OpenNESS case studies - Ecosystem services in operation

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ecosystem services in operation case studies

Colofon August 2016 This brochure was produced as part of the OpenNESS project (, funded by the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308428. The OpenNESS consortium is solely responsible for the content of this brochure. It does not represent the opinion of the European Community, nor is the EC responsible for any use that might be made of information appearing herein. Coordination and editing: Hanneke Wijnja, Glynis van Uden and Ben Delbaere (ECNC) with input from all case study leaders. Citation EU FP7 OpenNESS Project, Wijnja, van Uden & Delbaere (Eds) (2016) Ecosystem services in operation: case studies. European Commission FP7

Additional information about the OpenNESS case studies, tools and methods mentioned in this booklet can be found at Design: Hans van Loon Grafisch Ontwerp en DTP, Tilburg Print: This brochure is printed on 100% recycled paper. Cover photos: Saxifraga-Marijke Verhagen, Arnaud Bouissou, Olivier Brosseau, Bart van Hattem en Tuom0 BjĂśrksten.

OpenNESS: Operationalisation of natural capital and ecosystem services OpenNESS is a four-year project (funded by the European Union within the 7th Framework Programme). The project, active between 2012 and 2017, aims to translate the concepts of natural capital and ecosystem services into operational frameworks that provide tested, practical and tailored solutions for integrating ecosystem services into land, water and urban management and decision-making. It examines how the concepts link to, and support, wider European economic, social and environmental policy initiatives and scrutinises the potential and limitations of the concepts of ecosystem service and natural capital. OpenNESS comprises 35 funded academic and industry partners and worked with over 250 practitioners on real-world problems in case studies primarily in Europe but including one in each of Kenya, Argentina, Brazil and India. The work conducted in each case study was determined in consultation with relevant stakeholders (commonly a Case Study Advisory Board). Case studies covered a range of habitats including, forests, river basins, mixed rural landscapes, coastal and urban settings. The scope of the studies encompassed priority-setting for future interventions, awareness raising, more inclusive planning and more transparent decision-making. The short-term goal of the majority of the case studies was reported as either to map the ecosystem services of an area, test the utility of specific tools, or improve management or planning. The key policy areas addressed were context-specific to the case studies depending on the real-world issue addressed. Across all the case studies reported the three most important EU policy areas were the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, the Habitats Directive, and Green Infrastructure Strategy. This booklet provides a summary of the work conducted in the case studies. More detailed information about the case studies and the tools and methods used can be found on Oppla, a newly emerging knowledge hub about ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that was developed by OpenNESS in cooperation with the research project OPERAs ( A current contact point for all the case studies, methods and tools utilised is held on Oppla. Our hope is that this brochure will inspire you to learn more and implement some of the thinking embedded in the natural capital and ecosystem service concepts to improve both the environment and human well-being at the local, regional and global scale.

Prof. Dr Eeva Furman OpenNESS coordinator Finnish Environment Institute Helsinki, Finland

Dr Jan Dick Work package leader for case studies Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh, Scotland


Francis Turkelboom Deputy work package leader for case studies Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) Brussels, Belgium

List of case studies Sustainable urban management Case 01

Operationalising ecosystem services in urban land-use planning in Sibbesborg, Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland


Case 02

Landscape-ecological planning in the urban and peri-urban areas of Trnava, Slovakia


Case 03

Valuation of urban ecosystem services in Oslo, Norway


Case 04

A Green Infrastructure strategy in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain


Case 27

Mapping ecosystem services to inform landscape planning in the Barcelona metropolitan region, Spain


Management of forests/woodlands Case 05

Operationalising ecosystem services in regional and national forest management planning in the multifunctional landscape of the French Alps

Case 06 Forest bioenergy production in Finland Case 07

9 10

Forest management in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania


Management of mixed rural landscapes Case 08

Bioenergy production in Saxony, Germany


Case 09 Improved, integrated management of the natural resources within the Cairngorms National Park, Scotland 13 Case 10

Ecosystem services in the multifunctional landscape of the Sierra Nevada, Spain


Case 11

Tools for investigating biodiversity offsetting in Warwickshire, England


Case 12

Supporting sustainable land use and water management practices in the KiskunsĂĄg National Park, Hungary 16

Case 13

Reintroducing green corridors in the agricultural land of the Province of Limburg, Belgium


Case 14

Planning with Green Infrastructure in five linked cases


Integrated river basin management Case 15

Nature-based solution for water pollution control in Gorla Maggiore, Italy

Case 16

Quantifying the consequences of the European water policy for ecosystem service delivery at Loch Leven, Scotland

Case 17 Case 18

19 20

Operationalising ecosystem services for an adaptive management plan for the Lower Danube River, Romania


Integration of ecosystem services in the planning of a flood control area in Stevoort, Belgium


Coastal area management Case 19

Incorporation of ecosystem services in maintenance of the traditional cultural landscape of DoĂąana in south-west Spain


Case 20

Ecosystem services in coastal management, Wadden Sea, the Netherlands


Case 21

Operationalising ecosystem services in the Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina Natural Park, Portugal


Case 22

Ecosystem service mapping in Essex, England


Commodity export dominated areas in developing countries Case 23

Participatory biodiversity management for ecosystem services in Bankura and Sundarbans, India

Case 24

Operationalising ecosystem services for improved management of natural resources within the Kakamega Forest, Kenya

Case 25 Case 26

27 28

Retention forestry to improve biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services in Southern Patagonia, Argentina


Biofuel farming and restoration of natural vegetation in the SĂŁo Paulo region, Brazil





26 25

Sustainable urban management Management of forests/woodlands Management of mixed rural landscapes Integrated river basin management Coastal area management Commodity export dominated areas in developing countries



03 09 16


20 14

22 13



02 12 15 05

04 27

21 19



07 17

Case 01 Operationalising ecosystem services in urban land-use planning in Sibbesborg, Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland Contact: Jari Niemela | University of Helsinki (UH) |

Sustainable urban management Issue

the Sibbesborg planners an increased understanding of ecosystem services.

The objective of the case study was to explore how ecosystem services can be integrated into the land-use planning process to better achieve sustainability goals. The focus was on multifunctional green infrastructure and applying new tools to operationalise ecosystem services in a participatory way.

What was achieved? The ecosystem services approach was included in the planning of the Sibbesborg area. New methods, such as ESTIMAP and demand mapping, have provided new understanding for the planners. Traditionally, recreation has been well represented in land-use plans, but the significance of other cultural ecosystem services has been enhanced in the planning.

Facts & figures Sibbesborg is a large-scale urban development project covering about 26 km2 in the coastal municipality of Sipoo, east of Helsinki. The project responds to the population growth pressures of Helsinki Metropolitan Area. It is planned to house about 70,000 people by 2050 (currently 5,000). The landscape is dominated by agricultural and forest areas but new housing has sporadically replaced traditional land use. The land is owned partly by the municipality and partly by private landowners. The area has unique natural values, including Natura 2000 sites, the exceptional fjord-like Sipoonlahti Bay area and archipelago. In addition, there are specific historical and cultural heritage values in the area.

What can you learn from this? Sectoral collaboration and an understanding of the multifunctionality of green areas are prerequisites for operationalising ecosystem services in planning. The GISbased tools are a good way to illustrate the provision of and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the areas of conflicting interests.

What was done? Various methods were used to engage the planners, residents and other stakeholders in the research. The researchers participated in several stakeholder meetings to gather data about residents’ values related to cultural ecosystem services using participatory GIS methods. The ESTIMAP approach was used to assess the potential of areas to provide them. The close collaboration with the researchers and gave 4

Case 02 Landscape-ecological planning in the urban and peri-urban areas of Trnava, Slovakia Contact: Peter Mederly | REGIOPLÁN Nitra (RP) |

Sustainable urban management Issue

What was achieved?

