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My name is I am in Class The name of my school is My English teacher is My address is

Date

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North West

East South

AUSTRALIA Sydney Canberra

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Subject pronouns 1a

1b

I

we

you

you

he she it

they

2e

2f

You is singular and plural.

Note how we make questions. Jack is English.

They’re sisters.

Is Jack English?

Are they sisters?

We use the verb be in these expressions: I am twelve.   Sadie is hungry.   You are right.

Sadie and Joe, are you good at tennis?

be: past simple

They is masculine and feminine. A: Are the girls here? B: Yes, they’re in the living room.

3a

I He/She/It We/You/They

We always write I as a capital letter. I’m Luigi and I’m Italian.

be: present simple Full forms

Short forms

I am He/She/It is We/You/They are

I’m He’s/She’s/It’s We’re/You’re/They’re

2c

Full forms

Short forms

I am not He/She/It is not We/You/They are not

I’m not He/She/It isn’t We/You/They aren’t

QUESTIONS

SHORT ANSWERS

Am I …? Are you …? Is he/she/it …?

Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Yes, I am. No, I’m not. Yes, he/she/it is. No, he/she/it isn’t. Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Yes, we are. No, we aren’t. Yes, they are. No they aren’t.

Are we …? Are you …? Are they …?

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3c

was was were

NEGATIVE I He/She/It We/You/They

wasn’t (wasn’t = was not) wasn’t weren’t (weren’t = were not)

QUESTIONS Was I …?

NEGATIVE

2b

2d

3b

AFFIRMATIVE

2a

AFFIRMATIVE

Were you …? Was he/she/it …? Were we …? Were you …? Were they …?

3d

SHORT ANSWERS Yes, you were. No, you weren’t. Yes, I was. No, I wasn’t. Yes, he/she/it was. No, he/she/it wasn’t. Yes, you were. No, you weren’t. Yes, we were. No, we weren’t. Yes, they were. No, they weren’t.

Note how we make questions. Jack was happy.

You were in London.

Was Jack happy?

Were you in London?

We use short forms (I’m, he’s, etc.) when we speak and when we write emails or letters to friends. We use full forms when we write formal texts.

Grammar notes

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Present continuous

NEGATIVE

5b

I He/She/It

AFFIRMATIVE

4a

I’m working. (’m = am) He’s/She’s/It’s working. (’s = is) We’re/You’re/They’re working. (’re = are)

4b

We/You/They

5c

NEGATIVE I’m not working. He/She/It isn’t working. (isn’t = is not) We/You/They aren’t working. (aren’t = are not)

4c

QUESTIONS

Am I working? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are you working? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. Is he/she/it Yes, he/she/it is.  working? No, he/she/it isn’t. Are we working? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are you working? Yes, we are. No, we aren’t. Are they Yes, they are.  working? No, they aren’t.

4d

QUESTIONS

SHORT ANSWERS

Do I eat fish?

Yes, you do. No, you don’t. Yes, I do. No, I don’t. Yes, he/she/it does.  No, he/she/it doesn’t. Yes, you do. No, you don’t. Yes, we do. No, we don’t. Yes, they do. No, they don’t.

Do you eat fish? Does he/she/it  eat fish? Do we eat fish?

SHORT ANSWERS

Do you eat fish? Do they eat fish?

5d

don’t eat fish. (don’t = do not) doesn’t eat fish.   (doesn’t = does not) don’t eat fish.

We use the present simple to talk about habits, regular activities and things that are generally true. I play football every week. My cousin lives in Peru. Sadie doesn’t eat meat. Elephants don’t play tennis.

Note how we make questions. Mrs Kelly is working today. Is Mrs Kelly working today?

5e

They’re working today.

Are they working today?

4e

In the third person singular (he/she/it), we add s (he eats). But: watch – he watches finish – it finishes guess – he guesses go – she goes do – he does

We use the present continuous to talk about actions that are in progress now, in the present. Jack’s watching television at the moment. He isn’t doing his homework.

A: What are you doing?

5f

Present simple 5a

AFFIRMATIVE I He/She/It We/You/They

5g eat fish. eats fish. eat fish.

if a verb ends in a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, etc.) + y, we change the y to ies. study – he studies carry – she carries

B: I’m cleaning the elephant’s

teeth.

if a verb ends in ch, sh, ss or o, we add es.

Note how we make questions. Jack eats fish.

They eat meat.

Does Jack eat fish?

Do they eat meat?

Do, don’t, does and doesn’t are parts of the present simple. But remember that do is also an ordinary verb. Joe does his homework every evening. I don’t do judo. What do you do at the weekend?

