My name is I am in Class The name of my school is My English teacher is My address is
D O N
R S D 4 D U Y U S Y U R
7 1 2 3 4 5 6
AUSTRALIA Sydney Canberra
10 1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9
8 9 11
Subject pronouns 1a
he she it
You is singular and plural.
Note how we make questions. Jack is English.
Is Jack English?
Are they sisters?
We use the verb be in these expressions: I am twelve. Sadie is hungry. You are right.
Sadie and Joe, are you good at tennis?
be: past simple
They is masculine and feminine. A: Are the girls here? B: Yes, they’re in the living room.
I He/She/It We/You/They
We always write I as a capital letter. I’m Luigi and I’m Italian.
be: present simple Full forms
I am He/She/It is We/You/They are
I’m He’s/She’s/It’s We’re/You’re/They’re
I am not He/She/It is not We/You/They are not
I’m not He/She/It isn’t We/You/They aren’t
Am I …? Are you …? Is he/she/it …?
Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Yes, I am. No, I’m not. Yes, he/she/it is. No, he/she/it isn’t. Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Yes, we are. No, we aren’t. Yes, they are. No they aren’t.
Are we …? Are you …? Are they …?
was was were
NEGATIVE I He/She/It We/You/They
wasn’t (wasn’t = was not) wasn’t weren’t (weren’t = were not)
QUESTIONS Was I …?
Were you …? Was he/she/it …? Were we …? Were you …? Were they …?
SHORT ANSWERS Yes, you were. No, you weren’t. Yes, I was. No, I wasn’t. Yes, he/she/it was. No, he/she/it wasn’t. Yes, you were. No, you weren’t. Yes, we were. No, we weren’t. Yes, they were. No, they weren’t.
Note how we make questions. Jack was happy.
You were in London.
Was Jack happy?
Were you in London?
We use short forms (I’m, he’s, etc.) when we speak and when we write emails or letters to friends. We use full forms when we write formal texts.
I’m working. (’m = am) He’s/She’s/It’s working. (’s = is) We’re/You’re/They’re working. (’re = are)
NEGATIVE I’m not working. He/She/It isn’t working. (isn’t = is not) We/You/They aren’t working. (aren’t = are not)
Am I working? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are you working? Yes, I am. No, I’m not. Is he/she/it Yes, he/she/it is. working? No, he/she/it isn’t. Are we working? Yes, you are. No, you aren’t. Are you working? Yes, we are. No, we aren’t. Are they Yes, they are. working? No, they aren’t.
Do I eat fish?
Yes, you do. No, you don’t. Yes, I do. No, I don’t. Yes, he/she/it does. No, he/she/it doesn’t. Yes, you do. No, you don’t. Yes, we do. No, we don’t. Yes, they do. No, they don’t.
Do you eat fish? Does he/she/it eat fish? Do we eat fish?
Do you eat fish? Do they eat fish?
don’t eat fish. (don’t = do not) doesn’t eat fish. (doesn’t = does not) don’t eat fish.
We use the present simple to talk about habits, regular activities and things that are generally true. I play football every week. My cousin lives in Peru. Sadie doesn’t eat meat. Elephants don’t play tennis.
Note how we make questions. Mrs Kelly is working today. Is Mrs Kelly working today?
They’re working today.
Are they working today?
In the third person singular (he/she/it), we add s (he eats). But: watch – he watches finish – it finishes guess – he guesses go – she goes do – he does
We use the present continuous to talk about actions that are in progress now, in the present. Jack’s watching television at the moment. He isn’t doing his homework.
A: What are you doing?
Present simple 5a
AFFIRMATIVE I He/She/It We/You/They
5g eat fish. eats fish. eat fish.
if a verb ends in a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, etc.) + y, we change the y to ies. study – he studies carry – she carries
B: I’m cleaning the elephant’s
if a verb ends in ch, sh, ss or o, we add es.
Note how we make questions. Jack eats fish.
They eat meat.
Does Jack eat fish?
Do they eat meat?
Do, don’t, does and doesn’t are parts of the present simple. But remember that do is also an ordinary verb. Joe does his homework every evening. I don’t do judo. What do you do at the weekend?
Present continuous and present simple 6a
The present continuous describes something temporary, which is happening at the moment.
