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THE

PRINT MANUAL


CONTENTS Chapter 1// COLOUR pantone CMYK & RGB spot colour monochrome duotone tints & shades colour glossary

Chapter 2// PRINT PROCESSES flexography lithography rotogravure screen print pad Chapter 3// STOCK

paper sizes & weights types of stock choosing the right stock

Chapter 4// TECHNIQUES & PROCESSES embossing foiling lamination spot varnish die-cutting

Chapter 5// COMMERCIAL PRINTING

talking to printers commercial printers

Chapter 6// CONTACT INFORMATION Leeds London


chapter

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C O L O UR

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COLOUR


The accuracy of colour is critical in design. Because what you see on your monitor is never what will appear on a printed sheet, designers need a standardized color key.

A way to prevent this is by using a standardized color matching system, such as the PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM. Though PANTONE is not the only color standardization system, it is the most widely used and the one that most printers understand. Aside from being able to have consistency, PAN-

PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM


C O L O UR

CMYK The CMYK colour model (process colour, four colour) is a subtractive color model, used in colour printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself.

The CMYK model works by partially or entirely masking colours on a lighter, usually white, background. The ink reduces the light that would otherwise be reflected. Such a model is called subtractive because inks "subtract"brightness from white.

The RGB colour model is an additive colour model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colours.

The main purpose of the RGB colour model is for the sensing, representation, and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography.

The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colours:

Typical RGB input devices are colour TV and video cameras, image scanners, and digital cameras. Typical RGB output devices are TV sets of various technologies (CRT, LCD, plasma, etc.), computer and mobile phone displays, video projectors, multicolour LED displays, and large screens such as JumboTron, etc.

red green blue

CMYK refers to the four inks used in some colour printing:

cyan magenta yellow key

RGB

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SPOT COLOUR In offset printing, a spot colour is any colour generated by an ink (pure of mixed) that is printed using a single run Spot colour can also refer to any colour generated by a non-standard offset ink such as metallic, fluorescent, spot varnish or custom hand-made inks

Generally the cost and potential for problems for a print job increase as one adds more spot colors, due to the increased cost and complexity of added process inks and films, and requiring more runs per finished print. However, because of the complicated process, spot colours are effective at preventing forgeries of money, passports, bonds and other important documents.


However, scientifically speaking, "Monochromatic light" refers to light of a narrow frequency.

C O L O UR

A monochromatic object or image has colours in shades of limited colors or hues. Images using only shades of grey (with or without black and/or white) are called grayscale or black-and-white.

print in one colour or shades of one colour

MONOCHROME 1


DUOTONE

the halftone reproduction of an image using the superimposition of one contrasting colour halftone over another colour halftone is used to bring out middle tones and highlights of an image tritones and quadtones can also be created


increases lightness

C O L O UR

a tint is the mixture of a colour with white-

a shade is the mixture of a colour with blackreduces lightness

TINTS & SHADES

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CMYK cyan, magenta, yellow, black RGB red, green, blue Spot Colour a method of specifying and printing colours in which each colour is printed with its own ink Monochrome print in one colour or shades of one colour Duotone a reproduction of an image in which the various tones of gray or colour are produced by dots of ink Tritone image printed with three colours using dots of ink Qaudratone image printed with four colours using dots of ink

Tint the mixture of a colour with white Shade the mixture of a colour with black Tone created by adding black and white (grey) to a colour Hue synonym for colour Additive Colour where colour is created by mixing the visible light emitted from differently coloured light sources Subtractive Colour where light is removed from various part of the visible spectrum to create colours

COLOUR

GLOSSARY for quick and easy referencing


C O L O UR

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chapter

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PRIN T PRO CESSES

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PRINT PROCESSES


Flexography is a form of printing process which utilizes a flexible relief plate. It is essentially a modern version of letterpress which can be used for printing on almost any type of substrate, including plastic, metallic films, cellophane, and paper. It is widely used for printing on the nonporous substrates required for various types of food packaging.