Grammar notes

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Present continuous and present simple 6a

The present continuous describes something temporary, which is happening at the moment.

7d

The past simple has the same form for all persons (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).

7e

To form the past simple of regular verbs: ●

work – worked watch – watched play – played listen – listened

Ben’s in the living room. He’s watching TV. Look at Lisa! She’s standing on her head! ●

The present simple describes routines, habits, and regular actions.

Koalas sleep for twenty-two hours a day.

Don’t confuse the present continuous and the present simple!

with short verbs ending in 1 vowel + 1 consonant, we double the final consonant and add ed. We do the same with all verbs ending in vowel + l. stop – stopped travel – travelled

Sadie is sitting next to Eva today. She usually sits next to Lisa.

With certain verbs, we nearly always use the present simple: believe, know, like, love, mean, need, prefer, understand, want. I’m trying but I don’t understand.

with verbs ending in e, we add d. live – lived arrive – arrived close – closed like – liked die – died

Ben watches The X Factor every Saturday evening.

6b

we add ed to the infinitive.

with verbs ending in a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, etc.) + y, we change the y to ied. try – tried study – studied carry – carried

7f

Note how we make questions. Mrs Kelly worked yesterday.

Jack is going into the supermarket because he wants some crisps.

Did Mrs Kelly work yesterday?

Past simple: regular verbs 7a

AFFIRMATIVE I/He/She/It/ We/You/They

7b

Did she work yesterday? worked.

7g

NEGATIVE I/He/She/It/ We/You/They

7c

She worked yesterday.

We use the past simple to talk about actions in the past. We didn’t play football yesterday. We played volleyball.

didn’t work.  (didn’t = did not)

QUESTIONS

SHORT ANSWERS

Did I work? Did you work? Did he/she/it   work? Did we work? Did you work? Did they work?

Yes, you did. No, you didn’t. Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. Yes, he/she/it did. No, he/she/it didn’t. Yes, you did. No, you didn’t. Yes, we did. No, we didn’t. Yes, they did. No, they didn’t.

A: Did Columbus discover Australia? B: No, he didn’t.

Past simple: irregular verbs 8a

Irregular verbs do not have the usual ed ending in the past simple. see – saw go – went

Look at the list of irregular verbs on page 143 in the Student’s Book.

8b

Like regular verbs, these verbs use did in questions and didn’t in the negative form. A: Was Lisa at school today? Did you see her? B: No, I didn’t.

Mr Kelly didn’t go to work yesterday.

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Grammar notes

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Imperative 9a

10f

We use the imperative to give orders or instructions. The imperative has got the same form as the infinitive. Open the door! Listen to the story!

9b

I have breakfast at 7.30. Sophie is having a shower. Lisa always has eggs for breakfast.

Stop!

We form the negative imperative with don’t (do not) + infinitive. Don’t open the door! Don’t touch that elephant!

there is / there are 11a

There isn’t a swimming pool. There aren’t any tennis courts.

AFFIRMATIVE I He/She/It We/You/They

We use there is + a singular noun and there are + a plural noun to say that something exists. There’s a café in Mill Street. There are two cinemas.

have got / have 10a

We use have (NOT have got) to talk about activities and things we eat.

’ve got (= have got) ’s got (= has got) ’ve got

A: Is there a film on television?   B: No, there isn’t. A: Are there any girls in the band?

10b

B: Yes, there are.

NEGATIVE I He/She/It We/You/They

10c

QUESTIONS

haven’t got (= have not got) hasn’t got (= has not got) haven’t got

Yes, you have. No, you haven’t. Have you got …? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t. Has he/she/it Yes, he/she/it has.   got …? No, he/she/it hasn’t. Have we got …? Yes, you have. No, you haven’t. Have you got …? Yes, we have. No, we haven’t. Have they got …? Yes, they have, No, they haven’t.

We use there is (NOT there are) in a list if the first thing is singular. There’s a café, a supermarket and two cinemas in Mill Street.

SHORT ANSWERS

Have I got …?

10d

11b

11c

Note how we make questions. There’s a car outside. Is there a car outside? There are two men at the door. Are there two men at the door?

11d

We use There was/wasn’t and There were/ weren’t in the past.

Note how we make questions.

There was a concert last night.

Jack has got a bike.

A: Were there any buses yesterday?

You’ve got a problem.

B: No, there weren’t.

Has Jack got a bike?

10e

Have you got a problem?

We use have got to talk about: ●

possessions:

I’ve got a bike.

appearance:

She’s got blue eyes.

relationships: Sophie has got a brother.

illnesses:

The elephant has got a headache.

can 12a

AFFIRMATIVE I/He/She/It/ We/You/They

12b

can come.