The past simple has the same form for all persons (I, you, he, she, it, we, they).
To form the past simple of regular verbs: ●
work – worked watch – watched play – played listen – listened
Ben’s in the living room. He’s watching TV. Look at Lisa! She’s standing on her head! ●
The present simple describes routines, habits, and regular actions.
Koalas sleep for twenty-two hours a day.
Don’t confuse the present continuous and the present simple!
with short verbs ending in 1 vowel + 1 consonant, we double the final consonant and add ed. We do the same with all verbs ending in vowel + l. stop – stopped travel – travelled
Sadie is sitting next to Eva today. She usually sits next to Lisa.
With certain verbs, we nearly always use the present simple: believe, know, like, love, mean, need, prefer, understand, want. I’m trying but I don’t understand.
with verbs ending in e, we add d. live – lived arrive – arrived close – closed like – liked die – died
Ben watches The X Factor every Saturday evening.
we add ed to the infinitive.
with verbs ending in a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, etc.) + y, we change the y to ied. try – tried study – studied carry – carried
Note how we make questions. Mrs Kelly worked yesterday.
Jack is going into the supermarket because he wants some crisps.
Did Mrs Kelly work yesterday?
Past simple: regular verbs 7a
AFFIRMATIVE I/He/She/It/ We/You/They
Did she work yesterday? worked.
NEGATIVE I/He/She/It/ We/You/They
She worked yesterday.
We use the past simple to talk about actions in the past. We didn’t play football yesterday. We played volleyball.
didn’t work. (didn’t = did not)
Did I work? Did you work? Did he/she/it work? Did we work? Did you work? Did they work?
Yes, you did. No, you didn’t. Yes, I did. No, I didn’t. Yes, he/she/it did. No, he/she/it didn’t. Yes, you did. No, you didn’t. Yes, we did. No, we didn’t. Yes, they did. No, they didn’t.
A: Did Columbus discover Australia? B: No, he didn’t.
Past simple: irregular verbs 8a
Irregular verbs do not have the usual ed ending in the past simple. see – saw go – went
Look at the list of irregular verbs on page 143 in the Student’s Book.
Like regular verbs, these verbs use did in questions and didn’t in the negative form. A: Was Lisa at school today? Did you see her? B: No, I didn’t.
Mr Kelly didn’t go to work yesterday.
We use the imperative to give orders or instructions. The imperative has got the same form as the infinitive. Open the door! Listen to the story!
I have breakfast at 7.30. Sophie is having a shower. Lisa always has eggs for breakfast.
We form the negative imperative with don’t (do not) + infinitive. Don’t open the door! Don’t touch that elephant!
there is / there are 11a
There isn’t a swimming pool. There aren’t any tennis courts.
AFFIRMATIVE I He/She/It We/You/They
We use there is + a singular noun and there are + a plural noun to say that something exists. There’s a café in Mill Street. There are two cinemas.
have got / have 10a
We use have (NOT have got) to talk about activities and things we eat.
’ve got (= have got) ’s got (= has got) ’ve got
A: Is there a film on television? B: No, there isn’t. A: Are there any girls in the band?
B: Yes, there are.
NEGATIVE I He/She/It We/You/They
haven’t got (= have not got) hasn’t got (= has not got) haven’t got
Yes, you have. No, you haven’t. Have you got …? Yes, I have. No, I haven’t. Has he/she/it Yes, he/she/it has. got …? No, he/she/it hasn’t. Have we got …? Yes, you have. No, you haven’t. Have you got …? Yes, we have. No, we haven’t. Have they got …? Yes, they have, No, they haven’t.
We use there is (NOT there are) in a list if the first thing is singular. There’s a café, a supermarket and two cinemas in Mill Street.
Have I got …?
Note how we make questions. There’s a car outside. Is there a car outside? There are two men at the door. Are there two men at the door?
We use There was/wasn’t and There were/ weren’t in the past.
Note how we make questions.
There was a concert last night.
Jack has got a bike.
A: Were there any buses yesterday?
You’ve got a problem.
B: No, there weren’t.
Has Jack got a bike?
Have you got a problem?
We use have got to talk about: ●
I’ve got a bike.
She’s got blue eyes.
relationships: Sophie has got a brother.
The elephant has got a headache.
