Analysis of Urban Environment City Guide
Working Area: Umit Neighbourhood, Ankara, TURKEY
TABLE OF CONTENTS Section One: Introduction 1.1.What are the urban design guidelines? 1.2.Who will use the guidelines? 1.3 Document Structure 1.4 Process Section Two: Analysis 2.1 Context 2.1.1 Location 2.1.2 History 2.1.3 Current Issues 2.1.4 Existing Architectural Character 2.2 Existing Urban Structure 2.2.1 Open Space 2.2.2 Street Network 2.2.3 Surface Parking Lots 2.2.4 Existing Buildings Section Three: Design Guidelines for the Current Layout and Streets 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Guiding Principles 3.3 Parks and Open Spaces 3.4Streets 3.4.1 Multi Used Trails 3.4.2Boulevard Design 3.4.3Crosswalks 3.4.4 Sidewalks 3.4.5Street Trees 3.4.6Street Furniture 3.4.7Lighting 3.5Parking 3.5.1 Surface Parking 3.5.2 On-Street Parking 3.6 Transportation 3.7 Sustainability 3.7.1 Sustainable Design APPENDIX
Section One: Introduction 1.1. What are urban design guidelines? “Urban design guidance is a generic term for documents that guide developers and their designers in planning and designing development” (Cowan, 10). Urban design guidelines play an important and effective role in supporting planning policy, express vision, set appropriate design standards and so on. 1.2 Who will use urban design guidelines? “Urban design guidelines can be prepared by local authorities, landowners, developers, partnerships and business and community organizations…or by several of these jointly” (Cowan, 10). Because the scope of urban design guidelines is so wide, both authorities (developers, architects, designers) and students use the guidelines in order to obtain information about a specific area. 1.3 Document Structure The primary focus of this study is to present the analysis, principles, and implementation strategies to guide future development in Ümit Neighborhood. Specifically, this study addresses the re- organization of residential sites and the creation of new open spaces, as well as the design of the amenities which support new residential populations, such as streets, open spaces, community centers, green areas, parking lots and so on. 1.0 Introduction: Introduces the guidelines, including structure, process, consultation and application. 2.0 Analysis: Provides a brief context of Ümit Neighborhood, including location and history, as well as the existing urban structure. 3.0 Design Guidelines for New Communities and Streets: Provides guidelines that are applicable to the creation and organization of open spaces in both the community and commercial areas, parks, streets and parking areas. 4.0 General Design Guidelines: Provides general guidelines for both residential and commercial areas and sustainability. 1.4 Process The City has initiated an urban design study to address the design issues related to the intensification of existing built-up areas and the design of new open spaces. The study recommendations include guidelines for new public gathering points and design proposals so as to obtain a link between residential and commercial areas.
Section Two: Analysis 2.1 Context 2.1.1 Location Ümit Neighborhood belongs to Yenimahalle Municipality in terms of administration. Çayyolu is located on the south, Batıkent is on the west, Etimesgut is on the north and Çankaya district is on the east of the Ümit Neighborhood.
2.1.2 History First settlement ‘Ümitköy housing estate’ is located in the east of the Ümit district’s border in 1970. (However the oldest structure is the Radar where the army exists currently.) Ümitköy housing estate was a vacant area belonging to the Çayyolu Village. Ümit cooperative housing society was gathered in 1970 and decided to settle in this area. Name of the district and the housing estate is derived from the head of the cooperative Ümitİnceefe. In 1976, building process was completed and flat owners are moved in. There were 350 flats and the oldest building is the administration office of Ümit Housing estate.
2.1.3 Current Issues Ümit District is now facing a number of challenges associated with current trends in urban development. Ümit district’s general building structure contains design element which sharply contrast with Turkey’s traditional community design community design characteristics. The boundary of the neighborhood is surrounded by other neighborhoods such as Koru District, Çayyolu. Since 1976, a series of building complexes were constructed in Ümit District. Because of this limitation, the neighborhood does not expand. Therefore, all the new building complexes were built one after the other. There is not suitable open space for building new building complexes. Starting some of the destruction from the first building complex Ümitköy Siteremains on the agenda. -Rental cost of shops in the Ümit District force a shop to turn over. -Building permission creates a problem for investors. -Transportation and parking create another current problem. 2.1.4 Existing Architectural Character -Establishing a greater proportion of solid urban infill area with a residential building complexes character -Closed, multi-storey residential building complexes -Identiﬁable residential buildings including the use of materials, colors -Differentiated from context -Large garages both open and close in building complexes -Generous road widths for almost only car usage -Narrow and impracticable pavements
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2.2 Existing Urban Structure 2.2.1 Open Space People are able to notice open spaces in Ăœmit Neighborhood easily. Because the area was designed from zero, the relationship between buildings and open spaces were able to be balanced.