Trnava is experiencing environmental problems due to urbanisation. The study aimed to develop and test usable methods for the valuation of selected ecosystem services (ES) at the local and regional level, and to promote their incorporation into spatial planning and decision-making in Slovakia.

Several approaches and new methods for ES assessment were used to assess ten ES in the study area. The feedback from the potential users of the new methods and tools (researchers, NGOs, town and regional officials) was positive. A foundation was created for a new approach to spatial/urban planning and the decision-making process. The debate on the ES approach in Slovakia was opened, and stakeholders were mobilised through regular meetings, active work, and discussion of the results.

Facts & figures The study area covers the city and the surrounding region: 16 municipalities, covering 324.8 km2, with 92,730 inhabitants. Trnava is an administrative, economic, cultural and science-research centre in western Slovakia. It is one of the oldest towns in Slovakia, and is now one of the most rapidly developing cities in Slovakia, with strong industrial investments. Urban growth is causing serious environmental problems: air and water pollution, agricultural land take, and low ecological stability of landscapes. The area adjacent to the city is intensively managed large-scale farmland.

What can you learn from this? • This study provides a methodological background for ES assessment in similar landscapes (small cities, suburban areas). • Simple methods are more suitable for practical implementation; complex methods are more ’scientifically’ reliable. • The ’tiered’ approach (national – regional – local) to ES assessment is useful.

What was done? Institutional analyses were conducted, including assessment of key national legislative tools, regional and local planning and strategic documents, and interviews with representatives of key focus groups and stakeholders. An evaluation was made of landscape capacity to provide selected ecosystem services; this was based on GIS methods and tools and participatory approaches. QUICKScan was used to determine urban vegetation and open spaces functions, and ES valuation in Trnava town. Recreational ecosystem services were valued using the ESTIMAP model. 5

Case 03 Valuation of urban ecosystem services in Oslo, Norway Contacts: David Barton | Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA) | Tove Dyblie | Oslo Urban Environment Agency |

Sustainable urban management Issue

What was achieved?

Among the cities of northern Europe, Oslo has the highest population growth as a percentage of total population, and its green spaces are facing significant pressure from development. It was necessary to raise awareness of the importance of urban ecosystems and to improve knowledge about the potential and limitations of ecosystem services and natural capital in order to support urban management and decision-making in the city.

The case study team worked closely with the Urban Environment Agency, contributing to raising awareness, mapping and documenting the value of ecosystem services in citizens’ daily lives and the longer term planning of Oslo. A range of publications and tools were produced to provide different entry points for diverse stakeholders wishing to learn about and further ecosystem services thinking in their own work in the city.

Facts & figures

What can you learn from this?

Oslo is the capital city of Norway. It has a population of 635,000 (2013), which is predicted to rise to 820,000 by 2030. Oslo Municipality covers a total area of 454 km2. Forest covers 287 km2; green space in the built zone covers 28 km2.

Nature in and around Oslo provides a number of ecosystem services, in particular cultural ones, which alone are worth over a billion euros per year, and are crucial for the provision of drinking water, urban climate control and other regulating services. Nature and green spaces improve the quality of city life. Monetary value is one of several approaches to awareness raising and support for decision-making and spatial planning: municipal planners should combine ecological, socio-cultural and economic valuation methods.

What was done? For awareness raising a monetary value scoping study was conducted for urban ecosystem services, accompanied by pamphlets explaining valuation methods, blogs, and newspaper articles. As part of mapping tools for planning, green space structural diversity, recreational and pollinator potential were mapped. A study demonstrated how to carry out financial feasibility assessments of four different blue-green structure projects in Oslo. We co-designed a smartphone app for mapping ecosystem services, and designed an app for mapping and calculating blue-green factor scores for individual properties.


Case 04 A Green Infrastructure strategy in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain Contact: Garcia Blanco | Fundacion Tecnalia Research & Innovation (TECNALIA) |

Sustainable urban management Issue Vitoria-Gasteiz is facing challenges related to global change, such as heat stress, flood risk, and depletion of resources. The city is designing and implementing a Green Infrastructure strategy to achieve a more climate resilient and bio-friendly space. The case study aims to demonstrate the benefits of this approach as part of sustainable urban management.

the natural processes within the city. The Blue-Green Factor (BGF) developed by the Municipality of Oslo, Norway, was used to assess the re-naturalisation of the Avenida Gasteiz and its transformation into a green infrastructure, improving mobility, biodiversity, water management, energy management, and the quality of public spaces.

Facts & figures

What was achieved?

Vitoria-Gasteiz is the capital of the Basque Country, Spain. It has a population of 246,042 (2016) and covers 645 ha. It was European Green Capital in 2012 and this encouraged the city to continue working on its environmental enhancement and sustainable development policies. The city comprises a system of urban green spaces, declared Sites of Community Importance by the EU Natura 2000 Network, and Wetlands of International Importance by the RAMSAR Agreement. A project was started in the early 1990s to restore and recover, both environmentally and socially, the outlying areas of the city, creating a group of urban and peri-urban parks of high ecological and landscape value strategically linked by ecorecreational corridors: the so-called ‘Green Belt’. The map above shows the current status of the ’blue-green areas’ network in Vitoria-Gasteiz. (Source: The Urban Green infrastructure of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Proposal Document, February 2014, Environmental Studies Centre Vitoria-Gasteiz City Council)

The ecosystem services provided by urban green areas were evaluated and valorised; this may be used in future urban planning decisions. Urban green elements were transformed and improved. Nature-based solutions for climate change mitigation and adaptation were considered. The study provided inputs to a future monitoring system to evaluate the effectiveness of the actions and measures implemented in the city.

What can you learn from this? • Wording is important: urban planners use ecosystem service approaches although they do not always talk about services or functions per se. • Design and planning with nature will be the backbone of resilient cities. • Synergies and co-benefits from different ecosystem services and actions are crucial. • •It is essential to learn from past experiences. • There is a need to develop standards.

What was done? The city explored the usefulness of an ecosystem services (ES) approach for better understanding of the urban dynamics and 7

Case 27 Mapping ecosystem services to inform landscape planning in the Barcelona metropolitan region, Spain Contact: Francesc BarĂł | Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) |

Sustainable urban management Issue

ecosystem services, but also their demand, i.e. the amount of the service required or desired by the population living in the Barcelona metropolitan region.

A key challenge of landscape planning is coping with multiple ecosystem service potentials and demands in complex socioecological systems such as urban regions. The main aim of this case study was to foster sustainable landscape planning in the Barcelona metropolitan region using ecosystem service maps as a decision support tool.

What was achieved? Ecosystem service maps have been integrated into the Territorial Information System for the Network of Open Areas in the Province of Barcelona (SITxell,, an international award winning GIS-based decision support tool developed by the Barcelona Provincial Council. A local green infrastructure plan has already been proposed in several municipalities based on the spatial distribution of ecosystem services. These plans aim to provide a mid-term road map for the implementation of local management actions ensuring both biodiversity conservation goals and the provision of benefits linked to people’s well-being.

Facts & figures The Barcelona metropolitan region, located in the north-east of Spain by the Mediterranean Sea, is one of the most densely populated urban regions in Europe (5.04 million inhabitants in an area of 3,244 km2). It contains 164 municipalities, but its urban core is constituted by the Municipality of Barcelona (1.61 million inhabitants). It still contains a rich variety of natural habitats of high ecological value, including Mediterranean forests (1,184.56 km2; 36.5%) and scrubland (448.62 km2; 13.8%), extensive agro-systems (654.51 km2; 20.2%) with a substantial share of vineyards, and various inland water bodies (24.08 km2; 0.7%). Currently, almost 70% of the land is protected from urbanisation including, totally or partially, 14 Natura 2000 sites.

