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Drawing Board 1

HUM H MAN A

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amphibians and mammals. The fingernails of humans appear as claws and hooves on quadrupeds. The real difference seems to be in the development of the calcaneus (see Image 1, above). As a kid, I was told that dogs and birds had knees that bend backwards, but this is not at all the case. If you look more closely at an animal skeleton, you’ll see that horses, dogs, cats and even birds have knees like ours, although their femur (thigh bone) may be so short that we overlook them. The joint that we mistake for a “backwards knee” is in actuality the calcaneus which appears in humans as the heel. Very few vertebrates walk with the calcaneus flat to the ground as we do. Some of the exceptions include bipeds like kangaroos, penguins and primates, as well as the occasional quadruped like bears and elephants. Conversely, not all bipeds use the calcaneus to keep them from falling backwards as we do. Most birds have their hallux (big toe) positioned behind them to perform the same function, while their calcaneus remains off the ground. Bipedal dinosaurs, such as the T. rex, also evinced this design.

THE TWO MAJOR SECTIONS OF THE FOOT It helps to think of the tarsals, metatarsals and toes as one unit and the calcaneus as a unit in itself. The calcaneus is more prominent on some. It isn’t, however, to be overlooked; without

The artist's magazine easyindochinatravel  

ART AND COMMERCE are supposed to be at odds, but even purists acknowledge that the tradition of patronage— worldly popes, vainglorious kings...

The artist's magazine easyindochinatravel  

ART AND COMMERCE are supposed to be at odds, but even purists acknowledge that the tradition of patronage— worldly popes, vainglorious kings...

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