2.2.2 Street Network The Ümit Neighborhood’s street network is comprised of arterial roads, collector roads, local roads and lanes. Whilethese streets serve an important functional role in themovement of goods throughout the neighborhood they are also important as a place for people to meet and socialize. The street and roads of Ümit Neighborhood were constructed as wide and however the major problem is caused by the inconveniences by topography. Some roads are not finished; culde-sacs are possible to be noticed.
2.2.3 Surface Parking Lots One of the major problems of the site is lack of parking lots. Especially on 8th street, where is the most crowded street in terms of commerce, cars were parked on the sidewalks, which leads the uncomfortable use of the commercial buildings. The problem of parking lots will be analyzed during examining the design guidelines in the paper.
2.2.4 Existing Buildings The type of community in Ăœmit Neighborhood is gated community, which is a form of residential community containing strictly-controlled entrances for pedestrians and automobiles. The form of gated community is also characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences. The residential communities in Ăœmit Neighborhood are one of the examples of guard-gated communities, which are staffed by private security guards. That being protected by security guards demonstrates the high value of property in the apartment blocks. Taking the typology of existing residential buildings into consideration, it is possible to claim that the land value of the neighborhood is high because the residential buildings were designed on small land in order to achieve maximum space in minimum efficiency.
Section Three: Design Guidelines for New Communities and Streets 3.1 Introduction
In re-organizing the residential communities within the Ăœmit Neighborhood and commercial areas on 8th street specifically, the following steps should be considered: Step 1- Linking the residential and commercial areas through recreational trail Step 2- Enhancement of the 8th Street in terms of efficiency for pedestrians in order to provide with the economic vitality for the shop owners Step 3- The re- arrangement of parking areas on 8thStreet Step 4- Proposing new faĂ§ades of the buildings on 8th Street in order to achieve aesthetical beauty Step 5- New transportation alternatives for inhabitants and new comers 3.2 Guiding Principles In order to provide these steps cited above for more quality living and shopping area, seven design strategies are proposed. - Locate and build additional public places - Re- design of 8th Street sidewalks and easy use for pedestrians - Organizing the high number of car pollution on the 8th Street - Design and construct streetscape improvements through 8th Street - Assuring long-term vitality of the 8th Street - Provide better access to Ăœmit Neighborhood from the city - Expand the role of arts
3.3 Parks and Open Spaces Parks and open spaces should create a linked natural network that supports active transportation and recreation. They also should be the core organizational elements of new communities. Like in the existing urban areas, parks should always be bound by streets and should be distributed within walking distance of the majority of residents. -It has been determined that there is no need for new larger parks with sports fields and recreational amenities. However, the perception of the sense of green is highly inadequate. Therefore, highly visible parks and open spaces should form a linked network to provide a variety of safe recreation and movement options. -Possible natural feature should be developed and a green network should be created to ensure a sustainable environment for inhabitants and plants. -Park entrance design should provide facilities including visitor drop-off (parking area, pathway and/or transit stop), pedestrian scale lighting, and signage for orientation and use of park amenities for the new comers. -Highly visible connections should link the major park amenities and facilities through walkways by signage or street lighting for instance. - Parks and open spaces should be designed to serve the diverse needs of the community, including facilities for passive (e.g. walking trails, community gardens, seating areas, park pavilions etc.) and active recreation (e.g. sports fields, skating rinks, etc.). Although the combination of active and passive usage has been achieved, lack of green area for the users is a primary issue to be solved. - Provisions to protecting residential areas from lighting, noise, traffic and pollution, appropriate landscaping and setback treatments should be provided.
