Page 1

Whitehill Bordon Energy Feasibility Study July 2011


Index Summary

4

Energy strategy 4 Developing the energy strategy 10 Masterplan, planning policy and guidance 13 Consultation 16 Monitoring 17

1.0 Introduction

18

2.0 Whitehill Bordon

20

The Town Today Development of the masterplan The surrounding villages

20 22 26

3.0 The Future of Energy Supply and Demand

28

How energy is used now How energy will be used in future Lower energy bills for social housing What this means for energy supply Smart grid Energy costs and investment

29 30 31 42 43 57

2

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

4.0 Carbon Targets

62

Carbon emissions from the town Green Town Vision targets Green Town Vision targets

62 63 64

5.0 Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Opportunities

66

District heating 68 Biomass and waste 74 Wind 95 Solar 102 Heat pumps 109 Hydropower 112

6.0 Energy Strategy Scenarios

114

7.0 Recommendations

124

Developing the energy strategy 124 Masterplan, planning policy and guidance 127 Consultation 130 Monitoring 131


Appendix 1: Context Mapping

133

Appendix 2: Opportunities and Constraints Mapping Appendix 3: Consultation

135

141

Endnotes 145

3

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Summary Energy strategy

Photo: Rupert Fleetingly Photomontage: LDA Design

Since the Green Town Vision was developed, national policy towards energy use and climate change has made significant progress. From 2016, the Building regulations will require new homes to be zero carbon and measures are being put in place nationally to encourage extensive refurbishment of the existing building stock. To remain true to its vision of being a genuine Eco-town, Whitehill Bordon will need to remain a step ahead and be really ambitious in its energy strategy. Although improvements are gradually being made at the national level and there are other places which are looking to set an example, no towns in England have yet made major changes to their energy use and supply on the scale described here. With

4

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

local ambition, leadership and encouragement, Whitehill Bordon can be one of the first places to really turn things around and switch on to the energy supply of the future. Nationally, the carbon intensity of electricity supplied from the grid is to reduce dramatically thanks to an increasing supply of renewable and low carbon energy. These new energy sources will not just be large, centralised power stations out of sight and mind for the majority of people, but will include more distributed generation such as wind farms, hydro power, solar panels and smaller biomass and energy from waste plants. Whitehill Bordon should play its role in accommodating a share of that new generation, and can benefit from doing so.

The energy strategy will evolve over time, shaped by various forces including national policy, economic conditions and technological developments. It will be determined, to some extent, by the decisions made by residents, businesses, landowners and developers within the framework that the masterplan provides. A combination of measures will be required to achieve the energy and carbon targets for the Eco-town in a way that is affordable, practical and offers the best outcome for the people, economy and environment of Whitehill Bordon. Retrofitting existing buildings to a high standard of energy efficiency and ensuring that they have access to renewable and low carbon energy will be essential. New property development will have


to meet minimum standards on-site, due to the Building Regulations, and could also help to deliver the wider energy strategy beyond the boundaries of individual sites, for example through financial contributions. Stand-alone community and large scale energy projects and supporting infrastructure will also be needed. The economic benefits offered by the energy strategy are substantial. There are opportunities for individuals and businesses to save on their energy bills, invest in renewable and low carbon energy generation, or get involved in the supply chain for the various equipment and infrastructure that will be built.

The villages and rural areas surrounding the town have an important role to play in delivering the energy strategy. There are major economic opportunities for these communities in supplying resources such as wood fuel to the town and accommodating some of the larger generation plant and infrastructure that could come forwards. People and businesses in outlying areas also stand to benefit from new supply chains, goods, services and incentives extending out from the town which would not be available otherwise. The energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon is unprecedented and ambitious. The changes envisaged in the town are expected to take place across the whole of the UK over the longer term, as we

move towards a low carbon economy. Whitehill Bordon will need to lead the way in establishing an approach for other towns to follow. This will require a new way of working, with a proactive and collaborative approach to delivering the infrastructure required.

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

5

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Likely projects The following projects are likely to be implemented in the town in future. The speed, scale and location of implementation will depend on the range of factors described above, however recommendations are provided below to encourage and facilitate the process.

across the majority of the building stock. Homes to be retrofitted to Passivhaus standards where technically feasible and cost effective. The energy efficiency strategy being prepared for the Ecotown should set out the extent of what can be delivered across the existing building stock and the associated costs.

• Energy efficiency: - New build housing: building fabric will need to meet the minimum standards set out in the Building Regulations and Code for Sustainable Homes. Estimated additional build cost of £1,500 to £8,000 for a typical dwelling, compared to current standards, depending on level of efficiency achieved.

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

6

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

- Retrofit to existing buildings: likely to be to good practice energy efficiency standards

• Electric heating: This could be used in all new and existing buildings in the town in future. Choices of technology include storage heaters, immersion heaters or heat pumps. Air source or ground source heat pumps are the most energy efficient of these options, although they may not be suitable for all existing buildings. Typical cost for an air source heat pump is £4,500 and a

ground source heat pump is around £6,000. There may not be a financial payback for domestic systems, when compared to a gas boiler, but the comparison is more favourable with electric, oil or coal fired heating. Heat pumps are more cost effective for commercial buildings, due to economies of scale and the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) rates available, with a payback period of around 8 years. • Electric vehicles: - Private transport: up to 37% of cars could be electric by 2030 and 50% by 2035, according to national projections. Electric light vans and other vehicles could be used for commercial and public sector purposes, although suitability for heavy duty uses is limited. Electric cars tend to


be more expensive than petrol or diesel, but grants and lower running costs should mean that this investment pays off. - Public transport: electric buses are already available, and could be used for the services proposed in Whitehill Bordon. These currently pay back the additional purchase cost in about 10 years. Electric cars could also be used for taxis and a car club.

Rapid charging infrastructure should be installed for buses, taxis and private vehicles in car parks and public places. Standard charging points cost £3,500 to £5,000 each, while rapid charging points cost £25,000 to £50,000.

- Charging infrastructure: Electric vehicle charging points will be required across the town, linked into the smart grid. This should include access to a suitable charging point for all new homes with offstreet parking and all business premises.

• Microgeneration: The following technologies are all likely to have some role to play in the energy strategy for the town, either being specified as part of new development or retrofitted to existing buildings. In theory, one or more of them could be fitted to the majority of buildings in the town. In practice the logistics, costs and wider impacts of doing this will limit total potential and consumer choice will determine what is actually installed.

Existing homes can install charging points as required.

- PV panels could be installed on around half to three

quarters of existing buildings in the town, and most new development if designed appropriately. South east to south west facing, unshaded roof space needed. Around 2kW could be installed on a typical home, or 14m2 of panel, costing around £6,000 for new build or £8,000 for an existing home. The FeedIn Tariff (FIT) has created a strong financial case for them, offering a payback of around 10 years currently. - Solar thermal could supply around 60% of hot water in many existing and new homes. For existing properties, best suited where a hot water tank is already used. Around 4m2 south east to south west facing, unshaded roof space needed. Cost around £2,500 per home, with a payback of about 18 years where installed with a gas

boiler. Financial case improved for properties off the gas grid where main fuel is oil or coal. Performance can be improved by coupling solar thermal with an interseasonal heat store and heat pump, but costs also increase significantly for this option.

properties in the villages which are off the gas grid.

- Biomass boilers, using wood pellets. Either individual boilers in each building or shared boilers in terraces and blocks of flats. Space limitations and cost and complexity of retrofit may limit potential in existing properties. Cost for a domestic biomass boiler around £4,000. May not achieve payback if replacing a gas boiler. Can be better suited to larger commercial properties, schools and other non-residential buildings. Viability significantly improved if replacing oil or coal. Particularly well suited to

7

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


• Smart grid: A smart grid in the town will be essential to support the ambitious energy strategy for the town, by balancing supply and demand, controlling flows to and from the national grid, managing peak loads, storing power to meet peak demands and providing better information for billing and payments. This will be a major infrastructure change across the town, with cable upgrades, energy storage at the community and individual property scale, control systems and potentially a new substation. Specifications and costs for these are not yet available.

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

8

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Smart grid components in consumer properties: smart meters and some form of energy storage such as batteries, heat stores or other devices. Specifications and

costs for these are not yet available. • Upgrades to the gas grid: Improvements may be needed to the low pressure mains on and around new development sites, if they are to have a gas supply. These could be implemented on a site-by-site basis as part of the normal process. Smart gas meters are also due to be installed in every property with a gas connection, as part of a national programme. • Wood fuel supply chain: The potential resource from woodlands within 20km of the town centre is substantial, at up to 84,000 oven dried tonnes of fuel per year. A central storage and processing site could take wood from various farmers and landowners in the area,

providing shared facilities and reducing individual overhead costs. These facilities could including a wood chipper and delivery vehicles. A brokering service could also be provided to enable long term contracts to be agreed for supply to major customers.

Potential major projects The following projects could potentially play a major role in the town’s energy strategy, if their feasibility and viability are demonstrated by further work. • CHP and district heating network: This would serve mainly new areas of town (employment, swimming pool, hotel, town centre, higher density residential). It could use solid biomass or biogas to supply heating, hot water and cooling where required. Heat distribution network and energy


centre needed. Ongoing management and operational support required, including heat metering, billing, and fuel purchasing. Cost of network serving these areas around £12.7 million. Two leading options have emerged for the energy centre: - 1.75MWe CHP engine with solid wood gasification. 2,000m2 energy centre required. Cost around £4.8 million. - 2.4MWe CHP engine with anaerobic digestion of organic waste. 2,000m2 energy centre plus 3,000m2 anaerobic digestion plant. Cost around £9 million. The above options include the gasification or anaerobic digestion facilities, assuming they are located in the energy

centre. Biogas could also be produced elsewhere and piped to the energy centre. Viability appears marginal due to the high capital costs of the energy centre and heat network, and payback period could be at least 20 years for either option. • Wood gasification, methanation and biomethane grid injection plant: Large facility, injecting gas into the grid for distribution across town. Up to 55,000 tonnes of wood per year to meet all of town’s gas demand. No other facilities have yet been developed in this country, and the planning and development process is likely to be complex. Ongoing operational requirements. Around 6,000m2 required.

Wood and gas storage required. Rough cost of £26 million estimated. Viability is not yet proven and the payback period, if any, is unknown. • Anaerobic digestion: One large plant or possibly several smaller facilities closer to source of organic waste or other feedstock to reduce transport costs. Around 120,000 tonnes of wet organic waste required, based on food waste. A mix of food waste, animal manure and maize may be preferred. A large facility would require around 4,000m2. Organic waste, digestate and gas storage required. There is also potential to install a facility at the sewage works, although feasibility and scale of this are yet to be determined. Planning

and development process could be complex. Ongoing operational requirements. Cost around £16 million for a large anaerobic digestion facility, additional cost of gas injection equipment not known. Viability should be supported by the RHI for gas grid injection, but payback period depends on operating costs which could not be quantified at this stage. • Energy crops: There are significant areas of grade 3 and 4 agricultural land in East Hampshire which could be suitable for cultivating energy crops, including short rotation coppice willow, miscanthus or maize. In total, this land could yield up to 28,750 tonnes of wood (willow or miscanthus) or 92,000 tonnes of maize silage. While these may not be a priority for the Eco-town energy strategy, farmers may decide

to use some of this land for this purpose as the economics become more favourable. This could supplement the biomass supply chain for the town. • Organic waste supply chain: Animal manure and food waste could be collected from the surrounding area for anaerobic digestion. The potential contribution to the energy strategy is less than could be obtained from wood or energy crops. There is an economic opportunity there, although viability is likely to be marginal. • Wind farm: There is potential for a commercialscale wind farm north of Headley, based on initial investigations. This could comprise around 10 large wind turbines totalling 25MW, laid out across an area of

9

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


around 250ha. Several other sites may be able to support one or two turbines. Planning and development process could be complex, but operation relatively straightforward. Capital cost around £32.3 million for 25MW wind farm, £680,000 for 330kW wind turbine at Standford Grange Farm or £123,000 for 50kW turbine at Louisburg Barracks employment area. Payback period around 5 to 7 years for each option. • Solar PV farm: Potential sites for a number of solar farms identified, each up to 5MW, occupying up to 10 ha per site. Planning and development process simpler than wind farm, operation very straightforward. Cost around £11.8 million per 5MW solar farm. Viability marginal currently, with payback period around 18

10

years, but viability improving.

Limited or no potential There are some renewable and low carbon technologies which have limited or no potential to contribute to the energy strategy for the town, or are not likely to be the preferred choice compared to the alternatives described above. • Energy from waste opportunities in and around the town are limited, with the exception of anaerobic digestion (described above). Residual municipal waste is estimated to be around 2,000 tonnes per year, which is expected to be taken to existing energy from waste facilities in other parts of Hampshire.

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• District heating with biomass boilers does not appear to be viable. Biomass CHP would be preferable, as revenue generated from sales of electricity supports the case for investment. • Hydropower: several potential sites exist for hydropower in and around the town, however the Environment Agency has assessed them as low output and high environmental sensitivity.

Developing the energy strategy

This study provides an evidence base and framework for the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon. To develop the energy strategy further, the local benefits and impacts of the different options will need to be weighed up and decisions will need to be made on the priorities for the town. This should be the subject of more detailed consultation with local residents and other stakeholders, which could be undertaken as part of the neighbourhood consultations being held to inform the masterplan. It will also be important to ensure that the findings of this study are integrated with the other studies and strategies that are underway or have been completed recently for the Eco-town. Some iteration of the energy strategy and


other pieces of work may be required. The recommendations for the energy strategy will also inform the revision of the draft masterplan. The following specific actions are recommended to take forward elements of the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon: • A more thorough survey of the condition of the existing building stock is recommended to inform plans for energy efficiency and microgeneration retrofit, if not already underway as part of the development of the energy efficiency strategy for the Eco-town. This should include non-domestic buildings which are due to be retained as well as homes. • The economic opportunities and community benefits

available to residents and businesses in the town, surrounding villages and rural areas should be promoted. • An electric vehicle strategy should be developed as part of the emerging transport strategy. This should include an estimate of potential uptake in Whitehill Bordon, based on transport modelling and public consultation. It should set out what incentives and support will be made available locally and the approach that will be taken to installing charging points across the town. • Electric vehicles should be considered as an option as specifications are developed for the bus services and car club. • Further work is recommended to obtain

a better estimate of future non-building related energy demands and emissions. This should focus in particular on transport, but could also include street lighting, waste and water management. • A smart grid research and development programme should be developed in partnership with Scottish and Southern Energy. Funding for this should be sought from the Low Carbon Networks Fund. The scope of this work should include: - The impacts of proposed new development on the electricity grid - The cumulative impacts of widespread take up of electric vehicles and electric heating Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

- The cumulative impacts of

11

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

installation of microgeneration technologies, particularly PV, across the town - The connection of larger power generation projects to the grid, including an assessment of site-specific constraints in priority locations - The extent to which supply and demand can be balanced locally - Recommendations for the smart grid, including controls, cables and substations - Recommendations for energy storage on the individual property and community scale - Recommendations for reinforcements or upgrades to the infrastructure connecting the town with the national grid

12

One of the new development sites expected to come forward in the first phase should be selected as a focal point for the initial research. The longer term programme should determine what will be needed to deliver a smart grid for the town as a whole, including extending it to existing communities. • Scotia Gas Networks should be consulted as the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon is developed and more detailed feasibility work is completed for specific projects, including new property developments or a biomethane production facility. • A more detailed analysis should be completed of the financial case for a district heating network in the town, with an assessment of hourly heat loads, proposals for

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

pipework routing and a more accurate estimate of installation costs, taking into account ground conditions and any physical constraints. • An action plan for developing the wood fuel supply chain should be prepared in partnership with the Forestry Commission’s Biomass Energy Centre. Actions could include providing training in sustainable forestry practices, providing equipment, networking and brokering supply contracts, supplying a mobile wood chipper or setting up a local wood fuel processing, storage and distribution centre. • Further research is recommended to establish viability of biomethane production and injection, if it is to be proposed as part

of the energy strategy for the town. Access to and capacity on the local gas network will need to be assessed during site selection if a biomethane facility is to be developed. • The potential for anaerobic digestion of sewage should be considered further, as proposals for the new or extended sewage treatment works are progressed. • Site-specific factors should be the subject of further, detailed study if wind energy is to be promoted as part of the energy strategy for the town. This should include an assessment of the proximity of the site to a suitable point for connection to the electricity grid and engagement with Scottish and Southern to understand any local capacity constraints, assess the works

required to obtain a connection and estimate the time and costs involved in delivery. If any sites are still considered to have potential, it would be recommended to erect a local wind monitoring mast to measure wind speeds and directions throughout the year to establish a more accurate estimate of potential output. Dialogue is recommended with the local community, particularly residents of the villages, to understand any concerns and discuss community involvement and potential benefits. • It is recommended that solar PV farms are considered further as part of the energy strategy for the town, looking at specific sites and local constraints such as access to the electricity grid in more detail.


