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T R A N T i l l DOI

NGHIEN CUrU NGON NGUf CAC DAN TOC THIEU SO VIET NAM

NHA XUAT BAN DAI HOC QUOC GIA HA NOI - 1999


L d l GlCil THIEU CUA GIAO SU NGUYEN TAI CAN

Nude fa Id mot nUdc c6 rat nliiiu cgng dong ngUdi chung

song:

ben cgnh cgng dong ngUdi Kink chiein da so, dang con tren 60 cgng ddng ngUdi thieu so klidc: ngUdi Mi/dng, ngifdi Tdy Nii-ng, ngUdi Thai, ngUdi Cham, ngiidi. E de, ngUdi KhO me... Ngay trong ngi bg Viet Nam vice tim hieu ve fat cd cdc cgng de^ng ngifdi nay cdng da Id mot nhiem vu noi ten vi y nglu to Idn ve nhieu mat: ve mat chink tri, ve mat van kod, ve mat kkoa kgc cd ban. Nkd nude fa da c6 nkieu ckink sack dung dan ve cdc viing dan tgc nhU chu trUOng dink canh dink cU, day ingnk xod doi gidin

ngkeo,

plidbien

ckit. vief, ind trU&ng hoc, benh vien, day lui cdc fuc le cd hu...

Nki/ng

SI/ tki/c Iiien rd rang Id van ckUa tot vi thieu mot si/ dieu

tra ti mi, tim hieu sau sac ve th'Jc te cdc vitng do (xin nkd Igi khd klidn trong vice dink

cit ngiidi Rue ckang kgn).

cdc m.at ngon ngd, van tU, trang tri y pkuc,

Vice ngkien

nkd ci(a, am nhgc,

dno ciia cdc cgng dong thieu No'cdng dang frd thank qiian ngdnh

trong

cua cdc ngdnh

kkoa hoc nhdn

ciiu

van kod nglie thugt

van xd kgi nki/ ngdnh

vu

nkUng de tdi vd cua

ngon ngi/ kgc,

nkieu ddn

tgc kgc, nhdn chung hoc v.v... Cdc cgng dong ngiidi thieu so'6 Viet Nam phdn Idn lg.i c6 quan he} lick sit veSi cdc cgng dong ti/efng tU d nUdc ngodi trong vitng Ddng


vd Dong Nam A, vi du quan lie giUa Tdy

Nung

vd Choang, giUu

Mong vd Meo DaoejNam Trung Quoe:, giUa Thai Tdy Bdc vd Thai e} Lao. Thai Lan, giUa ngUdi Cham, ngifdi KhxT me Nam Bg vezfi- ngii'cfi Ch-cm, ngifdi. Klid me d Cdm pu chin v.v... Nhu' vgy viec tim hieu ve cdc e-cng ddng ngifdi ndy igi dong thdi trd thdnk mot van di chung cua ngcnh BongpkUdng

kgc quae: te, c6 pkdn vUdf ra ngodi cd phain vi cua nUdc to,

mot van di dong chgm din nkieu ban nkieu ngdnh kkdc (vi du Ban bleu gie^, ngdnh Du lick) dung clmin elen cd nkieu bg mon kkoa kgc kluic: be} mon Tkni kgc, bg mon KluJme hoc, bg mon Cham hoc v.v. . . Tip trWdc den nay chung ta da c6 nkieu. cogdng dHu tra di.e3n da (dieu tra rieng kodc dieu tra vdi sU cgng tdc cila ckuyin gia quoe te) nki/ng rd rdng Id kit qua con xa mdi fkod man dUdc cdc yea celu da ddf ra. Ly do c6 nkieu: ckung fa chUa c6 hi kogck todn dien, ckdng t'l ckUa CO ddu tit ddy du, cdc hUdc di vgck ra chUa tkgt ke^p ly v.v... Nki/ng tkeo y ckung tdi, ly do cd ban Id ckung ta chUa cd ke lioeicli ddo tgo ditdc mot dgi ngu dieu tra vien c6 tkdnk pkdn phdn bo reinp kkdp, du ddng ddo ve mat so liMng, du viing vdng vi mat ngki&p vu. Tkgt Id ddng tiec: d mot niidc cd hdn .50 cgng ddng tgc ngUdi khac nkau nhu d nUdc fa md mdi din nay mdi chi c6 mot bep mon day nlidt, kkd nko be; du'dc giao nhiem vu ckdm lo viec ddo tgo dgi ngu dieu trii ndy. Trong kki d Nkdt Bdn, Trung Quoe, Nga, Ank, Pkdp, My dd co fit Idu cdc bg man day vi fieng Tkdi, tie'ng Khd me, tieng Nam Ddo, tieng Nam A tin d cdc triidng dgi kgc vd cao ddng cua ta Igi Iwdn todn tkii'u ki'kogck gidng day cdc bg mon do, ngay cd d cdc tri/eing nam d trong long kay nam gdn gui vdi cdc viing ddn foe tkum so: Kkong cd bg mon dgy tie'ng Tdy Niing, Thdi d SU phgm Viet Bde, kkong cd bg mon dgy gido trink vi tieng Viet MUdng, tie'ng tieu chi Katu, Bd Nd d Dgi kgc Si/ pkgm Vinh vd Hue, kkong cd bg mon eigy


