How can Ecotourism contribute to Poverty Reduction and Conservation Aims.
The Namibian Experience Andee Davidson, Oslo 2007
A partnership between Namibian NGOs & Government
• • • • • •
Namibia – overview Approach Examples Constraints Results Way Forwards
Overview • Colonial regimes (Germany, South Africa) centralised wildlife management & ownership. • Wildlife (tourism) resource in serious decline in communal areas from 1980’s. • Namibia Independent since 1990. • Community mobilisation for rights to manage & benefit from wildlife from 1980’s. • Namibian government introduces policy & legislation in 1996. • Tourism identified as major source of income
Legal Basis of Conservancies
Government gazette Of the
Republic of Namibia N$1.20
Windhoek - 17 June 1996
Government Notice No. 151Promulgation of Nature Conservation Amendment Act, 1996 (Act 5 0f 1996), of the Parliament ……………………………………………….
Rights granted: * Rights of Ownership over huntable game * Rights to revenues from the Sale of Game or Game Products * Rights to Tourism.
• Constitution • Committee
Development of management plan
• Benefit sharing mechanism Lodge sites for development
Development of land use plan and zonation maps through participatory mapping.
CBNRM Program Purpose: Empower Local Communities to Manage and Benefit From Their Natural Resources in a Sustainable Fashion
Human â€“ Wildlife Conflict
Community Attitudes to wildlife • We conserved for our benefits – pre colonial • They conserved for their benefits – colonial/state • We conserve for our benefits – conservancies “We do not hate elephant just the problems”
• Participatory Tourism Planning • Work with legally recognised bodies (Conservancies). • Identify key tourism opportunities • Business Feasibility • Seek partnerships (expressions of interest, tender etc.) Or • Use local management options
Tourism Consultation and Planning Process
Inception: •Regional government support obtained •Support from Traditional Authorities •Conservancies agree to participate & nominate representatives
Data Collection: •Initial tourism awareness workshops with Conservancy •Develop overall vision for tourism •Conservancy to identify all tourism opportunities. •Tourism expertise used to “filter” most viable opportunities. •Final selection of tourism options identified
Options: •Tourism options (key sites) outlined to Regional Government and approved by Traditional Authorities. •Conservancy select options and finalise their vision Development Plan: Plan finalised and Regional & National support obtained. Conservancy & broader community clearly understand the plan and take full ownership of it.
What are the Products? Campsites
Guides Tours Lodges
Trophy hunting Info & bookings
Torra Conservancy - Damaraland Camp
Torra Conservancy,Registered 1998 Area: 352,000 ha,Population: 1200 Livelihood: Livestock, mainly goats. Cash income: < US$300 pa
Wilderness Safaris Namibia Product = â€œlow impact, high income photographic safarisâ€? Damaraland Camp 16 Bed up market lodge 25 full time staff (x 2 managers) Represents 40% of Torra Conservancy income. Outsourced laundry, firewood & security.
Torra Conservancy - Damaraland Camp 100,000 Conservancy
60,000 US$ 40,000 20,000 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Year
Mayuni Conservancy- Nambwa Campsite
Mayuni Conservancy: Registered 1999 Area: 15000ha Population: 2412 Livelihoods: Crops & Livestock Cash Income: < US$300pa
Nambwa Campsite 6 sites on banks of Kwando River in BwaBwata National Park 4 Full time staff Developed with grant support of US$26,000 Income 2006 Approx. US$26,000pa (wages US$7000, conservancy US$14,000)
Mayuni Conservancy - Namba Campsite 30,000 25,000 20,000 US$ 15,000
5,000 0 2003
Anabeb Conservancy â€“ Khowarib Campsite Anabeb Conservancy Registered: 2003 Area: 157,000ha Population: 2000 Livelihoods: Livestock, mainly goats. Cash income: <US$300pa African Eagle Safaris Tour Operator â€“ French Market Developing tour with fixed tent accommodation. Pays monthly rental, contributes to management costs, per passenger levy, marketing and quality
Khowarib Campsite 4 sites on banks of Khowarib Schlucht (Gorge) Private tented camp developed by Operator 3 Full time staff Developed with grant support of US$50,000 Projected Income 2008 Approx. US$10,000pa (wages US$3500, conservancy US$5,000)
Constraints for Communities Difficulties facing the sector: •
Incomplete policy & lack of policy harmonisation.