The inked plates with a slightly raised image are rotated on a cylinder which transfers the image to the substrate. Flexography uses fast-drying inks, is a high-speed print process, can print on many types of absorbent and non-absorbent materials, and can print continuous patterns (such as for giftwrap and wallpaper). Some typical applications for flexography are paper and plastic bags, milk cartons, disposable cups, and candy bar wrappers. Flexography printing may also be used for envelopes, labels, and newspapers.

FLEXOGRAPHY


PRIN T PRO CESSES

LITHOGRAPHY For offset lithography, flexible aluminum, polyester, mylar or paper printing plates are used. Modern printing plates have a brushed or roughened texture and are covered with a photosensitive emulsion. A photographic negative of the desired image is placed in contact with the emulsion and the plate is exposed to ultraviolet light. After development, the emulsion shows a reverse of the negative image, which is thus a duplicate of the original (positive) image. The positive image is the emulsion that remains after imaging. High-volume lithography is used presently to produce posters, maps, books, newspapers, and packaging—just about any smooth, mass-produced item with print and graphics on it. Most books, indeed all types of high-volume text, are now printed using offset lithography.

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ROTOGRAVURE Rotogravure (Roto or Gravure for short) is a type of intaglio printing process; that is, it involves engraving the image onto an image carrier. In gravure printing, the image is engraved onto a cylinder because, like offset printing and flexography, it uses a rotary printing press. Once a staple of newspaper photo features, the rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and corrugated (cardboard) product packaging.

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

printing cylinders that can last through large-volume runs without getting worn out

high start-up costs: hundreds of thousands of copies needed to make it profitable

good quality image reproduction

rasterized lines and texts use of chemicals in the ink.

low per-unit costs running


PRIN T PRO CESSES

Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. The attached stencil forms open areas of mesh that transfer ink or other printable materials which can be pressed through the mesh as a sharp-edged image onto a substrate. A fill blade or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing or pumping ink into the mesh openings for transfer by capillary action during the squeegee stroke.

screenprinting is used in many different industries, including: balloons clothing decals medical devices printed electronics product labels signs and displays snowboard graphics textile fabric

SCREEN

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PAD Pad printing is a printing process that can transfer a 2-D image onto a 3-D object. This is accomplished using an indirect offset (gravure) printing process that involves an image being transferred from the clichĂŠ via a silicone pad onto a substrate.

Pad printing is used for printing on otherwise impossible products in many industries including medical, automotive, promotional, apparel, and electronic objects, as well as appliances, sports equipment and toys. It can also be used to deposit functional materials such asconductive inks, adhesives, dyes and lubricants.


PRIN T PRO CESSES

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chapter

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S TO CK

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STOCK


PAPER SIZES & WEIGHTS paper thickness Thickness of paper is specified by its weight in grams per square metre (GM or GSM). Low grade photocopier paper is around 80gsm; letterheads 100-120gsm with good quality letterhead around 120gsm. Business cards are around 350gsm and flyers around 300gsm350gsm. Some papers seem thicker or bulkier than others, despite being the same weight. Uncoated papers are bulkier than coated and matt and silk coated papers are bulkier than gloss. Card, is often measured in microns (one micron is 1,000th of a millimetre.


S TO CK what are the main paper sizes? The most common system of paper sizes in Europe is the ISO standard. The A series sizes are: A0 - 841 x 1189mm A1 - 594 x 841mm A2 - 420 x 594mm A3 - 297 x 420mm A4 - 210 x 297mm A5 - 148 x 210mm A6 - 105 x 148mm

Other paper sizes you may hear are the SRA paper sizes used by commercial printing companies. These are slightly larger than the A series to provide room for grip, trim and bleed. Sizes are: SRA0 - 900 x 1280mm SRA1 - 640 x 900mm SRA2 - 450 x 640mm SRA3 - 320 x 450mm SRA4 - 225 x 320mm

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coated paper This has a smooth finish because it has a coating (usually china clay) and is available in gloss, silk (or satin) or matt. It is used for leaflets, glossy brochures etc and are sometimes called ‘art’ paper. uncoated paper Because it doesn’t have a coating it is less smooth and therefore is suitable for laser printing and photocopying. Premium quality uncoated paper is used for business stationery, but it can also be used for brochures etc. Available in a range of finishes.

laid paper Premium quality paper with textured pattern or parallel lines. Often used for business stationery. wove paper This premium quality paper has a smooth surface and is mostly used for business stationery. bond paper This is usually cheap uncoated wove paper and is used for photocopiers and faxes.