tiFnp, Chdm, tieng Khcfmer, cdc tieng thieu .so' Tdy Nguyin liejc tlidnh phdHo Chi Mink ...

d cdc dgi

Rd rdng can cd inept si/ ddi me^i mgnk dan, kip tkdi. Viec

tkdnk

lap Bdo tdng ddn tgc kgc mdi kkai trUdng gdn ddy cki/ng to rdng cap ti'f'n dd tkdy cd dd cd si/ ddi mdi budc ddu. NkUng can phdi doi mezH todn dien hdn ni/a, nhd't Id trong khdu vlet gido ti-ink, lap bg mon ddo tgo etgi ngu cdc nkd ngkiin

cdtu tri, cung nkU trong kkdu dink

hitdng

cQc etc tdi ngkien ci/u kkoa kgc ve cdc vitng ddn tgc it ngi/cfi ... Vdi y nghi nkii vgy, ckung tdi cho rdng viec ra ddi. cua mot gido trinh nhu gido trink ''Ngkien ci/u ngon ngi/ cdc ddn tgc thieu so' d Viit Nam" cua Phd tie'n si Trdn Tri Ddi Id mot viec rat ddng koan nglumk. Ddy Id mot cuon sack phd bii'n kip thdi nki/ng tri tki/c can tkiet; ingf cudn sack giup cho sink viin cd the trd Idi di/eic cdu hoi quan frgng 'Ngkien citu ngon ngi/ cdc ddn tgc tkii'u so'd Viet Nam di' Idm giT vd "kUdng ngkien ci/u dd dgi de phdi nhU flie ndo? gdm nhi/ng mat ckuyiu ndoC. Ckung tdi cko rdng ddy Id mot gido trink ddng di/dc in ra, vd in kip tkdi, cdng se^n cdng tot. Hd ngi, ngdy Nguyen

161911998 Tdi

Can


L d l NOI DAU

Ti-ong nhiing trUdng Dai hcjc c6 nganh Khoa hoc Nhan van d nude ta, tnrdng Dai hoc Khoa hoc Xa hoi va Nhan van thuoc Dai hoc Qiioi: gia Ha Noi la tritdng diiy nhat c6 mot bo mon rieng dam nhiem nhiem vu nghien ciiu va giang day ngon ngii cac dan toe thieu so 6 Viet Nfmi. 'ITf ngay thanh lap (1956), nhat la khi c6 mot nganh Ngon ngii hoc riftns,' (1964) trong khoa Ngu: van cua tntcfng Dai hoc Tong hc?p Ha Noi (nay la tritdng Dai hoc Khoa hoc Xa hoi va Nhan van), ngon ngu: cac dar>, toe thieu so' da la doi tUdng nghien ciiii quan trong cua cac nha ngon ngii hoc irong nganh. Da c6 rat nhieu sinh -vien thuoc cac the he khac nhau du:dc Cling cap nhiing hieu biet ve ngon ngQ - van hoa cac dan tgc d day va sjui khi ra tritdng da trd thanh nhiing nha nghien ciiu c6 ten tuoi b nhieu vien nghien ci'ru, trd thanh nhiing nha quan ly xa hoi c6 uy tin, gop ])h;in dang ke vac viec thrfe thi chinh sach phat trien dan toe va mien niii cua Dang va Nha nitdc ta. Tuy iihien, do nhieu ly do khac nhau, cho den Men nay Bg mem Ngon ngU - van kod cdc ddn tgc tkieu so'vkn chiia c6 diicic mot cuon giao trinh cd ban lam cong cu phuc vu cho viec hoc tap cua sinh vitVn cluiyen nganh, gay kho khan den viec gidi thieu va hoc tap phan kiisn thiic vira quan trong, vifa can thiet nay. Cuon giao trinh ciia e:hr'mg toi bien soan chinh la nham bo tuc cho sri thieu vdng do. Ngon ngU - van hoa cac dan toe thieu so'la mot khai niem kha rpiiig. No vira cd dot fUeJng la mot ngon ngit cu tke, vita ce5 doi ti/dng Id


