Principle 3. Provide multiple means of engagement (options to capture learner’s interest, challenge appropriately, and motivate). Use books, songs, and communication that involve and represent all children, regardless of cultural predominance or linguistic and skill levels. Share information with families through a newsletter written at an appropriate level. Have key phrases translated into families’ home languages, and include photographs of children engaged in an activity.
Figure 3. Three principles of UDL based on Universal Design for Learning Framework, Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST). Retrieved from www.cast.org A list of UDL principles with applications for young children from Conn-Powers and colleagues (2006) follows: Principle 1. Provide multiple means of representation (options for perceiving and comprehending information). Present content in multiple formats, including verbal, print, video, or concrete objects, repeating key words/phrases in children’s home language and using simple sentences with gestures. Use physical cues to focus children’s attention, such as pointing to the picture in the book, giving verbal prompts to help children begin a response, oﬀering language models for children to imitate, and encouraging children to keep thinking and trying. Principle 2. Provide multiple means of action and expression (options for learners to navigate a learning environment and express what they know). Use other materials of diﬀerent sizes, textures, and shapes to help each child actively manipulate the objects for learning. Vary your expectations for participation and performance. If children are listening to a story and are asked to recall events, some may attend to and repeat back key words; others may recall the names of characters by pointing to pictures or using signs and gestures; and even others may predict what will happen next using complete sentences in English. Invite and encourage all children to join in, using multiple means of communication (e.g., speaking English and/or children’s home language, signing, displaying symbols).
imagine 5(1), 2014
The special education initiatives presented briefly in this article are familiar by name to most special education professionals and most all music teachers will soon be aware of the NCAS. Although music therapists may be implementing many of the strategies associated with the special education initiatives, eﬀorts with special education colleagues will be more eﬃcient and productive when music therapists have knowledge of special education perspectives and communicate with colleagues using a shared core vocabulary. As the situation calls for, music therapists and music educators also may be collaborating on music goals and exchange ideas for their students relevant to the NCAS. It must be said, however, that an understanding of concepts and initiatives is only a beginning to meaningful collaborations, and that students are best served through best practices as implemented by highly competent, intelligent, and sensitive music therapists. References Batsche, G. (2006). Response to intervention. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education. Brotherson, M. J., Cook, C. C., Erwin, E. J., & Weigel, C. J. (2008). Understanding self-determination and families of young children with disabilities in home environments. Journal of Early Intervention, 31, 22-43. Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2010). Response to Intervention. New York: Guilford Press. CAST (2011). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.0. Wakefield, MA: Author. Center for Universal Design (CUD). Retrieved from http:// www.design.ncsu.edu/cud/ Conn-Powers, M., Cross, A., Traub, E., & HutterPishgahi, L. (2006). The universal design of early
The focus of imagine 2014 is on family-centered practice – a trend taking hold in music therapy circles worldwide. While many practitioners...