• Action to encourage development of a local supply chain, and potentially coordinated bulk purchasing of equipment, is recommended to drive down costs for microgeneration, electric heating and electric vehicle charging infrastructure. • It is recommended that further action is taken locally to encourage many more existing property-holders to invest in PV. The programme for retrofitting PV to existing buildings should be accelerated while the attractive FIT rates remain available. This could be through a major extension of the Eco-fit programme, local promotion of the Green Deal or a third party investment. • Action could also be taken to encourage and facilitate the uptake of biomass boilers,

solar thermal and heat pumps. Effort here should be targeted on specific locations in the town and surrounding area, particularly properties which are off the gas grid. Promotion of awareness and understanding of the options through the Eco-station and demonstration house will be an important element of this.

Masterplan, planning policy and guidance

While some of the components of the energy strategy are not guaranteed at this stage, it will be important to ensure that decisions made now about the masterplan do not preclude any of the energy opportunities described above.

The following provisions are recommended to be made in the masterplan, planning policy and supporting guidance documents to support the energy strategy for the town:

Spatial allocations, and the layout and phasing of the site will need to allow for flexibility in the future energy strategy and maximise the potential for energy efficiency and renewable and low carbon energy supply. Accompanying planning policy and guidance will need to be supportive, encourage economic and social benefits to be distributed to the local community and ensure that any impacts on local people or the environment are managed to an acceptable level.

• Suitable locations should be identified amongst the early development sites for pilot or demonstration projects. In addition to the ecodemonstration house already planned at the Old Fire Station, such projects could include an all-electric development and smart grid pilot project.

Site allocations, density and phasing

• Density should be maximised in the town centre and surrounding residential areas (ideally 55dph or more) to support the case for district heating. Mixed use development should also

13

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


be encouraged, particularly commercial, residential and leisure. Phasing plans should take into account the optimum phasing for a heat network, including ensuring that an energy centre or temporary heat source can be accommodated in the first phase of connected development. The build-out of the network should be staged to allow investment costs to be spread throughout the development process and allow developer contributions to be obtained where relevant. Heat mains should be installed before or during road construction, or soft verges should be incorporated in the street layout for later installation.

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

14

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Site allocations should include an allowance of one

or more options for sites which could accommodate an energy centre, should a district heating network be developed in the town. An energy centre would require a site of around 1ha located in the town centre or the employment areas to the north or south of the town centre. It should be part of the first phase of proposed development. The site proposed in the draft masterplan at Louisburg Barracks would be appropriate for this purpose.

high pressure gas mains and Scotia Gas Networks should be consulted on potential sites, to determine whether there is capacity in the network to accommodate such a facility.

• Some industrial space should be allocated in the masterplan to allow for the potential development of future largescale energy projects, such as a biomass gasification plant or anaerobic digestion plant. If gas is to be injected into the gas grid, this will need to be located close to the medium or

• A Code for Sustainable Homes level 6 target has been proposed in the Core Strategy preferred policies for new residential development from 2016. The energy and carbon requirements for Code level 6 are not defined in the most recent government guidance. If the Code level 6 requirements

• It is recommended that the masterplan keeps open the option of a small to medium scale wind turbine in the employment area to the north and Standford Grange Farm to the south east.

Targets and standards for new development


are brought into line with the Building Regulations definition of zero carbon, this should mean that it is both technically feasible and financially viable for development to achieve them. Earlier versions of the Code required new homes targeting level 6 to be net zero carbon through on-site measures alone. If the earlier definition of Code level 6 is retained, the proposed target would be significantly more stringent than the Building Regulations and an evidence base would be required to justify its inclusion in planning policy for Whitehill Bordon. Any work on the evidence base for this target should also look at the wider requirements of the Code, including water efficiency, materials, waste,

and ecology and demonstrate that it is feasible and viable for developments to achieve this standard in Whitehill Bordon. • Design standards or guidance for new buildings should encourage developers to maximise south-facing roof space for PV and/or solar thermal systems. Even if they are not installed at the time of construction, this leaves the option open for the future.

Large scale renewable and low carbon energy infrastructure • Policy towards large scale renewable and low carbon energy infrastructure, including wind turbines, large scale PV and biomass energy centres, should be supportive in principle. The application process should be straightforward, with

simple guidance on what is expected. In particular, clearly defined criteria should be set out for determining applications in relation to the level of community support, potential impact on protected landscapes and habitats, and other environmental impacts.

Local Development Orders • Local Development Orders could be used to simplify the planning process for some types of renewable and low carbon energy infrastructure in specified locations. LDOs could cover, for example, PV installations on non-domestic buildings or the district heating network. The LDO can impose conditions about the type of development that will be permitted, refer to more detailed criteria such as design guidance in a supplementary

planning document, or require the developer to undertake certain actions such as notifying neighbours about the planned development.

Neighbourhood planning • Neighbourhood plans developed by the parish councils should be consistent with the local plan for East Hampshire, and should be supportive of the proposals outlined in the energy strategy for the town. They could include Neighbourhood Development Orders for projects including district heating and microgeneration on non-residential buildings, in a similar way to Local Development Orders at the local authority level.

Community Infrastructure Levy and Allowable Solutions • The Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) could provide a mechanism for obtaining some developer contributions to community and large-scale renewable and low carbon energy infrastructure, if East Hampshire implements CIL locally. This would need to be justified by an evidence base which assesses opportunities and needs for community and large-scale energy infrastructure, considers these infrastructure needs in relation to proposals for built development, and identifies a need for developers to make a financial contribution to it. This will have to demonstrate that there is a funding gap for the infrastructure after all other potential funding sources have been taken into account.

15

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

A key challenge will be demonstrating that the energy infrastructure is necessary to “support development and the creation of sustainable communities”. This need to demonstrate that the infrastructure which the CIL pays for in some way enables or mitigates the impacts of the development which pays for it may be more flexible than the restrictions on planning obligations raised under S.106, but it may still limit the energy projects which are eligible. The total CIL charge per unit of new development will be based on the amount that is viable, likely to be determined through negotiation with developers. Based on our experience, we expect that in the vast majority of local authority areas the viable level of developer

16

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

contributions (say around £10,000 to £15,000 per dwelling) is likely to fall short of the funds needed to fill the funding gap for infrastructure investment. East Hampshire District Council will therefore need to prioritise where they spend the CIL money. Again, a strong evidence base and negotiation would be needed to justify some of this being allocated to sub-regional energy infrastructure. • The allowable solutions element of the Building Regulations from 2016 onwards may provide another source of developer contributions towards local energy projects. The work of the Zero Carbon Hub to develop the allowable solutions mechanism should be followed closely, to understand the implications

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

for the town in terms of how much money could be raised from developers and how the funds will be managed and distributed.

Community benefits • Provisions should be made in policy and guidance to encourage community benefits to be delivered from large scale renewable and low carbon energy projects. This could be a direct financial contribution to a local community fund. DECC has produced guidance on the types of community benefits that can be obtained from wind energy projects.

Consultation

There are complex issues associated with the various energy opportunities described above, with implications for residents, local businesses and other organisations with interests in the town and surrounding area. The consultation that has been undertaken as part of this study was limited in its scope and reach. Broader public consultation and effective engagement will be essential to ensure successful delivery of the energy strategy. The neighbourhood consultations proposed for autumn 2011 as part of the masterplan development process could provide a useful forum for consultation on the energy strategy. The following issues are recommended to be addressed through consultation:


• Views on the energy strategy proposals and recommendations for the masterplan, planning policy and guidance • Attitudes to microgeneration and what would be required to make people install them on their own properties • Attitude to electric vehicles and what would be required to make people use one themselves • Level of support for or opposition to large-scale generation projects, including large biomass energy centres and wind farms in the area • Perceptions of the benefits that could be provided to the community from these larger projects and what might encourage more people to support proposals

Monitoring

The energy strategy should evolve over time, informed by monitoring and regular reviews of progress, to ensure that Whitehill Bordon remains on course to achieve its energy and carbon targets. The following actions are recommended for monitoring the energy strategy: • Complete the baseline assessment: A more thorough analysis of the transport proposals for the town is recommended, looking at energy demand, emissions, how these may change in future, and assessing in more detail the impacts of different scenarios for the transport strategy in terms of cost and delivery, economic, social and environmental impacts.

• Monitor annual energy consumption: Use national datasets, including the DECC sub-national energy consumption figures, to monitor actual energy consumption over time. If the energy strategy is successful, total energy demand should decline. Electricity consumption could be expected to go up, while gas, petrol and diesel consumption should decline. The share of energy supplied from renewable and low carbon sources should increase. • Collect data on what is installed locally: Information on what is installed can be collected through the planning and building control processes, in the case of community or large-scale infrastructure and equipment installed in new homes. Keeping track of

what is installed as permitted development will be more difficult, but could be achieved through voluntary reporting or surveys. Anything that is installed through the Eco-fit programme or other local initiatives should be recorded. • Monitor changes in policy, technology and economics, and feed the findings back into a regular review of the energy strategy to ensure continuous improvement.

.

17

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


1.0 Introduction

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Whitehill Bordon is one of the four original Eco-towns. It aims to improve the environment and provide a better quality of life for its residents while almost doubling the size of the town and giving it a new economic focus. The town’s vision includes an ambitious target to be carbon neutral by 2036. While much will be achieved by changing people’s behaviour, designing new development to be energy efficient and improving the existing areas of the town, new low carbon supplies of heat and power will also be needed. The energy feasibility study looks at how energy demand will change over the years and explores the options for supplying energy in a way that supports the carbon neutral

18

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

target and the wider vision for Whitehill Bordon. It set out to: 1. U  nderstand how energy is used in the town 2. A  ssess the renewable and low carbon energy options 3. D  evelop energy supply scenarios 4. P  rioritise energy projects and set out an action plan for developing and implementing the energy strategy 5. R  eview options for funding, delivering and managing energy supply and other services through a Multi Utility Services Company (MUSCO)

This is the first of two reports, covering the first three objectives. The second report sets out an action plan for developing the energy supply to the town and describes options for funding, delivery and management. This work has been produced on behalf of East Hampshire District Council by LDA Design, with support from Addison & Associates, Peter Walker and Royal Haskoning.


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

19

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


2.0 Whitehill Bordon The Town Today

The Eco-town encompasses the existing settlements of Whitehill, Bordon and Lindford. It is set in a landscape of woodland, heath and farmland on the edge of the South Downs National Park. A map describing the character of the town is provided on the following page, with a more detailed version in Appendix 1. The army training facilities at Bordon Garrison have been the focal point of the town throughout its development since the late 19th century. Today there are around 6,000 homes in Whitehill, Bordon and Lindford. Some were built in the early 20th century at the same time as the original barracks, followed by larger areas of housing during the second half of the century.

20

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Photo: LDA Design

Many of the homes are terraced or semi-detached, with some flats and detached houses. Other than the Ministry of Defence (MOD) facilities, employment areas in the town include the Woolmer trading estate near the town centre and Bordon trading estate on the north western edge of town. Shops are located in the Forest Centre and the Chalet Hill area. There are several schools including Mill Chase Community Technical College and cultural facilities include the Phoenix Theatre.


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

21

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Development of the masterplan

Major change is proposed for the town over the next 25 years, arising from the anticipated departure of the MOD. The town has seized the opportunity to reinvent itself, with a bold vision for new development and improvement of the existing settlements to create the Whitehill Bordon Eco-town.

for improving biodiversity, having a neutral impact on the water cycle and promoting sustainable transport.

• A new eco-business park

Although the government may withdraw the formal planning policy basis for Eco-towns, Whitehill Bordon is continuing to develop its proposals in line with these ambitious objectives.

• A new building for Mill Chase Community Technical College and three new primary schools

The Green Town Vision for Whitehill Bordon i was launched in 2006, and in 2009 it was selected as one of the first Eco-towns. It is unique amongst the Ecotowns in emphasising the importance of improving an existing community as well as delivering high quality new development.

A draft masterplan for the town prepared by AECOM was published in June 2010 along with a suite of supporting strategies.ii This set out a strategic framework for the development of the town in line with these objectives. The development proposals include:

In addition to being carbon neutral, the town is committed to exemplary good practice

22

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• 4,000 new homes by 2028 and up to a further 1,300 in the longer term

• A new mixed-use town centre

• A new sports hub with a leisure centre • Large areas of new parks, gardens and space for biodiversity • New public transport services and improvements to the environment for walking and cycling A map of the draft masterplan proposals is provided on the following page with a more detailed version in Appendix 1.


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO Š Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data Š Crown copyright and database right 2011.

Draft Masterplan

Draft Masterplan Draft Masterplan Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Policy Zone Policy Zone Framework Draft Masterplan proposals Framework Draft Masterplan proposals Mixed use town centre core Mixed use town centre core Employment Employment Employment & Employment & Commercial leisure mix Commercial leisure mix Community and education Community and education Residential Character Areas: Residential Character Areas: Green roots Green roots Green streets Green streets Green views Green views Housing & Employment mix Housing & Employment mix Forest Centre Forest Centre Green infrastructure: Green infrastructure: Natural and Informal open Natural and Informal open space, parks and recreation space, areas parks and recreation areas Sports Sports School Pitches School Pitches Wildlife corridors Wildlife corridors Indicative locations for Indicative allotmentslocations for allotments Railway (set aside) Railway (set aside)

23

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


The majority of land proposed for development in the town is owned by the MOD. Hampshire County Council, East Hampshire District Council and Annington Properties Ltd are the other major landowners with an interest in the masterplan. The following sites are already going through the development process or may come forward soon: • Viking Park, where a feasibility study is being completed by PRP Architects • Eco Station, which will be used as a base for the Ecotown team. There are plans to build four terraced houses and a show home on site

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

24

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Quebec Barracks, which is already vacant and could

become available for early development once the MOD confirms its plans • Louisburg Barracks, which is a large vacant site also with potential for early access. The masterplan is a draft at this stage and will be revised in future. Development proposals will evolve further, on a site by site basis, as developers and house builders bring individual parcels of land forward for development. For the purpose of this study, all of our assumptions about future development are based on the June 2010 draft masterplan. The draft masterplan was accompanied by a draft Energy, Waste and Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. Along with energy efficient design, the draft strategy

proposed a central biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plant serving the higher density and mixed use areas of the new development and smaller biomass boilers in other parts of the town, using locally sourced wood fuel. It also suggested widespread use of photovoltaic (PV) panels and limited application of ground source heat pumps and solar thermal systems. The energy feasibility study provides an opportunity to add more detailed analysis, for example on energy output, carbon emissions, costs, capacities, and spatial implications. The transport strategy for Whitehill Bordon is evolving through an ongoing programme of work. The Emerging Transport Strategy for Whitehill Bordon, published in March 2010, set out a series


of proposals for achieving significant modal shift away from private car use to public transport, walking and cycling. The proposals include substantial improvements to bus services within the town and surrounding area and potentially a new railway line using the existing, disused rail corridor. The existing main road through the town is proposed to be redesigned, with through traffic being routed along a new main road away from the town centre. A transport hub is proposed in the town, together with stateof-the-art journey planning and real-time information on public transport services.

In addition, there are plans to significantly improve the environment for walking and cycling, and provide a cycle hire scheme and an eco-car club with environmentally friendly vehicles. Other proposals being considered include electric vehicles for public and private transport and council vehicles.

• Rail Feasibility Study • Transport Model Where available, these studies have been reviewed and taken into account in the development of the energy feasibility study.

Since the draft masterplan was published, further work has been completed including a public consultation. Other studies that have been commissioned include: • Detailed Water Cycle Study • Green Infrastructure Strategy

Proposals to reduce the need to travel include encouraging employment growth in the town and home-working supported by fast broadband services.

• Habitats Regulations Appropriate Assessment • One Planet Living Strategy

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

25

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

The surrounding villages

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

The town is surrounded by a number of villages, including Kingsley, Headley, Oakhanger, Greatham, and Selborne. While they are situated outside of the Eco-town policy zone, the proposed development of Whitehill Bordon and the accompanying improvements to infrastructure and services will clearly have significant implications for residents and businesses in these villages, both in terms of opportunities and potential impacts. It is the intention of this study to identify how the surrounding villages can benefit from the energy strategy for the Ecotown. There are likely to be economic opportunities for local villages in the energy supply chain. For example, much of the renewable and low carbon energy resource that the town might draw on

26

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

in future comes from outlying rural areas, such as fuel from managed woodlands. The villages may also be able to benefit from new energy services developed for the Ecotown, such as low-cost solar panels or biomass boilers as a result of bulk purchasing. While there may also be some impacts on the town, villages and surrounding countryside from new energy infrastructure and services, the planning process will ensure that these impacts are managed in order to be acceptable. For example, in this study protected areas such as the national park and nature conservation designations have been mapped and renewable and low carbon energy opportunities have been identified in the most suitable locations.