nhiing van di ngon ngit cua cd mot viing lank tkd. Va lien qiuin tfii ngon ngfl Id van di vdn kod. Chinh nhiing dac die'm nay lam Hen nhflng kho khan rat kho vitdt qua la phai xay diing can triic giao trinh lam sao, liia chon lUdng kien thirc d miic nao dg c6 ditdc nhiing thong tin hiiu ich giiip cho sinh vien co dUdc nhiing nam bat can thiet ve ngon ngu: - van hoa cac dan tpc thieu so cf Viet Nam va gcii mci hitdng nghien ciiu cho ho. Thoa man dUdc yen can ay ro rang khong phai la mot viec lam don gian. Day la kho khan dau tien nan giai va thUdng tri^c ciia ngiidi bien soan giao trinh. Khi nhan nhiem vu bien soan cuo'n giao trinh, chung tcii y thiic rat ro nhiing kho khan ma minh se gap phai nhu da noi c! tren. Chiing toi da trao doi cong viec ma minh se phai lam vdi Giao sit Nguyin Tai Can va da nhan difdc tir Giao sif nhiing chi din va nhOtng Idi khuyen het siic quy bau. Mat khac chiing toi cling da tham khao y kien cua Giao sU Pho tien si Pham Dire Ditdng (nguyen Vien trUdng Vien Dong Nam A va Trucfng ban ngon ngfl dan tpc cua Vien Ngon ngii hoc), Giao s\i Pho tien si Hoang Th; Chau (nguyen Chii nhiem bo mon Ngon ngii cac dan tpc va khu viic) va mpt vai nha nghien cifu khac. Nhiing y kien ciia cac nha khoa hoc co kinh nghiem va da gin ca ddi minh vao cong viec nghien ciiu giang day ngon ngii cac dan toe n6i tren da giiip chiing toi tin hdn vac cong viec cua minh. Cuoi ciing chiing toi da soan thao ra duc?c mot de ciidng chi tiet ciia cuon gido trinh nay va trinh trade Hpi dong khoa hoc cua khoa Ngon ngii hcic. Ngay 13/9/97, Hpi dong khoa hoc md rpng khoa Ngon ngii hpc da hop de gop y kien ve de cudng cua giao trinh. Buoi hop co cac Giao SU TS Nguyin Lai, Giao sif PTS Doan Thien Thuat, Giao su PTS Le Quang Thiem, Giao sii PTS Dinh Van Dire, Ph6 giao sir PTS Hoang Trong Phien, Pho giao sU PTS Nguyin Cao Dam, Pho giao sU PTS Ti-an Khuyen, PTS Vu Diic Nghieu, PTS Nguyin Hiiu Dat, PTS Le