AFFIRMATIVE I/He/She/It/ We/You/They
NEGATIVE I/He/She/It/ We/You/They
can’t come. (can’t = cannot)
Can I come? Can you come? Can he/she/it come? Can we come? Can you come? Can they come?
Yes, you can. No, you can’t. Yes, I can. No, I can’t. Yes, he/she/it can. No, he/she/it can’t. Yes, you can. No, you can’t. Yes, we can. No, we can’t. Yes, they can. No, they can’t.
Can and can’t have the same form for all persons. They go before the infinitive without to.
Note how we make questions. Jack can swim.
He can see me.
Can Jack swim?
Can he see me?
Articles: a, an, some and the 14a
We use a before words that begin with a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, etc.), and an before the vowels a, e, i and o, and sometimes u. It’s a message in a bottle. An elephant is an animal. I’ve got an umbrella. I don’t wear a uniform.
The plural of a/an is some. Some = an indefinite number of things or people. There are some crisps in the cupboard.
But we don’t use some when we mean things, animals or people in general. I like crisps.
We use can/can’t to talk about: ●
permission: A: Can I watch TV? B: Yes, but you can’t sit in my chair!
Sadie can come to the party, but Mel can’t come. She’s ill.
I saw a film last night. (We don’t know which film.)
We use the + thing/person when we’re talking about a particular thing/person. The film was brilliant. (We know which film. It’s a particular one.)
I can play the piano, but I can’t play the guitar.
We often use can with the verbs see and hear.
We use the before singular and plural words. Where is the telephone? Where are the eggs?
Listen! I can hear a noise. (NOT I hear a noise.) Look! I can see a spider. (NOT I see a spider.)
We use a/an + thing/person when we aren’t saying which thing/person.
We use the before the names of musical instruments after the verb play. Can you play the piano?
Note the meaning of these question words.
A: What’s your email address? B: email@example.com
A: Where are Sadie and Joe?
We use this (singular) and these (plural) to talk about things or people that are close to us. We use that (singular) and those (plural) for things or people that are further away.
B: They’re in the kitchen.
This isn’t my bag. That’s my bag over there.
A: How do you spell your name?
A: Which shoes do you like?
B: M-I-C-H-A-E-L .
B: I like these, but I don’t like those.
A: Who are your friends?
B: James and Tom.
A: When’s your birthday? B: The fourth of May. A: Why is the elephant
scared? B: Because there’s a ghost.
We can use this/these and that/those before a noun. I know that girl. This pizza’s good!
Plural nouns 16
With two names, we add ’s to the second name. Joe is Kate and Sadie’s brother.
To form the plural, we add s to most nouns. elephant – elephants pizza – pizzas day – days
Some nouns have an irregular plural, for example:
This is my parents’ bedroom.
one man ➞ two men
one woman ➞ two women
one child ➞ two children
one person ➞ two people
But with irregular plural nouns, we add ’s.
one foot ➞ two feet
one tooth ➞ two teeth
Where are the men’s toilets?
Countable and uncountable nouns 17a
Countable nouns are things that we can count. They’ve got a plural form.
a car – two cars a girl – three girls a story – some stories
Uncountable nouns are things that we can’t count. They don’t have a plural form. We use some/any with these nouns (NOT a/an). I want some information. (NOT an information or informations)
we you they
my his her its
our your their
The form of my, your, his, her, etc. is the same before a singular or a plural noun.
Note the use of his and her.
We use its when the possessor is an animal or a thing.
Let’s listen to some music. (NOT a music or musics)
Nouns can sometimes be countable or uncountable.
I he she It
This is my sister. My sisters are called Emma and Jenny.
Is there any bread? (NOT a bread or breads)
With plural nouns ending in s, we only add an apostrophe ( ’ ).
Countable: Can I have two coffees, please? (= two cups of coffee)
Joe and his sister Sadie (Joe ➞ his) Kate and her sister Sadie (Kate ➞ her)
Look at that elephant! Its ears are amazing.
Uncountable: We need some coffee.
some and any 18a
We use some and any to talk about an indefinite quantity or number.
We use adjectives (big, difficult, happy, good, etc.) to describe people and things.
We use some in affirmative sentences, and any in negative sentences and questions. We use them before plural countable nouns:
The form of the adjective is the same with singular and plural nouns.
