Categorizing Songs. Songs can provide a natural opportunity for children to learn pre-academic concepts and vocabulary. The early childhood music experts were asked to analyze the lyrics and classify the songs under the following four operationally defined categories: a) classification, b) seriation, c) spatial relations, and d) temporal relations. Their responses were then analyzed for inter-rater reliability. The categories chosen were all associated with a cognitive-linguistic approach to language development for preschoolers (Gfeller, 1990). Selecting the Final Song List. To create a ‘top ten’ list of items for each category, songs were ranked according to the composite familiarity score and the category results with greatest inter-rater reliability. This method provided a systematic way of selecting the most familiar songs. The final lists for each of the categories are displayed in the four boxes along with an example. Songs that fit into multiple categories are marked with an asterisk. Modifications in Facilitation While the song lists oﬀer a good starting point, music therapists or early childhood educators must also consider the unique abilities, interests, preferences, and needs or background (e.g., culture) of each child and select the songs accordingly. Additionally, modifications can be made to songs to help facilitate each child’s specific goals and objectives. Changes may include adaptations of the lyrics, simplifying the
imagine 7(1), 2016
1 Classification Classification is the mental task of grouping objects or events by shared qualities or characteristics (e.g., shapes, colors, categories of animals or food). 1.
Apples and Bananas
Head and Shoulders, Knees and Toes* Old MacDonald
Down by the Bay
Make New Friends (But Keep the Old) The More We Get Together
Hokey Pokey* Baa Baa Black Sheep
You are My Sunshine
Example: “Old MacDonald” has many animals on his farm (e.g., cows, pigs, ducks). As the song progresses, more animals are added. These are all farm animals that are being grouped together.
2 Seriation Seriation is the mental task of ordering objects based on quantity, magnitude, or quality (e.g., numbers/counting, big/little, rough/ smooth). 1.
Ants Go Marching Bingo
Five Little Monkeys*
Head and Shoulders, Knees and Toes* The Wheels on the Bus*
This Old Man Hickory Dickory Dock*
If You’re Happy and You Know It
She’ll be Comin’ ‘Round the Mountain*
Example: “Ants Go Marching”starts off with one ant and keeps adding another in, which can help address counting. The concept of more/less could also be addressed by comparing and contrasting groups of ants.
In this issue, over 70 authors from 12 countries share their dedication and passion for early childhood music therapy with imagine readers....