De'mg, PTS Nguyin Thi Viet Thanh. Pho giao sit PTS Hoang Van Ma, Tritc'ing phong nghien ciiu ngon ngii cac dan tpc ciia Vien Ngon ngii hoc (Trung tam Khoa hpc Xa hpi va Nhan van Quo'c gia) ciing da ihani dii. Trong buoi hop nay, chiing toi da nhan nhieu y kien dong gop qiian trong va hiiu ich ve nhieu van de khac nhau. Sau buoi thao luan do, chung toi bat tay vao viet cuo'n giao trinh ma chiing toi difdc pliaii cong. Khi soan thao cuo'n giao trinh, nhit da noi d tren, chiing toi luon hirdng tdi mot muc tieu la phai lam sao khi sinh vien sir dung cuon sach nay ho co the tra Idi cho minh dUcJc can hoi ngkiin citu ngon ngit cdc ddn tgc thieu so'd Viet Nam de Idm gi. Neu sinh vien sail khi sii dung cuo'n giao trinh nay tii tra Idi can hoi neu tren, tiic la ho da tit dinh hifdng dupe cho minh nhiing cong viec can phai lam. Noi mpt each khac, lam ditdc nhit vay titc la chiing toi da hitdng ch^ sinh vien den nhiing van de dang dat ra cho viec nghien citu ngon nRif cac dan toe thieu so'. Dieu nay ciing doi hoi chiing toi phai co mpt phitdng thirc nao do de trinh bay cho ditdc mot biic tranh ngon ngii van hoa cac dan tpc thieu so' viia ngin gpn vita day dii, giiip ich cho sinh vien lua chpn ditdc nhiing va'n de ma minh co the tham gia dong gop. Mong niuo'ii thi nhit vay nhitng co lam ditpc hay khong thi con chd thitc te tra Idi. Tuy do'i titpng chinh ciia cuon giao trinh nay la sinh vien ch uyin ngdnk ngon ngit kgc nhitng chiing toi vin hy vpng ring no se CO ich cho sinh vien cac chuyen nganh khac nhau nhu Ddn tgc kgc, Du lick hoc, Dong pkitdng kgc va tat ca nhiing ai quan tam den nhiing va'n de van hoa va ngon ngii n6i chung va ngon ngii - van hoa cac dan toe thieu so' d Viet Nam noi rieng. Chiing toi noi tdi dieu nay la nhd sit chiem nghiem tii ban than minh. Ban dau khi bat tay vao nghien ciiu ngon ngii cac dan tpc thieu so', chiing toi chi thuan tuy


tiep can d binh dien ca'u triic ngon ngii va chiing toi ciing khong Mnh dung ra ditdc nhiing kho khan ma minh vap phai. Nhung sil hap dan ciia va'n de, ban dau la tit ngon ngii va sau do dac biet la nhiing van de van hoa, da khien chiing toi chap nhan nhiing kho khan ma niiih gap phai. 6 dia hat nay, sii say me la dieu het site can thiet. Cuo'n gido trink ra mat ban dpc ditdc la nhd vao sit khiye^n khich, gop y, trao doi va tham gia cua cac thay, cac ban dong ngiidp ma chiing toi da trinh bay d tren hoac chita co dip nhac tdi. Chiin? toi Chan thanh cam dn ve nhiing dong gop cilc ky quy ban ay, nlfljig d6ng gop da giiip cho chiing toi tii tin trong cong viec thitc sit klio khan nay. Chung toi ciing mong muon va cam ta trudc cac nha .choa hoc, cac ban sinh vien, nhiing ai sii dung cuon sach nay'*' chi giac clio chiing toi nhiing dieu can phai bo sung, thay doi

Hd Ngi, ngdy 16 tlidng 9 ndm 1997

'-"> Chung toi mong muon ring khi sii dung cuon sacli nay, ban doc ban dai I Jell qua ChiMng 7, va sau khi doc cac chUdng sau, dac biet la ChUelJig 3 thi quay Iro lai loc ky chUdng 1 mot Ian niJa.

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NHLJ'NG QUY iTClC TRONG GlAO TRINH