NEGATIVE I/He/She/It/ We/You/They

can’t come.  (can’t = cannot)

Grammar notes

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12c

QUESTIONS

SHORT ANSWERS

Can I come? Can you come? Can he/she/it  come? Can we come? Can you come? Can they come?

Yes, you can. No, you can’t. Yes, I can. No, I can’t. Yes, he/she/it can. No, he/she/it can’t. Yes, you can. No, you can’t. Yes, we can. No, we can’t. Yes, they can. No, they can’t.

12d

Can and can’t have the same form for all persons. They go before the infinitive without to.

12e

Note how we make questions. Jack can swim.

He can see me.

Can Jack swim?

Can he see me?

Articles: a, an, some and the 14a

We use a before words that begin with a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, etc.), and an before the vowels a, e, i and o, and sometimes u. It’s a message in a bottle. An elephant is an animal. I’ve got an umbrella. I don’t wear a uniform.

14b

The plural of a/an is some. Some = an indefinite number of things or people. There are some crisps in the cupboard.

But we don’t use some when we mean things, animals or people in general. I like crisps.

12f

12g

We use can/can’t to talk about: ●

possibility:

permission: A: Can I watch TV?  B: Yes, but you can’t sit in my chair!

ability:

14c

Sadie can come to the party, but Mel can’t come. She’s ill.

I saw a film last night. (We don’t know which film.)

We use the + thing/person when we’re talking about a particular thing/person. The film was brilliant. (We know which film. It’s a particular one.)

I can play the piano, but I can’t play the guitar.

We often use can with the verbs see and hear.

14d

We use the before singular and plural words. Where is the telephone? Where are the eggs?

Listen! I can hear a noise. (NOT I hear a noise.) Look! I can see a spider. (NOT I see a spider.)

Wh- questions

We use a/an + thing/person when we aren’t saying which thing/person.

14e

We use the before the names of musical instruments after the verb play. Can you play the piano?

13

Note the meaning of these question words.

this/these, that/those

A: What’s your email address? B: jack@line.co.uk

A: Where are Sadie and Joe?

We use this (singular) and these (plural) to talk about things or people that are close to us. We use that (singular) and those (plural) for things or people that are further away.

B: They’re in the kitchen.

This isn’t my bag. That’s my bag over there.

A: How do you spell your name?

A: Which shoes do you like?  

B: M-I-C-H-A-E-L .

B: I like these, but I don’t like those.

A: Who are your friends?

15a

B: James and Tom.

A: When’s your birthday? B: The fourth of May. A: Why is the elephant

scared? B: Because there’s a ghost.

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15b

We can use this/these and that/those before a noun. I know that girl.   This pizza’s good!

Grammar notes

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Plural nouns 16

With two names, we add ’s to the second name. Joe is Kate and Sadie’s brother.

To form the plural, we add s to most nouns. elephant – elephants pizza – pizzas day – days

19b

Some nouns have an irregular plural, for example:

This is my parents’ bedroom.

one man ➞ two men

one woman ➞ two women

one child ➞ two children

one person ➞ two people

But with irregular plural nouns, we add ’s.

one foot ➞ two feet

one tooth ➞ two teeth

Where are the men’s toilets?

Possessive adjectives

Countable and uncountable nouns 17a

Countable nouns are things that we can count. They’ve got a plural form.

20a

a car – two cars a girl – three girls a story – some stories

17b

Uncountable nouns are things that we can’t count. They don’t have a plural form. We use some/any with these nouns (NOT a/an). I want some information. (NOT an information or informations)

20b

we you they

my his her its

our your their

The form of my, your, his, her, etc. is the same before a singular or a plural noun.

20c

Note the use of his and her.

20d

We use its when the possessor is an animal or a thing.

Let’s listen to some music. (NOT a music or musics)

Nouns can sometimes be countable or uncountable.

I he she It

This is my sister. My sisters are called Emma and Jenny.

Is there any bread? (NOT a bread or breads)

17c

With plural nouns ending in s, we only add an apostrophe ( ’ ).

Countable: Can I have two coffees, please? (= two cups of coffee)

Joe and his sister Sadie (Joe ➞ his) Kate and her sister Sadie (Kate ➞ her)

Look at that elephant! Its ears are amazing.

Uncountable: We need some coffee.

Adjectives

some and any 18a

We use some and any to talk about an indefinite quantity or number.

21a

We use adjectives (big, difficult, happy, good, etc.) to describe people and things.

18b

We use some in affirmative sentences, and any in negative sentences and questions. We use them before plural countable nouns:

21b

The form of the adjective is the same with singular and plural nouns.