3.4 Streets Street design should focus on minimizing pavement width as much as possible, in order to provide sufficient space for snow storage, boulevard elements, sidewalks, and transition zones. Opportunities for narrower right-of-ways can be explored where there are alternative options to accommodate travel and cycling lanes, sidewalks, utilities, and other streetscape elements. 3.4.1 Multi Used Trails - New recreational trails should connect to existing networks, streets, parks, open spaces and provides pedestrians and cyclists easy connections and recreation opportunities. - The design of the recreational trail should reflect the function and nature of the type of open space it occupies. Trail widths should range from 3-4 meters wide to allow for two way cyclist or pedestrian passage. - Trails should be designed to distinguish between walking and cycling/rollerblading areas to minimize conflicts. - Trails should be designed to distinguish between walking and cycling/rollerblading areas to minimize conflicts - Nature trails should include multiple access points. The design of access points should consider that people arrive by a variety of means, including car, foot, bicycle, or transit. Entrances should also be designed to accommodate persons with physical disabilities and therefore include stable yet permeable surfaces. - Where appropriate, trails should include adequate facilities, such as seating, container, lighting, and signage and route information. These amenities should be designed according to site-specific conditions. - Recreational trails should be constructed of low impact materials that are porous and stable, such as crushed rock, wood chip paths, or board walks. All trails should be designed according to site-specific conditions. Bicycle lanes should be provided on both sides of the street (1.5m wide each).
3.4.2 Boulevard Design Create boulevards that combine safe, unobstructed pedestrian travel routes with places to stop and socialize. Well-designed boulevards are important elements for accommodating the significant increase in pedestrian traffic associated with the proposed link between residential and commercial districts. Boulevards should be planted with street trees located.
3.4.3 Crosswalks Clearly marked crosswalks provide safe opportunities for pedestrian movement.
3.4.4 Sidewalks Dedicated to the movement of pedestrians, the sidewalk can be a multi-use trail or a pedestrian clear path. As a best practice approach, it should be located adjacent to buildings or the property line. Where sidewalks cross driveways, they should be continuous and constructed of brushed concrete.
3.4.5 Street Trees Street trees plays an important role in providing shade, enhance the visual and environmental qualities of the street and creating vertical buffer between the pavement, sidewalk and buildings. Trees should be spaced at 6-9 meter intervals. The canopy of trees is concerned during the design process because on the wide sidewalks, people are expected to spend time, shopping, gathering and socializing so the weather conditions altered by tree canopies are important such as shade and wind. Recommended landscape materials should include non-invasive, non-cultivar species that are native to Ankara. Species that are generally drought, full sun resistant and require minimal maintenance are also encouraged.
3.4.6 Street Furniture 184.108.40.206 Lighting
220.127.116.11 Sitting elements
18.104.22.168 Garbage Equipments
22.214.171.124 Public Art
3.5 Parking Taking such a preferred site into consideration is new communities develop, a variety of parking will be appropriate to support increased densities, including surface parking and on-street parking. Parking areas also should be designed to minimize their visual impact because the current situation of 8th street is invaded by plenty of automobiles.
3.5.1 Surface Parking Surface parking lots should be appropriately located, well landscaped and visually divided into smaller courts to minimize their impact on the public streetscape. The major intention of preferring the surface parking is that large areas can be in filled by parking areas and the streetscape should not be blocked by large parking structures. 3.5.2 On-Street Parking On- street parking can be easily noticed during visiting the community areas in Ăœmit Neighborhood. Because the roads and streets are wide, people prefer to park their private cars on streets. Parallel on-street parking is preferred over perpendicular or angled parking to minimize the overall width of the street and to optimize sight lines. For example, when the current situation of angled parking on 8th street is considered, the chaos of the environment attracts attention so the density of on- street parking is an important concern.
