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1921

1920

1919-1920 Palmer Raids

USA

1919

WORLD

Warren G. Harding became a president

Sacco and Vanzetti are convicted Federal-Aid Road Act funds a national highway

1923 1921

Chinese Communist

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Calvin Coolidge became a president because of Harding’s dead

1921

1921

CHAPTER 20 TIMELINE

1923

192 Benito Mussolini becomes a prime minister in Italy

1923 German suffers

Page 2 economic crisis


1920

1921

Calvin Coolidge is elected as president

1927

A. Phillip Randolph organizes the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters

1925 1924

Henry Ford introduces the Model A

1929 Herbert Hoover is elected as president

1927 1926

1926

Vladimir Ilich Lenin, British laborer Hirohito becomes who is the founder of declare a emperor of Japan For Union, more information about chapter 20, please visit our website Soviet dead general strike

1929 1929 National Revolutionary Party is organized Page 3 in Mexico


Professor Terry

Professor Linda

Professor Kanda

Professor Jessy

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1919-1940 Politics of the Roaring Twenties Section 1 American Struggle with Postwar Issues 1. 2. 3. 4.

Postwar Trends Fear of Communism Limiting Immigration A Time of Labor Unrest

p.6 p.7 p.8 p.8

Section 2 The Harding Presidency 1. Harding Struggles for Peace 2. Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration

p.10 p.11

Section 3 The Business of America 1. American Industries Flourish 2. America’s Standard of Living Soars 3. A Superficial Prosperity

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p.13 p.14 p.15

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Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues The fear of communism and “foreigners” was the cause of postwar isolationism

   

Nativism Isolationism Communism Anarchists

 Sacco and Vanzetti  Quota system  John L. Lew

Postwar Trends After World War I, the debate over the League of Nations had deeply divided America and the Economy was in a difficult state of adjustment. When soldiers came back, they faced employment or look their old jobs for low wage. In generally speaking, the cost of living had doubled so soldiers were too difficult in seeking a job. Besides that, a wave of Nativism against foreign-born people, swept the nation, so, a policy of pulling away from world affairs.

Fear of Communism

The roots of Communism lie squarely in the works of the philosopher Karl Marx. But at the same time, as we shall see, the tradition of Czarist absolutism also became an important source of Communist inspiration.

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The Red Scare Communist established "Red" and they wanted to abolish capitalism everywhere. This party had about seventy thousand radicals to join, including some from IWW (Industrial Workers of the World). They mailed to government and business leaders, so the public grew fearful that Communist were taking over. U.S Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer had a mission to combat this group The Red Scare

The Palmer Raids Palmer appointed Hoover as his special assistant. Their agents hunted down suspected Communist, socialist and anarchists. Then, they invaded private homes and offices and jailing suspects without allowing them legal counsel. As a result, they failed to turn up evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy.

Sacco and Vanzetti However, the shorted-lived, the Red Scare disagreed with people suspicions of foreigner and immigrants. Sacco and Vanzetti were the two most famous victims and both were Italian; both had evaded the draft during World War I. Although two of them did not have evidence that demonstrated they murdered, they were executed.

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Limiting Immigration The Klan Rises Again The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) devoted for 100% Americanism. They believed that keep in black in their place, destroying saloons, opposing union, and driving Roman Catholics, Jews and foreign-born people out of the country. Although the Klan dominated state politics in many states, by the end of the decade its criminal activity led to a decrease in power. The Ku Klux Klan

The Quota System The number of immigrants had grown almost 600% in 1919 to 1921The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 set up a quota system. The goal of this system was to cut sharply European immigration to US. The law prohibited Japanese immigration, causing much ill will between the two nations. During 1920s, about million Canadians and almost 500,000 Mexicans crossed the nation's border.

U.S. Patterns of Immigration, 1921-1929

A Time of Labor Unrest During the war, the government would not allow workers to strike because nothing could interfere with the war effort. Some employers saw a way to keep wages down, tried to show that union members planed a revolution. Employers labeled striking workers as Communist

The Boston Police Strike The police had been denied the right to unionize so they decided to strike. The strike was ended but members were not allowed to return to work; new policemen were hired instead. The Strike of Boston Police

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The Steel Mill Strike Workers in the steel mills wanted the right to negotiate for shorter working hours and living wage. In response, over 300,000 workers walked off their jobs. Then, the steel companies agreed on an eight hour day, but the steelworkers remained without a union.

