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Test Bank for Human Development A Life Span View 6th Edition by Kail Chapter 13—Making It in Midlife: The Biopsychosocial Challenges of Middle Adulthood

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Fifty-year-old Esmeralda has been a heavy smoker since her youth. In addition, she lives in a sunny climate and always has a deep tan. You would expect that she has ____ than most other people her age. a.

more gray hair

c.

more wrinkles

b.

a larger middleaged bulge

d.

less hair

ANS: C

DIF:

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

Easy

MSC: Application

2. The metabolic slowdown common to individuals in their early 30s and mid-50s will lead to ____ in many males. a.

gray hair

c.

wrinkles


b.

a middle-aged bulge

ANS: B

d.

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

hair loss

REF: 13.1

MSC: Factual

3. Osteoporosis is best thought of as involving a loss of bone a.

brittleness.

c.

hormones.

b.

porousness.

d.

mass.

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Factual

4. As Dr. Benton is looking at an X-ray of bones in your leg, his comment, ___________, would indicate that you may have osteoporosis.

a.

“I see less mass than normal”

b.

“I see excessive encapsulation”


c.

“I see a significant increase in density”

d.

“I see very little plaque”

ANS: A

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

5. Who is at the greatest risk of currently experiencing osteoporosis?

a.

Martha, who is a 20-year-old female

b.

George, who is a 30-year-old male

c.

Mary, who is a 60-year-old female

d.

Abe, who is a 70-year-old male

ANS: C OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Application


6. _____ is the leading cause of broken bones in older women. a.

Osteoarthritis

c.

Osteoporosis

b.

Rheumatoid arthritis

d.

Car accidents

DIF:

ANS: C OBJ: 13.1

Moderate

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Factual

7. Forty-five-year-old Marilyn, who is very concerned about osteoporosis, seeks medical advice from her physician. Which advice would her physician be least likely to give?

a.

“Let’s try increasing your alcohol consumption.”

b.

“Let’s try increasing your estrogen level.”

c.

“Let’s try increasing your exercise rate.”

d.

“Let’s try increasing your calcium consumption.”


ANS: A

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

8. The rate of osteoporosis is directly affected by the metabolism rate of vitamin a.

A.

c.

C.

b.

B.

d.

D.

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Factual

9. Connie is a knowledgeable individual so when her physician tells her that she will be put on a biophosphonate, Connie realizes that she most likely has a.

menopause.

c.

cancer.

b.

high blood pressure.

d.

osteoporosis.

ANS: D OBJ: 13.1

DIF:

Difficult

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Application


10. Which is best characterized as a “wear-and-tear” disease? a.

Osteoporosis

c.

Rheumatoid arthritis

b.

Osteoarthritis

d.

Menopause

ANS: B

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

11. Sixty-year-old Wendell is being examined by his physician. Wendell’s symptoms include joint pain that has gradually increased. When his doctor says, “Your pain is due to the damage to your cartilage caused by severe use over your lifetime,” you should correctly conclude that Wendell will be diagnosed with a.

the climacteric.

c.

osteoporosis.

b.

rheumatoid arthritis.

d.

osteoarthritis.

ANS: D OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Application


12. Misha often experiences severe swelling and joint pain in her fingers and wrists each morning. This pattern of symptoms is most likely due to a.

rheumatoid arthritis.

c.

the climacteric.

b.

osteoarthritis.

d.

osteoporosis.

ANS: A

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

13. Rheumatoid arthritis _____ osteoarthritis. a.

is another name for

c.

always precedes

b.

impacts different joints than

d.

is a noninflammatory version of


ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

REF:

13.1

MSC: Conceptual

14. One difference between osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis is that

a.

osteoarthritis is not painful.

b.

osteoarthritis typically occurs in adolescence.

c.

there is more swelling of the joints in rheumatoid arthritis.

d.

women are more likely to be affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Conceptual

15. Which statement concerning rheumatoid arthritis is true? a.

Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis need to avoid aspirin.

b.

Rheumatoid arthritis is inherited.


c.

Symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis come and go.

d.

Rheumatoid arthritis affects large joints (e.g., hips) but not small joints (e.g., fingers).

ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Factual

16. The defining element of “the climacteric� involves the loss of

a.

the natural ability to produce children.

b.

cancer-fighting agents.

c.

emotional stability.

d.

blood flow through the circulatory system.

ANS: A OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Factual


17. While at a checkup, 40-year-old Betty listens as her physician, Dr. White, describes Betty’s current health. Which of Dr. White’s statements would suggest that Betty is experiencing the climacteric?

a.

“Do genetic disorders run in your family?”

b.

“I hope that you have all the children you want.”

c.

“The loss of memory will be slow but significant.”

d.

“Some of your blood cells have begun to alter their shape.”

ANS: B OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Moderate

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Application

18. Forty-five-year-old Claire stopped menstruating some time ago. She is disappointed because she really wanted to have more children. What would a competent physician tell her?


a.

“Sorry, your childbearing days are now behind you.”

b.

“Just stop taking hormones and you could get pregnant again.”

c.

“It may be possible for you to have more children via in vitro fertilization.”

d.

“If you do HRT, you have a good chance of getting pregnant.”

ANS: C

DIF:

OBJ: 13.1

Difficult

REF: 13.1

MSC: Application

19. As women reach the climacteric, their menstruation cycles

a.

continue regularly for the remainder of their lives.

b.

become irregular and gradually stop altogether.

c.

become more and more irregular, but they never completely stop.


d.

stop all at once.

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Factual

20. How are menopause and the climacteric related?

a.

Menopause typically ends right before the climacteric.

b.

The climacteric typically ends right before menopause.

c.

Menopause occurs during the climacteric.

d.

Menopause and the climacteric are unrelated.

ANS: C OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Easy KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Conceptual

21. Shelly is a 46-year-old woman whose menstrual cycle has changed and is now more irregular and infrequent. Which term best describes Shelly’s condition?


23. The text notes that in _____, “menopausal syndrome� is thought to be the result of women with too much time on their hands. a.

Japan

c.

Nigeria

b.

Iraq

d.