What can you learn from this? Making ecosystem service maps fully operational for planning requires a clear distinction between ecosystem service capacity, flow and demand. The assessment of these components can better inform planners and policymakers where ecosystem services are used unsustainably and where ecosystem service provision is failing to meet societal demand.

What was done? Various ecosystem service maps were developed (e.g. food and biomass provision, carbon storage and sequestration, air quality regulation, outdoor recreation) using different methods and tools, some of which were tested and refined in the context of the OpenNESS project and the case study advisory board. Maps estimate not only the provision of 8

Case 05 Operationalising ecosystem services in regional and national forest management planning in the multifunctional landscape of the French Alps Contact: Sandra Luque | National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (IRSTEA) |

Management of forests/woodlands Issue

beneficiaries’ point of view. The indicators used showed how the landscape contributes to enjoyment of scenery.

The National Forestry Office and other regional stakeholders wish to target management options for the French Alps region to support stakeholders and policymakers in reconciling biodiversity conservation with the increased demands of natural resources, especially in managed forests.

What was achieved? • Improved understanding of how forest biodiversity impacts ecosystem function and the provision of forest ecosystem services. • Scenarios were developed based not only on biophysical changes but also on knowledge of past landscape trajectories within a participatory framework with regional stakeholders. • We learned that the more diverse the landscape, the more attractive people find it. This supports the importance of creating multifunctional landscapes that provide a diversity of functions and services. The results can be used to plan tourism in the region.

Facts & figures The Vercors Regional Natural Park covers 206,000 ha on the border between the Northern and Southern French Alps. Forest covers 139,000 ha; altitudes vary from 180 m to 2,453 m. This case study focused on 25,000 ha (12% of the total area; 60% public forests/40% private forests), north of the Park in an area known as ‘Quatre Montagnes’. This area is also part of the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network, containing areas with different levels of exploitation, management and conservation. The region is undergoing important land-use changes: afforestation, artificialisation (increase in urban sprawl, mainly in valleys), and loss of traditional practices.

What can you learn from this? Sustainable ecosystem management and human wellbeing can be enriched with local knowledge and people’s perceptions. The methods applied facilitate shared understanding of the human–landscape relationships and foster collective management that can be incorporated into landscape planning processes. The results can be relevant to other protected areas.

What was done? A wide range of ecosystem services (ES) were considered, including multiple ecosystem services from timber provision, tourism & recreation, cultural values of forests, and the reconciliation of recreation, biodiversity conservation and cultural values. Trade-offs between artificialisation, afforestation and traditional practices were assessed. We also explored cultural ES using photo series from Flickr. Complex visual landscapes were analysed from the 9

Case 06 Forest bioenergy production in Finland Contact: Sanna-Riikka Saarela | Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) |

Management of forests/woodlands Issue

What was achieved?

In the forest sector, the increasing demand for bioenergy production poses a challenge to sustainability. The case study focuses on assessing, together with stakeholders, the shortand long-term impacts of forest bioenergy production on the provisioning of ecosystem services.

Intensive removal of logging residues was found to affect key ecosystem services. For example, short-term net CO2 emissions of forest bioenergy were higher than the emissions of energy produced with coal. In the long-term the net emissions were negative. Biodiversity, especially species relying on decayed wood, also faced negative impacts. All stakeholders, for different reasons, preferred a bioenergy production option, which involved only harvest residue collection, not stump removal.

Facts & figures The Municipality of Hämeenlinna, southern Finland, covers a total area of 2,000 km2 located in Vanajavesi watershed area. Forests account for around 69% (1,415 km2) and protected areas 1,840 ha. The main ecosystems are forests, agricultural areas, water ecosystems and wetlands. The area includes a variety of conventional and long-term land uses. The most important pressure considered in this case study is the increasing demand for forest logging residue for both energy production and refinement.

What can you learn from this? • The removal of stumps does not appear to be part of sustainable use of forest bioenergy. • Removal of other harvest residuals can be carried out in a way that maintains forest ecosystem services in the long run. • Stakeholder preferences for different management options appeared to be similar.

What was done? The case study analyses three forest bioenergy production options in relation to collecting logging residues such as such as branches, stumps, thinning wood and other residual biomass: (1) Collect nothing; (2) Collect only aboveground harvest residues; and (3) Collect above-ground harvest residues and stumps. The analysis involved regional stakeholders (a municipality officer, regional authorities, NGO representatives, a business representative, and interest group representatives).


Case 07 Forest management in the Carpathian Mountains, Romania Contact: Diana Silaghi | Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS) |

Management of forests/woodlands Issue

What was achieved?

Pressures from inappropriate forest exploitation and tourism infrastructure in Bucegi Natural Park can significantly impact forest ecosystems and human well-being. Ways need to be found to support local communities and their traditional activities by identifying ecosystem services (ES) and their links to biodiversity and forest ecosystem functioning.

The main ecosystem services provided by forests in Bucegi Natural Park were identified and mapped, based on functional categories. At CICES section level, regulating services (60%) were identified as the most important category. Provisioning services are the main ES for 10% of the forests. Given the Park’s status of protected area, the share of provisioning services is small, wood products being considered secondary services in this area. Cultural services (30% of the identified services) include aesthetic, educational and scientific services. The main tourist hotspots in the Park were identified.

Facts & figures The Carpathian Mountains cover approximately one-fifth of Romania, and are mostly covered by forests. Bucegi Natural Park is one of the most important protected areas in Romania, due to its rare and diverse flora and fauna and its proximity to Bucharest and other Romanian cities, which makes it a tourist hotspot. It also comprises forests with different management regimes, from strictly protected to protection and production forests.

What can you learn from this? • The Romanian forest functional categories system includes the ES concepts, being a very detailed proxy of CICES. • The spreadsheet GIS mapping method proved to be a very simple and efficient tool when lots stakeholders are involved in the process of prioritising ES for a certain ecosystem. • Stakeholders responded better to monetary values than nonmonetary ones.

What was done? The main activities were: • Analysis of functional zoning and functional types of forest ecosystems in Bucegi Natural Park. • Determination of the correspondence between the functional types of forests and the categories of ES (Romanian system versus CICES). • Modelling and mapping of the main ES provided by the Park’s forests and identification of associated indicators related to these services (Spreadsheet GIS and Photoseries). • Valuation of the main ES provided by the Park’s forest ecosystems (market value). 11

Case 08 Bioenergy production in Saxony, Germany Contacts: Jennifer Hauck | Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) | Jörg Priess | Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) |

Management of mixed rural landscapes Issue

What was done?

There was a need to assess how current and expected future land-use changes affect the synergies or trade-offs between bioenergy provision and other ecosystem services, e.g. to assist Germany in its aim to increase renewable energy provision up to 35% by 2020.

• The team assessed and simulated the impact of the production of energy crops on the provision of ecosystem services. • A survey was conducted on citizens’ landscape perceptions following a strong increase in bioenergy cropping areas.

Facts & figures

What was achieved?

The Federal State of Saxony is located in the central eastern part of Germany. Land cover is dominated by agriculture, and production focuses on cereals, rape seed and maize, the latter two increasing in recent years. Saxony comprises fertile lowlands and sub-mountainous regions towards the east and south-west.

• Scenarios of land-use change and agricultural production in a simulation study. • Citizens’ landscape perceptions were analysed in a survey.

What can you learn from this? The combinations of factors influencing agricultural production analysed in the regional scenarios, such as climate change, agricultural management, regional preferences and spatial changes, may not always result in increased production; it may also decrease in some potential futures. One should be careful not to transfer assumptions about preferences for particular ecosystem services from different regions. It is preferable to assess them directly. In this particular study the assumption that the production of energy crops would have negative impacts on landscape aesthetics was not confirmed.