TYPES OF STOCK


120gsm is classier but more expensive Remember to get inkjet or laser compatible paper if you are going to print your own stationery. Consider using the same stock throughout ie if you go for uncoated, make sure letterheads, businesses cards and compliment slips are all uncoated. This will help maintain a unified look across your range, and help with marketing later on. If you want to create full colour documents with photographs and illustrations use a coated paper for vibrant colour. Gloss paper will produce vibrant colour reproduction, but use silk or matt if you prefer.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT STOCK

S TO CK

Generally letterheads, compliment slips etc are printed on uncoated paper at 100gsm.

Your printer will stock a range of paper so take your time and get samples. If you want a particular brand not stocked by the printer it can be ordered. A good printer will take time to advise you and help you get the right paper for your business. It is worth building a relationship with a printer you like and can rely on, even if this does not match the cheapest price you can get on the internet. On the other hand, remain vigilant, check prices remain competitive and be prepared to change if necessary.

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chapter

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TEC HN IQ UES & PRO CESSES

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TECHNIQUES & PROCESSES


EMBOSSING & DEBOSSING Embossing is typically accomplished by applying heat and pressure with male and female dies, usually made of copper or brass, that fit together and squeeze the fibers of the substrate. The combination of pressure and heat raises the level of the image higher than thesubstrate, while "ironing" it to make it smooth. In printing this is accomplished on a letterpress. The most common machines are the Kluge Letterpress and the Heidelberg Letterpress.


FOILING

TEC HN IQ UES & PRO CESSES

Foiling, typically a commercial print process, is the application of pigment or metallic foil, often gold or silver, but can also be various patterns or what is known as pastel foil which is a flat opaque colour or white special film-backed material, to paper where a heated die is stamped onto the foil, making it adhere to the surface leaving the design of the die on the paper. Foil stamping can be combined with embossing to create a more striking 3D image.

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This process coats the printed sheet with an extremely thin layer of either glossy or matt plastic. It should not be confused with encapsulation which uses much thicker plastic, and which extends beyond the edges of the item being encapsulated. The advantages of lamination are that it provides a highly professional, extra smooth finish, as well as protecting the paper or card surface from markings such as fingerprints and scratches caused by everyday handling. Lamination also removes the danger (which is otherwise present) that ink in heavy ink coverage areas may come off slightly if rubbed. Additionally, lamination is especially recommended if the design in question features a dark colour which bleeds, in order to preserve clean edges where the dark ink meets any very slight roughness in the edges of the paper or card itself.

LAMINATION

gloss & matt


A Varnish is a liquid coating that is applied to a printed document. The varnish can be Glossy, Matte or Satin giving a variety of different finishes. A varnish is an additional process and cost due to the fact it is not normally applied on the same printing press as the original document. Before saying no on a cost basis alone it is always worth asking your printer or designer to show you some examples.

Adding a varnish is a straight forward process but it can really make your work pop and gleam with vitality. Photography can really shine with a varnish applied to it making the colours appear more vibrant and lush.

TEC HN IQ UES & PRO CESSES

SPOT VARNISH The addition of a varnish can also give a business card or brochure cover a tactile feel otherwise lacking on a normal print run. Two cards sat side by side can stand apart and give an incentive to pick up one over the other just by adding a varnish.

Other benefits include the speeding up of the drying process and prevention of ink rub off.

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Die cutting is a manufacturing process used to generate large numbers of the same shape from a material such as wood, plastic, metal, or fabric. The die cut shapes are sometimes called “blanks,� because they are usually finished and decorated before being sold. The process is widely used on an assortment of materials all over the world, and many manufactured products contain several die cut components, often assembled together in a series of steps to create a finished product. Sharp specially shaped blades are used in die cutting. The blade is bent into the desired shape and mounted to a strong backing. The result is known as a die. The material being cut is placed on a flat surface with a supportive backing, and the die is pressed onto the material to cut it.