Although this study primarily focuses on energy supply and demand for the Eco-town policy zone, the potential benefits of the energy strategy for the surrounding villages are highlighted throughout the report


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

27

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


3.0 The Future of Energy Supply and Demand

Whitehill Bordon will need an energy strategy that is an effective local response to a series of global challenges, including climate change, energy security and fuel poverty. Although some work can be done in advance to prepare the town to meet these challenges, the energy strategy is likely to evolve over time. It will be shaped by various forces that will continue to evolve, including national policy, economic conditions and technological developments. It will also be determined, to some extent, by the decisions made by residents, businesses, landowners and developers within the framework that the masterplan provides.

28

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

This chapter describes how energy is used in the town today and how that could change in future, with better energy efficiency and a move away from fossil fuels. It highlights the need for a smart grid and sets out implications for the gas network. It concludes by reviewing some of the policy and financial incentives driving this activity.


Energy use in domestic, commercial and industrial buildings in Whitehill,

140,000

126,000

120,000 101,000 100,000 Other fuels 80,000

Diesel Petrol

60,000

Gas Electricity

40,000

Total 20,000 300

5,000

-

t

W

as

te

m

Tr an sp or

em

ge m an a

lig rm

at e W

en t

en t

in ht

str

re et

St

In du l&

ia

an ag

l ia

tic es Do m

g

0

er c

We are not aware of any major power generation infrastructure in East Hampshire at present. There is some use of wood fuel, including biomass boilers being installed at three schools in Whitehill Bordon, although the amount is negligible compared to fossil fuel use.

160,000

m

Figures on energy use for waste management were requested from Hampshire County Council, but they have confirmed that these figures are not currently available. Hampshire County Council is understood to be working to produce more detailed figures on energy use for waste management in future.

These same sources of actual energy consumption should be useful in monitoring the success of the Eco-town’s energy strategy in future years.

177,000

180,000

m

We have used the available data to estimate how much energy is used in Whitehill, Bordon and Lindford today. The results are presented in Figure 1.

Hampshire. Further details of how the numbers in Figure 1 have been calculated are provided in the Endnotes.iii

Co

Energy is used to provide light, create a comfortable environment and power appliances inside buildings. It is also used to power commercial and industrial operations, transport people and goods, and provide other services such as fresh water, waste and wastewater disposal and street lighting.

Bordon and Lindford was obtained from actual energy consumption figures published by DECC. Hampshire County Council provided actual energy consumption figures for street lighting. Energy use for water management was estimated from figures provided by South East Water and Thames Water.

Annual consumption ('000 kWh)

How energy is used now

Energy use for road transport has been estimated from actual fuel consumption figures published by DECC for East

Figure 1: Annual energy consumption in Whitehill Bordon (see note)

29

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: John S Quarterman

How energy will be used in future

Energy use is likely to change substantially in Whitehill Bordon, for a variety of reasons.

New development The town will almost double in size over the next 25 years, creating new demand for energy. The Building Regulations zero carbon requirement, which most of the development in the town will need to comply with, will ensure that new buildings achieve a minimum standard of energy efficiency. More ambitious energy efficiency standards may be driven by the target in the Green Town Vision for all new homes to be built to Code for Sustainable Homes Level 6 and for the town as a whole to be carbon neutral.

30

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Research by the Zero Carbon Hub has considered the implications of building to different standards of energy efficiency and acknowledges that there are challenges and costs associated with building to the highest standards, such as Passivhaus, iv which requires high levels of insulation, air-tightness and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. v

The eco-demonstration house that is being built at the old Fire Station in Whitehill Bordon will have high levels of insulation, controlled natural ventilation and PV on the roof. It will also have solar thermal collectors to provide hot water, with interseasonal storage of any excess heat that they produce and a heat pump to extract the stored heat when needed.

In deciding their strategy for achieving these targets, developers are likely to design their buildings to strike the right balance between going beyond the minimum energy efficiency standards, installing renewable and low carbon energy generation on-site and paying for some off-site measures to reduce emissions, based on the economics of the time.

Existing buildings Whitehill Bordon’s Green Town Vision also sets the challenging objective of improving existing homes to Passivhaus standards. Some of the most cost-effective measures are loft and cavity wall insulation and low energy light bulbs, in terms of carbon savings per pound invested, however these will only go part of the way towards delivering the energy savings needed.


Photo: Radian Housing

Properties with solid walls can be insulated, but the work is more expensive and more complicated, either affecting the external appearance of the property or reducing space inside. To achieve the highest standards of efficiency, double or triple glazing would be required in addition to improving air tightness and insulating ground floors and party walls. As well as high costs, risks involved in retrofitting homes to such high standards include the potential for poor indoor air quality and damp caused by condensation, due to increased air-tightness. To avoid this, adequate ventilation must be ensured and householders need to operate new systems correctly.

Lower energy bills for social housing Radian Housing has made considerable improvements to the vast majority of its stock of over 1,000 homes in Whitehill, Bordon and Lindford. Loft and cavity wall insulation and double glazing have been fitted, and high efficiency boilers are being installed to save emissions and reducing running costs. Paul Ciniglio, Sustainability Manager for Radian Group, considers a 60% saving in emissions from heating, hot water and lighting achievable. Costs climb steeply for efficiency improvements beyond this, which could limit the potential for existing housing to achieve the Passivhaus target. Some properties are harder to treat, for example due to solid walls or space constraints. In addition to costs, challenges include providing temporary accommodation for residents while certain works are carried out and maintaining good indoor air quality once air-tightness has been improved. Radian is working with others in the industry to build capacity for sustainable retrofit.

31

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Efficiency measure

Typical payback time

Cavity wall insulation

2 years

Solid wall insulation

15 – 40 years

Loft insulation

2 – 9 years

Floor insulation

2 years

Draught proofing

8 years

Tank and pipe insulation

6 months – 1 year

Double glazing

At least 15 years

Source: Energy Saving Trust

vi

The potential to reduce energy consumption in existing buildings in the town will depend on which of the above efficiency measures are physically suitable, to what extent these measures have been implemented already, and the availability of funding and support to implement them in the remaining properties. The Energy Saving Trust’s Home Energy Efficiency Database (HEED) provides some basic information on the physical suitability of properties in the town and the energy efficiency measures which have been implemented to date, based on survey data. The HEED data for Whitehill, Bordon, Lindford and the surrounding villages suggests that many of the easy wins have already been made:

32

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

• Around 50% of existing homes have fully insulated lofts. Most other properties have at least some loft insulation. • Around 75% have insulated cavity walls. About 14% have unfilled cavity walls and most of the remainder have uninsulated solid walls. • Around 40% of properties have full double glazing, and a further 50% have at least some double glazing. Only 7% have fully single glazing. Although the HEED data provides some indication of the potential for improving energy efficiency of existing homes, it is of limited use because of inaccuracies in the data. The above figures are derived from questionnaire responses. In most wards, the dataset includes responses for fewer

than half of the properties, and of these around half of the respondents did not know what type of construction their property is, whether it is insulated and what kind of heating system it has. The figures quoted above exclude the properties where the respondent did not know the answer to the question. Free loft and cavity wall insulation is available to all residents of Whitehill Bordon as part of the Eco-town project, funded by a central government grant. vii Registered Social Landlords are taking a lead in refurbishing housing to improve energy efficiency, driven by objectives to provide decent homes and tackle fuel poverty as well as reduce carbon emissions (see Radian Housing case study).


National schemes offering free energy efficiency improvements have generally focused on low income homes, including Warm Front, the Community Energy Savings Programme (CESP), and the Carbon Emissions Reduction Target (CERT), funded by government grants and energy suppliers respectively. viii A strategy to improve the energy efficiency of all existing homes in Whitehill, Bordon and Lindford is being prepared. This will consider how far the town can go towards the challenging Passivhaus target. A more thorough and accurate survey of the condition of existing properties would be recommended to inform the development of this strategy.

Electric heating Patterns of energy demand are also likely to change, and the choice of fuel or power for different uses may change with time. For example, there could be a significant switch over to electricity use for heating, replacing traditional fossil fuels. At present, around 3.5% of homes in the town and surrounding villages have electric heating, based on HEED data. Government analysis of energy supply and demand scenarios for 2050 considers the potential for all heating needs to be met with electric heat pumps or resistance heaters, which could lead to a major increase in electricity use.

33

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Electric vehicles and other alternative transport fuels There could also be an increasing role for electricity in transport. This is recognised in the emerging transport strategy, with proposals being considered including increasing use of electric vehicles for private and public transport and council services. According to the transport strategy prepared for the draft masterplan, over half of all journeys made by residents of Whitehill Bordon are short trips made within the town itself. Around 70% of all trips in the town are made by car, either as a driver (the majority) or passenger. Just 4% are by bus, while most of the rest are walking or cycling trips.

34

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

The target for the Eco-town is to reduce the proportion of trips made by private car to just 25%. Even though car use is intended to decrease as public transport improves, facilities and jobs are brought closer to the communities they serve, and the environment gets better for walking and cycling, the car is expected to remain as part of the transport system in the town together with other motor vehicles, including buses and vans. Electric cars could replace petrol or diesel alternatives for journeys totalling around half of the annual distance travelled by cars in the UK (in vehicle kms), according to research for the Committee on Climate Change.ix The Committee thinks they should

be encouraged, recommending that 5% of all cars should be electric-battery powered or plug-in hybrids by 2020. They have prepared several scenarios for uptake, with uptake rising to between 15% and 37% of all cars by 2030.x At present, the limited range of electric vehicles and lack of readily accessible charging infrastructure means that they are likely to be used for shorter trips in the short term. However, future developments such as improved battery technology, battery swap services, installation of fast charging points could increase their range and flexibility. This could eventually make them suitable for all car trips, as envisaged by the Committee on Climate Change for 2050.


There is also potential to use electric or hybrid buses in the town (see “Buses go back to the future”), electric or hybrid vehicles for the council fleet, taxis and other services and an electric rail service if the line is reopened. Central government is offering a grant of up to 25% of the purchase cost or a maximum of £5,000 to encourage uptake. Many local authorities offer other incentives such as reduced parking charges or installation of on-street charging points. Infrastructure will be needed for charging electric vehicles, both at people’s homes and elsewhere across the town. Batteries can be plugged into standard power points in homes or other locations for slow charging, where

Buses go back to the future

Photo: Automotive PR

Electric buses are not a new thing. Trolley buses were once a common sight on city streets. The challenge for modern electric buses is to produce batteries that are light and affordable but hold enough charge to cover a reasonable distance, without the need for overhead lines. While battery technology is improving, hybrids are a good compromise, using fuel part of the time to charge the battery and give an extra boost of power if needed. Bus manufacturer Optare launched a fully electric bus in 2009, using new, more compact batteries to run for up to 60 miles on one charge. Nottingham City Council recently ordered eight, part paid for by the government’s Green Bus Fund. The buses cause no local air pollution. They are so quiet they have speakers to make an artificial hum so pedestrians can hear them coming. Operating costs are around £8,000 a year less than diesel buses, paying back the extra cost in about 10 years. One potential downside is the need for occasional topup charges taking around 15 minutes. Source: The Times, 10 April 2009.

35

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: DCLG

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

garages or off-street parking are available. Where standard power points cannot be used, dedicated charging points can be installed on- or off-street. It is recommended that developers are required to provide access to a suitable charging point for all new homes with off street parking and all business premises for use with fleet and staff vehicles. Grants or other support may be needed to enable existing homes and businesses to install charging points where a connection to standard power sockets is not available. Council depots and bus depot(s) serving the town will also require charging points if electric vehicles are to be used in local fleets.

36

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Charging points should be compatible with a range of vehicles and be smart grid enabled, so the load can be controlled in line with local constraints on supply and demand. The number of charging points needed at homes in the town by 2035 could range from 2,000 to over 5,500, based on the above uptake rates and projections of average car ownership per dwelling produced by the Department for Transport.x Slow charging points which can charge batteries in 6 to 8 hours cost up to £3,500 to install, while fast charging points costing up to £5,000 can provide a full charge within 3 hours.xi The faster the charge, the greater the demand placed on the local grid. Slow charging points

each draw around 3kW power from the grid, while a power supply of 7kW or more is needed for fast charging.

install and use 50kW or more of electricity.xi

Even faster, rapid charging points could be installed in public places, such as retail and leisure car parks, on-street parking in the town centre and the transport hub. In addition, a fast charging point could be installed in a central location in each of the surrounding villages.

The car club proposed for the town could provide electric vehicles with charging points at their dedicated bays in addition to offering members access to non-electric or hybrid vehicles for the occasional longer journeys. This flexibility could help encourage people to use alternative modes or buy electric vehicles for day-to-day use.

Nearby towns or other common destinations for residents could also be provided with fast charge points to help overcome ‘range anxiety’ which can put people off buying electric vehicles. Rapid charging points can charge batteries in 15 to 20 minutes, but cost between £25,000 and £50,000 to

It is recommended that a better estimate is made of potential uptake of electric vehicles in Whitehill Bordon in future and the modal share and energy demand that they could represent. This could be informed by consulting people in the town on their attitudes to electric vehicles and incorporating scenarios


for their uptake in further transport modelling work. Electric buses should be considered as an option as proposals are developed for the improved public transport services and car club. It is also recommended that the emerging transport strategy for the town reflects the potential uptake of electric vehicles and sets out how their use will be encouraged, including incentives and a strategy for installing charging points. While strong growth in electric vehicles is expected, there could still be demand for other types of transport fuel, including for hybrid-electric vehicles which run part of the time on fuel. Growth in the alternative fuels in the UK is currently driven by the EU Biofuels Directive, which resulted in the Renewable

Transport Fuels Obligation, which requires fuel suppliers to replace a proportion of the traditional fuels they sell with biofuels, including bioethanol to replace petrol, biodiesel in place of diesel or biogas. The UK target for 2010/11 was 3.5% of fuel supplied by volume. The obligation has led to a low percentage of biofuels being blended into petrol or diesel sold at the pumps, which can be used in vehicles without any need for modification.

managed through the national fuel supply chain and the resource is not likely to exist in Whitehill Bordon to develop a sustainable, local supply of fuels in the volumes needed, biofuels for road transport are not covered in any more depth in this report.

Calls for the target to be raised for future years have provoked debate, including the potential for some vehicles to need engine modifications to run on higher biofuel blends and concerns about sustainability of the biofuel supply chain. As biofuel supply and demand for road transport is being

37

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Future energy demand in Whitehill Bordon An estimate has been made of future energy consumption in Whitehill Bordon, taking into account some of the trends described above. Domestic, commercial and industrial energy projections have been prepared with a focus on building-related energy use. Energy use for appliances, industrial processes and other non-building related uses in these sectors have been assumed to stay the same, in the absence of sufficient information to forecast the extent of future changes. Two scenarios have been considered for how energy use in buildings will change:

38

• Scenario one is a baseline scenario which assumes existing homes will be refurbished to good practice energy efficiency standards. Energy demand from new development is assumed to increase in line with the proposals in the draft masterplan. New homes are assumed to be built to similar good practice efficiency standards.xii There is no general basis on which to quantify energy efficiency savings in nonresidential buildings, so new non-residential buildings are assumed to have similar energy demands as existing buildings of the same type.xiii Heating fuel is assumed to remain mostly gas, with some electric heating. Gas boilers are assumed to be replaced over time with high efficiency new boilers.

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Scenario two is a low carbon scenario, which assumes that all new homes will be built to Passivhaus standards with mechanical ventilation and heat recovery, with existing homes refurbished to similar standards over time.xiv Again, non-residential buildings have all been assumed to have similar energy demands as existing buildings of the same type. It assumes that all new buildings will be heated with electric air source heat pumps, while all existing buildings will shift from natural gas heating to heat pumps over time. Instead of the electric heat pumps assumed in our scenario, other renewable or low carbon energy technologies may replace gas and other fuels for heating supply; various options are

considered in later chapters of this report. Street lighting energy demand may increase as a result of the new development proposed creating new streets, but this may be offset by the use of more efficient lighting. As a simple estimate, it has been assumed to increase in line with the growth in the number of dwellings in the town, as the majority of street lighting is likely to be on residential streets. Water demand may be similar to current levels in spite of the new development, as there is a target for the town to be water neutral. This may mean that the total amount of water being treated to potable standards and pumped to consumers and the amount of wastewater passing through

the sewage treatment works is the same. There are proposals in the water cycle study to improve the energy efficiency of water supply, so it may be that the amount of energy used per unit of water supplied or wastewater treated may go down. However, systems to re-use rainwater and greywater locally, which help to improve water efficiency, can increase energy demands for processing and pumping compared to traditional centralised water services. As a simple, conservative estimate for the purpose of this study, it has been assumed that the amount of energy used for water supply and treatment increases in line with population forecasts for the town.


