repetition so natural in children’s musical forms comes into play. In music, there is no need to say, “This means that.” The placement of English and Spanish semantic parallels in temporally and/or structurally close setting delivers that message. Commonly used settings feature repetition and congruity between rhythmic, melodic, movement contour, and/or harmonic elements. Contrast is important too, as it highlights the linguistic diﬀerences. The chorus to Vamos a la Playa/Let’s Go to the Beach, begins in Spanish to establish the concept, set the construction and to build confidence and attainment through repetition. The English part completes the chorus with a distinctive melody, but retains the rhythmic and harmonic patterns already heard. Thus, the pieces function as an integrated whole. Variations on the melody (M), rhythm (R) and harmony (H) are indicated in the notation with numbers (e.g., M1 = the first melody).
Enhancing the singing experience with movement, instrument playing, and visual aids or manipulatives adds to the benefit for the children (Kennedy, 2008; Schwantes, 2009). Promoting Successful Assimilation into the Local Educational System and Culture The accessibility of music enables it to act as a bridge between cultures. At AFC, families are invited to various open school events where they can see the children participating in activities, including music groups. The families may sit in on a typical music session, or observe the children singing and performing music we have practiced in preparation. Information about the value of
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music in childhood development and language acquisition, and families’ own music experiences is exchanged. The music repertoire of the transitional bilingual education program eﬀectively demonstrates the progression the children are making linguistically from Spanish to Spanish and English, and culturally via information embedded in songs and activities associated with them. Assimilation is a long process, but a systematic music therapy approach designed to foster development in both the home and school languages and cultures can play a very instrumental role. The coordination between the music therapist, classroom educational staﬀ, bilingual speech therapist, other therapeutic professionals, administrators, and families ensures that the children are gaining the skills needed to function in their local kindergarten placements when they transition out of preschool. References Burchinal, M., Field, S., López, M. L., Howes, C., & Pianta, R. (2012). Instruction in Spanish in prekindergarten classrooms and child outcomes for English language learners. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 27(2), 188-197. Cummins, J. (1983). Bilingualism and special education: Program and pedagogical issues. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 6, 373-386. Cummins, J. (1991). Interdependence of first- and second-language proficiency in bilingual children. In E. Bialystok (Ed.), Language Processing in Bilingual Children (pp. 70-89). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Kennedy, R. (2008). Music therapy as a supplemental teaching strategy for kindergarten ESL students. Music Therapy Perspectives, 26(2), 97-101. Kennedy, R. (2013). The Cloud Forest School: A music therapy service project. imagine, 4(1), 84-86. Kremer-Sadlik, T. (2005). To be or not to be bilingual: Autistic children from multilingual families. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism (pp. 1225-1234). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press. Lindholm-Leary, K., & Genesee, F. (2010). Alternative
The focus of imagine 2014 is on family-centered practice – a trend taking hold in music therapy circles worldwide. While many practitioners...