The Coal Miners’ Strike John L. Lewis was a leader of United Mine Workers of America. He called his union's members out on strike on November 1, 1919. He helped the coal miner received a 27 percent wage increase and he became a national hero. However, did not achieve a shorter workday and a five-day workweek until the 1930s.

Labor Movement Loses Appeal Membership declined for several reasons: o Much of the work force consisted of immigrants willing to work in poor conditions o Since immigrants spoke a multitude of languages, union had difficulty organizing them o Farmers who had migrated to cities to find factory jobs were used to relying on themselves o Most unions excluded African Americans While America’s attitude toward unions was changing, so, too, was its faith in the presidency

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The Harding Presidency

Harding tried to help people after the war but it turned out as scandal

 Warren G. Harding  Charles Evans Hughes  Fordney-McCumber Tariff

 Ohio Gang  Teapot Dome scandal  Albert B. Fall

Harding Struggles for Peace In 1921, after World War I, President Harding opened a Washington Naval Conference and several major powers were invited. At the conference, Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes suggested that the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy should destroy their battleships, cruisers and aircraft carriers to maintain world peace. Conference ended with approval and cheer of delegates. So, for the first time, powerful countries all agreed not to declare war. President Warren G. Harding, who considered as one of the least successful presidents in America

High Tariffs and Reparations Britain and France think of two ways to pay the debt of $10 billion for America: one is by selling goods to America and another is by taking reparation from German. Nevertheless, in 1922, America passed the Fordney-McCumber Tariff to raise taxes on some import goods to 60%, which made the two countries unable to sell enough goods for the U.S to pay back the money.

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Britain and France had to choose German’s reparation. However, when German was impossible to give payment because of the terrible inflation, French troops went in the country. To avoid war, American banker Charles G. Dawes used Dawes Plan to negotiate loans. The plan was to help Britain and France by representing them to loan money from German. This mean that the United States are repaid by its own money. At the end, this plan turned out with resentments among the nations.

The Dawes Plan & Young Plan, 1924-30

Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration Harding’s Cabinet Harding appointed Charles Evan Hughes as Secretary of State, Herbert Hoover as Secretary of commerce and Andrew Melton as Secretary of treasury. However, the cabinet also included Ohio Gang, which is a group of best friends and political supporters whom President Warren G. Harding appointed to the cabinet.

Scandal Plagues Harding

President Warren G. Harding and his cabinet

One of the reasons that made Harding one of the least successful presidents is because he didn’t actually have the ability to solve the problem. Instead, he asked the secretary to find out the solution. This became worse when his best friends used this opportunity to be rich through bribe.

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The Teapot Dome Scandal The most scandalous corruption was the Teapot Dome scandal. The Secretary of Inferior Albert B. Fall secretly leased oil-rich public land to private companies in return for money and land. So, he was considered guilty of bribery and became the first American to commit crime while working in the cabinet. On August 2, 1923, President Harding died suddenly. And the next year, Vice-President Calvin Coolidge, a respected man of integrity, was elected as president.

Political cartoon depicting the Teapot Dome Scandal of the early 1920s.

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The Business of America

In 1920s, America Nation was transformed by consumer good fueled the business, the America’s Standard of Living Soars and a superficial prosperity

 Cavin Coolidge  Urban Sprawl

 Installment plan

American Industries Flourish Calvin Coolidge was a new president, fit into the pro-business spirit of the 1920s very well. His goals were keeping taxes down and business profits up, and gives businesses more available credit in order to expand. So, this goal was keep government interference in business to a minimum and to allow private enterprise to flourish and helped people had more money in their pocket. Calvin Coolidge

THE IMPACT OF THE AUTOMOBILE It changed the American landscape. Automobile effected the construction of paved roads such as the legendary Route 66, which provided a route for people trekking west from Chicago to California. After that, the rapid construction of gasoline stations, repair shops, public garages, motel, tourist camps, shopping center or bigger building such as the underwater tunnel, the cloverleaf intersection and other Automobile

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things were built to service for motor vehicles and automobile. However, it helped many families and workers who live miles from their jobs or places they wanted to go. Automobile was increased promptly. In 1920, 80% on automobile for every five people in the United States.