160,000 140,000 122,000 120,000

108,000

100,000

Other fuels Diesel

80,000

Petrol Gas

60,000

Electricity 40,000

Total (2035) Total (2010)

20,000 500

-

t po r ns

en t

Tr a

as

te

m

an ag

em

en t

g

ag em W

W

at

er m

an

tl ig

ht in

ia l re e

St

In du

str

es ti m

l&

Do er cia m

Estimates of energy consumption in Whitehill Bordon in 2035 are shown in Figure 2, based on the less ambitious scenario one for building and transport energy use. Total energy consumption in 2010 is also shown for comparison, which corresponds to the numbers provided in Figure 1.

7,000

0

c

• Scenario two assumes stronger growth in the number of electric vehicles, in line with the higher rate of uptake predicted on a national scale. This would result in 50% of the cars in Whitehill Bordon being electric by 2035. This has been assumed to result in 50% of transport energy demand being supplied by electricity from the grid.

177,000

180,000

m

• Scenario one assumes that uptake of electric vehicles will be in line with the lower rate of growth predicted in the national estimates, at 20% of all cars in the town by 2035. As electric vehicles are more likely to be chosen by people who regularly travel shorter distances, and some may be hybrid vehicles which use fuel some of the time, it has been assumed that 10%

of energy used for transport supplied by electricity from the grid.

Co

Transport energy use is the most difficult to predict. As the town’s population increases and its economy changes, new demand for travel and freight will be created. However, the transport strategy aims for a greater proportion of journeys to be made by public transport, walking and cycling. Added to that is a potential increase in electricity demand for transport, while petrol and diesel use may

eventually decline. A simple estimate has been prepared for this study for the purpose of comparison, in the absence of figures from the transport modelling work. It has been assumed that overall energy use for transport will remain the same, with increasing transport demand being balanced out by modal shift away from private car use. Two scenarios have been assumed for uptake of electric vehicles by 2035:

Annual consumption ('000 kWh)

Waste management energy demands may increase as the amount of waste generated locally goes up due to new development. This could be offset partially by increasing output from energy from waste plants. It has not been possible to calculate a forecast as the data on existing energy use for waste management was not available to use as a starting point.

Figure 2: Annual energy consumption in Whitehill Bordon, forecast for 2035, scenario one

39

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


177,000

180,000

140,000 120,000

107,000

100,000

Other fuels

80,000

Diesel

71,000

Petrol Gas

60,000

Electricity 40,000

Total (2035) Total (2010)

20,000

7,000

500

-

or t

en ge m

an a

as te

m

Tr an sp

t

en t em

ht

an ag

ig at e

rm

re et l

In d

us St

W

W

al tri

tic es m m

m

er cia

l&

Do

in g

0

Co

Annual consumption ('000 kWh)

160,000

Figure 3: Annual energy consumption in Whitehill Bordon, forecast for 2035, scenario two

40

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Estimates of energy consumption in Whitehill Bordon in 2035 based on the more ambitious scenario two for building and transport energy use are shown in Figure 3. Again, total energy consumption in 2010 is shown for comparison. This analysis suggests that electricity demand in the town could more than double by 2035 if there is high uptake of electric heating and electric vehicles. Annual gas consumption is projected to either drop by around a quarter due to improved efficiency in scenario one or fall away completely as it is replaced as the fuel of choice for heating in scenario two.

Our analysis implies that fuels are still likely to be very important for transport in 2035 compared to electricity, even if uptake of electric vehicles is high. Although not considered in the scope of this study, diesel and petrol could increasingly be replaced by biofuels over this period. Even if some growth is allowed for, energy use for street lighting and water management are still likely to represent a small proportion of overall energy use in the town in future. Although the numbers are not available, it is likely that waste management too will account for a relatively small component of energy demand in the town. Further work is recommended to obtain a more accurate assessment of future non-

building related energy demands. This should focus in particular on transport, which could have the most significant implications for the Eco-town’s energy strategy.


Image: LDA Design

41

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Primary supply

4000 3500

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 20 0 20 7 10 20 15 20 20 20 25 20 30 20 35 20 40 20 45 20 50

TWh / year

3000

Agriculture, waste and biomatter imports Environmental heat Nuclear, solar, wind, tide, wave, geothermal, hydro Fossil fuel

Figure 4: UK primary energy supply scenario to 2050 (Source: DECC, see note xv)

42

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

What this means for energy supply

As described above, demand for heat and fuels should decrease in time. Electricity demand in the town could increase substantially however, potentially doubling over the lifetime of the development. This means that renewable and low carbon means of power generation will be particularly important if Whitehill Bordon is to achieve its targets in future. The government has published some long term scenarios for energy supply in the UK, which reflect and respond to some of these trends and consider what types of energy supply will become more important in the future.xv Pathway Alpha illustrates what may happen with balanced effort across all sectors to improve energy efficiency and develop renewable and low carbon forms of power generation

(Figure 4). By 2050, based on this scenario, the UK energy supply could include: • 8,000 onshore wind turbines and 10,000 offshore • 300km wave farms and 1,000 tidal stream turbines • 4m2 PV per person and solar thermal on 30% suitable roofs • Energy crops covering 10% of land in the UK • 13 nuclear power stations • Carbon capture and storage on fossil fuel power stations To achieve this change, new equipment and infrastructure will need to be installed in suitable locations across the UK. Whitehill Bordon, East Hampshire and the surrounding


area will need to play a role in delivering the energy supply of the future and will not be able to rely on all the action taking place elsewhere. For example, a 1,200MW offshore wind farm is proposed at Navitus Bay, west of the Isle of Wight and a number of planning applications have been submitted for solar PV farms in Hampshire. The Committee on Climate Change has recommended that carbon emissions from power generation are reduced to around 10% of current levels by 2030, with almost complete decarbonisation of power generation by 2050.xvi These changes in the carbon intensity of electricity supplied from the grid will make a big difference to the apparent emissions performance of

electric heating and vehicles compared to traditional fossil fuelled alternatives. As the development of Whitehill Bordon will take place over the same time period as these changes, it will be important to try and reflect the long term trends in the assessment of the implications of the different technologies. The Zero Carbon Hub has made some recommendations about how the factors used to calculate the carbon emissions and savings associated with different technologies should be amended over time.xvii

Smart grid

Electricity distribution network A map of the high voltage electricity lines in the district is provided on the following page, with a detailed version in Appendix 1. The Distribution Network Operator (DNO), Scottish and Southern Energy, were not able to supply any more detailed information on the network in and around the town. According to the draft masterplan, there is one electrical substation to the north of the town, in the playing fields to the west of Louisburg Barracks, and a 66kV substation in the town centre just south of the Martinique House Community Centre. The changes to patterns of energy demand and means of generation described

above could have significant implications for the local electricity distribution network. These include: • Increase in the peak load on the network due to additional demand from new development and different devices, including electric heating and vehicles • Supply to the network from multiple small generators located across the town • Connection of some larger generators to the local grid • Need to maximise use of locally generated power by balancing supply and demand • Need to export electricity from the town to the national grid at times when local generation exceeds local demand

43

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

• Requirement for reserve power to meet peak demands • Need for better information for billing and payments There is a range of possible outcomes for peak load on the electricity distribution network in future, depending on the level of energy efficiency achieved, behaviour of current and future occupants of the town and choice and scale of generating equipment installed. Revised estimates of the peak electrical load from buildings in the town have been prepared by Royal Haskoning to inform this study.xviii Two scenarios were considered:

44

Photo: LDA Design

• Scenario one is a baseline scenario which assumes no change to peak loads in existing buildings and increasing demand from new development in line with the proposals in the draft masterplan. New development is assumed to have the same peak load per home or unit of non-residential space as existing buildings.

To this analysis we have added an estimate of the maximum potential impact on peak loads from electric vehicle charging. Analysis of the grid impacts of electric vehicle charging across the UK considered several scenarios for the types of charging points used, taking into account the higher load per charging point for fast and rapid charging.

• Scenario two is a low carbon scenario, which assumes that new development will be built to the zero carbon standards proposed for the Building Regulations, while existing buildings will be refurbished to similar energy efficiency standards by the time construction of the new development is complete. It assumes that all buildings will shift from natural gas heating to electric heat pumps.

It concluded that the greatest peak load on the grid would occur if all vehicles were charged using slow charging points at residential properties, as charging is more likely to occur simultaneously, whereas use of fast and rapid charging points would be at different times throughout the day.ix

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Our analysis has therefore assumed that, as a worst case, all electric vehicles are charged at the same time using slow charging points. The peak electrical loads calculated at the end of each phase of development are shown in Figure 5 for scenario one and Figure 6 for scenario two. In both scenarios, peak loads for the town are expected to increase due to the new development. In scenario two, the peak loads are higher on account of the switch over to electrical heating systems. The contribution to total peak load in the town resulting from electric vehicles would be relatively low compared to the contribution from buildings in both of the scenarios considered. Electric vehicles would account for a greater

proportion of peak loads if uptake occurred at the higher rate and there was little or no switch over to electric heating. These results assume that all vehicles are charge simultaneously, and this coincides with the peak demand for electricity in buildings. Total peak loads, and the impact on the grid, would be reduced if vehicles were charged a time when other demands on the grid are low.


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO © Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data © Crown copyright and database right 2011.

FARNHAM FARNHAM

ALTON ALTON

BORDON BORDON NEW NEW ARLESFORD ARLESFORD

Existing energy infrastructure

PETERSFIELD PETERSFIELD

Existing Energy Existing Energy

MIDHURST MIDHURST

Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Policy Zone Policy Zone District boundary District boundary

" ) " ) " ) " ) k k

National Grid Electricity National Grid Electricity Substation Substation Electricity Substation Electricity Substation Landfill Gas Site Landfill Gas Site National Grid Electricity National Grid Electricity Line Line 132,000 Volt Electricity 132,000 Line Volt Electricity Line 33,000 Volt Electricity 33,000 Line Volt Electricity Line

HORNDEAN HORNDEAN

HAVANT HAVANT

45

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


100,000 90,000

Peak electrical load (kW)

80,000 70,000 60,000

Electric vehicles

50,000

Buildings

40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

2010 2015 2020 2025 2028 2031 2035

Figure 5: Peak electric loads at completion of each phase of development, scenario one 100,000 90,000

Peak electrical load (kW)

80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000

Electric vehicles

40,000

Buildings

30,000 20,000 10,000 0

2010 2015 2020 2025 2028 2031 2035

Figure 6: Peak electric loads at completion of each phase of development, scenario two

46

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

The Baseline Report for Whitehill Bordonxix noted that around 4000 new dwellings could be served by the Bordon substation, with some upgrades required to the local 11kV network. It concluded that a new primary substation may be required for a development larger than this, which could be supplied by extending two 33kV circuits from Alton, at an estimated cost of around £6M. It goes on to observe that the “application of Codes for Sustainable Homes” should reduce energy demand, potentially offsetting the need for the upgrades. It is not clear whether the Baseline Report took into account electricity demand from the employment and community facilities, or the impact of embedded electricity generation on the network.

The Baseline Report noted that there would effectively be no spare capacity released in the town’s substations when the MOD sites are vacated. This is because the MOD sites are supplied from a separate sub-station at Wrecclesham by cables owned by the MOD. Royal Haskoning has reviewed the information in the Baseline Report for the purpose of this feasibility study and concluded that some of the capacity released in the Wrecclesham substation could be used to supply the additional requirements of the Eco-town, if a new connection could be made to the town network. Scottish and Southern Energy commented at the time of the Baseline Report that they did not consider a new connection between the town network and

the Wrecclesham substation to be viable. Scottish and Southern Energy has confirmed that there have been no major reinforcements to the electricity distribution network in and around Whitehill Bordon since the Baseline Report was completed. Some minor network upgrades have been completed, including the installation of a new 33kV circuit between Fernhurst and Langley Court and a replacement cable in one the Whitehill Bordon industrial parks. Scottish and Southern Energy has been sent projections of the revised peak electrical loads on the network through to completion of the Eco-town project and asked to comment on implications for capacity of


the network and infrastructure upgrades which may be required. It is understood that this analysis will be undertaken by Scottish and Southern Energy in future, as part of a programme of work to be agreed with the Eco-town team. Generation output from some renewable and low carbon technologies, such as PV panels or wind turbines, varies according to weather conditions. The peaks and troughs in electricity supply may not coincide with patterns of demand. In addition, the quality of power supplied to the grid needs to be managed carefully. To manage local peaks and troughs in supply and demand, electricity can be exported to and imported from the grid or stored locally.

Depending on how much local generation is installed, how far peak electricity demand increases and what can be done locally to balance supply and demand, it may be necessary to upgrade the lines and substations connecting the town to the national grid to ensure sufficient capacity. The electricity distribution network is currently upgraded to meet changing demands, including those due to new building developments, as the need emerges. Any upgrades that might be needed are planned on the basis of applications received, and the DNOs have not tended to undertake long term, proactive planning of upgrades. Charges for connecting new loads or generators are determined according to a published methodology agreed between

the DNO and Ofgem. If any network upgrades are required beyond the site boundary, the DNO will calculate the cost and allocate a portion of it to the new development according to the share of the new capacity that it will require. The standard procedures for connecting new loads or generators are currently as follows: • New development: developers are required to contact the DNO, in this case Scottish and Southern Energy, to register their site and begin the process of applying for a connection. The DNO will determine what the implications of connecting a particular site are for the network, such as the need for additional capacity on a cable or at a substation. The

lead time for network upgrades depends on the extent of the work required, but can be several years for major works. • Electric vehicle charging: Batteries can be plugged into standard power points in homes or other locations for slow charging, without the need for a dedicated charging point to be fitted or permission from the DNO. The risk with this approach is that it is uncontrolled and the cumulative impact of many vehicles being charged at the same time could cause problems for the grid. On-street charging points, and fast or rapid charging points which draw more power, would need to be connected to the mains by the DNO, which gives them some awareness of and control over the impacts on the local grid.

47

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

Photo: Jo Peattie

• Electric heating and other appliances in buildings: No permission required from the DNO at present to switch over to electric heating systems or connect high-powered appliances in existing buildings.

could potentially overload the local grid at peak times, when generation exceeds local demand. In addition, electricity will be exported through distribution infrastructure which has traditionally been designed and used to import power to the properties it serves.

• Small generators of up to 4kW peak output can connect to the local distribution grid via existing meter points, without the need for permission from the DNO. For slow, piecemeal growth of microgeneration capacity in the town this may be a manageable approach.

• Generators over 4kW require permission from the DNO to connect to the grid and may need to pay for the costs of local reinforcements such as cable upgrades.

However, if thousands of people in the town took the opportunity to install a PV array on their roof over the next few years, spurred on by the feed in tariff, the cumulative impact

48

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

While the requirement to obtain permission gives the DNO more control over the grid impacts, the costs charged to generators may be prohibitive unless the works are planned effectively and the costs shared as far as possible amongst all those who may use the upgraded parts of the

network now and in future. The on-demand approach to upgrading the network can also introduce delays to generation projects as they wait for a connection to the grid to be enabled. The energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon is unprecedented and ambitious. The changes envisaged in how electricity will be used and supplied in the town are expected to take place across the whole of the UK over the longer term, as national policy is implemented in the move towards the low carbon economy. Whitehill Bordon will need to lead the way in establishing an approach for other towns to follow. This will require a new way of working, with a proactive and collaborative approach

to planning and delivering the infrastructure required. Development of a smart grid for the town, supported by actions to improve the national grid, will be essential to address the challenges outlined above. The objectives of a smart grid are likely to include: • Managing demand to encourage use of electricity when there is spare capacity in the grid and when generation from renewable and low carbon sources is high. • Managing generation to integrate a more diverse range of generators, ensure sufficient electricity is available to meet demand and prevent too much electricity being supplied to the grid when there is a risk of exceeding network capacity.