Chile

ANS: A

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Factual

24. For Beth, menopause just ended. Which change should she expect?

a.

Enlarged vaginal walls

b.

Enlarged external genitalia

c.

Reduced vaginal lubrication

d.

Reduced possibility of painful intercourse

ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.1


OBJ: 13.1

MSC: Application

25. The primary reason that elderly women show a decline in sexual activity involves

a.

a normal physiological lack of interest.

b.

failure to achieve orgasm.

c.

the lack of a willing or appropriate partner.

d.

pain associated with vaginal changes.

ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Factual

26. In 2008, a 70-year-old woman gave birth to a baby that was conceived through a.

an egg from a surrogate mother.

c.

artificial insemination.

b.

hormone replacement

d.

in vitro fertilization.


therapy.

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Factual

27. Declining levels of estrogen typically do not increase the risk of

a.

osteoporosis.

c.

weight loss.

b.

memory loss.

d.

cardiovascular disease.

ANS: C OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.1

MSC: Factual

28. Albine’s physician has just informed her that she will need to begin hormone replacement therapy. In addition to estrogen, what hormone should Albine expect to be replaced?


a.

Dopamine

c.

Serotonin

b.

Testosterone

d.

Progesterone

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

29. Results from the Women’s Health Initiative study begun in 1991 revealed that the risk for _____ decreased in those taking estrogen plus progestin. a.

hip fractures

c.

breast cancer

b.

blood clots

d.

heart attack

ANS: A

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Factual

30. Yasmin is told that she will be taking selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). What medical condition is most likely being treated? a.

High blood

c.

Breast cancer


pressure

b.

Menopause

ANS: B

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

Rheumatoid arthritis

REF: 13.1

MSC: Application

31. Which appears to best explain the reason that Asian-American women report the fewest menopausal symptoms?

a.

They have genetically higher levels of estrogen

b.

Their small stature creates less pressure on bones and joints

c.

They use alternative medications

d.

They are the most likely to use HRT

ANS: C OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Difficult MSC: Conceptual

REF: 13.1


32. Tom has always wanted to be a father but has not yet found an acceptable partner. He is now 35 years old, healthy, and beginning to be concerned about how much longer he will remain fertile. When he asks his doctor about this, his doctor tells him that he will probably be capable of fathering a child a.

until he is about 45 years old.

c.

until he is about 85 years old.

b.

until he is about 65 years old.

d.

for the rest of his life.

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Application

33. Some males experience an age-related decline in ____ resulting in menopause-like symptoms. a.

testosterone

c.

estrogen

b.

dopamine

d.

progestin

ANS: A OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Easy MSC: Factual

REF: 13.1


34. As a typical middle-aged male, Rasheed will most likely experience

a.

a brief increase in sperm production.

c.

a prostate gland that becomes enlarged.

b.

a shorter resolution phase.

d.

more perceived demand to ejaculate.

ANS: C

DIF:

OBJ: 13.1

Moderate

REF: 13.1

MSC: Application

35. The loss of an available partner in older age a.

is a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for both men and women.

b.

is a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for men but not for women.

c.

is a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for women but not for men.


d.

is not a factor in the decrease in sexual intercourse for men or women.

ANS: A

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Factual

36. Who is likely to experience the most job-related stress?

a.

Tina, who has complete control over her job

b.

Lena, who has moderate control over her job

c.

Katrina, who has some control over her job

d.

Deena, who has no control over her job

ANS: D OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Easy

REF: 13.1

MSC: Application

37. For which occupation would you expect the least stress-related health problems?


a.

Social worker

c.

Truck driver

b.

CEO of a computer company

d.

Waiter

ANS: B

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Application

38. Compared to the average middle-aged man, the average middle-aged woman tends to a.

rate stressful experiences less negatively and to report more stress in family areas.

b.

rate stressful experiences more negatively and to report more stress in family areas.

c.

rate stressful experiences less negatively and to report more stress in financial areas.

d.

rate stressful experiences more negatively and to report more stress in financial areas.


ANS: B

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Factual

39. The stress and coping paradigm focuses on the interactive relationship between a.

person and environment.

c.

hormones and neurotransmitters.

b.

mind and body.

d.

family and work.

ANS: A

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Factual

40. Analyzing how a person thinks about her job and how that job situation ends up affecting the individual both psychologically and physically would be an example of an application of the a.

encapsulation pattern.

c.

stress and coping paradigm.

b.

Type A behavior pattern.

d.

generativity versus stagnation paradigm.


ANS: C

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Conceptual

41. Joy reads a note on her desk that says, “Joy, come to my office immediately. Signed, The Boss.” Joy immediately interprets this message as a threat to her job and her livelihood and is not sure she can deal with it. Joy’s interpretation of this note exemplifies a.

coping.

c.

stagnation.

b.

an appraisal.

d.

filial obligation.

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Application

42. Coping is defined as

a.

any attempt to deal with stress.

b.

any attempt to deal with stress that is repeated on at least two occasions.

c.

any rational attempt to deal with stress.


d.

any successful attempt to deal with stress.

ANS: A

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Factual

43. Heather is experiencing a great deal of stress. She has tried relaxation training, thinking about life events in a different way, and even talking to her friends. All of these strategies are best classified as attempts at a.

repression.

c.

stagnation.

b.

coping.

d.

appraisal.

ANS: B

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

44. Stress has been shown to decrease a.

angina.

c.

risk for irritable bowel syndrome.


b.

cholesterol levels.

ANS: D

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

estrogen levels.

REF: 13.1

MSC: Factual

45. Type A is to Type B as a.

set is to subset.

c.

intense is to calm.

b.

hassle is to appraisal.

d.

introversion is to extroversion.

ANS: C

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

46. Tabitha often gets frustrated. She honks her horn and yells at other drivers and will throw her racket if she gets beat playing tennis. Tabitha would probably be best described as a.

Type A.

c.

Type B.


b.

generative.

ANS: A

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

conscientious.

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

47. Which personality variable is most associated with cardiovascular disease?

a.

Extroversion

c.

Type B

b.

Type A

d.