Lack of understanding of tourism
Lack of access to capital for product development
Lack of Management Skills
Low Literacy levels of Communities in the Rural Areas
Limited assistance from Private Sector Operators & inability to connect with the tourism sector – access the market.
Market ? o r Development ?
“Market Approach” • Assumes “market” is the solution to all business development. • Assumes business (“seller”) can afford to pay for business services that the market provides. • Assumes that the market can provide business services (service providers exist)
“Development Approach” • Recognises limitations of market but often fails to assess these – assumes that linkages don’t exist or won’t work. • Often supply and not demand led. • Provides long term “open-ended” support to businesses, often creating dependency. • Support is almost exclusively provided by development NGOs & not always business oriented. • Fails to support linkages into the market (BSP) • Fails to recognise “real” operational costs (subsidies).
Namibia CBNRM Program The Results
Where are conservancies in Namibia? 50 Conservancies gazetted to date Around 118,276 km2, representing 13 % of Namibia, now falls within communal area conservancies
98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06
140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 19
Area under Conservancies
People in registered Conservancies
N um be r of P e ople
People in registered Conservancies 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Year
Additional 70,000 in emerging conservancies
CBNRM Estimated Program Benefits 1994 - 2006
Conservancy / Enterprise Committee Income Conservancy Non-Financial Benefits
NR-based Household/Wage Income
28,000,000 24,000,000 20,000,000 16,000,000 N$ 12,000,000 8,000,000 4,000,000 0
Income Sources CBNRM Program 2006 - Source of Benefits Thatching Grass 9%
Own Use Game 3%
Interest Earned 1%
Premium Hunting 0%
Live Game Sale 0%
Shoot and Sell 2% Veld products 0% Campsites/CBTEs 14%
Game Meat Dist. 3%
Game Donation 3% Trophy Hunting 23%
Joint Venture Tourism 40%
Total CBNRM Benefits = N$26.8 million (Approx. US$3.8 m)
Contribution of CBNRM to Namibian Economy • 2005 Net National Income Contribution of CBNRM was N$144 million • Cumulative contribution = N$530 million • Cumulative value of increased wildlife populations since 1990 = N$210 million
Wildlife Populations & Trends in North-West Nyae Nyae Areas of Namibia
Namibia - Way Forwards • Acknowledge that enterprise development in conservancies may be driven by a CBNRM (conservation) agenda but that this should not change the need to use business principles. • Utilise a combination of both market & development approaches without compromising basic business principles. (be aware of this) • Use appropriate “tools” to establish market demand & business viability (involve private sector in analysis). • Develop conservancy (broader community) business & financial management capacity
• Encourage relationships & mentoring with private sector & business membership organisations (TASA, HAN, TAN etc.) • Narrower forms of management tend to be more successful than broad community management (personal profit is OK – encourage entrepreneurship). • Private Sector should be more involved – don’t know how to be ? (Commercial advantage not charity) • JV’s & partnerships when done properly, currently yield the greatest benefit (income & employment) • Need explicit plan for “graduating” CBTEs into mainstream & avoiding dependency (NACOBTA to push up, Associations to reach down !). • Development Agencies need to be more business oriented.
Future Expectations • Rapid growth in JV lodges and tourism partnerships. • Closer relationship with private sector – mentorship & BBEE (Transformation Charter) • More creative approaches to community involvement in tourism (e.g. shareholding in tourism assets, community equity). • Increased community (conservancy) capacity to understand and engage in business relationships. • Further diversification & intensification of enterprise development.
CONCLUSIONS CBNRM and conservancies are an ideal mechanism to promote poverty reduction and conservation because they: • Bring new and potentially large sources of income to poor rural people • Are excellent entry points for all forms of rural development & tourism partnerships because of the institutional mechanisms already in place • Are excellent entry points for integrated land and natural resource management initiatives • Promote good governance and democracy at local levels • Offer entry points for capacity-building, empowerment and skills transfer • Deliver real OUTCOMES to local and national development objectives.
Campsites – new developments
Cultural attractions and craft
What’s• happening in CBT? Nambwa
• Tsandi Homestead • King Nehale cultural centre
• Bum Hill • Ombalantu
Tourist information • Uis • Aus
Published on Aug 2, 2009
GEC 2007: Andee Davidson, Tourism and Business Specialist, WWF LIFE Plus Project - Local Enterprise Development in Action – The Namibian Exp...