Photo: Tom Raftery

• Storing energy to improve the balance between supply and demand. • Providing detailed information on the performance and condition of the network, and how energy is being used and supplied. Smart grid proposals for the UK are in the early stages of development at present. The Electricity Networks Strategy Group (ENSG) provide a high level forum which brings together key stakeholders in the electricity networks to look at the long term energy challenges faced in the UK. On behalf of DECC and Ofgem, it has produced a high level vision of what the UK smart grid might look like. Various DNOs are developing their own smart grid pilot projects, some of which are being

progressed with support from the Low Carbon Networks Fund. Research is also being funded by the UK Energy Research Council. Whitehill Bordon has been put forward as a case study for this research. Given that proposals for the smart grid are still taking shape within the industry, it is not possible at this stage to say exactly what will be required to develop one in Whitehill Bordon, when it should be implemented and how much it will cost. The proposals currently being discussed by the industry for pilot projects in other parts of the UK do however give an indication of what might be involved.

49

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Scottish and Southern Energy has advised that a smart grid could be expected to comprise three main elements: • Monitoring: Smart meters will provide detailed information on how electricity is being used or generated at any point in time. Every property in the UK will be fitted with a smart meter by 2019, according to an announcement by DECC in March 2011.xx Smart meters will allow the consumer to communicate with the DNOs and energy supply companies and facilitate remote billing and fault reporting. They should also be able to calculate electricity costs based on up to date information on tariffs and communicate with other smart devices in the property, such as appliances or microgeneration equipment. Work is currently underway to establish the

50

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

standard specification for smart meters. They will be installed by the electricity supply companies and the costs recouped from consumers over time through a premium on their energy bills. Sensors and communications links will also be needed to provide information on the electricity network performance and capacity. • Modelling: Demand will be forecast over the short and long term to enable advanced planning of electricity supply and demand management. Models are informed by historic data, real time energy consumption figures and information on various other drivers of demand such as climate data or special events.

• Management: Communications links and controls will be incorporated to enable the smart grid to switch devices on or off as required. On the demand management side this could include smart appliances such as washing machines or electric vehicle charging points.

Other means of storage are being developed, including flywheels and hydrogen production. A further element of demand management is expected to be the introduction of variable tariffs to encourage energy to be used at times of day when there is a relative over-supply.

On the supply side, this could allow the output from generators to be turned down or switched off in the case of over-supply, or equipment which can generate on demand such as a diesel or alternative fuelled generator to be switched on to make up supply to the level required.

Fast and reliable information flows will be an important element underpinning the operation of a smart grid. This would depend on access to a suitable communications network. Smart meters have recently been launched by OnStream, National Grid’s metering business, which have a roaming SIM card that can use the mobile network with the strongest signal to transmit information.

Various options are available for energy storage at the community or individual building level, including batteries and storage heaters.


It is envisaged that a change in electricity tariffs will accompany or follow the roll out of smart meters, giving the consumer greater choice and control over electricity purchased from and sold to the grid. At times of low national or regional electricity usage, the tariffs could be lowered and encourage consumers to use electricity in these off-peak times. The smart meter would be central to controlling the user’s buying and selling preferences, automating the times at which electricity is consumed by specific systems and appliances.

Installing some form of electricity storage in each property would enable the consumer to get the best out of these tariffs, as electricity could be purchased during off-peak times for later use. Microgeneration systems installed in the property would also be connected to the grid via the smart meter, which could decide when to use or store the electricity generated locally or export it back to the grid, depending upon tariff prices. Although the primary function of the smart grid would be to balance supply and demand, it may also deliver some energy savings. Having access to better information on how electricity is used and how much this is costing could encourage more energy

efficient behaviour, as well as enabling faults or unnecessary activities which are causing energy to be wasted to be identified and resolved. Savings of between 5% and 10% in household energy bills have been observed in smart meter trials.xxi The Research and Development team at Scottish and Southern Energy has expressed an interest in working in partnership with the Whitehill Bordon Eco-town team, East Hampshire District Council and other stakeholders to develop proposals for a smart grid in Whitehill Bordon. The Eco-town team should work in partnership with Scottish and Southern Energy to produce proposals for a research and development programme and prepare a bid for this to be funded by a grant from the

Low Carbon Networks Fund. The scope of this work should include:

• Recommendations for the smart grid, including controls, cables and substations

• The impacts of proposed new development on the electricity grid

• Recommendations for energy storage on the individual property and community scale

• The cumulative impacts of widespread take up of electric vehicles and electric heating

• Recommendations for reinforcements or upgrades to the infrastructure connecting the town with the national grid

• The cumulative impacts of installation of microgeneration technologies, particularly PV, across the town • The connection of larger power generation projects to the grid, including an assessment of site-specific constraints in priority locations • The extent to which supply and demand can be balanced locally

One of the new development sites expected to come forward in the first phase should be selected as a focal point for the initial smart grid research. The longer term programme of work with Scottish and Southern should determine what will be needed to deliver a smart grid for the town as a whole, including extending it to existing communities.

51

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: Refgas

Gas distribution network Most buildings in the town are connected to the gas network, with 95% of homes using gas as their main heating fuel. The gas supply to the surrounding villages is more limited, and this number drops to around 83%, based on the HEED data. Some properties in the villages rely on other more expensive fuels such as oil for heating, which has gone up in price by 25% over the last year, according to figures published by DECC. A map of the gas distribution network in and around the town is provided on the next page, reproduced from information provided by Scotia Gas Networks. See Appendix 1 for a more detailed version.

52

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

The potential changes in energy demand described earlier could have major implications for the gas distribution network in the town: • Gas demand could reduce in the existing building stock due to improved energy efficiency, but any savings could be offset if people choose to keep their homes at higher temperatures • New gas demand may come online from new development if gas is used for heating or hot water • Gas demand could gradually dwindle to nothing as electricity or biomass takes over for heating and hot water • Gas could remain as the heating fuel of choice in the medium term, but eventually

natural gas may need to be replaced with alternatives such as biomethane Ultimately, it is possible that the gas distribution network could become a redundant asset in future, depending on the role the fuel has in the energy strategy for the town. The Baseline Report (see note xix) states that the existence of major local gas infrastructure and competition within the gas supply industry should result in little or no net abnormal cost for any necessary off-site reinforcements. To inform a more detailed consideration of impacts on the gas network for the energy feasibility study, projections of future peak gas loads in Whitehill Bordon have been prepared by Royal Haskoning. xviii

These projections have been developed for the same two scenarios as the peak electric loads described above. The peak gas loads calculated at the end of each phase of development are shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8. The peak gas load is estimated to occur on weekend mornings during the winter, driven by space heating and hot water demand in housing. In scenario one, new buildings are assumed to have the same peak gas demand as existing buildings, with no improvement in energy efficiency. This could lead to the peak load on the gas network almost doubling. In scenario two, all new buildings are assumed to be designed to use electric heat pumps, with existing buildings also converting


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO Š Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data Š Crown copyright and database right 2011.

Existing gas Gas Networks networks Gas Networks Whitehill Bordon Eco-Town Whitehill Policy Zone Bordon Eco-Town Policy Zone Gas Pipelines Gas Pipelines Low Pressure mains Low Pressure mains (< 75 mbar) (< 75 mbar) Medium Pressure mains mains (75Medium mbar - 2Pressure bar) (75 mbar - 2 bar) Intermediate Pressure mains Intermediate (2 bar - 7 bar) Pressure mains (2 bar - 7 bar)

53

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


80,000 70,000

Peak gas load (kW)

60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0

2010 2015 2020 2025 2028 2031 2035

Figure 7: Peak gas loads at completion of each phase of development, scenario one 45,000 40,000

Peak gas load (kW)

35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0

2010 2015 2020 2025 2028 2031 2035

Figure 8: Peak gas loads at completion of each phase of development, scenario two

54

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

to electric heating by the end of the final phase of the development. These scenarios illustrate extremes for the purpose of understanding the infrastructure implications, but the actual picture could well be somewhere in between. These peak load figures have been sent to Scotia Gas Networks, the operator of the Southern Gas Network, with a request for comments on any capacity constraints or requirements for additional infrastructure. Scotia Gas Networks has confirmed that reinforcements would not be required to the medium and intermediate pressure networks in the Whitehill Bordon area. If gas is supplied to new development, onsite distribution networks will connect to existing low pressure mains in the vicinity.

In this event, some minor reinforcements would be required to the low pressure gas networks in and around the proposed development sites. These standard works would be undertaken during the construction of the new development, with some involvement from Scotia Gas Networks. Smart gas meters will be installed for every property with a gas connection, as part of the same national programme for the roll-out of smart electricity meters. Using smart meters as the starting point, a smart gas network could be developed in future along similar lines to the smart grid. We are not aware of any major proposals being developed for this in the UK at present, with the electricity grid being the focus of most

research and development activity. If gas retains a role in the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon in the medium to long term, biomethane may be used to meet an increasing portion of demand in future. This could be produced and injected into the gas grid at the national scale or locally. It is estimated that biomethane could account for up to 15% of domestic gas needs in the UK in 2020. Biomethane can be produced from various feedstocks, including waste or energy crops. Several processes can be used, some of which are better suited to particular feedstocks. These include anaerobic digestion, pyrolysis and gasification. The biogas produced by these processes can be cleaned and the


methane content increased to produce biomethane. More information on each feedstock and process is provided in the Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Opportunities chapter, together with an assessment of the local potential for biogas and biomethane production and potential uses. DECC has published guidance on the requirements for biomethane injection into the national gas grid.xxii It must meet minimum standards for composition, including methane concentrations and levels of impurities. Provided the gas meets this specification, it should be possible to use it without any modification to the appliances at the consumer end of the network.

Provided that the calorific value (or energy content, kWh/m3) of the biomethane is equal to that of the natural gas in the network, then the biomethane supplied to the gas network will take up the same volume in the pipes as the natural gas it replaces. However if the calorific value is less, then a larger volume of biomethane would be required to provide the same output as natural gas, and pipelines may need upgrading. The network entry agreement for connection of a biomethane facility to the gas network might stipulate a specific calorific value for the gas supplied to avoid this problem and ensure that customers are billed fairly for gas supplied. There are however some implications in terms of the

capacity of the local gas distribution network and ensuring an appropriate balance between supply and demand. If there is not enough capacity on the local network, additional pipework may be required to upgrade the network or carry the biomethane to an appropriate point on the network for connection.

site-specific analysis would be required to determine whether a potential biomethane facility could connect to higher pressure gas mains. Scotia Gas Networks should be consulted as the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon is developed and more detailed feasibility work is completed for specific projects

Any upgrading works would be charged to the producer of the biomethane in addition to connection costs. It may be necessary to install gas storage tanks to balance supply and demand locally Scotia Gas Networks has advised that biomethane injection could not be accommodated on the low pressure gas network which serves most properties. Further,

55

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: Scotia Gas Networks

Cooking on sewage gas Homes in Oxfordshire are cooking and heating their homes with sewage gas, thanks to a local biomethane project â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the first of its kind in the UK. Scotia Gas Networks installed the biomethane facility in partnership with Thames Water and British Gas. It takes gas produced from anaerobic digestion at the local sewage works, processes it to remove impurities and increase the methane content and injects it into the local gas distribution network. The amount produced is enough to supply around 200 homes. The project cost ÂŁ2 million and took six months to complete. The company is undertaking further research and development work to enable larger quantities of biomethane to be injected into its network at other locations. Source: Scotia Gas Networks press release (2010)

56

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: Refgas

Energy costs and investment

The cost of supplying energy in future is likely to rise as: • Global demand for fossil fuels on the world markets increases • Conventional fossil fuel reserves decline • Fossil fuels are increasingly obtained from reserves that are more difficult and costly to exploit such as oil sands, shale and deep water reserves • Renewable and low carbon energy supplies are installed, typically costing more per unit of energy supplied than historic figures for electricity and gas • Power generation and energy transmission and distribution infrastructure is replaced or substantially upgraded

Many of these costs will eventually be recouped through increases in consumer energy bills. It is important to understand how consumer energy prices might change in future, as they have a significant impact on the apparent financial viability of the different renewable and low carbon energy technologies which might be employed in Whitehill Bordon. Future consumer energy prices are difficult to predict, as they are currently driven by the wholesale energy prices paid by the suppliers, which tend to fluctuate significantly. Energy bills could rise by up to 25% by 2020, according to Ofgem, leaving many more households at risk of fuel poverty. Our analysis has used energy price

projections produced by the Interdepartmental Analysts Group for HM Treasury and DECC.xxiii Investment of around £200 billion will be needed in energy generation, electricity networks and gas infrastructure in the UK, according to Ofgem. The Green Investment Bank is central to the government’s approach to delivering the finance needed to support this huge investment. As announced in the 2011 Budget, it will begin as a £3 billion fund for investing in green projects. This is hoped to leverage a further £15 billion of private sector investment by 2015. The government has since confirmed that the bank will be given the powers to borrow from the private sector, issue green bonds and

offer other financial products such as insurance from 2015. Early priorities suggested for the Bank by government include offshore wind, energy from waste, and non-domestic energy efficiency. Numerous financial incentives have been established to encourage energy efficiency and investment in renewable and low carbon energy. Some impose a carbon charge intended to discourage use of fossil fuels, while others provide a payment for renewable and low carbon energy generation or offer tax breaks to offset capital costs.

57

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Two policies effectively impose a charge per unit of fossil fuel or grid supplied electricity used: • The Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) will require organisations using over 6,000MWh of electricity per year to buy allowances to cover the carbon emissions associated with their energy use, starting in 2012. The price of allowances has not yet been determined. Prior to the October 2010 announcement that funds raised from the sale of allowances would no longer be recycled back to participants, the intention was to fix the price at £12 per tonne CO2 during 2012/13, with a price set by the market in subsequent years.

58

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• The Climate Change Levy is a premium paid on the commercial and industrial supply of electricity and most fossil fuels. The levy is not charged on renewable electricity that is supplied with a levy exemption certificate, provided that the certificate is surrendered to HM Revenue and Customs. It is not payable for energy used by charities for non-business purposes. The following fiscal incentives help renewable and low carbon technologies to compete in financial terms with conventional means of energy supply: • The Feed-In Tariff (FIT) offers a premium payment per unit of electricity generated from renewable sources. PV, anaerobic digestion, wind, and hydro projects up to 5MW

capacity can register for the FIT. Introduced in April 2010, it is paid to generators by energy supply companies and costs are recouped through a general increase in energy prices. The government is currently proposing to significantly reduce the rate available to large PV schemes, particularly ground mounted solar farms, and increase the FIT for anaerobic digestion schemes.xxiv

water source heat-pumps, onsite biogas, deep geothermal, energy from waste and injection of biomethane into the grid. The first phase will also include Renewable Heat Premium payments for the domestic sector, to offset part of the cost of installation. The second phase will extend incentive payments to domestic installers sometime in 2012. Additional technologies may be added at this stage.xxv

• The Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) is a comparable scheme to the FIT, aimed at heat generators. It will open for non-domestic projects in July 2011, covering everything from small business and community projects up to large-scale industrial heating installations. It will support solid and gaseous biomass, solar thermal, ground and

• The Renewables Obligation is a requirement placed on licensed electricity suppliers to obtain an increasing proportion of electricity from renewable sources. Under the scheme, registered renewable electricity generators qualify for Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs) for each MWh of electricity they


Figure 9 summarises the effective subsidy expected to be available per unit (kWh)

of heat or power supplied by the range of qualifying technologies under the above schemes, for the 2012-13 financial year. The technologies of most relevance to Whitehill Bordon have been selected, for simplicity, excluding for example offshore wind, wave and tidal. In most cases, the amount varies with the scale of the installation. This is reflected in the range of values shown; the lowest amount is available to the largest installations, generally over 5MW and the highest amount is available to small, generally domestic scale installations where applicable. Carbon savings cannot be claimed against the CRC for energy supplied from renewable or low carbon technologies if income is also being received from the FIT or RHI, but the income from these

incentives tends to be worth more than the saving on CRC would be.

45.0

Businesses that invest in biomass boilers and air heaters, solar thermal systems, heat pumps and combined heat and power (CHP) plant for their facilities can also qualify for an Enhanced Capital Allowance (ECA). This allows 100% tax relief to be claimed on any investment in these technologies, and other energy saving products, in the year that they are purchased. If the business is paying corporation tax at 26%, it will receive 26p tax relief for every ÂŁ1 invested, including capital expenditure and installation costs.