I’ve got some sandwiches.   There aren’t any trains today. Do you know any English songs?

and before uncountable nouns: I’ve got some money.  There isn’t any pasta. Have you got any paper?

Possessive ‘s / s’ 19a

We use ’s to show that something belongs to someone. We add ’s to a singular noun. John is Sophie’s brother. The elephant’s ears are amazing.

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Sadie is tired.  Lisa and Ben are tired.

21c

Adjectives go before the noun. I’ve got blue eyes.  That’s an interesting idea.

21d

We sometimes use these words before an adjective. 100%  really

0% very

quite

not very

She isn’t very happy.   That film’s really fantastic. English is quite difficult, but not very difficult.

Grammar notes

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Comparative adjectives, as …. as … 22a

With short adjectives (short, old), we add –er to form the comparative. Ivan is shorter than me.

Irregular comparatives: good and bad 24

The adjectives good and bad are irregular. Comparative

Superlative

good

better

(the) best

bad

worse

(the) worst

I’m older than you. English is easier than German.

22b

22c

22d

If an adjective ends in –e (nice, rude) we simply add –r.

Mia is a good swimmer but Kitty is better than her.

I think cats are nicer than dogs.

Joe is the best keyboard player in the school.

Note the spelling of these adjectives: big ➞ bigger

hot ➞ hotter

The weather is bad in November, but it’s worse in December.

easy ➞ easier

happy ➞ happier

My worst subject is maths. I don’t understand it.

With some adjectives of two syllables, and with longer adjectives, we use more before the adjective.

Frequency adverbs

Blanka Vlašić is more famous than Dario Šarić.

We use frequency adverbs to say how often something happens.

Surfing is more exciting than swimming.

100%

We use as … as to say that two people or things are the same, and we use not as… as to say that two things are different.

always usually

25a

25b

I think dolphins are as intelligent as humans!

Superlatives With short adjectives (tall, small), we add - est to form the superlative.

25c

It’s the tallest building in the city.

If an adjective ends in –e (fine, rude ) we simply add –st. He’s the rudest person in the class.

23c

hot ➞ hottest

easy ➞ easiest

dry ➞ driest

26a

Frequency adverbs usually go before the main verb.

But they go after the verb be.

With some adjectives of two syllables, and with longer adjectives, we use the most before the adjective. Football is the most popular sport in our country.

We use prepositions of place to say where things are. Sadie is in her room.   There’s a clock above the bed. The shelves are under the window.

lazy ➞ laziest

Central Park is the most famous park in New York.

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never

Prepositions of place and time

Note the spelling of these adjectives: big ➞ biggest

sometimes

The bus is sometimes late. Spiders aren’t usually dangerous.

Unit 1 is the easiest unit in the book.

23b

often

I always get up at 7 o’clock. Do you always have cereal for breakfast? Elephants don’t usually eat spaghetti.

Croatia isn’t as big as Italy.

23a

0%

26b

in, on and at for place: He lives in Sydney, in Australia. My books are in my bag.   Your camera’s on the table.   There’s a picture on the wall. She’s at the bus stop. He’s at the cinema. Sadie’s at home. Mel’s at school.

Grammar notes

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26c

in, on and at for time: ● in

Expressing wishes I’d like …

with months, years and parts of the day.

My birthday’s in April.  He was born in 1993. She works in the morning/afternoon/evening. BUT He works at night. ● on

with days of the week and dates.

There’s a concert on Friday. Her birthday’s on 10th September. ● at

28

We use would (‘d) like … to say what we want, and what we want to do. I’d like a coffee and Jan would like a hot chocolate, please. We love Africa. We’d like to go to Kenya next year. What would you like to do?

with clock times and particular times.

Would Mrs White like a glass of water?

The concert starts at 7.30.   I go home at lunchtime. I don’t work at the weekend. He’s in bed at the moment.

Object pronouns 27a

27b

I he she it

we you they

me him her it

us you them

We use an object pronoun when it isn’t necessary to repeat a noun. Can you see my glasses? I can’t find them. (them = my glasses.)

27c

We put object pronouns after the main verb or after a preposition. Verb I love I don’t like Verb Don’t talk I’m waiting

Object pronoun you. him. Preposition

Object pronoun

to for

her! them.

Where’s my key? I can’t find it. That’s Karlo, the new student. Do you know him?

27d

Don’t forget the object pronoun! This is my new bike. Do you like it? (NOT Do you like?) A: Have some ice cream. B: Mmm! I like it. (NOT I like.)

An elephant never forgets!

Grammar Descriptions notes

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Messages 1 workbook