.

Christina T. Cavaliere Director of Training & Education 202.347.9203, ext. 423

The International Ecotourism Society 1333 H Street, NW Suite 300, East Tower Washington, DC 20005

REFERENCES µ AACRI: Asociacion Agroartesanal De Caficultores Rio Intag (Agricultural-Artisanal Coffee growers Association of Rio Intag) website. (2005). available from website at µ Buck, L.E., Lassoie, J.P. and Fernandes, E.C.M..1999. Agroforestry in Sustainable Agricultural Systems. Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, Florida, USA. Leaky and Sanchez, 1997 pg. 320. µ Carle, A. & C.. 2002. The Botanical Ark. Norbert Guthier: Frankfurt Germany. µ Concepcion, R.N.. 1992. Agritourism: A Strategic Approach Towards a Sustainable Rural Development. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Integrated Land Use Management for Tropical Agriculture. Department of Primary Industries Queensland. (pp 14-22). µ Diver, Steve. 2002. United States of America. Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA). Retrieved from March 20-28 from: µ El-Hage Scialabba, N. and Williamson, D. 2004. The Scope of Organic Agriculture, Sustainable Forest Management and Eoforestry in Protected Area Management. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy. Working Paper No. 18.

REFERENCES CONTINUED µ Global Environment Facility (NGO web site) web address: µ Honey, M. 1999a. Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise?. Washington, D.C., Island Press. µ Luck, M. & Kirstges, T. (Eds.). 2003. Global Ecotourism Polices and Case Studies: Perspectives and Constraints. Sydney: Channel View Publications. µ McNeely, J.A. and Scherr, S.J.. 2003. Ecoagriculture: Stragtegies to Feed the World and Save Wild Biodiversity. µ New Agriculturalist Online. website. 2002. Reporting Agriculture for the 21st Century. Agroforestry and Local Knowledge. Retrieved April 2005 from µ Punta Mona: Center for Sustainable Living and Education (NGO web site) web address: µ Reid, D.G.. 2003. Tourism, Globalization and Development: Responsible Tourism Planning. London: Pluto Press. µ Scheyvens, R. 1999. Ecotourism and the Empowerment of Local Communities. Tourism Management, 20 (2), 245-251. µ Schroth, G., da Fonseca, G.A.B, Harvey, C.A., Gascon, C., VCasconcelos, H.L and Izac, A.N.. 2004. Agroforestry and Biodiversity Conservation in Tropical Landscapes. Island Press: Washington, D.C. µ The International Ecotourism Society (TIES). 2004. Definition and Ecotourism Principles. [Data file]. Available from The International Ecotourism Society website.