30.0

40.0 35.0

Subsidy (p/kWh)

generate. Some types of renewables qualify for more than one ROC per MWh, to offset higher costs. Electricity suppliers are required to surrender sufficient ROCs to meet their obligation for a given year, which they can obtain by generating their own or purchasing them from other generators. Consequently, renewable electricity generators who are not electricity suppliers with requirements to comply with the Renewables Obligation or generate more ROCs than they need to meet their own obligation can obtain additional income from selling their ROCs. ROCs cannot be claimed in addition to FIT or RHI.xxvi

Maximum Minimum

25.0 20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0

Figure 9: Subsidies available to selected renewable and low carbon technologies, based on FIT, RHI and ROCs

59

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


60

The Green Deal,xxvii available from 2012, will offer up front funding for energy efficiency improvements. Repayments will be taken as instalments added to the energy bills for that property. The amount repaid will be less than or equal to the expected savings on the energy bills as a result of the improvements; known as the ‘Golden Rule’.

This will allow more expensive measures, in hard-to-treat homes for instance, to be included in the scheme without breaking the Golden Rule. The responsibility for repayments will remain with the property even if it changes hands, so the person who lives there when the improvements are made will not have to keep paying for them if they move house.

This means that only improvements which can pay for themselves within an agreed period of time will be available under the Green Deal. The Green Deal is expected to be accompanied by a new Energy Company Obligation (ECO), replacing CERT and CESP, which will provide additional funding to top-up Green Deal finance.

This should be of particular benefit those who own their own home or rent but do not have access to the capital to invest in these measures. The scheme is also expected to be available for non-domestic buildings.

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Residents of Whitehill Bordon have been offered an interestfree Eco-fit loan of up to £10,000 to pay for energy saving measures such as

double glazing, new boilers and solar panels. The scheme operates in a similar way to the proposals for the Green Deal. Loans will be paid back over 25 years and the combined cost of the loan repayments and new monthly fuel bills should be less than the original energy bills. The repayments will go into a “revolving” fund to allow more loans to be offered. Paid for by DECC through the Low Carbon Communities Challenge, the first round offered sufficient funding for 35 loans.vii The fiscal context is continually evolving with the political and economic situation, shifting the balance in favour of different technologies. Viability of renewable and low carbon technologies is altering with changes to capital costs, installation costs, and energy

prices, potentially improving over time to the point where they become competitive without subsidy. The Electricity Market Reform is intended to ensure that the market will deliver the long term investment needed, particularly in renewable energy, nuclear power and carbon capture and storage, shifting the bias away from fossil fuels. The proposals in the consultation include setting a minimum price per tonne of carbon emitted, further development of the FIT and its eventual extension to larger schemes in place of the current Renewables Obligation, capacity payments to encourage investment in reserve generation capacity and demand reduction, and


Photo: LDA Design

an emissions performance standard for coal fired power stations.xviii The carbon floor price will initially be ÂŁ16 per tonne of CO2 in 2013, rising to ÂŁ30 in 2020, following the 2011 Budget.

61

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


4.0 Carbon Targets Carbon emissions from the town Carbon emissions in the town have been estimated to establish a baseline, before local renewable and low carbon energy supplies are taken into account. The emissions estimates are based on the energy demand figures set out in the previous chapter (Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3). In scenario one, it has been assumed that CO2 emissions associated with grid supplied electricity will stay the same over the time period considered. In scenario two, a gradual reduction in the emissions from grid electricity has been assumed, in line with Zero Carbon Hub projections.

62

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

The same caveats apply to the estimates of emissions as discussed previously for energy demand estimates. Standard emissions factors have been assumed for fuels.xxix Further work is recommended to obtain a more accurate assessment of carbon emissions associated with non-building related services and activities in the town. In particular, carbon emissions from transport and the impact that the proposals in the emerging transport strategy will have on this need to be better understood. Based on this analysis, annual CO2 emissions could increase by around 14,000 tonnes in total in scenario one. If the improvements in energy efficiency, changes to heating systems and electric


It should be stressed that some of the assumptions implicit in scenario two, such as retrofitting all existing housing to Passivhaus standards, are very ambitious and may not be achievable in practice under current arrangements.

Green Town Vision targets Whitehill Bordonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Green Town Vision set out an aspiration for the whole town to be carbon neutral by 2036. This has been interpreted as meaning there should be no net increase in emissions, from any uses, after the development is complete compared to the town today. Figure 10 shows that the amount of renewable or low carbon energy supplies needed to meet the carbon neutral target depends very much on the level of energy efficiency achieved, the extent to which electricity is used for heating and transport, and how far the carbon intensity of electricity supplied from the national grid is reduced.

Our analysis indicates that the town could be able to achieve its carbon neutral target if a carbon saving of at least 14,000 tonnes per year is provided through local renewable and low carbon energy generation by 2035. It may be that there is scope for a more ambitious interpretation of the carbon neutral target, particularly if energy efficiency is pushed as far as possible and the carbon intensity of electricity supplied from the national grid reduces in line with national projections. When considering the amount of renewable and low carbon energy generation to be delivered locally, it is important to recognise that there are other drivers for this in addition to the carbon neutral target. These include improving energy security

Transport Waste management Water management Street lighting Commercial and industrial Domestic

120,000

100,000

Annual CO 2 emissions (tonnes)

vehicles, and reductions in the carbon intensity of grid supplied electricity occur as envisaged in scenario two, there could be a net reduction in emissions from the town without any contribution from local renewable or low carbon energy supplies.

80,000

60,000

40,000

20,000

0

Existing

2035, scenario one

2035, scenario two

Figure 10: Annual CO2 emissions from buildings in Whitehill Bordon

63

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

and affordability, delivering local economic benefits, and contributing to national targets for renewable and low carbon energy generation.

Additional carbon targets for new buildings The PPS1 supplement on Ecotownsxxx requires net CO2 emissions from all energy use within new buildings to be zero or below over the course of a year. A new, simplified national planning policy framework is currently under development, with a consultation draft expected later in 2011. This new framework is expected to replace the existing national planning policy statements. It is not yet clear whether the PPS1 supplement on Eco-towns will be retained, withdrawn or

64

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

replaced with a new Eco-towns policy as part of this process. The formal planning policy basis for Eco-towns, including the zero carbon target for new buildings, may therefore not be in place when the majority of new development in Whitehill Bordon comes forward.

last few years, with a series of government policy announcements supported by industry research and consultation led by the Zero Carbon Hub.xxxi Based on the latest information, it is expected to include the following elements:

Most new buildings in the town will still be required to achieve a zero carbon requirement, albeit under the Building Regulations rather than the Eco-town policy. This will apply to new homes from 2016, and similar requirements are expected to apply to public sector buildings from 2018 and other non-domestic buildings from 2019.

â&#x20AC;˘ A fabric energy efficiency standard which sets a maximum for the amount of energy required to heat the home, achieved by reducing heat loss through the external surfaces of the building.

The definition of the Building Regulations zero carbon requirement for new homes has developed over the

â&#x20AC;˘ A carbon compliance standard which sets the maximum regulated CO2 emissions from the home. This can be achieved by further improving the efficiency of the building, specifying efficient boilers and other services or installing renewable or low

carbon energy supplies on site including district heating. â&#x20AC;˘ Allowable solutions which reduce the net regulated CO2 emissions from the home to zero over the course of the year. These can either be achieved through additional energy efficiency and renewable and low carbon energy measures on-site, or emissions can be offset through off-site measures such as large scale renewable energy projects. These offsite allowable solutions might be delivered through a payment by the developer to a third party such as the local authority. An important thing to note about the Building Regulations zero carbon target is that it applies to regulated emissions only (from heating, hot water,


The precise targets vary for different types of new home. The figure below illustrates what carbon emissions might be expected from a typical new semi-detached home and what savings might be required under the regulations. Based on this assessment, a typical new home in Whitehill Bordon might be required to achieve a minimum saving

of around 0.1 to 0.4 tonnes of CO2 per year through renewable or low carbon energy supplies on site, depending on the energy efficiency standard specified. A further 0.8 tonnes would need to be saved either on-site or through off-site allowable solutions. The allowable solutions mechanism may be an opportunity to raise a contribution from developers towards larger, off-site renewable and low carbon energy schemes in and around Whitehill Bordon. Because the details of how the allowable solutions element will be implemented have not been announced by the government yet, it is not possible to quantify at this stage how much money this could raise, nor determine what it may be applied to or

whether it will be available to the local authority to fund local projects. It is recommended that the Eco-town team follow the work underway with the Zero Carbon Hub to develop the allowable solutions mechanism, to understand implications for the town as they emerge.

1.6

Regulated emissions (tonnes/year)

lighting and pumps and fans). It does not apply to emissions from energy used for cooking or any other appliances in buildings, which are unregulated. Although difficult to estimate, because they depend very much on the behaviour of the building occupant, unregulated emissions can account for around half of the emissions from a new home.

1.4 1.2 1.0

Good practice efficiency

0.8

Best practice efficiency

0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

Baseline with Carbon energy compliance efficiency target

After allowable solutions

Figure 11: Illustration of Building Regulations zero carbon targets for a typical new home

65

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


5.0 Renewable and Low Carbon Energy Opportunities Image: LDA Design

This chapter reviews the renewable and low carbon energy opportunities in and around Whitehill Bordon, to understand the potential contribution that each technology could make to the energy strategy for the town. It assesses the resource that is available, considers the constraints that could limit potential and describes a range of other implications that could have a bearing on the decisions made for the energy strategy. The following renewable and low carbon energy opportunities are reviewed: • District heating • Biomass and energy from waste • Wind • Solar

66

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Heat pumps • Hydro The potential of each technology is considered in isolation in this chapter. In practice, it is likely that a combination will be required to achieve the targets for the Eco-town’s energy strategy in a way that is affordable, practical and offers the best outcome for the people, economy and environment of Whitehill Bordon. The following chapter considers some scenarios of what this combination might be. This report assumes that the reader is familiar with each of the renewable and low carbon technologies. For an introduction to the technologies discussed, the Compare Renewables website is a useful starting point.xxxii


ge

g

n iti a Aw

a Im

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

The assessment of the potential renewable and low carbon energy resource in Whitehill Bordon and East Hampshire makes use of the approach and assumptions from the regional capacity assessment methodology published by DECCxxxiii and the amended approach used in the capacity assessment for Yorkshire and Humber,xxxiv which corrected and updated some assumptions set out in the regional methodology. A series of maps have been prepared as part of the resource assessment. These are included in the following sections, with more detailed versions in Appendix 2 along with information on the map layers used. The assessment of the performance of renewable

and low carbon technologies integrated with buildings generally follows the approach and assumptions used to assess compliance with the Building Regulations, unless otherwise stated.xxxv Building energy demands have been assessed using data from the Zero Carbon Hub and CIBSE.xii, xiii Other performance figures and cost information have been obtained from manufacturersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; data and published reports. xxxvi Figures on the potential returns on the initial investment are based on published information about the FIT, RHI and Renewables Obligation where applicable, unless otherwise stated.xxiv, xxv, xxvi Where simple payback periods are quoted, these have also been based on the available information about incentives, energy prices, and typical

operating and maintenance costs. They do not take into account discount rates, financing costs or other more detailed factors. The capital costs, operating costs and potential revenues for each technology will change with time. The simple calculations presented here are based on todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prices, and do not take into account future developments. It is important to note that this is a high level assessment of what could be achieved with the different technologies. It is based on general assumptions and benchmarks, derived from what is understood today, and these may change with time. This kind of assessment cannot take into account site-specific constraints which may limit potential in practice or the impact of variables

such as consumer choice. The assessment therefore does not provide an accurate prediction of the final outcome for the town, but a general indication of what may be achieved for the purpose of comparing the different options. Further, detailed feasibility work would need to be undertaken in future to assess and inform decisions on specific projects. Recommendations for further work are provided throughout the report, where applicable, and summarised in the final chapter.

67

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


District heating

A district heating network can provide access to renewable or low carbon heat to a large number of properties, providing the flexibility to use a wide range of fuels and heat sources. Installing insulated heat mains in streets carries a relatively high cost though, particularly in existing communities. The higher the demand for heat in the geographical area served by the network, the more can be sold per metre of pipe installed and the quicker the financial return on the initial investment. The financial case for district heating also depends on the type of heat source used. It could be stronger where heat and power are generated simultaneously (CHP), because of the higher price paid for

68

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

electricity compared to heat. This can work provided that good use is made of the CHP engine throughout the year, meaning a relatively steady demand for heat is required, in summer as well as winter. District heating can also be more cost effective where it uses waste heat, for example from an industrial process, and ongoing operating costs are low.

The factors which determine whether any given district heating scheme would be viable are complex and would need to be the subject of further, detailed study if a scheme were to be progressed in Whitehill Bordon. A simple rule of thumb, as a starting point, is to consider residential areas where the heat demand density is at least 3,000kW per km2.xxxvii

No large sources of waste heat have been identified in or around the town which have the potential to supply a district heating network. Other options for heat supply to a heat network, including CHP, are considered in the next section on biomass and energy from waste. This one focuses on the potential locations in the town which could present a suitable heat load for district heating.

Heat demand density in Whitehill Bordon has been mapped based on an understanding of the town today and what it might look like when new development and refurbishment are complete. These maps are shown on the following pages. Heat demand will depend on the energy efficiency standards that are achieved in the new


and existing building stock. The higher the energy efficiency, the less viable a heat network is likely to be. Two scenarios have been used for energy efficiency in homes. The first assumes a good practice standard for all homes just over the minimum requirements in the Building Regulations for 2016. The second assumes that new homes are built to best practice energy efficiency, represented by the Passivhaus standard, and existing homes achieve a similar level of efficiency through refurbishment.xxxviii Non-residential heat demand has also been included in the heat maps, using benchmarks based on the existing building stock in the UK.xxxix Because of the variation in non-residential building types, their design, how they are used, and the

resulting energy demands it is difficult at this early stage of a development the scale of Whitehill Bordon to quantify how much energy efficiency could be improved beyond this in either the new or existing non-residential stock. Still, it is important to bear in mind that heat demand in practice might be less than shown in the maps as a result. The potential for developing a heat network serving existing residential communities would appear to be severely limited, based on this analysis. If homes are refurbished to Passivhaus standards, it is very unlikely that a network would be viable unless costs of the infrastructure come down substantially or energy prices increase dramatically. If less stringent energy efficiency standards are achieved, heat

demand in some existing areas of housing might come into the lower end of the range that might be considered for district heating but it is unlikely that this would be sufficient to make a heat network competitive with the alternative options for heat supply. This is not surprising given that development is relatively low density, the majority of the homes are semi-detached or detached and ambitious standards of refurbishment are being sought. The costs of installing the network would also be relatively higher in these areas compared to new parts of the town. The employment areas and the new sports hub would appear to offer the best case for a heat network amongst the new development proposed.

Because of the high standards of energy efficiency proposed and the relatively low density, there may not be a financial case for district heating serving any of the new housing in Whitehill Bordon. If a network were developed to serve the non-residential areas, it may be possible to make a case for extending this to some areas of Green Views or Green Streets housing in and around the town centre. A network supplying a mix of employment uses and housing would have a better year round demand for the heat, and a longer period of demand through the day with residential peaks in the morning, evenings and weekends balancing day time loads for non-residential buildings. The case for a network may also be boosted if the heat network met cooling

demands in the employment areas. This would require absorption chillers to be installed at the point of use or a parallel network of cooling pipes to be installed. Nonresidential customers may also be willing to sign up for longer term energy supply contracts, helping to demonstrate a secure long term revenue stream to justify the up-front investment. Large buildings with a high and relatively steady heat demand can be used as anchor loads to support the development of a heat network, where long term contracts can be secured to demonstrate an on-going source of revenue. Potential anchor loads are marked on the heat maps, and include the proposed sports hub and hotel, Chase Community Hospital, the

69

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO Š Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data Š Crown copyright and database right 2011.

Heat Map Heat Map: Scenario 1: Good Practice Scenario 1 Efficiency (2035) Energy

)"

Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Policy Zone

" )

Existing & Proposed Major Anchor Loads

)"

" )

Hospital Major industri al heat user Leisure centre

W X

Hotel

Potential Heat Source

" )

W X

Potential Biomass CHP Site

Average Heat Demand 2 kw per km

)"

250 - 500 500 - 750 750 - 1000

)"

" ) 1000 - 1500 1500 - 2000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 4000 4000 - 5000 Over 5000

70

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Heat Map HeatScenario Map: 2: GoodHeat Map Practice Scenario 2 Scenario 2: Good Practice Energy Efficiency (2035) Energy Efficiency (2035)

Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO Š Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data Š Crown copyright and database right 2011.