Generativity

ANS: B

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Factual

48. If there were a phrase that would describe Stacy, it would be “laid back.” She rarely gets frustrated or angry, could care less about “climbing the corporate ladder,” and is satisfied taking “life as it comes.” Stacy is best described as exhibiting a.

neuroticism.

c.

stagnation.


b.

Type B behavior.

ANS: B

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

d.

Type A behavior.

REF: 13.1 MSC: Application

49. Research on Type A and Type B personalities provides support for the notion that

a.

psychological factors can be related to physical health.

b.

neurotransmitters are important determinants of behavior.

c.

sociocultural factors such as television can make life more stressful.

d.

elderly individuals are just as prone to stress as younger people.

ANS: A OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Conceptual


50. Sylvester has a Type A behavior pattern and Stallone has a Type B behavior pattern. Which statement is true? a.

Stallone has a greater risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease.

b.

Stallone likely has a much higher cholesterol count.

c.

Sylvester is more likely to be a smoker.

d.

Sylvester has a better recovery prognosis following a heart attack.

ANS: D

DIF:

OBJ: 13.1

Difficult

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Application

51. What appears to be the main reason why your Type A or Type B behavioral pattern influences your recovery rate following a heart attack? a.

It is a good predictor of the type of genetic factors known to cause future attacks.

b.

It affects how much physicians like being around you when you are a patient.


c.

It appears to influence your motivation to follow postattack health suggestions.

d.

The two types vary by sex, as do recovery rates.

ANS: C

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Conceptual

52. Which statement is true? a.

Low levels of self-esteem predict low levels of stress

b.

High levels of self-esteem predict low levels of stress

c.

High levels of self-esteem predict high levels of stress

d.

Stress and self-esteem are unrelated concepts

ANS: B OBJ: 13.1

53. Exercise

DIF: Easy MSC: Factual

REF: 13.1


a.

is not related to physical health.

b.

can significantly slow the aging process.

c.

is beneficial to health but does not affect the aging process.

d.

should be avoided by people over 50 years old.

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

MSC: Factual

54. Aerobic exercise is defined as a pulse rate between ____ percent of a person’s maximum rate. a.

40-70

c.

60-90

b.

50-80

d.

70-100

ANS: C OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Factual


55. Which runner is engaging in aerobic exercise?

a.

John, a 20-year-old whose heart rate is 210

b.

Denver, a 40-year-old whose heart rate is 100

c.

Sean, a 50-year-old whose heart rate is 130

d.

Austin, a 90 years old whose heart rate is 50

ANS: C

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

56. A person’s maximum heart rate is calculated by subtracting his or her age from a.

100.

c.

220.

b.

160.

d.

280.

ANS: C OBJ: 13.1

DIF: Difficult KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.1 MSC: Factual


57. Max engages in regular aerobic exercise. Relative to those who do not exercise, Max is likely to a.

be more depressed.

c.

show inhibited oxygen consumption.

b.

function better cognitively.

d.

have higher blood pressure.

ANS: B

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.1

REF: 13.1

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

58. ____ intelligence is defined as involving the skills and knowledge necessary for adapting to one’s physical and social environment. a.

Fluid

c.

Practical

b.

Traditional

d.

Unexercised

ANS: C OBJ: 13.2

DIF: Easy KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.2 MSC: Factual


59. Though Elsa does not score particularly high on traditional intelligence tests, she is very good at understanding income tax forms, can deal well with all different kinds of people, and is a good troubleshooter around the home and office. Elsa exhibits a.

Type B behavior.

c.

high unexercised ability.

b.

fluid intelligence.

d.

practical intelligence.

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

60. Dr. Zorba is giving 44-year-old Annette an intelligence test. Annette finds that she really likes answering the questions because they seem to be based on her life experiences. Dr. Zorba is most likely attempting to assess Annette’s a.

practical intelligence.

c.

ego resilience.

b.

generativity.

d.

fluid intelligence.

ANS: A

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.2


OBJ: 13.2

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

61. Which is the best example of a measure of practical

intelligence?

a.

The MMPI

b.

The Stanford-Binet

c.

Knowing how to balance a checkbook

d.

Knowing the square root of every number less than 100

ANS: C

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.2

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.2 MSC: Conceptual

62. In most people, practical intelligence

a.

begins to decline appreciably in young adulthood.

b.

begins to decline appreciably in middle age.

c.

begins to decline appreciably in old age.


d.

never declines.

ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Factual

63. Dharma is upset with the lack of manners her husband Greg displays while eating, so she looks away or leaves the table each time her husband behaves this way. Dharma’s response is best classified as a.

a cognitive analysis.

c.

avoidant thinking.

b. passive-dependent.d. problem-focused action.

ANS: B

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Application

64. When confronted with a problem in his relationships with his wife, Frank scoffs it off, saying “Ahhh, that’s not really an issue… it will work itself out.” This is probably best classified as

a.

a cognitive analysis.

c.

passive-dependent behavior.


b.

avoidant thinking.

ANS: B

d.

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.2

problem-focused action.

REF: 13.2

MSC: Application

65. McGuyver is trapped in a room with seemingly no way out. While contemplating his escape, he thinks about how part of the bed in the room could be used to make a helicopter. This practical thought is best classified as a.

problem-focused action.

c.

b.

a cognitive analysis.

d.

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

avoidant thinking.

denial.

REF: 13.2

MSC: Application

66. Which would best be classified as an instrumental task? a.

Taking an IQ test

c.

Climbing Mount Everest


b.

Teaching at a college

ANS: D

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

Driving to work

REF: 13.2

MSC: Application

67. According to research by Blanchard-Fields (2007), _____ would be most likely to be dealt with via avoidance-denial by middle-aged adults. a.

death of a spouse

c.

mowing the lawn

b.

buying groceries

d.

writing a thank you note

ANS: A

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Conceptual

68. Who is most likely to deal with an instrumental problem using a problemfocused strategy?

a.

10-year-old Buddy

c.

30-year-old Ray


b.

20-year-old Holly

ANS: D

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

40-year-old Charles

REF: 13.2

MSC: Application

69. Based on research, which of the following statements best summarizes how middle-aged adults solve problems? a.

Middle-aged adults solve all problems with a problemfocused approach.

b.