3.6 Transportation 3.7 Sustainability 3.7.1 Sustainable Design Sustainable Design for 8th Street is related to these issues: -The structures on 8th Street should be definite and identifiable, with a strong sense of place order to emphasize legibility and accessibility -The community canter which is 8th Street in Ăœmit Neighborhood should be developed in terms of containing a variety of uses, services and amenities such as community facilities, small scale employment areas, residential, open spaces, community gardens,and accessibility to transit. -Higher density should be encouraged around the community centers and an employment district which is tried to achieved on 8th Street; in order to sustain commercial and community activities and transit systems. -Accessibility should be treated as a primary concern because the pedestrian activity depends on attraction, convenience, and situation of the facilities on that street. -Auto dependent uses should be discouraged at the community center, such as drive through retail and car wash facilities to provide sufficient pedestrian connections -Transit facilities such as bus stops, should be situated at key destinations, where pedestrian activity is high, and where sufficient pedestrian connections are provided. - Community facilities such as schools, libraries, day cares, and religious places, should have the highest standards in environmental sustainability, through both site and building design.
APPENDIX 1-Land use Analysis First step of learning how to analyze the city dynamics and the development stages of the city is starting with “Land Use analysis”. Land use analysis includes distribution and density of use on land vertically and horizontally, existing land use pattern and current open space characteristics. In order to create high quality open spaces for the society, it is crucial to find out needs and problems for open spaces. Ümit Neighborhood is an example for residential neighborhood. Because according to Robert Chaskin, this construction focuses on neighborhood as place to live. As a planning unit, the residential neighborhood provides opportunity to engage residents in planning through different kinds of local governance mechanism by focusing on local issues related to quality of life, including housing, parks, commercial amenities and transportation access The major characteristic of Ümit Neighborhood is being a “Gated Community” which means a form of residential community or housing estate containing strictly-controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles, and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences (en.wikipedia). This is the main difference comparing to other sites of Ankara (such as Tunalı, Bahçeli, Çankaya and Çukurambar). In Ümit Neighborhood, it is very exceptional to see buildings standing alone. Mostly a couple of buildings or more come together and create their own building complexes (site). Therefore, every single building has its own open space, garden and parking lots. Because of these it can be said that it is “almost” a self sufficient site. BUILDING TYPES: If we categorize the building types in Ümit Neighborhood in terms of stories, the stories begin with 2 to more than 20-storey and 2-storey buildings are villas. Ümit Neighborhood has also lofts and buildings specifically for students’ housing such as Yeni Üniversiteliler Site and Ankara Lofts. Also, it is possible to see the different sector merging in same building, in other words, some buildings are being used as both residential and commercial. The commercial buildings are mostly erected on the wider streets in order to reach more people. When we go to the inner districts, we may notice the high density of residential buildings. In addition, some villas built on wide and alive streets are being used as commercial buildings. Ümit
Neighborhood has its own health centers, schools(kindergartner, primary and high schools) to service the people living there. RECREATIONAL AREAS: In Ümit Neighborhood, there are many pocket parks used by residents especially for exercising, walking on Sunday morning. The parks we came across in Ümitköy are Tevfik İleri, Mahonya, Hanımeli, Nazım Hikmet Ran and Koçlar Parks. Although the existing parks and green corridor seems enough, the inhabitants od Ümit District cannot feel the green effect because of recently planted short trees. Additionally, most of trees are evergreen that don’t have large canopy for shadowing. PARKING LOTS: Unplanned and unorganized parking lots are observed on the project side. No multi stored auto parking area realized on the side due to wide streets near building sides parking is preferred. The commercial places are the biggest facilities with the largest capacity of parking hall. Parking affects the traffic and road organization. But is does not affect the activity of ongoing flow of traffic .Vacant areas due to inappropriate parking can be seen as potential places. Shopping and working places defines the auto park places. Mostly shopping places embedded the parking lots. The traffic continues where there is parking on the both sides which is a problem and also a potential in the usage. POTENTIALS AND PROBLEMS: Firstly, vacant area is one of the potential sides on the area. Secondly, parking lots are to be solved by alternative road suggestions. Although main roads of Ümit Neighborhood can be used to travel comfortably (because very wide and newly constructed at the same time) by private cars, people who don't have this opportunity are complaining about the difficulty to reach city center because the frequency of the buses and dolmuş is quite inadequate and the subway project is still under construction like for ages. In addition to first point, what’s left from building complexes which are open spaces are created randomly. Even though it is organized by landscape design plan, they consist of inadequate green fields and vacant areas.