" ) " )

)" )"

Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Policy Zone Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Policy Zone Existing & Proposed Major Anchor Loads Existing & Proposed Major Anchor LoadsHospital

" ) " )

Hospital

)" )"

Major industrial heat user Major industrial heat user Leisure centre Leisure centre Hotel Hotel

X W W X

Potential Heat Source Potential HeatPotential Source Biomass

X W W X

" ) " )

CHP Site Biomass Potential CHP Site Average Heat Demand 2 kw per km Average Heat Demand 2

)" )"

0 - 250 0 - 250 250 - 500 250 - 500 500 - 750 500 - 750

)" )"

kw per km

" ) " )

750 - 1000 750 - 1000 1000 - 1500 1000 - 1500 1500 - 2000 1500 - 2000 2000 - 3000 2000 - 3000 3000 - 4000 3000 - 4000 4000 - 5000 4000 - 5000 Over 5000 Over 5000

71

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Image: Stephen George & Partners

District heating for Cranbrook Construction is expected to start in 2012 on a major new mixed use development at Cranbrook in Devon, comprising 2,900 homes, a business park and retail. Residential density ranges from 20 to 40dph. District heating will serve the entire site. A natural gas CHP engine will be used initially, switching to a biomass CHP engine when later phases are completed. E.ON will design and operate the heat network and energy centre. Financial viability is supported by the scale and mix of the development. The Exeter and East Devon New Growth Point Team, comprising local authorities, the South West Regional Development Agency, developers and key stakeholders, has played an essential role in the development. The project has been supported by public funding, including Ecotowns funding, a Regional Infrastructure Fund loan and an HCA Low Carbon Infrastructure Fund Grant of £4.1 million. In addition, an HCA investment of £16.6m was unlocked on planning approval to support the “delivery of 300 affordable homes and infrastructure work which will support the wider development”. Source: E.ON and Regen SW

72

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

existing MOD and Mill Chase swimming pools, if retained, and existing commercial and industrial buildings at the Woolmer Trading Estate and developments proposed at Viking Park.

for new development if heat mains are installed at the same time as other infrastructure in soft ground, prior to road construction, based on anecdotal evidence from industry contacts.

For the purpose of this study, we have assessed the scale, costs and implications of a heat network serving the new employment areas, the anchor loads listed above and the Green Views and Green Streets housing.

Conclusions and recommendations for district heating

The results are shown in Table 1. The heat demand figures assume that new housing will be built to a good practice level of energy efficiency and will not meet Passivhaus standards. Costs in Table 1 are based on benchmarks applicable to existing housing, so could be up to 40% lower

• There may be potential for a network serving new and existing employment areas, the sports hub, the town centre and higher density areas of new housing.

• The financial case for a district heating network in Whitehill Bordon appears marginal.

• Further work would be needed to demonstrate viability before it could be confirmed as an element of the energy strategy for the town. This would need to include more detailed analysis of heat loads in the proposed development and hourly profiles, proposals for pipework routing and a more accurate estimate of the costs of installation, taking into account ground conditions and any physical constraints in the area of interest.


District heating

Central district heating network serving employment areas and higher density areas of new development

Role

Supplying heat to new employment areas, Green Views and Green Streets housing and anchor loads.

Scale

Extends through the town centre, between the employment areas to north and south and surrounding new residential areas.

Energy output

16,000MWh annual heat load, based on good practice energy efficiency for homes

Carbon savings for the town

Depends on heat source

Carbon savings for a typical new home

Depends on heat source

Capital cost

Around £12.7m for heat network, including mains, branches to consumers, and heat exchangers and meters in customer properties. Excludes energy centre cost, which depends on heat source.

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

• Management of the heat network will include metering and billing customers for heat used. • Annual maintenance check recommended for heat exchangers in customer buildings.

Potential returns

Depends on heat source and heat demands. In the right location, the initial investment in a heat network can be paid back. This may take several decades, however the lifetime of the pipework and other equipment can be longer than this.

Key implications

• Density of development served by the heat network should be maximised (at least 55dph preferred). • Heat network may need to be constructed in several phases, with across numerous different development sites. It needs to be in place and functioning before the first units in the phases it serves are completed. High up-front cost for this. • Underground obstructions, such as utilities pipes, may increase the cost of the heat network.

Table 1: District heating potential in Whitehill Bordon

73

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: RefGas UK

Biomass and waste

Whitehill Bordon could secure at least part of its future energy supply from one or more of the following types of biomass or waste materials:

This also shows various environmental designations which may be a constraint on harvesting or agricultural activities.

• Wood from managed woodlands

The Forestry Commission has analysed the potential wood fuel resource within the area surrounding Whitehill Bordon. It has considered Forestry Commission woodlands as well as areas under other ownership and management. Their draft report has been used to provide the figures on potential wood fuel resource, costs and implications for this study.xi Local work by the Forestry Commission, through the Woodheat Solutions programme, has included training seminars and one-to-one discussions, in which they have identified significant interest from woodland owners within 10km of Whitehill Bordon.

• Energy crops including short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, miscanthus or maize • Animal waste • Food waste • Sewage A map has been prepared showing areas of managed woodland and agricultural land in East Hampshire (see the following page).

74

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

The potential for energy crops has been estimated from the area of agricultural land in East Hampshire. As a basic starting point, it has been assumed that the best land (grades 1 and 2) will be used for food production, while lower grades (3 and 4) may have the potential for energy crop cultivation. In practice, the availability of land for energy crops will depend on a variety of factors, such as the market prices for different crops, and may change from year to year. The majority of land in East Hampshire which is not wooded or developed is classified as grade 3 or 4 agricultural land. It is currently used to produce a range of cereals and other crops and to graze livestock. Some of the land is classified as permanent


Photo: Hoval Ltd.

pasture or grassland and has been excluded from our assessment for energy crops. Some is also covered by various environmental designations, with a large area within the boundary of the South Downs National Park, although these areas have not been excluded for the time being as there is no absolute constraint on their use for energy crops and suitability should be decided on a case by case basis. The potential crop of SRC willow, miscanthus or maize on these areas has been calculated using standard yield assumptions.xxxii The numbers presented here assume that the available land is either planted with a mixture of SRC willow and miscanthus or maize.

The quantity of animal waste which is currently produced in East Hampshire has been estimated using figures for the number of livestock in the district and standard assumptions about the amount of waste produced per animal and the amount of this which could be collected.xxxiv Food waste in East Hampshire has been quantified using an average figure per household for the UK, including an estimate for new households built in Whitehill Bordon.xliii The water cycle study has been reviewed for figures on the amount of sewage currently being processed in the town and how this will change in future. It is understood that an additional 3.1 million litres per day of foul water could be generated by the

new development, although the water content of this â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and therefore the energy value â&#x20AC;&#x201C; is not specified. While the existing sewage treatment works at Bordon are understood to be at capacity, the amount of sewage produced by the existing town is not specified. We have therefore not been able to calculate the total sewage resource in the town for the purpose of this study. Solid wood can be used as a fuel as logs, processed into wood pellets or chips, or turned into biogas using gasification. A wood chip and pellet supply chain is already emerging in Hampshire.xliv Depending on the scale of local demand anticipated, Whitehill Bordon may benefit from developing a local wood fuel processing and distribution centre producing

75

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: Scotia Gas Networks

wood chip and pellets for local use. A study on biomass supply chains in South Hampshire estimated that wood chip production facilities would need to be processing in excess of 20,000 tonnes at 30% moisture content to make a profit, while a wood pellet facility using wet wood chip as the raw material would need to have an annual output of at least 5,000 tonnes to be viable. A large wood pellet production plant was opened in April 2011 in Andover by Verdo Renewables, using virgin timber to produce 55,000 tonnes of wood pellets per year and 15,000 tonnes of wood briquettes.xlv

76

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Gasification is a thermal process, which can be used to break down wood into a biogas consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen and a small amount of methane. The potential yield of biogas of this composition and energy content has been estimated based on gasification plant data from an equipment supplier.xlvi The quantity of biogas that could be produced from gasification of the wood resource available within 10 to 20km of Whitehill Bordon has been estimated and is shown in Table 2. The scale of gasification plant required and the implications of this for the town will depend on whether it is used in a central CHP engine or biomass boilers, or cleaned up, converted to methane and

injected into the gas mains. Some options are described in the following sections on the different technologies. Biogas can also be produced from wet organic waste or some crops using anaerobic digestion (AD), which is a biological process. The biogas produced from AD is different to the biogas produced from gasification and the energy content differs as a result. Biogas from AD is mostly methane, with some carbon dioxide. Quantities of food waste from the town are predicted to be too low for a dedicated AD plant to be viable. A larger plant could be developed using food waste from other areas of East Hampshire or a combination of food waste, maize and animal waste. However, during

the consultation for this study, some stakeholders stated that they did not wish to see waste being imported to the town. The quantity of biogas that could be produced from these resources within East Hampshire has been estimated and is shown in Table 2. The following sections on the different technologies consider the size of AD plant which might be required to meet demand for biogas in the town, depending on whether it is used in a central CHP engine or cleaned up and injected into the gas mains. A planning application is in progress for an AD plant at Selborne Brickworks, which would produce biogas for use in their kilns. Blackmoor Estate apple farm has also considered installing an AD plant to


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO © Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data © Crown copyright and database right 2011.

FARNHAM

Biomass Energy BiomassEnergy Energy Biomass WhitehillBordon BordonEco-Town Eco-Town Whitehill PolicyBoundary Boundary Policy Districtboundary boundary District

ALTON ALTON

) "" ) ) " )"

PotentialAnaerobic Anaerobic Potential digestionsites sites digestion

rr

ScheduledMonument Monument Scheduled

Proposedsewage sewage Proposed treatmentworks workswith with treatment Anaerobicdigestion digestion Anaerobic DesignatedExclusion ExclusionAreas Areas Designated

BORDON BORDON

NEW NEW ARLESFORD ARLESFORD

Naturedesignations designations- Nature -RAMSAR -RAMSAR -NationalNature NatureReserve Reserve -National -SiteofofSpecial SpecialScientific Scientific -Site Interest Interest -SpecialArea AreaofofConservation Conservation -Special -SpecialProtection ProtectionAreas Areas -Special -AncientWoodlands Woodlands -Ancient

SouthDowns DownsNational NationalPark Park South PETERSFIELD PETERSFIELD

LocalNature NatureReserve Reserve Local GreenBelt/ Belt/Green Greengaps gaps Green

MIDHURST MIDHURST

RegisteredPark Park Registered Garden &&Garden Woodland Woodland Agricultural Land Classification Agricultural Land Classification Grade 2 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 3

HORNDEAN HORNDEAN

Grade 4 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 5

HAVANT HAVANT

77

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

The energy strategy prepared for the draft masterplan notes that an AD plant could potentially be developed at Bordon sewage treatment works, using food waste from the town in addition to sewage sludge to generate gas mainly to power the extended facility.

about preferred locations for this. If an AD plant were developed at either sewage treatment works, the water cycle study notes that it could potentially also accept food waste from homes. An option for collecting and transporting food waste to an AD facility would be to fit macerators in kitchen sinks, so it can be carried via the foul water drains.

The Detailed Water Cycle Study recommends either expansion of the existing Bordon sewage treatment works or a new sewage treatment facility on the site of the existing MOD works which operates in parallel with the Bordon sewage treatment works. It also notes that an AD plant could be used to treat sewage sludge in the town in future, but it is not specific

Thames Water has been contacted regarding existing facilities in the area and the potential to install a sewage gas facility at the extended sewage works in Whitehill Bordon. They have confirmed that there is no sewage gas facility in place at the works in Farnham, where sludge from the town is currently processed. Thames Water has also stated that it currently has no plans

dispose of cattle slurry, but has confirmed that it is not currently planning to do so.

78

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

to treat sewage sludge at the Bordon works in future. The following table summarises the biomass and waste resource which could be available to the town, in terms of quantity produced, how it could be processed into a fuel and energy content once processed Table 2. The presence of this potential resource in the town and its surroundings does not guarantee that it will be available to meet the townâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy needs in the long term. Competition for wood, crops or the land they are grown on, even for waste, is likely to increase once viability of the end uses improves and demand goes up. The value of the various biomass fuels could be driven upwards as a result. Still, while transport

costs are still a major factor in the viability of biomass energy sources, local users could be at an advantage.

Conclusions and recommendations â&#x20AC;˘ The potential biomass resource around Whitehill Bordon is substantial, due to its rural setting, comprising woodland and agricultural land. Harvesting this resource in a sustainable manner will provide a long term economic opportunity, particularly for the surrounding villages, whether or not the resource is ultimately used to generate energy locally. â&#x20AC;˘ With this opportunity comes the potential to impact on the countryside and local residents. Potential impacts could include landscape and habitat changes, or concerns about


Resource

Annual quantity (max)

Wood from managed woodlands

Process

Energy content

Implications

28,800 oven dried Wood chip or wood pellet production tonnes (odt) within 10km, or 84,000 tonnes within Gasification 20km

115,000 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 345,000MWh of wood chip or pellets

Establishment of supply chain from woodland in 10 - 20km radius

or

Wood chipping or pellet facility

93,500 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 280,500MWh of biogas from wood gasification

Wood gasification plant

SRC willow, miscanthus

28,750 odt in East Hampshire

Wood chip or wood pellet production

115,000MWh of wood chip or pellets

Establishment of supply chain from most of agricultural land in East Hampshire

or

or

or

or

Competing land uses

Gasification

93,500MWh of biogas from gasification

Environmental designation including national park

Energy crops:

Wood chipping or pellet facility Wood gasification plant Maize

27,600 odt in East Hampshire

Anaerobic digestion

38,500MWh of biogas from anaerobic digestion

Establishment of supply chain from most of agricultural land in East Hampshire Anaerobic digestion plant

Animal waste

Food waste

136,000 wet tonnes of cattle slurry in East Hampshire

Anaerobic digestion

10,300 wet tonnes of food waste in East Hampshire

Anaerobic digestion

Table 2: Biomass and waste resources in Whitehill Bordon

18,000MWh of biogas from anaerobic digestion

Collection of cattle slurry across East Hampshire

9,500MWh of biogas from anaerobic digestion

Separate food waste collection in whole of East Hampshire

Anaerobic digestion plant

79

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

noise and vehicle movements. Careful planning and engagement with landowners and farmers will be important to ensure that any impacts are managed to an acceptable level. • It is recommended that further steps are taken to support the development of the biomass supply chain in and around Whitehill Bordon. In particular, it is likely to be worth working with the owners of local woodlands to bring them into active management and deliver a sustainable, local supply of wood fuel. This could also include new woodland creation or local cultivation of energy crops. • An action plan for this should be developed in partnership with the Forestry Commission’s Biomass Energy Centre.

80

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

They may include organising training in sustainable forestry practices, providing equipment, networking and brokering supply contracts, supplying a mobile wood chipper, or setting up a local wood fuel processing, storage and distribution centre. • The value of establishing a supply chain for wet organic waste, including food waste, will depend on whether an anaerobic digestion plant is established locally (see below). • The potential for anaerobic digestion of sewage from the town should be considered further as proposals for the new or extended sewage treatment works are progressed.

There are several different options for how these resources could be used in the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon, with different implications including the infrastructure required, costs, carbon savings and so on. These include biomass CHP, biomass boilers or biomethane production and injection into the existing gas network. Each of these options is described in more detail in the following sections. In addition to the above resources, the waste strategy prepared for the draft masterplan estimated that around 2,000 tonnes of residual waste would be produced in Whitehill Bordon annually, after the development of the Eco-town is complete. This assumes that all recyclable materials and organic waste are separated and put to


other uses. Residual municipal waste is already taken to an energy from waste facility in Portsmouth, operated by Veolia on behalf of Hampshire County Council. Hampshire has two other energy from waste facilities, Chineham (near Basingstoke) and Marchwood (near Southampton). Together they process around 420,000 tonnes of waste a year, generating enough electricity to power 37,000 homes. Based on advice from Hampshire County Council, we have assumed that any additional municipal waste from the town following its expansion will be handled through the existing waste management process, at sites outside of Whitehill Bordon. We are not aware of any plans at present to expand the existing energy from

waste sites, and there are no proposals to develop a new facility in the town itself. Based on the average amount of power generated at the existing energy from waste facilities per tonne of waste processed, the residual waste from Whitehill Bordon could power around 175 homes, although this is not anticipated to be supplied locally. Local energy from waste facilities are not likely to have a role in the energy strategy for the town and has not been considered further as part of this study.