1. Trong giao trinh nay chiing toi se su: dung dong thdi ca hai loi ghi am: Loi ghi dm tkeo ckit Quoe ngit vd lot ghi dm tkeo bang phien dm quo'c ti' (IPA). Loi ghi am thii hai nay can cti vao cuon Phonetic Symbol Guide ciia Geoffrey K. Pullum and William A Ladusaw do TrUdng Dai hpc Tdng he?p CHICAGO xua't ban nam 1986. Ghi am theo chii Quo'c ngii thi vUa dl a'n loat va di hieu cho dong dao ban doc, vi the chiing toi co' gang s i dung den m^c toi ds.. Tuy nhien nhiing luc can thiet, chiing toi se chii them each phien am quo'c te. Nhu vay, ve cd ban, giao trinh nay chpn each phien am Quo'c ngii la chii dao, con each phien am quo'c te chi nham giai thich each phifin am Quo'c ngii trong trUdng hdp can thiet, vi du phlfl,oh I hoac phiSn am nhiing tritdng hdp chii quo'c ngii khong the hien dUdc ti'nh cha't ngii am ciia no. 2. Trong giao trinh chiing toi se sii dung tU heu tii nhieu ngnon khac nhau, giiia cac tac gia khac nhau, chac chdn se khong c6 su phien am tho'ng nha't. Nhitng do tinh hinh a'n loat, chiing toi chUa khac phuc su thieu nhat quan nay bang each chuyen lai mpt 16'i phign am diiy nhat. Bdi vi ddi lai cho sU thong nha't a'y theo chiing toi se la nhiing mat mat khong the tranh dUdc (vi^c kho khan tra ciiu tai liยงu tham khao, sU chuyen doi khong that sii tUdng dUdng, tinh ge?i mci ciia va'n de ma cac tac gia khac dat ra...). Vi vay chiing t6i ve dai the

11


diing each phien am Qudc ngii vdn co trong cac tai lieu da din va neu can chiing toi chii giai svf tUdng ditdng trong ngoac ddn ben canh. Vi du : 5i (a ) Sau day la mpt so ky hieu cin phai giai thich. - Dang tai lap hay dang tien ngon ngii : -t<*s:

*s

s chuyen thanh t

- Da'u ~ CO nghia la hoac I kay. Vi du : A - B tUc la A hay B. - Ky hieu dat trong / / c6 gia tri dm vi, con ky hieu dat trong [ ] CO gia tri am to'.

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Chitang I

MOT VAI VAN DE CHUNG KHI NGHIEN CUtJ NGON NGty CAC DAN TOC THIEU SO 6 VIET NAM I. VIET NAM LA MOT QUOC GIA DA DAN TOC VA LA MOT DIA BAN THU NHO CUA BlTC TRANH NGON NGU" VAN HOA KHU VUC DONG NAM A. 1.1. Theo tai li^u so 121 - TCTK cua Tdng cue thong ke ngay 2 - 3 - 1979, nude Vi?t Nam c6 54 dan tpc gdm dan tpc Kinh (Viet) via 5>3 dan tpc thieu so khac. Nhu vgy Viet Nam Id mot quo'c gia da ddi^ tegc. Cac dan tpc thieu sod nitdc ta cU trii tU Bac vao Nam, d mien niii, trung du va ddng bang tao nen mot bUc tranh da dang va phUc tap v^ cSia VUC cU trii. Trong so 53 dSn tpc thieu so' b Viet Nam, chiing ta thay c6 Enat du cac nhom dSn tpc thupc cac ho ngon ngii khac nhau d khu v/uc Dong Nam A, ca d phan dat hen ciing nhu hai dac.d phia Blc la c;ac dan too thuoc nh6m Tay - Thai, Mong'" - Dao, Tang Mien... hi^n

'" Trong mot so t^i liSu, dan toe nay dvtac viet H'Mong. Cliinh each viet nay k h i e n cho nhieu ngiJcli phat am thanli Hd - Mong, ik each phat am m^ nhieu ngi/oi M6ng khOng dong y, Y\ the trong nhutng tai lieu chinh thcic gan day (Thong bao so 02 ngay 3 - 9 - 1!)92 cua "Van phong HDBT ve y kien ket luan ciia Chu tjch Hoi dong Bp truong nay \h I r h u tu6ng tai Hpi nghi viing cao vh d5n tpc Mong). NhS n\ldc ta diing each viet Moug tthay cho H'Mong va each viet nay ditpc ngi/oi Mong tan tlidnlv.

