behind early development in accessible language. The free app is available on the App Store, Google Play, and Amazon. More information can be found at http:// www.joinvroom.org/. ZERO TO THREE has also partnered with the streaming service Hulu on East Los High, a Hulu original series with an all-Latino cast targeting teenage audiences. Information on child development and positive parenting practices are embedded into the show in an eﬀort to reach young parents. Three seasons are available for streaming on Hulu Plus, and a fourth season will be released this year. The keynote plenary, “Building the Foundations of Life Course Health,” was presented by Nadine Burke Harris, MD, from the Center for Youth Wellness in San Francisco, California. Dr. Burke Harris spoke about the eﬀects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and toxic stress on the health and development of children. She presented a rationale for ACE screening during pediatric well visits and introduced two tools, the CYW Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (CYW ACE-Q) and the BCHC-CYW Integrated Pediatric Care Model. Dr. Burke Harris’ work, along with access to the CYW ACE-Q, can be found online at http:// centerforyouthwellness.org/. Andrew Meltzoﬀ, Ph.D., and Patricia Kuhl, Ph.D., of the University of Washington Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, presented the science plenary entitled “Minds, Brains, and How Babies Learn: From Infants to Society.” They presented the latest research on social-emotional learning, early language, human touch, and brain development and how to connect research to practice. They reminded attendees that the brains of children are developed through the experiences adults provide for them. They discussed the critical period for language learning, the word gap between children in diﬀerent socio-economic classes, and the need for infants to have a social adult to learn from. They presented research suggesting that bilingual children are more cognitively flexible than monolingual children. Dr. Kuhl presented research showing that exposure to music in a triple meter enhanced infants’ abilities to detect and predict auditory patterns. According to Dr. Meltzoﬀ, infants learn through observation of those around them. In a study of infant imitation and memory, infants observed novel play actions with toys but were not given the chance to manipulate the objects. Seven days later, they displayed
imagine 7(1), 2016
deferred imitation by imitating the play actions they had perviously seen. Other research showed that babies with better gaze following at 11 and 12 months had better language at 24 months. Dr. Meltzoﬀ also discussed emotional eavesdropping, the concept that babies will process negative emotions directed towards others around them and regulate their behavior accordingly. Online training modules on these topics and more are available at http://ilabs.washington.edu/. A moving practice plenary entitled “Attachment, Trauma, and Reality: Creating Trauma-Informed Systems for Infants, Toddlers, and Their Families” was presented by Alicia Lieberman, Ph.D., and Chandra Ghosh Ippen, Ph.D., from the University of California in San Francisco. They shared a case study detailing Child-Parent Psychotherapy over time with a young child who was a victim of severe child abuse. They illustrated core trauma concepts such as the idea that trauma can generate distressing reminders that may aﬀect the child’s life and functioning long after the event has ended. Helping children make meaning out of these triggers is an important step in therapy. Trauma can also rupture spoken and unspoken social contacts, leading children to view adults as dangerous or absent and causing dysregulated patterns of adaptation. Lieberman and Ippen highlighted the importance of caregivers, including foster parents and preschool teachers, working together throughout the therapy process. It is important for adults to acknowledge the child’s experience and the behaviors that communicate his/her experience, as well as to honor the child’s need to remove him/herself from triggering situations. Additional plenary sessions addressed policy issues related to the infant-toddler agenda. Breakout sessions covered a variety of topics, a few of which are highlighted here. In a session entitled “It’s Not Just About Eating: Possible Signs of Emerging Autism During Infant Feeding,” presenters Mary Beth Steinfeld, MD, Jennifer Black, CCC-SLP, MA, Jamaica Plain, MA, and Denise Findlay, BSN, RN, described feeding as the first turn-taking dialogue in a child’s life. Communication is an essential part of feeding an infant or toddler, and because autism spectrum disorder impacts reciprocal social communication, as many as 89% of children with ASD have feeding issues including eating less than 20 foods and having nutritional deficiencies. The presenters introduced the NCAST Feeding Scale as a way to look
In this issue, over 70 authors from 12 countries share their dedication and passion for early childhood music therapy with imagine readers....