I’ve got some sandwiches. There aren’t any trains today. Do you know any English songs?
and before uncountable nouns: I’ve got some money. There isn’t any pasta. Have you got any paper?
Possessive ‘s / s’ 19a
We use ’s to show that something belongs to someone. We add ’s to a singular noun. John is Sophie’s brother. The elephant’s ears are amazing.
Sadie is tired. Lisa and Ben are tired.
Adjectives go before the noun. I’ve got blue eyes. That’s an interesting idea.
We sometimes use these words before an adjective. 100% really
She isn’t very happy. That film’s really fantastic. English is quite difficult, but not very difficult.
Comparative adjectives, as …. as … 22a
With short adjectives (short, old), we add –er to form the comparative. Ivan is shorter than me.
Irregular comparatives: good and bad 24
The adjectives good and bad are irregular. Comparative
I’m older than you. English is easier than German.
If an adjective ends in –e (nice, rude) we simply add –r.
Mia is a good swimmer but Kitty is better than her.
I think cats are nicer than dogs.
Joe is the best keyboard player in the school.
Note the spelling of these adjectives: big ➞ bigger
hot ➞ hotter
The weather is bad in November, but it’s worse in December.
easy ➞ easier
happy ➞ happier
My worst subject is maths. I don’t understand it.
With some adjectives of two syllables, and with longer adjectives, we use more before the adjective.
Blanka Vlašić is more famous than Dario Šarić.
We use frequency adverbs to say how often something happens.
Surfing is more exciting than swimming.
We use as … as to say that two people or things are the same, and we use not as… as to say that two things are different.
I think dolphins are as intelligent as humans!
Superlatives With short adjectives (tall, small), we add - est to form the superlative.
It’s the tallest building in the city.
If an adjective ends in –e (fine, rude ) we simply add –st. He’s the rudest person in the class.
hot ➞ hottest
easy ➞ easiest
dry ➞ driest
Frequency adverbs usually go before the main verb.
But they go after the verb be.
With some adjectives of two syllables, and with longer adjectives, we use the most before the adjective. Football is the most popular sport in our country.
We use prepositions of place to say where things are. Sadie is in her room. There’s a clock above the bed. The shelves are under the window.
lazy ➞ laziest
Central Park is the most famous park in New York.
Prepositions of place and time
Note the spelling of these adjectives: big ➞ biggest
The bus is sometimes late. Spiders aren’t usually dangerous.
Unit 1 is the easiest unit in the book.
I always get up at 7 o’clock. Do you always have cereal for breakfast? Elephants don’t usually eat spaghetti.
Croatia isn’t as big as Italy.
in, on and at for place: He lives in Sydney, in Australia. My books are in my bag. Your camera’s on the table. There’s a picture on the wall. She’s at the bus stop. He’s at the cinema. Sadie’s at home. Mel’s at school.
in, on and at for time: ● in
Expressing wishes I’d like …
with months, years and parts of the day.
My birthday’s in April. He was born in 1993. She works in the morning/afternoon/evening. BUT He works at night. ● on
with days of the week and dates.
There’s a concert on Friday. Her birthday’s on 10th September. ● at
We use would (‘d) like … to say what we want, and what we want to do. I’d like a coffee and Jan would like a hot chocolate, please. We love Africa. We’d like to go to Kenya next year. What would you like to do?
with clock times and particular times.
Would Mrs White like a glass of water?
The concert starts at 7.30. I go home at lunchtime. I don’t work at the weekend. He’s in bed at the moment.
Object pronouns 27a
I he she it
we you they
me him her it
us you them
We use an object pronoun when it isn’t necessary to repeat a noun. Can you see my glasses? I can’t find them. (them = my glasses.)
We put object pronouns after the main verb or after a preposition. Verb I love I don’t like Verb Don’t talk I’m waiting
Object pronoun you. him. Preposition
Where’s my key? I can’t find it. That’s Karlo, the new student. Do you know him?
Don’t forget the object pronoun! This is my new bike. Do you like it? (NOT Do you like?) A: Have some ice cream. B: Mmm! I like it. (NOT I like.)
An elephant never forgets!
Grammar Descriptions notes
Published on Apr 9, 2013