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CO ba con dang sinh song d Nam Trung Qudc, Lao, Thai Lan va Mien Dien. 0 mien Trung va mien Nam, cac dan tpc thupc nhanh ngon n^ii Mon - Khmer c6 ba con sinh song d Lao, Campuchia, Thai Lan... Dpc ven bien mien Trung va Tay Nguyen cac dan tpc c6 ngon ngu: thupc nhom Cham la nhiing cU dan ma ngUdi ta xac dinh la co ho hang xa vdi nhiing cU dan hien dang sinh so'ng d Malaixia va Indonesia. Co the noi, d dja hat ngon ngfi cac dan tpc, Viet Nam la bUc tranh thu nhd hinh anh cua khu vUc Dong Nam A, mpt viing dUdc G Con-domi-nas gpi la "v6 cimg phong phii va kha phiic tap ve phudng dien dan tpc hpc va ngon ngii hpc [7; 146]. ^A the tu: trUdc tdi nay cac nha nghien cUu dan tpc hpc, ngon ngU hpc tren the gidi luon luon quan tam den dia ban nay. Bdi le c6 dUdc nhflng hieu biet day dii ve van de ngon ngii - van hoa d day ciing chinh la c6 dupe nhiing hieu biet ve khu vUc Dong Nam A, mpt khu vUc dupc coi la mpt trong nhiing cai noi van hoa cd xUa ciia loai ngUdi, mpt khu viic co nen van minh liia nitdc phat trien riic rd. Do'i vdi ngudi Viet Nam, hieu biet day du nhiing va'n de ngon ngii van hoa - cac dan tpc thieu so' chinh la sU hieu biet den cpi ngudn nhflng sic thai van hoa khac nhau lam nen ban sac van hoa cua dan tpc Viet Nam thong nha't va cung la sU hieu biet cac nen van hoa ciia cac dan tpc lang gieng quan trpng cua minh. Dieu do se giiip chiing ta co nhflng hieu biet de hoa nhap vao cong ddng Dong Nam A ma khong lam ma't di ban sic cua riยงng minh. 1.2. Thiic ra, con so 53 dan tpc thieu so va ciing vdi dan tpc la each gpi Udc dinh, 53 ngon ngfl la con so mang tinh quan ly hanb chinh. Day la ket qua cua mpt qua trinh nghien cflu cong phu cua cac nha dan tpc hpc nUdc ta tfl khi nudc nha dUdc dpc lap (dac bi(!t la tii nam 1954, khi mien Bic dUpc giai phong) den khi Tdng cue Thong ke, thay mat Nha nitdc ta cong bo danh sach nhU da ndi. Trong qua trinh xac djnh danh muc thanh phan cac dan tpc d Vifet Nam a'y, dudng nhiยงn c6 su tham gia tich cue ciia cac nha ngon ngfl hpc. Nhflng kdt luan da co dd chi phu hpp vdi dieu ki$n nghien cflu luc ba'y gid, phan anh kha nang tiep can va'n de difdc dat ra vao thdi ky a'y. Hien nay chung ta co cd sd de noi rdng trong thitc te bite tranh ngdn ngii ddn tgc con phUc tap kdn nhieu. 14