2-Demographic Analysis After understanding the existing land use and problems, we made research on demographic feature of the Ümit District Because the relationship between demographics and urban design is quite strong and designers ought to explore, comprehend and understand what people desire and need in order to design as much appropriate and favorable places as they can. Also the neighborhood administratively connected to Yenimahalle consequently, in order to understand and analyze Ümit Neighborhood as possible correctly as, Yenimahalle and Ankara should be initially researched on too.
Year change in population of Turkey and Ankara
Population density of Ankara, Yenimahalle and Umit Neighborhood, 2000. (Source: Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Nüfus Sayımı, 2000)
The population density of Ankara Metropolitan Municipality is 360.461. The population density of Yenimahalle (person/ km2) is 2020. Specific information about Ümit District due to our working area that its density of population is 536 (Total population of Ümit Neighborhood is 13845, total square measure is 24.82). Although, Ümit Neighborhood has limited area, it has dense gated community and high-rise apartment blocks. Therefore, its ratio of population density is very high.
Yearly Speed of Population Growth between Çankaya County and Yenimahalle, 2000. (Source: 2023 Başkent Ankara Nazim İmar Planı) In 1936, Çankaya was central district. Gölbaşı and Elmadağ sub-districts were connected to Çankaya District, in this time. After this connection, sub-district organizations were removed at 1960. Therefore, Cebeci, Bahçelievler and Dikmen became neighborhood of Çankaya. Besides, Mamak and Gölbaşı became districts and separated from Çankaya at 1983. These connections and separations were reflected on yearly speed of population growth of Çankaya district. In Ankara’s development process, West Corridor has a huge impact. In this context, Yenimahalle has a significant place in this development. Yenimahalle were become a district at 1960. Until 1980, it is observed that there is an increase ratio of speed of population growth. The speed of population growth of Yenimahalle was decreased because of separation of Etimesgut, in the period of 1980-1990. Developing of Batıkent and Çayyolu neighborhood, the speed of population growth of Yenimahalle was increased, in 1990-2000.
Female/male population of Ankara, Yenimahalle and Ăœmit Neighborhood Ankaraâ€™s male population is more than female population with minor difference; however Yenimahalle and female population of Ăœmit Neighborhood is more than male population
Migration and Out- Migration: (2008) of Ümit district’s migration rate, there is a dramatic increase in 4th month on the number of 236 people and a decrease in the same effect on following month.
Source:Ümit Mahallesi Muhtarlığı
In 2009, there is a general raise and raise between 4th and 11th months when it is compared to the previous year. In spite of being exposed to a great deal of migrant, the rates are almost stable if we speak of a comparison between 2008 data. Source:Ümit Mahallesi Muhtarlığı
In 2010, migration rate differs on the ground of having close number of migrant between 1st and 7th months when it is compared with 2008, 2009 data. However, on august, a chance of reaching on the number of 276 people is seen. Source:Ümit Mahallesi Muhtarlığı
In 2011, despite there is an quite constant rate between 1st and 7th month in similar to 2010’s rates, on October, the migrant number reaches 306 in 2011, which is the peak migrant number when it is compared to previous years starting from 2008 and 2012. Source:Ümit Mahallesi Muhtarlığı
In 2012, we have only data of first 3 month, which demonstrates a decrease from January to March. Source:Ümit Mahallesi Muhtarlığı
Highest number of people migrated in 2009 and the minimum number of migrant was exposed in 2008
Data based on working population
Unemployed / job seeker population (%) Number of people who are in job seeker position or unemployed is increasing for Turkey, Ankara. Therefore not only for Ankara but also for Ăœmit District, unemployment is an important problem too.