DIECUTTING


TEC HN IQ UES & PRO CESSES

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chapter

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C O M M ERCIAL PRINTING

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COMMERCIAL PRINTING


TALKING TO PRINTERS You can design a beautiful piece but unless you have an understanding of how the printing process works and printing requirements, it won't look its best. This section can serves as a helpful guide of top tips when designing for print and talking to printers

Your printer will be able to offers some recommendations in terms of paper, matching colors, software acceptability, etc. You can 1. The name of your project. ask if there are any ways that you can save a few 2. The dimensions and num- dollars by altering the page ber of pages of the project. size of the finished piece, using different colors, etc. 3. The number of colors, To ensure that you get process or spot, for the quotes that you can easily project. compare, make sure that you give each of the per4. The quantity of finished spective printers the exact pieces that you'll want. same specifications to bid 5. The color, feel and weight on. of the paper that you want This information, combined the project printed on. with your knowledge of the printer, should ensure that 6. The materials that you your project looks great will be supplying to the printer (computer files or and is delivered both on budget and on time. pasted-up documents). When you talk to a prospective printer, be prepared to tell them the following information:

7. When you need the project completed or delivered.


Commercial printing services can offer cost effective black and white printing up through to very expensive full color commercial printing. Marketing materials such as annual reports, brochures, and other promotional items are usually printed in full color, while smaller items such as internal newsletters, business cards, and letterhead is printed in black and white or with spot colors. Commercial printing Many organizations use commercial printing services can work from an services for their promotional or marketing organization’s supplied media, materials. Commercial printing services may such as a printed sample called also include design and editing services, and a mechanical, or more fredirect mailing or distribution services. Large quently, a digitally created file. commercial printing services providers may A large organization may have also offer marketing and promotion services, their own graphic designer such as managing the creation of trade show on staff and use a commercial booths and materials. A commercial printing printer only for producing company typically offers a variety of printing finished products. Smaller technologies that an organization can choose companies or start-ups may from to meet budget and design criteria, rang- use a commercial printing sering from simple reprographic techniques to full vice to plan and design their color printing. Lithographic commercial print- marketing materials. ing or offset printing involves using a plate of zinc or aluminum that is treated to retain ink in the image part of the plate and repel ink in the non-image part of the plate. Flexographic commercial printing uses a rubber cylinder with a relief of the image on it to transfer the image to the paper. These techniques are typically used for large print runs.

COMMERCIAL PRINTING

C O M M ERCIAL PRINTING

Commercial printing services provide high volume web or sheet fed printing, duplication and publication of magazines, newspapers, catalogs, brochures, graphics, drawings, images and other printed media. The printing processes may include digital printing, laser printing, offset printing, flexographic printing, lithographic, screen printing, thermal transfer, letterpress, gravure, reverse roll, and other printing processes. Commercial printers can print original media and/or duplicate or copy existing materials. Text, images, graphics, technical drawings may be printed or duplicated.

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chapter

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C O N TACT INF O RMATIO N

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CONTACT INFORMATION


LEEDS DUFFIELD PRINTERS http://www.duffieldprinters.co.uk/ Tel: 0113 279 3011 Email: info@duffieldprinters.co.uk

LEEDS PRINTING COMPANY http://www.leedsprintingcompany.co.uk/ Tel: 0113 322 6442 Email: info@leedsprintingcompany.co.uk PRICELESS PRINT http://www.pricelessprint.co.uk/ Tel: +44 (0) 113 239 1333 Email: info@pricelessprint.co.uk


C O N TACT INF O RMATIO N

FIRST COLOUR http://www.firstcolour.com/ Tel: 020 7636 2571 Email: westend@firstcolour.com SILVER IMAGE LONDON http://www.silverimagelondon.co.uk/ Tel: 020 8457 9000 Email: info@silverimagelondon.co.uk PRINT PAL http://www.printpallondon.com/ Tel: 020 8343 00 Email: sales@printpallondon.com

LONDON

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The Print Manual  

a print guide for graphic designers

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