Middle-aged adults solve all problems with a passivedependent approach.

c.

Middle-aged adults solve problems similarly regardless of the emotional issues involved.

d.

Middle-aged adults solve problems differently depending on the type of problem.

ANS: D OBJ: 13.2

DIF: Moderate MSC: Application

REF: 13.2


70. What description does not accurately describe the skills that people with high practical intelligence have? a.

People with higher practical intelligence come up with more efficient ways to solve problems in daily life.

b.

People with higher practical intelligence are able to deal with change more quickly.

c.

People with higher practical intelligence are able to persuade people to change the way they do things.

d.

People with higher practical intelligence plan more effectively to prevent problems.

ANS: D OBJ: 13.2

DIF:

Moderate

MSC: Conceptual

REF: 13.2


71. The mechanics of intelligence best fits with which description? a.

Experienced-based

c.

Content-rich

b.

Neurophysiological

d.

Culturally dependent

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Conceptual

72. The ____ of intelligence is most likely to be affected by the culture in which you were raised. a.

process of thinking

c.

information processing

b.

mechanics

d.

pragmatics

ANS: D OBJ: 13.2

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.2

MSC: Conceptual

73. Mechanics of intelligence is to pragmatics of intelligence as


a.

thoughts are to hormones.

c.

fluid is to crystallized.

b.

Type A is to Type B.

d.

real life is to theoretical

ANS: C

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Conceptual

74. The “biological process of thinking� would be best associated with

a.

neuroticism.

c.

cultural influences.

b.

the mechanics of intelligence.

d.

the pragmatics of intelligence.

ANS: B OBJ: 13.2

DIF: Easy

REF: 13.2

MSC: Conceptual

75. Which term does not belong with the rest?


a.

Pragmatics of intelligence

b.

Mechanics of intelligence

c.

Psychological force impact on intelligence

d.

Sociocultural force impact on intelligence

ANS: B

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Conceptual

76. Which best exemplifies a sociocultural impact on intelligence?

a.

Learning how to drive by practicing driving

b.

Americans who fear those from the Middle East following the 9/11 attacks

c.

An increase in synaptic connections that results in a higher test score

d.

Learning to cook by reading a cookbook


ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Application

77. Which describes the normal pattern of pragmatics and mechanics intelligence development between ages 25 and 70?

a.

Both pragmatics and mechanics increase with age

b.

Both pragmatics and mechanics decrease with age

c.

Pragmatics remains constant while mechanics decreases

d.

Mechanics remains constant while pragmatics decreases

ANS: C

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Factual

78. Paula is an expert on the history of rock music while Donald is a novice. This means that Paula ____ than Donald.

a.

is less curious about rock music


b.

is more intelligent

c.

uses more steps in the thinking process when coming up with answers about rock music

d.

is more effective at determining correct solutions concerning rock music

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Application

79. How is expert problem-solving different from problem-solving by a novice?

a.

Novices are more curious

b.

Experts come to solutions faster

c.

Novices follow fewer rules

d.

Experts demonstrate less flexibility in thought

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.2


OBJ: 13.2

MSC: Factual

80. Expert performance tends to peak ____ and ____.

a.

in young adulthood; drop off significantly thereafter

b.

in young adulthood; drop off slightly thereafter

c.

in middle adulthood; drop off significantly thereafter

d.

in middle adulthood; drop off slightly thereafter

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Factual

81. If asked to list the “processes of thinking,” you should avoid saying,

a.

“memory.”

c.

“resilience.”


b.

“information processing.”

ANS: C

d.

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.2

“fluid intelligence.”

REF: 13.2

MSC: Factual

82. _____ occurs when the processes of thinking become connected to the products of thinking. a.

Agreeableness

c.

Generativity

b.

Encapsulation

d.

Openness

ANS: B

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.2

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.2 MSC: Factual

83. How does encapsulation assist older thinkers? a.

It helps compensate for declining processes of thinking

b.

It increases the capacity of short-term memory


c.

It allows them to begin to deal with abstract ideas

d.

It increases convergent thinking while inhibiting divergent thinking

ANS: A

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

84. Though her ability to think about other things has declined significantly, 74year-old Judy’s ability to interpret the law continues to make her an excellent attorney and judge. Judy’s ability to process information has most likely become ____ with her knowledge of the law. a.

stagnated

c.

encapsulated

b.

appraised

d.

crystallized

ANS: C OBJ: 13.2

DIF: Difficult KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.2 MSC: Application

85. One negative effect of encapsulation is the


a.

inability to solve practical problems.

b.

loss of the ability to explain why you came to a correct solution.

c.

increase in time needed to solve a task.

d.

loss of expertise.

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.2 MSC: Conceptual

86. Which statement between adult learners and their younger counterparts is true? a.

Adults are more willing to learn about abstract problems.

b.

Adults tend to be more motivated by internal factors.

c.

Younger learners tend to have a larger variety of experiences on which they can build.


d.

Younger learners have a higher need to know why they should learn something.

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.2

REF: 13.2

MSC: Conceptual

87. At which age is the debate of personality stability versus change most heated?

a.

The teen years

c.

Middle age

b.

Young adulthood

d.

Old age

ANS: C

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

MSC: Factual

88. Costa and McCrae’s model of personality, which includes dimensions like conscientiousness, neuroticis0m, and openness to experience, is commonly referred to as the ____model. a.

humanistic

c.

five-factor


b.

centrality

ANS: C

d.

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.3

psychodynamic

REF: 13.3

MSC: Factual

89. What are the five factors in the five-factor model? a.

Types of intelligence

c.

Stress and coping processes

b.

Abilities

d.

Dimensions/traits

ANS: D

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

MSC: Conceptual

90. An individual low on the ____ characteristic would likely be described as even-tempered and comfortable. a.

neuroticism

c.

conscientiousness

b.

openness to

d.

agreeableness


experience

ANS: A

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

91. Regis is asked to describe what it is like to work with Kathy Lee. In response, he says, “She is mean, anxious, and really self-conscious.” This description best matches a person scoring high on Costa and McCrae’s ____ personality dimension. a.

neuroticism

c.

extroversion

b.

openness to experience

d.

agreeableness

ANS: A

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

92. If Barney is accurately described as being very even-tempered and unemotional, he would likely score very low on a test of a.

openness to new experience.

c.

encapsulation.


b.

agreeableness.