THE YOUNG AIRPLANE INDUSTRY

Route 66

Other transportation was airplane. The airplane was more and more modern. With the development of weather forecasting, planes began carrying radios and navigational instruments. After that, in 1926, it was made a trimester, then was helped to promote cargo and commercial airlines. In 1927, the Lockheed Company produced a single-engine plane, the Vega which was the most popular transport airplanes of the late 1920s.

Airplane

America’s Standard of Living Soar ELECTRICAL CONVENIENCES The use of electricity transformed the nation. Now, electricity was no longer restricted to central cities but could be transmitted to suburbs. So, more homes had electricity and they used something they needed. Eunice Fuller barnyard listed prices for electrical in a 1928 magazine article:

GOODS AND PRICES, 1900 AND 1928 1900 1928  Wringer and washboard $ 5  Washing machine $150  Brushes and brooms $ 5  Vacuum cleaner $ 50  Sewing machine(mechanical)$25  Sewing machine(electric) $ 60 However, it made the people’s life easier.

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THE DAWN OF MODERN ADVERTISING New goods flooding the market, advertising no longer just informed the public about products and prices. They hired psychologists to study how to appeal to people’s desire with for youthfulness, beauty, health, and wealth. Businesspeople applied the power of advertising to other areas of American life such as meeting for lunch with fellow members, or they sang a song, raised money for charities, booted the image of the businessman.

A Superficial Prosperity PRODUCING GREAT QUANTITIES OF GOODS As productivity increased, businesses expanded. There were numerous mergers of companies that manufactured automobiles, steel, and electrical equipment. Chain stores sprouted, selling groceries, drugs, shoes and clothes. So, the blue sky was not clear anymore because there were a number of other clouds. While iron and railroad industries were not very prosperous, they were producing more foods and goods than was needed

BUYING GOOODS ON CREDIT So, American industry provided another solution problem: easy credit, or “a dollar down and a dollar forever”. The installment plan was passed. It helped people could buy goods over an extended period, without having to put down much money at the time of purchase. Economists and business worried that it was really a sign of fundamental weaknesses behind a superficial economic prosperity. Finally, most Americans focused what possibly going wrong with nation’s economy and they could fix it.

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"Calvin Coolidge." The White House. Web. <http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/calvincoolidge>. "Nativism (politics)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nativism_(politics)>. "History of the Automobile." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_automobile>. "Ku Klux Klan." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ku_Klux_Klan>. Biographers, According To. "Warren G. Harding." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_G._Harding>. "The History of the Airplane - Orville and Wilbur Wright." Inventors. <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blairplane.htm>. "The History of Electricity - Electronics." Inventors. Web. <http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blelectric.htm>. "Charles G. Dawes - Biography." Nobelprize.org. <http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1925/dawes-bio.html>. "Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer Makes "The Case against the Reds"" History Matters: The U.S. Survey Course on the Web. <http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/4993/>. "The Sacco and Vanzetti Trial." UMKC School of Law. Web. <http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/saccov/saccov.htm>. "Emergency Quota Act United States Immigration Number Country." Business, Economy, Market Research, Finance, Income Tax Informations. <http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Emergency:Quota:Act.htm>.

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"John L. Lewis." United States History. Web. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1625.html>. "Fordney-McCumber Tariff." United States History. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1370.html>. "Ressources De." Technologie. <http://ressources2.techno.free.fr/informatique/sites/inventions/03.html>. "2009 July «." CharlesPaolino’s Blog. <http://charlespaolino.wordpress.com/2009/07/>. "YouTube - Buy an ELECTRIC Refrigerator!" YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 18 February 2006. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=duJvVExpAco>. "YouTube - Steam Powered Car and Airplane." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 31 October 2006. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UPEv_M7p4fA>. "YouTube - World of Warcraft Coke Commercial." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 17 May 2006. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DDfzdZqGoRU&feature=PlayList&p=F08B0260C0B857E3&playnext _from=PL&index=37&playnext=2>. "YouTube - Nelson Riddle / Route 66." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 25 April 2009. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcZ1k4d02KA&feature=fvst>. "YouTube - The Teapot Dome Scandal." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 16 November 2008. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rk6JHu4JZXY&feature=related>. "YouTube - The Dawes Plan of 1924." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 11 May 2009. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VKASMBsk1Kg>. “Chapter20”. McDougalLitell. The Americans.

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Chapter 20 Ebook