Case 09 Improved, integrated management of the natural resources within the Cairngorms National Park, Scotland Contact: Jan Dick | Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH-NERC) |

Management of mixed rural landscapes Issue

What was achieved?

The goal was to enhance the management of the natural resources within the Park for the benefit of visitors, local people and biodiversity. This requires the involvement of managers and residents in designing integrated land management planning for the economic development of the area while balancing the needs of biodiversity.

Staff of the Cairngorms National Park Authority utilised the resultant recreational opportunity maps to help plan recreational access around a new settlement. Also, by mapping the presence of priority conservation species constructive dialogue was achieved to enhance the management of recreational use of the Park while protecting biodiversity. In Glenlivet Estate feedback from local residents on the initial economic recreational map of the area resulted in a change which improves the transferability of the method. The value of the natural capital to local residents of Glenlivet Estate for recreation was calculated at over ÂŁ0.5 million per year.

Facts & figures The Cairngorms National Park is Britain’s largest national park (4,528 km²) and is located in the north of Scotland; 36% of the land is at an altitude of over 800 metres and 2% is over 1,000 metres. It is home to an incredible diversity of wildlife and plants; 49% is designated as a Natura site and 25% as Sites of Scientific Importance. The land is owned in a heterogeneous mix of public and private ownership; 18,000 people call the Park their home and 1.4 million people visit the Park every year. Glenlivet Estate in the north-east of the Park was utilised as a test area for the economic studies.

What can you learn from this? The holistic approach which fully involves managers, residents and researchers was necessary to obtain an accurate assessment of the ecosystem services and natural capital of the study areas. The methods tested were considered relevant for anyone managing a diverse landscape.

What was done? The recreational opportunities of the Park were modelled in collaboration with local stakeholders (ESTIMAP - Recreation). The economic and social value of recreation to the local population of the Glenlivet Estate was determined by interviewing residents (12%). A workshop to determine the utility of the landscape planning decision support tool (QUICKScan) was tested in conjunction with a focus group discussion on the knowledge needs of managers balancing economic development, conservation and tourism. 13

Case 10 Ecosystem services in the multifunctional landscape of the Sierra Nevada, Spain Contacts: Berta Martin-Lopez | Leuphana University of Lüneburg | Irene Iniesta Arandia | Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM) |

Management of mixed rural landscapes Issue

What was achieved?

Strict conservation practices can lead to rural abandonment, land-use intensification and social conflicts. The aim was to assess whether the ecosystem service approach can be used as a tool for the management of protected areas.

We found that there are differences among stakeholder groups regarding their perception of the importance of ecosystem services in contributing to human well-being. We also found that environmental managers and ecosystem service users have different priorities regarding ecosystem services management and have different knowledge about the spatial distribution of ecosystem services. We contributed to acknowledging these differences and the need to include different stakeholders in decision-making.

Facts & figures Sierra Nevada Protected Area is the highest mountain massif in the Iberian peninsula covering different ecosystems, including high summits, Mediterranean forests, traditional agroecosystems, and semi-arid environments. It is the location of endemic plants and multifunctional landscapes. This area is facing the effects of contrasting land-use changes: intensification in the lower areas and rural abandonment in the upper ones.

What can you learn from this? Land-use intensification results in the loss of the biophysical factors that underpin the supply of ecosystem services, leads to increases in social demand for services, and fosters changes in traditional governance practices. This has an uneven impact on stakeholders and their well-being, generating ‘winners’ and ‘losers’.

What was done? A multi-scale approach was taken, focusing at the regional scale on the overall Protected Area, and at the local scale on the Nacimiento watershed, a semi-arid region located in the north-east of the Sierra Nevada Protected Area. To assess whether the ecosystem services approach is useful for the management of the Protected Area, we explored the importance of ecosystem services to local stakeholders’ well-being and analysed how conservation strategies could promote the delivery of ecosystem services that contribute to this. In order to reconcile conservation goals with rural development, we stimulated dialogue between different stakeholder groups by using different participatory and deliberative techniques. 14

Case 11 Tools for investigating biodiversity offsetting in Warwickshire, England Contacts: Pam Berry | University of Oxford (UOXF-ECI) | Alison Smith | University of Oxford (UOXF-ECI) |

Management of mixed rural landscapes Issue

• Analysis of Flickr photos, to determine which areas provide aesthetic beauty, the opportunity to see wildlife and a place for outdoor recreation. • Modelling the future impact of climate change on biodiversity offset habitats.

This case study explores tools to identify the potential for biodiversity offsets (where developers agree to restore habitats elsewhere to compensate for those lost or damaged) to protect natural capital and ecosystem services, and the resilience of offsets in the face of climate change.

What was achieved?

Facts & figures

The three different mapping methods identified the areas that are currently important for providing ecosystem services, which should be protected, and gaps in supply where offsets could be located. County Council ecologists found the ecosystem service maps to be very useful for visualising and communicating these issues to policymakers and other stakeholders. However, modelling showed that many species from woodland, grassland and wetland offsets could lose some suitable climate space by the 2050s.

The study area comprises the rural county of Warwickshire plus the urban areas of Coventry and Solihull. It covers an area of 225,447 ha, with a population of 1,109,832 (mid-2015), half of which is in Coventry and Solihull, and a population density of 492 per km2. Land use is 40% arable fields, 24% improved grassland, 17% urban, and only 6% woodland. There is a good network of rivers and canals, popular for walking and boating, and major cultural attractions at Warwick and Kenilworth castles and Stratford-upon-Avon, the home of Shakespeare. Population is growing relatively slowly, but national targets for housebuilding are leading to many new developments on the outskirts of existing towns and villages.

What can you learn from this? These mapping tools are useful for visualising the importance of the places, features and habitats that provide ecosystem services, and taking the views and knowledge of local stakeholders into account alongside scientific knowledge. This can help to inform strategies for biodiversity offsetting.

What was done? • Participatory mapping by local stakeholders (planners, ecologists and farmers) of the areas that supply ecosystem services. • Mapping of priority ecosystem services based on local expert (stakeholder) scoring (1–5) of the ability of different habitats to provide each service.


Case 12 Supporting sustainable land use and water management practices in the Kiskunság National Park, Hungary Contacts: Miklós Kertész | Centre for Ecological Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA ÖK) | Eszter Kelemen | Environmental Social Science Research Group Ltd (ESSRG) |

Management of mixed rural landscapes Issue

planning process which asked local stakeholders to create and evaluate alternative futures.

Since the 1970s, Kiskunság has suffered from a considerable drop in the groundwater table. Water availability now has a strong impact on local agriculture and natural habitats. The case study aimed to lay the basis for the resolution of the water management conflicts.

What was achieved? The project was able to bring stakeholders in agreement and take the first steps towards a more sustainable management of land and water resources in the future. The process was able to raise awareness and give voice to usually silent social groups, such as children. Most importantly, the stakeholders involved formulated recommendations to national and regional level policymakers that could support local communities in the transformation to adaptive and sustainable landscape management.

Facts & figures Kiskunság Sand Ridge is an 8,300 km2 semi-arid lowland region between the Danube and Tisza rivers, with large extents of inland sand dunes and shallow alkali lakes. Approximately 100,000 people live there, with another 300,000 in the surrounding towns and villages. Traditional land uses were pasture and grazing, small-scale arable fields, vineyards, and orchards. In the last 50 years, drainage, intensive farming and timber plantations have profoundly transformed the landscape, leading to shifting patterns of abandonment and cultivation, as well as depopulation of the rural areas. Since 1974 the Directorate of Kiskunság National Park has been operating in the area protecting the environmentally special and unique species.