ANS: D

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

neuroticism.

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

93. Newt is known for being very opinionated, extremely sociable, and loving a challenge. According to the Five-Factor model, Newt is best thought of as being a.

neurotic.

c.

extroverted

b.

introverted.

d.

agreeable.

ANS: C OBJ: 13.3

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Application

94. Since she has what Costa and McCrae would classify as a “highly extroverted� personality, you would expect that Samantha would be described by others as


a.

“a psychopath.”

c.

“lazy and disorganized.”

b.

“nice as you could imagine.”

d.

“loving the spotlight.”

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Application

95. Kevin is described by friends as having a great imagination and being willing to try anything once. Given this description, Kevin would most likely score very high on a scale of a.

agreeableness.

c.

neuroticism.

b.

openness to experience.

d.

conscientiousness.

ANS: B OBJ: 13.3

DIF: Easy KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Application

96. Which belongs on a list of traits of someone who scores low on an openness to experience assessment?


a.

Prefers stimulating environments

c.

Ambitious

b.

Antagonistic

d.

Uncurious

ANS: D

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

97. Since she has what Costa and McCrae would classify as an “agreeable” personality, you would expect that Marcy would be described by others as a a.

“wallflower.”

c.

“meanie.”

b.

“party animal.”

d.

“joy to be around.”

ANS: D OBJ: 13.3

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Application

98. A low score on the ____ personality dimension has been associated with having a Type A personality.


a.

agreeableness

c.

neuroticism

b.

openness to experience

d.

extroversion

ANS: A

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

99. On which personality dimension would someone who is stingy, critical, and suspicious score the lowest? a.

Neuroticism

c.

Agreeableness

b.

Extraversion

d.

Conscientiousness

ANS: C OBJ: 13.3

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Conceptual


100. Ruth is determined to become president of the corporation. She works more than 10 hours per day, is meticulous in her work, and sticks with the most difficult projects until they are completed. Ruth would most likely score highly on a scale that measured a.

conscientiousness.

c.

extroversion.

b.

agreeableness.

d.

openness to experience.

ANS: A

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Application

101. Ahmed is in charge of hiring new employees for his company. He wants to hire people who are very organized, responsible, and will work hard for the company. In which trait is Ahmed most interested? a.

Agreeableness

c.

Conscientiousness

b.

Extroversion

d.

Openness to experience

ANS: C OBJ: 13.3

DIF: Moderate MSC: Application

REF: 13.3


102. Which person is most likely to experience difficulty getting along with others?

a.

Reuben, who is low on conscientiousness

b.

Tabitha, who is low on neuroticism

c.

Juan, who is low on extroversion

d.

Marina, who is low on agreeableness

ANS: D

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Conceptual

103. Which best describes the findings from most longitudinal studies of personality stability?

a.

Personality traits are fairly stable across adulthood.

b.

Individuals become more psychopathic with age.

c.

Personality traits at age 20 predict virtually nothing at age 60.


d.

Individuals become more extroverted and open to experience with age.

ANS: A

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

MSC: Conceptual

104. Harvey is 32 years old, extroverted, very conscientious, and not open to experience. Based on the longitudinal research of Costa and McCrae’s personality dimensions, what will Harvey be like when he is 62 years old?

a.

Extroverted, conscientious, and open to experience

b.

Not extroverted, conscientious, and not open to experience

c.

Extroverted, conscientious, and not open to experience


d.

Extroverted, not conscientious, and not open to experience

ANS: C

DIF:

OBJ: 13.3

105.

Moderate

REF: 13.3

MSC: Application

Research suggests that during middle age,

a.

personality as reported by both self-report and by a spouse changes dramatically.

b.

personality as reported by self-report changes dramatically and by a spouse remains stable.

c.

personality as reported by a spouse changes dramatically and by self-report remains stable.

d.

personality as reported by both self-report and by a spouse remains stable.

ANS: D OBJ: 13.3

DIF:

Moderate

MSC: Factual

REF: 13.3


106. Which statement is true regarding the study of the Big Five conducted by Srivastava and colleagues (2003)?

a.

It was an experimental study

b.

It supported the notion that the Big Five are “set in plaster�

c.

There were several ethical concerns with the study

d.

It was a cross-sectional study

ANS: D

DIF:

OBJ: 13.3

Easy

REF: 13.3

MSC: Factual

107. Which statement is true regarding the findings of the Big Five study conducted by Srivastava and colleagues (2003)? a.

Agreeableness decreased over time

c.

Neuroticism changed over time for women

b.

Extraversion increased over time

d.

Conscientiousness was stable over adulthood


ANS: C

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

MSC: Factual

108. Which statement best describes a methological problem with the study of the Big Five conducted by Srivastava and colleagues (2003)? a.

The responses were based on self-report rather than observed traits.

b.

The use of Internet sites provides a representative sample.

c.

They drew cause-and-effect conclusions based on correlational data.

d.

You cannot generalize on the basis of case study data.

ANS: A

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

MSC: Conceptual

109. Which statement would be the most legitimate criticism of the study of the Big Five conducted by Srivastava and colleagues (2003)?

a.

The sample was not large enough.


b.

The use of Internet sites provides a non-representative sample.

c.

They drew cause-and-effect conclusions based on correlational data.

d.

You cannot generalize on the basis of case study data.

ANS: B

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

MSC: Conceptual

110. Erik Erikson believes that midlife involves a psychosocial crisis involving characteristics of a.

trust versus mistrust.

c.

industry versus inferiority.

b.

generativity versus stagnation.

d.

identity versus role confusion.

ANS: B OBJ: 13.3

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Factual


111.

Which statement best reflects Erikson’s concept of generativity?

a.

“Help the children, for they are our future.”

b.

“If I have lived the good life, death will be welcomed.”

c.

“I am comfortable with the love relationships in my life.”

d.

“If you trust others, you trust yourself.”