Economically active population (%) The percentage of the active population had been reduced apparently. The reason for this change can be the increase in retired population who are upper than 65 years old which means population is aging. SURVEY RESULTS: The questions of our survey are consisted of individualâ€™s general information such as age, gender; how many people living in one house, specific information about the house and household; whether the household want to move to another district or not, general evaluation about the quality of the schools, parks, open spaces, playground, security, garbage collection and
recycling, health centers, number of private cars in one house. Finally we asked whether people are satisfied with the services in their own sites, in Yenimahalle and generally in Ankara. 100 80 60
Total working 14
0 % economically active population
Percentages of the working population based on our survey According to table and the graphic above, nearly 60% of the participants do not work. Thatâ€™s because the big majority of the Ăœmit Neighborhood includes students and retires which are economically in active. The majority of the working population is male and the percentage of active women is 14% which is almost half of the male population. Unfortunately, in Ăœmit Neighborhood, women are not as active as men just Like in Turkey
male female total
22 11 02.Oca3
Percentages of economically inactive population
100 80 60 40 20 0
58,8 35,3 5,88
Percentages of ownership (renter, owner, free of cost) More than half of the residents are the owner of their own houses (58.8%). OWNER Only the very few of the residents are FREE OF COST living there without paying any price (5.88%) HIRED
40 20 0
AVERAGE GOOD VERY GOOD PERFECT NO IDEA
Rates of the general opinion about the public facilities In ümit mahallesi big majority of the responders have no idea about schools’ quality because if we take a look at the age distribution of Ümit, 1420 people are +65 whereas population of 5-14 age is 1274 that means the working and old population have the biggest effect. From land use analysis, pocket parks are very common in ümit therefore nearly the half of the inhabitants find parks are adequate and efficient. Most of them are pleased with the health services but they think that sport facilities, garbage collection and recycling are could be better. The other serious problem is security but weakest and the primary issue is related to transportation serves. People who live in Ümit Mahallesi think that they do not have enough accessibility for busses and dolmuşs.
3-Economic Analysis We made our last study on economic analysis which is necessary to understand the developments and the dynamics of a city. The economic analysis requires the understanding of existing sectors and their contributions to the site, sector dynamics and needs. For detailed information about unemployment and economically active population please look at the demographic analysis part.
Major Sectorial Distribution of Being Employment in Ankara, 2008:
The service sector (public administration, agriculture and financial institutions) has the biggest contribution to economy- almost 35%, just like other graphics (graphics 6, 7, 8). Trade is the half percentage of service sector which is 17%. The production rate is 12,3% and it is mostly due to Ostim. The smallest numbers belongs to sector of mining and quarrying- 0,7%. Other sectors that have little significance are electricity, gas, water-1%; health and social services-1,3%; education-1,6% other community and personal services- 1,8% and finally hotels, restaurants and cafes-4,6%.
Subsectors of Ankara, 2008:
Distribution of Workforces by Locations in Ankara, 2000:
The Yenimahalle’s percentage of people who are above 12 years old is reflects the ratio of Ankara in general but Çankaya is above the average (average-79%, çankaya-85%).The Ankara’s disabled people is in the 50,7% while Çankaya has 52,3% and Yenimahalle has 54,7% unable people. Çankaya and Ankara in total have the same ratio of employed which is 90out of 100 yet Yenimahalle is below that number. On the other hand, in terms of unemployment data, the Çankaya and Ankara are exactly the same 10% but the percentage of Yenimahalle is more than average that is 12%.
Survey Results: We carried out a survey based on economy of Ăœmit Neighborhood. We chose 8. street because of the high density of commercial areas nourishing the whole Neighborhood. The data we obtained from the survey are explained with the graphics related to them.
Sector distribution in Umit Distict:
Turn over years:
Turn over demonstrates a sectorâ€™s adherence in the district. It also depends on demand. Rental cost can also force a shop to turn over. Some rooted or internationally famous
generally don’t experience turn over. Another sector not experiencing turn over are the basic sectors like market, education etc. However, some other reasons may cause turn over. In Umit district, building-permission problem exists. That district is attributed to be a housing area in zoning sheet, but unauthorized shops are opened and the 8th district turned into a commercial area. That’s why; authorized-people from municipality force them to leave their shops, which causes frequent turn over. Looking at the survey percentages, year-based turn over results shows that most turn over experienced between 1996 and 2004. This might be caused by governmental issues.
Incomes of sectors through the district: According to the rates range from 15.000 to 40.000 is the highest one with 35.2 percentages. Between 100.000 and 1 billion seems the lowest rate. However, when we look at the money loss/expenses, it seems that most of them can’t make profit. It is again the reliability of the answers.
Disadvantages of the district according to shop owners: Parking problem is a significant problem in the Umit District as well as in other regions like Bahçelievler. People and sellers have difficulties with lack of adequate parking space and traffic problem. Another important disadvantage of Umit District is building permission problem.