What can you learn from this? • The ecosystem service concept and indicators facilitate stakeholder involvement in environmental management and planning. • Participatory methods help in conflict resolution. • Scenarios reinforced the idea that adaptation to changing environmental conditions might have better outcomes than altering the environment.

What was done? The concept of ecosystem services was used to understand the main problems and search for solutions collaboratively. Interviews and a preference assessment survey were carried out to explore local perceptions of ecosystem services. The current state and the future trends of key services were assessed via various indicators and maps. Finally, scientific knowledge was channelled into a participatory scenario 16

Case 13 Reintroducing green corridors in the agricultural land of the Province of Limburg, Belgium Contact: Francis Turkelboom | Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO |

Management of mixed rural landscapes Issue

The project managers also asked for ways to maintain the threatened traditional apple orchards. This will be done by assessing maintenance costs and multiple benefits for society.

De Cirkel is a farmland consolidation project aimed at improving agricultural efficiency in the Jesseren area. Some less productive land (150 ha) became available and was reserved for nature development. The challenge was to find efficient, sustainable and widely supported ways to implement and manage the planned green corridors in the agricultural landscape.

What was achieved? The interviews indicated that local people appreciate the following elements of the rural landscape: sustainable agriculture practices, a pleasant environment in which to live, possibilities for recreation and experiencing nature. These aspects are all compatible with the proposed plan. Locations where recreation could be improved were indicated on a map. Possible problems between recreation and apple growing (e.g. theft of apples), and between different recreation activities (e.g. walking and motorised recreation) were identified. The results of the two other research activities will be made available on the Oppla website.

Facts & figures The project covers 2,170 ha and is located in the Province of Limburg, Belgium. The main land uses are: agriculture (44%), orchards (20%), forest (11%), and residential areas (9%). The landscape is open and gently undulating. The villages are traditionally farming-oriented, but the number of inhabitants whose income does not depend on agriculture is increasing. People are also moving to the area for its quietness and beautiful landscape. Tourism and recreation are growing sectors; during the flowering season of the fruit orchards the area can become very crowded.

What can you learn from this? • Taking into account the perceptions and wishes of all stakeholders will help to make better plans that have more support, and can prevent potential conflicts between land users. • A checklist of ecosystem services is a useful tool to ensure that all ecosystem services, including less visible ones, are taken into account. • Land-use planners can usually obtain sufficient information by asking people to score, rank, map and explain ecosystem services.

What was done? The project managers first wanted to know the level of public support and ways to increase it. Inhabitants, farmers, schoolteachers and B & B owners were interviewed and asked to identify, score and map desired functions of the landscape and the reasons for their choices (social valuation). Second, the expected impacts of the new nature were assessed by calculating the quantity and value of the ecosystem services under present and future land-use. 17

Case 14 Planning with Green Infrastructure in five linked cases Contact: Rob Bugter | Wageningen University and Research Centre (Alterra) |

Management of mixed rural landscapes Issue

services, designing of scenarios and making arrangements for implementation. The role of valuation and how the enhancements of green infrastructure can improve the natural habitats were assessed. For all five cases Green Infrastructure Business Plans were developed. Generic road maps were produced as well as a dedicated report about the experiences with and conclusions of the social learning process. GIFT-T! in general unlocks its results through a manual for planning with GI.

Green infrastructure (GI) development can provide many benefits to local communities, but for an optimal result stakeholders need to be aware of them and need to be able to integrate them in the planning process. Enabling stakeholders to do so requires knowledge of the social learning process involved.

Facts & figures This OpenNESS case study covers the social learning part of the Alterra-led GIFT-T! (Green Infrastructure For Tomorrow – Together!) INTERREG IV-B project that ran from 2011 to 2015. GIFT-T! set out to strengthen bottom up planning of green infrastructure, from the underlying rationale that people may benefit from green infrastructure in social and economic ways because it delivers ecosystem services. The seven GIFT-T! partners explored what the rather scientific concepts of green infrastructure and ecosystem services may deliver on the ground by putting them into practice in five real-life case studies. The five cases are located in the UK, Belgium and the Netherlands and together cover three very different planning cultures and communities varying from rural to semi-urban (see

What was achieved? We improved understanding of the use of GI services in planning and in communicating them to stakeholders. We discovered that social learning is the essence of the GIFT-T! approach. A report on social learning among other things summarises the top 10 learning results and also captures the added value of the approach from a stakeholder’s point of view.

What can you learn from this? The essential lesson regarding green infrastructure and ecosystem services is that social learning is the core of community-based green infrastructure planning. The report on social learning presents an overview of why you may want to apply the GIFT-T! method.

What was done? In the five case studies, tools for bottom up planning of green infrastructure were tested and developed. Communities, businesses and governments were engaged and brought together and facilitated a process of joint goal setting, mapping of the green infrastructure and ecosystem 18

Case 15 Nature-based solution for water pollution control in Gorla Maggiore, Italy Contacts: Camino Liquete | Joint Research Centre (JRC-IES) | Bruna Grizzetti | Joint Research Centre (JRC-IES) |

Integrated river basin management Issue

What was achieved?

This case study tests the feasibility of green infrastructure (constructed wetlands) instead of traditional grey infrastructure to treat combined sewer overflows, by considering the multiple benefits (ecosystem services) provided by the green infrastructure and its relevance for water management.

The integrated valuation of the three alternatives by the stakeholders, according to the multi-criteria analysis, indicated that green infrastructure is the best management option, followed by grey infrastructure, and finally poplar plantation. The economic valuation showed that local citizens are willing to pay about three times more for green infrastructure than for grey infrastructure, and much more if it is surrounded by a recreational park.

Facts & figures Gorla Maggiore is a municipality of about 5,000 inhabitants in the region of Lombardy, northern Italy. The mean annual household income is around â‚Ź29,120; 54% of the population is economically active. The Gorla water park (the green infrastructure) is a novel ecosystem built on the shore of the Olona River in an area previously used for poplar plantation. The park covers about 3 ha and includes a flood prevention area and a pollutant removal area (a constructed wetland).

What can you learn from this? Nature-based solutions for water purification and flood protection perform as well or better than grey alternatives, and provide additional benefits (biodiversity support and recreation) valued by local residents and stakeholders. These results are relevant for municipalities aiming to treat combined sewer overflows to meet EU water policy targets.

What was done? Three alternatives, poplar plantation, a standard grey solution and green infrastructure, were evaluated considering the ecosystem services provided (water purification, flood protection, biodiversity support, recreation, wood production) and the investment and management costs. A multi-criteria analysis was run to select the optimal management option, integrating costs, benefits and stakeholder opinion. A survey was conducted to determine the valuation of ecosystem services by local residents.


Case 16 Quantifying the consequences of the European water policy for ecosystem service delivery at Loch Leven, Scotland Contact: Laurence Carvalho | Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH-NERC) |

Integrated river basin management Issue

and the number of anglers. An online tool was developed to predict future changes and communicate uncertainty (http://

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a European policy that aims to ensure sustainable water resources. Our study investigates if achieving good ecological status, the target of the WFD, enhances two important uses of freshwater, recreation and fishing, whilst maintaining nature conservation value.

What was achieved? Our studies highlight the benefits of improving the ecological quality of Europe’s freshwaters for enhancing fishing, recreation, tourism, and nature conservation. The relationships between freshwater quality and these services are, however, complex and visual tools are needed to communicate simply. Our analysis also shows that thresholds in ecosystem services are not just driven by current ecological health but also by reputation from historical quality (previous algal blooms and fish kills).