ANS: A

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

112. Earlier in his career, Monte was most interested in climbing the corporate ladder and making as much money as he could. Now, Monte is most interested in mentoring younger business professionals, helping them become better at what they do, and thus helping the company flourish. Which best describes the change in Monte? a.

A fun-seeking style

c.

A distant style

b.

Generativity

d.

Openness to experience


ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

113. How many of the following would be ways to demonstrating generativity: parenting, mentoring, volunteering, shopping? a.

1

c.

3

b.

2

d.

4

ANS: C

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.3

114. to

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Application

An individual characterizing what Erikson called “stagnation” is unable

a.

make meaningful appraisals concerning hassles.

b.

form a superego.

c.

contribute to a society’s continuation.


d.

think in an encapsulated manner.

ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

115. Which of Diane’s traits would indicate that she is in a state of stagnation? a.

Vivid imagination

c.

Energetic

b.

Self-indulgent

d.

Hostile

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

116. When he was much younger, Garnett was a star on his college basketball team. Now, he is the assistant coach of the team. Even though he is too old to play pro basketball, he is consumed by what could have been and still dreams of life as a professional basketball player. As a result, Garnett is frequently frustrated by the younger players who to him seem to be lazy and not utilizing their natural ability. Obviously, he is not a very good coach. What term best describes Garnett’s situation? a.

Generativity

c.

Encapsulation


b.

Filial obligation

ANS: D

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

Stagnation

REF: 13.3

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

117. As a caring uncle, Ben derives a lot of satisfaction when his niece performs well in her basketball games. Ben, however, has no real interest in actually teaching her how to improve her basketball skills. McAdams would cite this as a good example of a.

extroversion.

c.

neuroticism.

b.

generative action.

d.

generative concern.

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

118. a.

REF: 13.3

MSC: Application

Which statement is true in middle age? Both generative concern and generative action relate to life satisfaction


b.

Generative concern relates to life satisfaction but generative action does not

c.

Generative action relates to life satisfaction but generative concern does not

d.

Neither generative concern nor generative action relate to life satisfaction

ANS: B

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.3

119.

REF: 13.3

MSC: Conceptual

An individual with high generativity would most likely have

a.

a satisfactory marriage.

c.

a depressed spouse.

b.

no children.

d.

few friends

ANS: A OBJ: 13.3

120.

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.3

MSC: Conceptual

The notion of a “midlife crisis� is


a.

common in the popular press and supported by research.

b.

uncommon in the popular press and supported by research.

c.

common in the popular press and unsupported by research.

d.

uncommon in the popular press and unsupported by research.

ANS: C

DIF:

OBJ: 13.3 121.

Easy

REF: 13.3

MSC: Factual Which statement on “midlife crisis� is true?

a.

Midlife crises are common in both males and females.

b.

Midlife crises are not universal.

c.

Midlife crises are typically triggered by generativity.

d.

A midlife crisis usually has a profound effect on one’s gender-role identity.


ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.3

REF: 13.3

MSC: Conceptual

122. The greatest personality resource that enables an individual to avoid a midlife crisis is called a.

encapsulation.

c.

introversion.

b.

Type A behavior.

d.

ego resilience.

ANS: D

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.3

123.

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.3 MSC: Factual

What is the major role of a “kinkeeper?”

a.

Keeping track of the family finances

b.

Keeping a semiformal family history

c.

Keeping a sense of “traditional family values”


d.

Keeping family members in touch with one another

ANS: D

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Factual

124. Kay always does her best to make sure her children, parents, in-laws, and siblings get together for holidays, anniversaries, and birthdays. Kay would best be described as a.

Type A.

c.

a kinkeeper.

b.

a cultural conservator.

d.

encapsulated.

ANS: C

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.4

125.

a.

REF: 13.4

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

Which of these individuals is most likely to be a “kinkeeper?�

Ben, a 20-year-old father

c.

Charlie, a 45-yearold father


b.

Evelyn, a 45-yearold mother

ANS: B

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

Stephanie, a 20year-old mother

REF: 13.4

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

126. What are the “pieces of bread” on either side of the “sandwich generation?” a.

Job and family

c.

Parents and children

b.

Generativity and stagnation

d.

Stress and coping

ANS: C OBJ: 13.4

DIF: Moderate KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.4 MSC: Conceptual

127. Nina feels like she is being pulled apart from two different directions. On the one hand, she has her two daughters to take care of, and on the other


hand, she now has to also take care of her ailing mother and father. Which term best describes the situation in which Nina finds herself? a.

Practical intelligence

c.

Cultural conservator

b.

High neuroticism

d.

Sandwich generation

ANS: D

DIF:

OBJ: 13.4

128.

Easy

KEY: Key Term

REF: 13.4 MSC: Application

How could Silvia enter the “sandwich generation?�

a.

Get married

b.

Have her father move in with her while she is still caring for a child at home

c.

Enter a nursing home

d.

Have her youngest child finally go to college, leaving her at home with just her husband


ANS: B

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Application

129. Having a positive experience of an empty nest is most strongly influenced by a.

how well parents believe they did in their job as parents.

c.

how much emotional support parents provide for their children.

b.

how quickly children move back into the house.

d.

how much financial help parents provide to their children.

ANS: A

DIF: Difficult

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

MSC: Conceptual

130. Which 25-year-old is most likely to move back home with his or her parent? a.

A female with a college GPA of 2.5

c.

A female with a college GPA of 3.5

b.

A male with a college GPA of 2.5

d.

A male with a college GPA of 3.5


DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.4 OBJ: 13.4

131.

MSC: Application

How is gender related to caring for an aging parent?

a.

A son or son-in-law is typically responsible for care

b.

A daughter or daughter-in-law is typically responsible for care

c.

Gender matters but which one provides care varies by culture

d.

Gender does not influence who provides care

ANS: B OBJ: 13.4

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.4

MSC: Factual

132. The comment, “My parents cared for me for 18 years; I really should not complain about having to take care of them for a while when they are ill� provides an example of


a.

kinkeeping.

c.

filial obligation.

b.

generativity.

d.

introversion.

ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4 133.

REF: 13.4

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

Filial obligation is based on a sense of

a.

independence.

c.

stagnation.

b.

openness to experience.

d.

responsibility.