C6 the lay trUdng hdp ddn tgc Ckitf va tii'ng Ckitt la vi du thU nhat cho thUc te noi tren. Trong danh muc tkdnk pkdn cdc ddn tor, cong bd nam 1979, tieng Chflt ciia dan tpc ChUt bao gdm nhflng nhom dia phitdng khac nhau co ten la May, Rue, Sach, Ma Lieng va Areui. Ca nam nhom nay ditdc coi la thanh vien dia phitdng ciia tieng Chflt. Co the thay quan niem ay trong cac tai lieu nghien cflu [10], [70] hay [114] va quan niem nay, dupe cha'p nhan trong gan hai thap ky qua, khi ai do b i t tay vao nghien cflu dan tpc nay. The nhung qua nhflng ket qua nghien cflu ngon ngfl gan day, ngifdi ta da co the cliflng minh ring trong thuc te nam nhom dia phUdng ma tritdc day ditdc coi la nhflng bp phan ciia tie'ng Chflt a'y e6 the la nhflng ngon ngfl khac biet nhau, tflc la chiing co the la nhitng ngon ngit. riing le chit khong phdi Id cdc pkitdng ngit cua mpt ngon ngfl. Cu thd la, ngitdi ta cho ring cai gpi la tieng Chflt chi c6 the bao gdm cac nhom May, Rue, Sach. Hai nhom con lai, tieng Arem va tieng Ma Lieng la nhflng ngon ngfl rieng le co ba con ho hang vdi tieng Chflt ay. Day la each dat va'n de dUdc trinh bay trong cac nghien cflu ciia M.Ferlus [40] ciia chung toi [24] va phan nao trong ca nghien cflu ciia Nguyin Van Loi [68] trong thdi gian gan day. Di vao chi tiet chung ta tha'y tinh hinh phan dinh ngon ngfl nay la nhu sau. Ngay tfl nam 1991 sau nhieu lan khao sat tai dja ban M.Ferlus da dflt khoat coi tieng Arem va Ma Lieng la nhflng ngon ngfl dpc lap vdi tie'ng Chflt (ma theo ong chi gdm co Rue, May va Sach). Nguyen Van Ldi trong khi trinh bay nhflng va'n de ve tie'ng Rue trong nhom Viet - Mitdng, dua vao su so sanh tfl vUng gifla cac ngon ngfl ciia nhom nay vdi tieng Vipt va tieng MUdng (Rue co 68 69% tfl chung vdi Vi^t, Mudng; Arem co 57% chung vdi Viet va Mudng) cung da tach tieng Chflt ra thanh ba nhom la : a) Nhom May, Rue, Sach; b) Nhom Ma Lieng va c) Nhom Arem [68; 19]. Co dieu la khi dita ra nhflng con sd nhU vay, tac gia sau nay khong noi ro von tfl ojtig so sanh la danh sach cac tfl ma Swadesh de nghi hay la dUa tren niOt danh sach co so' lupng tfl khac do ong lua chon va no la bao nhieu. Cho nen ket qua vfla neu cua ong chi co gia tri tham khao vi til ban than nd khong mang tinh tUdng minh de tach biet cac nhom dia phudng ra thanh nhflng ngon ngfl dpc lap. 15


Dua vao nhflng da'u hieu bien ddi ngon ngfl, mot tieu chi tkugc dia kgt so sanh lick sit, chiing toi da de nghi tach cai kho'i nia xUa nay chung ta vin gpi la tii'ng Ckitt thanh cac ngon ngfl khjic nhau [24] la Arem, Ma Lieng va Chflt (gdm nhflng nhom dia phudiig May, Rue, Sach). Vdi tinh trang xit ly thank dieu trong ngon ngit xi/a kia ggi Id tii'ng Ckitt ta tha'y nhom Arem tach rieng ra, do cho ngudi ta con tranh cai no da cd/ chua co thanh dieu. Tiep den ta co mpt nhom chung gdm Sach, May, Rue la nhflng nhom dia phUdng co 4 thanh dieu dien hinh. Sau do ta con lai nhom Ma Lieng vdi viec etue?c xac dinh la nhflng thd ngfl c6 6 thanh. Ngoai ly do chinh nhu da noi d tren ngUdi ta con tha'y co ly do khac nfla cho phep co chflng cd bd sung cho mpt sfl tach biet nhu vay. Dieu nay the hien ra't ro trong mot so'tit tkugc Idp tit cd hdn nhit b cac vi du sau day the hien : Viet

Ma

T i e n g Chuft

Arem

Lieng May

Rue

Sach

(mSt)?ra

plian

pulean

polan

tara

(mat) trang

ZL/I'

mal

mal

mal

taluk

may

du?

cut

cut

cut

?ngko':ng

niii

tlo

kuminh

kuminh

kuminh

kald

sao

atak

bdn

bdn

bdn

at3k

dai

hech

linh

linh

linh

llnh/ldi

Ipi (rang)

?umbo?

takok

tokok

takok

pil'

canh tay

takong

karuong

konrong

korudng

karong

hong

?ntzu

kulut

kulut

kulut

kaluo'ch

got chSn

lungo

tong

tong

tong

tong

tim

penh

klon

klon

k:on

mu'n

tron

tiak

tokal

tokal

tokal

tukal/tlok

tr^ng

ikai'

toh

to

toh

hel

cJo

16

167230311  

http://www.ebooksos.com

167230311  

http://www.ebooksos.com

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