Facts & figures Loch Leven is a large, shallow lake in Scotland. It is a site with high conservation value, designated as a European Special Area of Conservation particularly for its wetland birds. It is also a site of important historical significance (Loch Leven Castle) and is a world famous brown trout fishery. The case study focuses on the lake (about 14 km2 in area) and surrounding land (about 20 km2) but also takes into consideration the whole catchment upstream and downstream. The lake itself is privately owned, but the surrounding area includes a mix of public and private ownership. The population of the main local town, Kinross, is approximately 13,000 and the lake attracts over 200,000 visitors each year.

What can you learn from this? Demonstrating positive relationships, despite complexity, was welcomed by stakeholders and businesses who manage these services and strengthens their support for European water policy aimed at maintaining and restoring the ecological quality of freshwaters.

What was done? A mapping tool (ESTIMAP) was developed and used to assess and visualise recreational potential around the lake, and identify any conflicts with nature conservation. Long-term data on the lake quality and fishery were used to develop a statistical model to understand what drives fishing quality


Case 17 Operationalising ecosystem services for an adaptive management plan for the Lower Danube River, Romania Contacts: Angheluta Vadineanu | University of Bucharest (UB-DSES) | Elena Preda | University of Bucharest (UB-DSES) |

Integrated river basin management Issue

What was achieved?

The Lower Danube River Wetlands System has changed significantly, and now consists mainly of monofunctional agricultural ecosystems. This has led to a decline in ecological functions and, consequently, to the loss of benefits and ecosystem services (ES), such as provisioning, regulation, support and cultural services. There is a need to enhance the effectiveness of integrated and adaptive management planning and implementation by mainstreaming understanding and operational tools related to the concepts of natural capital (NC) and ecosystem services.

The close cooperation with stakeholders and the transfer of knowledge related to the concepts of ES and NC, as well as the important contribution of traditional knowledge, strongly supported the process of designing, implementing and adapting the management plan in the Lower Danube River Watershed. The decision-making process was also supported through an improved understanding of relationships between long-term dynamics of the biophysical structure and functions of NC and the supplied ES.

Facts & figures

• It is very important to involve all relevant stakeholders, including the local communities. • For a proper assessment of ecosystem services, it is necessary to have a common understanding of terms, concepts and tools. • It is essential to define the spatial and temporal scales for ecosystem services assessment.

What can you learn from this?

The case study covered the Romanian part of the Lower Danube River Wetlands System. It includes a stretch of the Danube River, lakes, wet meadows, alluvial forests, agricultural polders, fish ponds (ca. 11,000 km2). The complex comprises several protected areas such as Natura 2000 sites, Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, Small Island of Braila Natural Park.

What was done? ES were identified for selected local areas within the Lower Danube River Wetlands System and analysed under different restoration scenarios. The conflicts between regulatory frameworks and their impact on ES were also assessed. A variety of methods were applied, tested and validated in order to design a package of appropriate assessment tools to be delivered to local and regional managers and authorities.


Case 18 Integration of ecosystem services in the planning of a flood control area in Stevoort, Belgium Contact: Wim Verheyden | Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) |

Integrated river basin management Issue

What was achieved?

The project area of Stevoort (150 ha) is a designated flood control area located in the city of Hasselt (Flanders, Belgium). It is part of the wider valley around the rivers Herk and Mombeek and their tributaries. In order to gain local support for developing a sustainable flood control area, local and societal needs had to be taken into consideration, as well as possible adverse effects.

A draft vision for the project area was created, in part based on the results of the ES research. Another workshop will be held to discuss the proposed vision and goals for further development and management of the area.

What can you learn from this? ES assessments should take into account the practical needs of local stakeholders through active participation. Although it is challenging, the concept helps you to think of a wider spectrum of relevant issues and get more nuanced opinions. ES maps and stakeholder analysis provide useful insights.

Facts & figures Land use in the area is characterised by semi-natural grasslands (58%), forests (32%), water and swamps (5%), agricultural land (3%), residential area (1%), and other green areas (1%). There is interesting potential for nature development. Much of the land is privately owned, so a large part of the implementation depends on mobilising interested stakeholders and private landowners.

What was done? The ecosystem services (ES) in the project area were mapped (, and calculated with the Ecoplan-QuickScan (developed by our partners in the ECOPLAN project). An ES stakeholder analysis was carried out through an interview with the project coordinator and a participatory workshop with local stakeholders. A pilot version of tools for assessing ES impacts and for ES trade-offs was developed with other partners.


Case 19 Incorporation of ecosystem services in maintenance of the traditional cultural landscape of Doñana in south-west Spain Contact: Johannes Langemeyer | Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) |

Coastal area management Issue

were developed and evaluated to protect Doñana’s traditional vineyards from further decline. This was done through stakeholder workshops relying on the in-depth knowledge of local people.

Territorial planning in Doñana has often resulted in conflicts between conservation authorities and resource users, with negative consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services. The aim was to explore ways in which ecosystem services (ES) can be incorporated into the management of the surrounding landscape of the protected areas of Doñana.

What was achieved? Ecosystem service assessments helped to visualise the importance of traditional vineyards as an integrated part of the regional ecosystem and its relation to Doñana National Park. This led to a stronger awareness of the need to protect traditional vineyards. Stakeholder workshops helped to develop common goals and a common strategy. This was especially important because relations between different groups (viticulturists on the one side, and the public and nature protection agencies on the other) were previously marked by a lack of communication and exchange.

Facts & figures Doñana is located at the end of the Guadalquivir watershed in Andalusia, Spain. It has a population of 650,000. The economy is based on agriculture and tourism. The landscape of Doñana and its surroundings is a paradigm of land sparing: protected natural areas embedded in a broader matrix of intensively managed land uses (mainly food production). This polarised approach to territorial planning has often led to conflicts between conservation authorities and resource users. The main ecosystems are an agricultural matrix, marshes, estuary, sand dunes, and the coastline. The traditional vineyards play a critical role in the supply of ES, and are vital to local identity and tourism. They form a buffer zone for Doñana National Park, providing species habitat and preventing erosion.

What can you learn from this? The results are transferable to different contexts, especially those dealing with traditional crop production and areas adjacent to protected areas. Furthermore, the study provides valuable insights into the operationalisation of ecosystem services in decision-making and landscape management.

What was done? The ecosystem services related to traditional vineyards and their trends over time were assessed through interviews and a survey. The importance of different ecosystem services for local people was examined. Next, different (policy) strategies 23

Case 20 Ecosystem services in coastal management, Wadden Sea, the Netherlands Contact: Jan Tjalling van der Wal | Wageningen University and Research Centre (Alterra) |

Coastal area management Issue

What was achieved?

Maintenance dredging is required to keep the Schiermonnikoog marina accessible, so alternatives for disposal of the dredged sediment were sought. The aim was to enhance economic development while maintaining the ecological quality and integrity of the Wadden Sea area.

The administrative process of awarding a permit for the navigational dredging has gone ahead largely without interaction with the TEEB study and its results. The parties involved (municipality, marina, yacht club, provincial and national authorities) have had a stakeholder process that was mostly unobserved by the case study. Our case study therefore had little impact on the implementation of the plans. After a few years’ delay the works went ahead in the spring of 2016.

Facts & figures The Dutch Wadden Sea has World Heritage status and is part of a large Natura 2000 network. The island of Schiermonnikoog is the second largest inhabited island in the Dutch Wadden Sea (44 km2), with ca. 1,000 inhabitants plus visiting tourists. It is accessible by ferry (4–5 times daily, ca. 45-minute journey). The ferry mainly caters for pedestrians and cyclists, as visitors are not allowed to bring cars. Tourists visit the island for its beaches, dunes, salt marshes and wild life (mainly birds). Schiermonnikoog is home to a National Park. The marina has ca. 120 berths and is an important part of the tourist and economic infrastructure.

What can you learn from this? Not dredging would have rendered the marina useless and would have had unwanted impacts, such as stranding recreational boats on the mudflats at low tide, thus disturbing waders. Permitting the dredging while considering available options and selecting the best methods allows you to avoid negative impacts.