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

KEY: Key Term

MSC: Conceptual

134. You are a frail, elderly individual who needs care. If you are like most people in your situation, it is most likely that you are being cared for by

a.

a nursing home facility.

c.

your siblings.


b.

a hospital.

ANS: D

d.

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

your children.

REF: 13.4

MSC: Application

135. The two key sources of stress for adults caring for their parents include the child coping with a parent’s functional decline and if the care

a.

is temporary.

b.

is perceived as infringing on the caregiver’s other responsibilities.

c.

takes place in the parent’s home.

d.

takes place in a private facility..

ANS: B OBJ: 13.4

DIF: Easy

REF: 13.4

MSC: Factual

136. It is ____ for an adult child caregiver to feel resentful and angry at times about caring for an aging parent.


a.

very common

c.

somewhat unusual

b.

somewhat common

d.

very unusual

ANS: A

DIF: Easy

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

MSC: Factual

137. Research has indicated that a woman’s employment status has ____ impact on her decision to become a caregiver for a parent.

a.

no

c.

a moderate

b.

some

d.

a significant

ANS: A OBJ: 13.4

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.4

MSC: Factual

138. Darla is a traditional European-American caregiver for a parent. Cecilia is a traditional Hispanic-American caregiver for a parent. How are the two most likely to differ?


a.

Darla is more likely to use prayer to relieve caregiver stress

b.

Darla is likely to feel a stronger sense of filial obligation

c.

Cecilia is more likely to feel a sense of burden

d.

Cecilia is less likely to be depressed

ANS: D

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

MSC: Application

139. Older adults who value _____ are most likely to express a desire to pay for caregiving rather than asking a family member for help. a.

independence and extraversion

c.

dependence and autonomy

b.

dependence and extraversion

d.

independence and autonomy

ANS: D

DIF: Easy

REF: 13.4


OBJ: 13.4

MSC: Conceptual

140. ____ of older adults who receive help with daily activities feel negatively about the help they receive. a.

One-fourth

c.

One-half

b.

Three-fourths

d.

Two-thirds

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

MSC: Factual

141. Caring for aging parents can be beneficial in all of the following ways except a.

it can bring adult children and parents closer together.

c.

it can feel rewarding to the aging parent.

b.

it can provide a way for adult children to give back to their parents.

d.

it can feel rewarding to the adult child.


ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

MSC: Conceptual

142. Adult children caring for aging parents frequently experience all of the following negative repercussions except a.

employment issues.

c.

sleep disorders.

b.

burn out.

d.

depression.

ANS: C

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

MSC: Conceptual

143. Attempts to categorize types of grandparents have not been very successful because a.

grandparents use different styles with different grandchildren.

b.

measuring these styles has not been found to be valid.

c.

styles of grandparenting do not seem related to the quality of the relationship.


d.

grandparenting behavior differs during each interaction with the grandchild.

ANS: A

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

MSC: Conceptual

144. Which group is most likely to perceive grandparenthood as a central role?

a.

African Americans

c.

Latino Americans

b.

European Americans

d.

Native Americans

ANS: C OBJ: 13.4

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.4

MSC: Conceptual

145. Ben and Sky are Hopi grandparents who want their grandchild to live with them for a while so that they can be sure the grandchild learns the Hopi way. Ben and Sky exemplify the ____ style of grandparenting.


a.

indulgence

c.

dispenser of family wisdom

b.

cultural conservator

d.

reinvolvement with personal past

ANS: B

DIF: Moderate

OBJ: 13.4

REF: 13.4

MSC: Application

146. Which statement concerning how grandparent-grandchild relationships have changed over the past few decades is accurate?

a.

The incidence of grandparents as “surrogate parents� is decreasing.

b.

More grandparents now live lives independent from their grandchildren.

c.

Most modern grandparents now desire to rear their grandchildren.

d.

Most grandparents today live in closer proximity to their grandchildren.


ANS: B

DIF:

OBJ: 13.4

Moderate

REF: 13.4

MSC: Factual

147. Which statement concerning custodial care of grandchildren by grandparents is true? a.

Almost 20 million U.S. grandparents have grandchildren living with them

b.

In the U.S., grandparents automatically are granted legal guardianship of their grandchildren

c.

Rates of behavioral problems in children raised by grandparents is high

d.

The most common reason for a grandparent raising a grandchild involves the death of both parents

ANS: C OBJ: 13.4

DIF: Moderate

REF: 13.4

MSC: Factual

TRUE/FALSE

1. Most people gain weight between ages 30 and 50.


ANS: T

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

2. Use of calcium supplements may delay the onset of osteoporosis after menopause.

ANS: T

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

3. Osteoarthritis involves a loss of bone mass and the honeycombing of bone material.

ANS: F

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

4. Rheumatoid arthritis develops quickly but can be cured with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

ANS: F

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

5. Headaches and rapid heart rate are common physical symptoms of menopause.

ANS: T

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1


6. After menopause, vaginal walls and the vagina both increase in size.

ANS: F

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

7. The most common form of HRT involves low doses of estrogen and testosterone.

ANS: F

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

8. During midlife, the prostate gland of males can enlarge and block the urinary track.

ANS: T

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

9. Culture appears to play no role in how people perceive stress.

ANS: T

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1


10. Stress can trigger negative conditions like angina and arrhythmia.

ANS: T

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

11. Individuals with Type B personalities tend to be angry and aggressive.

ANS: F

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

12. In order to be engaging in aerobic exercise, a person’s pulse rate must be above 100 percent of his or her maximum heart rate.