What was done? A TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity) study compared three options for disposing of the dredged sediment resulting from keeping the shipping channel at the required depth. The business-as-usual option is disposal at sea. Two other options were also considered, both of which involved the creation of a salt marsh to the east of the marina; the material would be brought to the disposal site either by truck or via a pressure pipe. The business-as-usual option was identified as the preferred option. 24

Case 21 Operationalising ecosystem services in the Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina Natural Park, Portugal Contact: Paula Antunes | CENSE, Universidade Nova de Lisboa | Rui Santos | CENSE, Universidade Nova de Lisboa |

Coastal area management Issue

ecosystem services and the identification of actions to ensure their sustainable delivery. Together with an association of local stakeholders promoting nature-based tourism in the Park based on 350 km of hiking trails, we conducted surveys to learn about hikers’ perceptions.

The Natural Park faces pressures from the depletion of natural capital stocks and increased tourism. Policies and planning instruments are needed that ensure the sustainable management of stocks and the delivery of ecosystem services, while promoting the well-being of the local population. Local stakeholders and decision-makers should be engaged throughout the process.

What was achieved? Different methods were tested to prepare maps of the main ecosystem services. The maps depict valuable information that can be used to support planning and management decisions, such as preparing the Park’s management plan or deciding on the development of new recreational services. The workshops and discussion sessions increased communication between local stakeholders and created new bridges for cooperation. The work revealed how research can work with and for society.

Facts & figures The Natural Park, established in 1995, is located in south-west Portugal. It is an extended coastal sandy stretch covering 60,567 ha on land and 28,858 ha in the sea. It has a coastline with elevated cliffs, small beaches, temporary watercourses, and estuaries that host a large variety of habitats. This area faces several pressures, such as habitat degradation and spread of invasive species. The recent growth in intensive irrigated agriculture is also a major pressure and cause of land-use change. Although tourism is growing, the development of massive infrastructure has been prevented by the promotion of a nature-based model, the restrictions imposed by the Natural Park, and the impact of the economic crisis.

What can you learn from this? • The methods applied can be useful to inform decisionmaking and to support dialogue among stakeholders. This approach can be used in other coastal areas and other protected areas. • Stakeholder engagement is essential to manage conflicts between promoters of economic activities and natural park authorities.

What was done? With local stakeholders and experts we prepared maps of ten selected ecosystem services, identifying and characterising the main hotspots. We used models to map pollination and recreational ecosystem services. The maps supported dialogue among stakeholders about the relevance of 25

Case 22 Ecosystem service mapping in Essex, England Contacts: Robert Dunford | University of Oxford (UOXF) | Alison Smith | University of Oxford (UOXF-ECI) |

Coastal area management Issue

What was done?

Essex is close to London and demand for housing is driving the loss of green space. This case study explores methods of demonstrating the value of natural capital and ecosystem services as assets to the community, to counterbalance the threat from development.

• Participatory mapping of ecosystem services with local stakeholders (planners and local residents) to identify the areas that supply cultural ecosystem services (aesthetic beauty, recreation, education, wildlife habitat and a ‘sense of place’) and potential for improvement. • Analysis of publicly available Flickr photos, to map the areas that provide aesthetic beauty, the opportunity to see wildlife and a place for outdoor recreation. • Modelling the future impact of climate change on habitats.

Facts & figures Essex is a lowland rural county, located north-east of London. It covers an area of 369,531 ha and has a population of 1,443,151 (mid-2015); the population density is 391 per km2. It is mainly agricultural: 56% arable fields, 18% improved grassland, 9% urban, and only 7% woodland, including Epping Forest in the south-west. The attractive coastline is popular for recreation and includes wetland areas that are important for water birds. The proximity to London is driving many new housing developments and loss of green space, especially in and around the city of Chelmsford. To address this issue, the County Council has implemented a Natural Capital Asset Check to demonstrate the value of green space.

What was achieved? There was generally good agreement between the areas identified as being important providers of ecosystem services using the participatory mapping and Flickr analysis techniques. The ecosystem service maps are useful for visualising the way in which different parts of the area provide a range of ecosystem services and identifying options for improvement. However, modelling showed that many species from woodlands, reed beds and acid grasslands could lose some suitable climate space by the 2050s.

What can you learn from this? These simple mapping tools are useful for communicating the importance of the places, features and habitats that provide different ecosystem services. Combining these methods allows the views, preferences and knowledge of local stakeholders to be taken into account as well as scientific knowledge.


Case 23 Participatory biodiversity management for ecosystem services in Bankura and Sundarbans, India Contact: Raktima Mukhopadhyay | Indian Institute of Bio-Social Research and Development (IBRAD) |

Commodity export dominated areas in developing countries Issue

introduced as collaborative action between the community and the forest department. Indicators were used to monitor the changes in the forest ecosystem and to take corrective action.

Forest ecosystem services are being degraded as the result of biodiversity loss, lack of understanding between the community and forest staff, the absence of a participatory method for monitoring forest health based on scientific criteria, and the lack of options to address the issue of tradeoffs between overharvesting and alternative sources of livelihood.

What was achieved? Community institutions were built. Participatory monitoring methods were tested and validated in ten other locations. Community and forest staff prepared a participatory biodiversity management plan and strategic actions to reverse the process of degradation. The drivers have been identified, and actions to promote livelihoods based on sustainable biodiversity use have been initiated.

Facts & figures The case studies cover two different ecosystems in India. Bankura is located in the south-western part of West Bengal. The study area covers three administrative blocks of the district, with red lateritic soil and a forest mosaic landscape with tropical dry deciduous forest (the main species include Shorea robusta, Pterocarpus marsupium, Diospyros melanoxylon, and Madhuka latifolia). Over 95% of the indigenous people in the forest fringe villages have 0.1– 2.5 acres of rainfed agricultural land and depend to a large extent on forest ecosystem services (ES) for their survival. The Sundarbans mangrove wetland is located in the Gangetic delta in the southern part of West Bengal and provides a host of ES.

What can you learn from this? A community’s own social institution building is the primary requirement for biodiversity conservation for ES. Participatory biodiversity management helps a community to understand how biodiversity impacts upon different ES. This helped in promoting the adoption of a sustainable livelihood.

What was done? Social institutions with proactive leaders were built to conserve forest resources, identify the drivers of degradation, and find options for alternative sources of livelihood. Simple yet scientific criteria and indicators were developed that included indigenous knowledge. Participatory monitoring was 27

Case 24 Operationalising ecosystem services for improved management of natural resources within the Kakamega Forest, Kenya Contact: David Odee | Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) |

Commodity export dominated areas in developing countries Issue

What was achieved?

Ecosystem services (ES) are increasingly gaining attention globally in natural resources planning, yet the concept is still poorly understood. Our overall goal was to create awareness of the ES concept by conserving Kakamega Forest ecosystem to support human economy and well-being with multiple ES through sustainable management.

A total of 56 people representing various genders, interest groups, NGOs, and Government agencies were interviewed. Data was collected from field surveys and secondary sources, including five onsite focus group meetings and two stakeholder workshops. Assessments and mapping for flagship ES are ongoing. Preliminary findings revealed: hotspots of ES supply/demand for interventions; diverse records of insect pollinators; and recreation potential and predominance of birds, reaffirming the ecosystem’s status as an Important Bird and Biodiversity Area.

Facts & figures Kakamega Forest ecosystem is located in the western region of Kenya, near Lake Victoria, and lies at an altitude of 1,500– 1,700 m above sea level. It receives a mean annual rainfall of 2,000 mm and the temperature ranges between 11 and 26 oC. The ecosystem covers about 230 km2, and fragmented indigenous forest with a total area of about 140 km2, interspersed with clearings and glades, and 57 villages with a population of about 600,000 living around the forest. The forest is endowed with rich biodiversity of plants, primates, insects, and is a designated Important Bird Area. It provides a wide range of ES.

What can you learn from this? Sustained engagements through participatory forums, such as focus group discussions and workshops, promoted the adoption of ES among stakeholders with discernible conflict mitigation and reduced completion among stakeholders. These lessons should contribute towards an effectively managed ecosystem.

What was done? Four flagship studies/issues articulated in the ecosystem’s management plan, and prioritised by the Case Study Advisory Board were implemented with stakeholders. They were: mapping and evaluation of plantations for timber and local livelihood; mapping supply and demand of key ES (fuelwood, grass & grazing); evaluation of pollination services to agricultural crops; and evaluation of the recreation and nature-based tourism potential in the ecosystem. 28

Case 25 Retention forestry to improve biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services in Southern Patagonia, Argentina Contact: Guillermo Martines Pastur | Austral Scientific Research Centre (CADIC CONICET) |

Commodity export dominated areas in developing countries Issue

What was done?

To quantify the impacts of traditional forest management on biodiversity and ecosystem services values and develop new forest management strategies using the retention capacity of the forest.

Our case study includes a forestry proposal with regional interest, but it is also of worldwide interest. We quantified economic, biodiversity and ES values at regional levels; quantified the impacts of traditional management on biodiversity and ES values; monitored these effects in longterm plots in large-scale operations (ranches and sawmills); and developed new forest management strategies using the variable retention approach.

Facts & figures Santa Cruz Province (Southern Patagonia, Argentina) is dominated by steppe and shrubland, and forests occupy a narrow fringe along the base of the mountains. It has a population density of 1.3 inhabitants per km2, mainly concentrated in small towns and cities. Tierra del Fuego Province has grasslands in the north and forests in the south and has a population density of 6 inhabitants per km2. In Santa Cruz Province 75% of land is private; 50% of land is private in Tierra del Fuego Province. Both provinces have large remote pristine areas with excellent conservation status.

What was achieved? We developed some new methodologies adapted for areas where little information was available, and we obtained useful ES information for our study area, for example: biodiversity quality maps; primary productivity maps in different vegetation types; estimation of the impact of beavers at landscape level; grazing impacts; carbon storage in soils; and mapping of cultural ecosystem services.

What can you learn from this? It is possible to define the synergies and trade-offs between the different ES provisions and biodiversity conservation that have an effect on management planning and lead to the development of new conservation strategies. Biodiversity values and the different ES should be taken into account in management strategies at landscape level. Local people and NGOs interested in nature will also benefit from better holistic management of the forest and grassland.


Case 26 Biofuel farming and restoration of natural vegetation in the São Paulo region, Brazil Contacts: Patricia Pinho | São Paulo State University (UNESP) | David Lapola | São Paulo State University (UNESP) |

Commodity export dominated areas in developing countries Issue

these to legal frameworks, exploring the options to establish a PES. The pollination potential and pollination value are also being assessed using the ESTIMAP model.

Brazil is the biggest producer and user of ethanol originating from sugarcane, most of which is grown in the São Paulo region. Under Brazil’s Forest Code law, every rural property in the region must preserve 20% of its native vegetation area, as well as forests alongside streams. The law envisages payment for ecosystem services (PES) maintained by farmers, so the feasibility of establishing such a scheme had to be determined.

What was achieved? Most of the ES identified in the field are located in forested areas, so we suggest focusing on traded ES (water) at the local scale. Stakeholders prefer cash transactions, which still need to be defined. The municipal government approved the implementation of a PES in the Director’s Plan bill – a law that determines the planning, use and activities to be undertaken in the municipality; this has to be approved by the legislative chamber.

Facts & figures The study area is located in the region of Rio Claro Municipality, representing the sugarcane belt in São Paulo State, south-east Brazil. It consists of 14 municipalities with approximately 880,000 inhabitants, covering an area of 5,256 km2 and lying around 180 km from the metropolis of São Paulo. Regional agriculture is dominated by sugarcane production (157,176 ha), extensive grazing (70,827 ha), and orange plantations (35,608 ha). Sugarcane crops occupy 47% of the landscape cover; pastures and forests each occupy 22%. In this landscape context the Municipality of Rio Claro presents a deficit of natural vegetation of about 3,500 ha that need to be restored, in accordance with Brazil’s Forest Code Law.

What can you learn from this? A PES scheme should take into account the perspectives of all stakeholders, including society. This is important in developing the PES scheme, protecting the interests of all participants involved and increasing its chances of success.

What was done? We explored biophysical, institutional and financial options to verify the feasibility of the scheme. All stakeholders were involved. We assessed the range of ES potentially supplied, elicited stakeholder perceptions on ES and PES, and linked 30


Glossary Blue-green factor (BGF)

Novel ecosystem

The ‘blue-green factor’ is a proposal for scoring properties’ green and blue structures in terms of how important they are for managing surface water. The OpenNESS Oslo urban case study (see page 6) developed the BGF to account for other ecosystem services such as pollination and recreation. Source: files/osloopeness_insight.pdf

A newly and artificially developed (restored or created) ecosystem, often with a mix of species that would not naturally co-occur. Source:

Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) Conditional payments offered to providers (e.g., farmers or landowners) in exchange for employing management practices that enhance ES provision. Source: OpenNESS Glossary*

Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) CICES developed from the work on environmental accounting undertaken by the European Environment Agency (EEA) and provides a standardisation in the way we describe ecosystem services. Source:

QUICKScan QUICKScan is both an approach and a software tool that is applied in group process with policy makers and experts to develop and explore potential policy options and assess likely impacts of those options. Source:

ECOPLAN The ECOPLAN project runs from 2013 to 2016 and aims to create spatially explicit information and tools for the assessment of ecosystem services. Different research units from several Flemish universities and research institutes collaborated together within the ECOPLAN project, which was funded by the Flemish agency for Innovation by Science and Technology. Source: ecoplan/

Sustainability A characteristic or state whereby the needs of the present and local population can be met without compromising the ability of future generations or populations in other locations to meet their needs. Weak sustainability assumes that needs can be met by the substitution of different forms of capital (i.e. through trade-offs); strong sustainability posits that substitution of different forms of capital is seriously limited. Source: OpenNESS Glossary*

Ecosystem Services (ES) The contributions of ecosystem structure and function – in combination with other inputs – to human well-being. Source: OpenNESS Glossary*

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) A global initiative focused on “making nature’s values visible”. Its principal objective is to mainstream the values of biodiversity and ecosystem services into decisionmaking at all levels. It aims to achieve this goal by following a structured approach to valuation that helps decisionmakers recognize the wide range of benefits provided by ecosystems and biodiversity, demonstrate their values in economic terms and, where appropriate, capture those values in decision-making. Source:

Ecosystem Services Mapping tool (ESTIMAP) A collection of GIS-based models to support the mapping and modelling of ecosystem services at European scale. Its main objective is to support EU policies with spatial information on where ecosystem services are provided and consumed. Source:

Geographic Information System (GIS) A computer-based system for the Input, Management, Analysis and Presentation (IMAP) of spatially referenced data. Source: OpenNESS Glossary*

Natural Capital (NC) The elements of nature that directly or indirectly produce value for people, including ecosystems, species, freshwater, land, minerals, air and oceans, as well as natural processes and functions. The term is often used synonymously with natural asset, but in general implies a specific component. Source: OpenNESS Glossary*

* OpenNESS Glossary [edited by Potschin, M.; Haines-Young, R.; Heink, U. and K. Jax] (2016): OpenNESS Glossary (V3.0), 39 pp. Grant Agreement No 308428. Available from:


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