ANS: F

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

13. Avoidant thinking involves rationalizing or reframing a problem to minimize its seriousness.

ANS: T

REF: 13.2

OBJ: 13.2

14. The mechanics of intelligence are most closely associated with sociocultural forces.


ANS: F

REF: 13.2

OBJ: 13.2

15. Experts are always faster and use more rules than novices.

ANS: F

REF: 13.2

OBJ: 13.2

16. Encapsulation allows an aging person to compensate for declines in underlying abilities.

ANS: T

REF: 13.2

OBJ: 13.2

17. An individual high in extraversion will go out of his or her way to avoid interacting with others.

ANS: F

REF: 13.3

OBJ: 13.3

18. Costa and McCrae argue that personality traits undergo significant changes between young and old adulthood.

ANS: F

REF: 13.3

OBJ: 13.3


19. Erikson viewed the key crisis of midlife as one of stagnation versus generativity.

ANS: T

REF: 13.3

OBJ: 13.3

20. There is significant research support for the idea of a “midlife crisis.�

ANS: F

REF: 13.3

OBJ: 13.3

21. Kinkeepers help keep family members in touch.

ANS: T

REF: 13.4

OBJ: 13.4

22. Women are more likely than men to move back with their parents after college.

ANS: F

REF: 13.4

OBJ: 13.4

23. Someone high in filial obligation feels responsible for the care of his or her parents.


ANS: T

REF: 13.4

OBJ: 13.4

24. Caring for a parent typically coincides with women’s peak employment years.

ANS: T

REF: 13.4

OBJ: 13.4

25. Fictive adults functionally serve as surrogate grandparents.

ANS: T

REF: 13.4

OBJ: 13.4

COMPLETION

1. _____ is a disease characterized by severe loss of bone mass.

ANS: Osteoporosis

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

2. _____ arthritis results in severe joint inflammation and has symptoms that come and go in repeating patterns.

ANS: Rheumatoid

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1


3. The process during which middle-aged women pass from reproductive to nonreproductive years, which includes menopause, is called _____.

ANS: climacteric

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

4. The process of giving women low doses of estrogen and progestin is referred to as _____ therapy.

ANS: hormone replacement

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

5. Any deliberate attempt to deal with some form of stress is referred to as _____.

ANS: coping

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

6. Individuals with Type _____ behavior pattern tend to be nonhostile and very patient.

ANS: B

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1

7. _____ exercise requires maintaining a pulse rate between 60 and 90 percent of your maximum heart rate.

ANS: Aerobic

REF: 13.1

OBJ: 13.1


8. The process of _____ allows an aging expert to compensate for declines in the process of thinking.

ANS: encapsulation

REF: 13.2

OBJ: 13.2

9. People who score high on the five-factor dimension of _____ tend to be hostile, self-conscious, and vulnerable.

ANS: neuroticism

REF: 13.3

OBJ: 13.3

10. An individual who is very willing to work with others and who is viewed as very caring would score high on the five-factor dimension of _____.

ANS: agreeableness

REF: 13.3

OBJ: 13.3

11. Erikson used the term _____ to describe the middle-aged focus on helping others in an effort to ensure continuation of society by guiding the next generation.

ANS: generativity

REF: 13.3

OBJ: 13.3

12. A key factor in allowing middle-aged individuals to successfully handle midlife changes is called ego _____.

ANS: resilience

REF: 13.3

OBJ: 13.3


13. Many middle-aged women take on the role of family _____ in which they assist in getting everyone together for family gatherings and generally help family members keep in touch.

ANS: kinkeeper

REF: 13.4

OBJ: 13.4

14. Middle-aged adults simultaneously caring for children and parents are referred to as being in the _____ generation.

ANS: sandwich

REF: 13.4

OBJ: 13.4

15. Adult children who feel a strong sense of responsibility to care for aging parents are said to have a sense of _____obligation.

ANS: filial

REF: 13.4

OBJ: 13.4

ESSAY

1. Joint-related disorders represent a major challenge during middle age. Describe three examples of joint problems—osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis—focusing on issues of impact and treatment.

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.1

2. Aphrodite is going through menopause and is considering hormone replacement therapy. What symptoms should she expect to experience during


menopause? What would you advise her to do concerning HRT? Use research presented in your text to explain why you would give her this advice.

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.1

3. Describe how coping and appraisals are involved in the stress and coping paradigm.

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.1

4. Describe the relationship between stress, physical health, and the Type A behavior pattern.

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.1

5. Compare and contrast practical intelligence with other types of intelligence (i.e. fluid, crystallized).

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.2

6. How does the thinking process of a novice differ from that of an expert? What role might encapsulation play in differentiating the groups?


ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.2

7. Use the research presented in your text to explain how nontraditional-aged college students are different from traditional 18- to 22-year-old college students when it comes to learning.

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.2

8. Jim wonders if his wife Ann (age 25) will have the same personality when she gets to be middle-aged. Use research provided in your text to describe which aspects of Ann’s personality are most and least likely to change.

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.3

9. Use the five-factor model to describe what you believe would be an ideal grandparent. Be sure to explain your description.

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.3

10. Describe the role of grandparenting in at least three different cultures.

ANS: Answer not provided.

OBJ: 13.4


11. What constitutes aerobic exercise, and what benefits does it provide during middle age?

ANS: Aerobic exercise is requires the maintenance of a pulse rate between 60 and 90 percent of a person’s maximum heart rate. The maximum heart rate is calculated by subtracting one’s age from 220. Physical benefits of aerobic exercise include improving blood pressure, strength, endurance, flexibility, and coordination. Psychological benefits of aerobic exercise include lower levels of stress, better mood, and better cognitive functioning.

OBJ: 13.1

12. Describe generativity, kinkeepers, the sandwich generation, and filial obligation. Then discuss the common theme that runs through each.

ANS: Erikson suggested that during middle age, some individuals exhibit generativity by helping others in order to ensure the continuation of society by guiding the next generation. A kinkeeper gathers family members together for celebrations and helps them keep in touch. Members of the sandwich generation are caught in the middle of caring for both their children and their parents. A filial obligation is an adult child’s sense of responsibility to care for a parent in need. The common theme is one of care for the good of others.

OBJ: 13.4

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Test Bank for Human Development A Life Span View 6th Edition by Kail  

link full download: https://bit.ly/2XjDYLy Source Book data Language: English ISBN13: 9781111834111 ISBN13: 9781111834111 ISBN10: 1...

Test Bank for Human Development A Life Span View 6th Edition by Kail  

link full download: https://bit.ly/2XjDYLy Source Book data Language: English ISBN13: 9781111834111 ISBN13: 9781111834111 ISBN10: 1...

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