Biomass CHP Several technology options are available for combined heat and power (CHP) generation using biomass as a fuel. The choice will depend on the type of fuel used and the scale of the CHP engine. Here we consider: 1. Solid wood biomass CHP using the organic rankine cycle 2. A gas engine CHP using biogas produced from solid wood gasification 3. A gas engine CHP using biogas produced from anaerobic digestion Natural gas-fired CHP is not considered in this report, as the carbon savings it is able to deliver are not likely to be sufficient to meet the targets for the Eco-town. Also, while

it reduces carbon emissions compared to conventional power generation and provides a potential stepping stone towards biomass and other types of CHP, Whitehill Bordon could have the ambition, scale and momentum to get there without the intermediate step. CHP engines tend to be sized according to the available heat load, to ensure that a high proportion of the heat generated is used, making efficient use of the fuel. The heat demand supplied by the network described in the previous section could be served by a CHP engine of around 3.5MW thermal capacity (MWth), based on annual operation of 4,500 hours at full capacity.xlvii Thermal capacity and electrical capacity vary somewhat between the CHP options

81

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


82

considered, based on plant sizes available and the ratio between thermal and electrical output.

added here for simplicity, but should be considered if a CHP and district heating scheme is taken forwards for the town.

Fuel cells are emerging as an alternative means of combined heat and power generation, becoming competitive on a lifecycle cost basis with internal combustion engines or turbines. They use a chemical process to generate electricity, rather than conventional generators which use a mechanical process with moving parts, resulting in higher efficiency, lower emissions and greater reliability. Fuel cells can run on biogas as well as natural gas and are effectively interchangeable with gas CHP engines. There are a number in operation now, including one in Woking which is linked to the district heating scheme. A fuel cell option has not been

An overview of the CHP options considered for Whitehill Bordon is provided in Table 3. The electrical and thermal efficiencies vary, depending on the type of fuel and process used and how much energy is consumed to run the plant. As a result, the figures vary between the options considered.

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

The options considered represent what is likely to be the larger end of the potential scale for CHP, supplying a heat network to existing and new employment areas, the town centre and higher density housing around it. Smaller CHP engines could potentially be specified for some of the

major development sites, particularly the employment areas, if a good year round demand for heat or cooling can be assured, although there are fewer technology choices and working examples at the smaller end of the scale. Conclusions and recommendations â&#x20AC;˘ The case for a large biomass CHP plant in Whitehill Bordon relies on establishing the feasibility and viability of a district heating network, which would appear to be marginal (see above). â&#x20AC;˘ Of the CHP options available, a gas engine CHP with a biogas feed from either wood gasification or anaerobic digestion would appear to be preferable to solid biomass CHP, due to the higher

electrical output which can be achieved.


Photo: LDA Design

Photo: LDA Design

Combined heat and power (CHP)

Organic rankine cycle CHP using solid wood

Role

Supplying heat to central district heating network and generating power

Scale

4MWth 1MWe

Energy output

16,000MWh heat 4,000MWh electric

Carbon savings for the town

4,950 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

1.3 tonnes per year

Capital cost

£3 million plus £12.7 million heat network

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

• 21,000MWh solid wood fuel input, equivalent to 5,250 tonnes of wood chip per year • Plant operation and maintenance required

Potential returns

• Revenues from heat and power sales • Could qualify for ROCs or RHI • Payback period of at least 30 years (including network costs)

Key implications

• Energy centre required in the town (2,000m2), plus heat network • Wood storage area required (2,000m2) • Air pollution may be higher than other options as combusting solid biomass • Flue stack needed to disperse emissions

Table 3: CHP options considered for Whitehill Bordon

83

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

Combined heat and power (CHP)

Gas engine CHP using biogas produced from gasification of solid wood

Role

Supplying heat to central district heating network and generating power

Scale

3.6MWth 1.75MWe

Energy output

16,000MWh heat 7,700MWh electric

Carbon savings for the town

7,350 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

2 tonnes per year

Capital cost

£4.8 million plus £12.7 million heat network

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

• 24,500MWh biogas needed from gasification, equivalent to 7,500 tonnes of wood chip per year • Plant operation and maintenance required

Potential returns

• Revenues from heat and power sales • Could qualify for ROCs or RHI • Payback period of at least 20 years (including network costs)

Key implications

• Energy centre required in the town (2,000m2), plus heat network • Gasification plant can be installed in the energy centre alongside the CHP engine and may be available as one packaged unit. • Wood storage area required (2,000m2) • Flue stack needed to disperse emissions

84

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Table 3: CHP options considered for Whitehill Bordon


Combined heat and power (CHP)

Gas engine CHP using biogas produced from anaerobic digestion of wet organic waste

Role

Supplying heat to central district heating network and generating power

Scale

3.6MWth 3.2MWe

Energy output

16,000MWh heat 10,400MWh electric

Carbon savings for the town

8,500 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

2.3 tonnes per year

Capital cost

£14 million plus £12.7 million heat network

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

• 36,000MWh biogas needed from anaerobic digestion per year • Amount of feed depends on type of organic waste or energy crop used • Plant operation and maintenance required

Potential returns

• Revenues from heat and power sales • Analysis for the FIT review designed to provide 8% return on investment for AD plant, but does not take into account heat network costs

Key implications

• Payback period depends on costs associated with collecting feedstock, which are not determined. Likely to be at least 20 years (including network costs) assuming similar feedstock costs as wood fuelled options • Could qualify for ROCs or FIT

• Energy centre required in the town (2,000m2), plus heat network • Site needed for anaerobic digestion facility (3,000m2). This may need to be separate from the site allocated for the energy centre in town due to waste transport and space required for organic waste storage (not determined). • Flue stack needed to disperse emissions

Table 3: CHP options considered for Whitehill Bordon

85

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Biomass gasification and 0.5MW CHP plant: Refgas

86

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Biomass boilers Biomass boilers fuelled with woodchip or wood pellets could be installed in new and existing properties across Whitehill Bordon. In theory, they could serve the entire space heating and hot water demand of the town, provided a sufficient supply of wood could be secured. The space requirements for storing wood fuel and the logistics of delivering the fuel mean that there are advantages to having larger biomass boilers shared between a number of properties. While efficiencies of scale can be obtained in the cost of the boiler and fuel store, the costs and implications of heat distribution infrastructure need to be factored in to an assessment of the potential for shared systems. These practical

requirements are also likely to limit the feasible uptake in the existing stock. Because it is not possible at this stage to quantify how many existing properties will be able to accommodate a small biomass boiler, it has been assumed that installation will be technically feasible in around half of them. Three options have been assessed for biomass boilers in Whitehill Bordon 1. Central biomass boiler serving the district heating network 2. Small biomass boilers serving all new properties in the town and half of existing properties, with no district heating network 3. Central biomass boiler serving the district heating

network plus small biomass boilers in the rest of the town. Small biomass boilers serving all the other new properties in the town and half of existing properties. It is important to note that these options represent the very upper limit of the potential for installing biomass boilers in the town. It might not be feasible to install this number of boilers in practice and the actual scale of installation would probably be much less than this. This limit on potential results from various factors which are not possible to quantify at this stage, including availability of space, developer or consumer choice, or strategic decisions that may be made to limit the role that they play, based for example on fuel availability or environmental impacts.

87

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


The results of this assessment are shown in Table 4. There appear to be a good financial case for installing biomass boilers in non-domestic buildings, due to the new RHI tariff. The case for installing biomass boilers in homes in the town is more limited compared to gas boilers, although this may change with phase two of the RHI. There may be more justification for wood fuelled heating in the surrounding villages and rural areas. Not only are they closer to the wood resource, but many properties do not have access to the gas grid, and wood will be replacing more expensive alternatives like heating oil.

Small scale biomass boiler: Hoval Ltd.

88

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

In addition, the cumulative impacts on air quality might be less of a concern. The Forestry

Commission report noted that they “expect to see a range of wood-fuelled boilers being installed to supply farmhouses (and country houses), small scale trading estates (especially where based on farms) and farmers/foresters exploring opportunities to supply woodfuel heat directly to local communities, some of which might be within the Eco-town.”

Conclusions and recommendations • A large biomass district heating boiler does not appear to be viable compared to CHP. The higher value electrical output in addition to heat sales is important to justify investment in the heat network. • Small biomass boilers are an alternative option. However the cost, space requirements and the disruption of installing them

may limit their application in existing properties in the town. At present, they appear to be more viable for commercial properties, due to economies of scale and the rates offered by the RHI. • Biomass boilers may be a more attractive option in the surrounding villages and rural areas, where properties are off the gas grid.


Photo: RefGas UK

Biomass boilers

Central biomass boiler serving the district heating network

Role

Supplying heat to central district heating network.

Scale

7.4MWth

Energy output

19,500MWh heat per year

Carbon savings for the town

4,090 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

1.1 tonnes

Capital cost

£1.5 million plus £12.7 million heat network

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

22,400 MWh of wood fuel needed, equivalent to 5,600 tonnes of wood chip per year.

Potential returns

The RHI for large biomass boilers is minimal and the value of heat is relatively low if based on replacing gas heating. Could take 50 years or more to pay back investment in the district heating network. CHP operation preferable at this scale, as returns from electricity much greater than heat.

Key implications

• Only feasible with a heat network. • Energy centre required in the town (2,000m2), plus heat network • Wood storage area required (2,000m2) • Flue stack needed to disperse emissions • Air pollution easier to control with large central plant. • Wood chip supply needed. • Management of shared infrastructure needed.

Table 4: Biomass boiler options considered for Whitehill Bordon

89

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Small scale biomass boiler: Hoval Ltd.

Biomass boilers

Small biomass boilers serving all properties in the town, with no district heating network

Role

Supplying heat to all new and half of existing properties in the town. Shared boilers for flats and terraces, individual boilers for all other properties.

Scale

Biomass boilers for residential (new and existing):

Biomass boilers for non-residential (new and existing):

• 3,500 no. 8kW individual biomass boilers for detached and semi-detached dwellings

• Around 120 no. individual biomass boilers of between 30kW and 60kW capacity in the new employment areas and town centre

• 200 no. 15kW shared biomass boilers for terraced houses • 80 no. 30kW shared biomass boilers for flats

• New schools totalling 4 no. boilers totalling 360kW capacity and 1 no. 175kW boiler for a swimming pool • Plus around 260 boilers for existing schools and existing commercial buildings, with average capacity of 22kW

Energy output

65,000MWh heat per year

Carbon savings for the town

14,500 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

1 tonne

Capital cost

£58.5 million for small boilers and fuel stores, plus heat distribution in shared systems.

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

75,800 MWh wood pellets needed for small boilers, or 17,700 tonnes per year.

Potential returns

Around 8 year payback for boilers in non-domestic properties. No payback for domestic boilers replacing gas boilers, unless phase 2 RHI tariffs higher for domestic systems. Financial benefits of switching to biomass better if oil or coal used currently.

Key implications

• Space may constrain proportion of properties which could have a boiler in practice. Feasible scale could be much less. • Air pollution more dispersed and difficult to control with many small boilers. • Wood pellet supply and distribution required. • Management of shared infrastructure needed.

Table 4: Biomass boiler options considered for Whitehill Bordon

90

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Biomass boilers

Central biomass boiler serving the district heating network plus small biomass boilers in the rest of the town

Role

Central boiler supplying heat to central district heating network. Small biomass boilers supplying heat to all other new properties and half of existing properties.

Scale

7.4MWth central boiler. Plus: • 3,500 no. 8kW individual biomass boilers for detached and semi-detached dwellings • 110 no. 15kW shared biomass boilers for existing terraced houses • 20 no. 30kW shared biomass boilers for existing flats Biomass boilers for non-residential (new and existing): • New schools totalling 4 no. boilers totalling 360kW capacity • Plus around 260 boilers for existing schools and existing commercial buildings, with average capacity of 22kW

Energy output

65,000MWh heat per year

Carbon savings for the town

14,500 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

1 tonne

Capital cost

£1.5million for central boiler plus £12.7 million heat network. £49.5 million for small boilers and fuel stores, plus heat distribution in shared systems.

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

22,400 MWh of wood fuel needed for central boiler, equivalent to 5,600 tonnes of wood chip per year. 52,000MWh of wood pellets needed for small boilers, or 11,000 tonnes per year.

Potential returns

Combination of options 1 and 2.

Key implications

Combination of options 1 and 2.

Table 4: Biomass boiler options considered for Whitehill Bordon

91

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Biomethane production and injection As an alternative to installing biomass CHP and a district heating network or biomass boilers, biomethane could be produced and injected into the local gas distribution network. This subject is introduced earlier in this report, in the Gas Distribution Network section of the chapter on the Future of Energy Supply and Demand. Biomethane can be produced from the biogas produced from wood gasification or anaerobic digestion of wet organic waste. Because the composition of the biogas produced in these two processes differs, so does the biomethane production process required. Two potential options have been considered for Whitehill Bordon:

92

1. Gasification of wood from managed woodlands, followed by methanation, gas cleaning and injection 2. Anaerobic digestion of food waste, animal manure and maize, followed by gas cleaning and injection In each case, the assessment considers a plant sized to supply the entire gas demand of the town. This can be compared with the potential wood and other biomass resource described in the first part of the Biomass and Waste section. The outcomes of this assessment are described in Table 5. It should be noted that there are few examples of such projects at present, although the technologies are proven and commercial proposals for

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

them are being developed. Due to the costs and entry requirements for the network, a large scale facility such as those described here may be more viable. Such a facility would need to be located on a suitable area of the gas network, with access to intermediate or high pressure mains.

Conclusions and recommendations • Capital cost may be lower than installing biomass boilers or district heating on a large scale, to serve a similar number of properties. The disruption to existing properties would be minimal because existing gas appliances could still be used. • Viability appears more favourable for biomethane production from waste

currently, although biomethane from wood could be viable in future. • Long term security of the supply chain for wood or organic waste would need to be assured. • Access to and capacity on the local gas network will need to be assessed during site selection if a biomethane facility is to be developed. Pipes may need to be upgraded to ensure there is capacity to accept the output from the facility. • It is recommended that spatial allocations in the masterplan keep the option of a larger, industrial scale facility of this nature open.

• Further research is recommended to establish viability of biomethane production and injection, if it is to be proposed as part of the energy strategy for the town.


Biomethane production and injection into the gas grid

Gasification of wood from managed woodlands, followed by methanation, gas cleaning and injection

Role

Supply all of gas demand for the town from a central gasification plant. Gas used to supply all heat demand through conventional boilers.

Scale

14MW peak gas output

Energy output

101,500MWh heat per year, supplied by 111,000MWh biomethane

Carbon savings for the town

21,500 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

1 tonne

Capital cost

Around £26 million (based on research figures and not proven).

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

50,500 tonnes of wood chip per year.

Potential returns

• Not possible to quantify at this stage, due to insufficient information about the operating costs and revenues. • The operating costs are potentially higher than for AD, as there is a cost for the wood fuel rather than an income received for accepting waste (gate fee). • A report on wood gasification potential in the UK concluded that it may be viable with the RHI for biomethane injection, although the minimum scale considered was 30MW gas output.xlviii

Key implications

• Solid fuel deliveries to central plant. • Wood chipping facility required. • Space required for large gasification, methanation, cleaning and grid injection facility (4,000m2) plus fuel storage (2,000m2). It may be possible to accommodate this in the site allocated for the energy centre. • Ash and tar residue for disposal

Table 5: Biomethane production and injection options considered for Whitehill Bordon

• Gas storage needed to meet peak demands and store output when there is not sufficient demand or capacity for gas to be supplied to the grid. • Not aware of any plant existing or proposed at present in the UK to gasify wood and produce biomethane for injection into the grid, so viability not yet demonstrated. Therefore not possible to size plant or provide a specification for purposes of air quality assessment at this stage.

93

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

Biomethane production and injection into the gas grid

Anaerobic digestion of food waste, animal manure and maize, followed by gas cleaning and injection

Role

Supply all of gas demand for the town from a central AD plant. Gas used to supply all heat demand through conventional boilers.

Scale

14MW peak gas output

Energy output

101,500MWh heat per year, supplied by 111,000MWh biomethane

Carbon savings for the town

Similar to biomethane option 1, not possible to quantify at this stage.

Carbon savings for a typical new home

Similar to biomethane option 1, not possible to quantify at this stage.

Capital cost

Around £37 million

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

Around 120,000 tonnes of wet organic waste per year (based on food waste; amount would be higher if animal slurry added or lower if maize added).

Potential returns

• Not possible to quantify at this stage, due to insufficient information about the operating costs and revenues. • The RHI tariff for biomethane injection is expected to make this viable, together with gate fees for waste processing if applicable, although a minimum scale might be needed.

Key implications

• Wet organic waste collection and transport • Space required for large AD plant (4,000m2) or multiple smaller plants. This may need to be located on an alternative site to the energy centre site due to space needed for waste and digestate storage. • Gas storage needed to meet peak demands and store output when there is not sufficient demand or capacity for gas to be supplied to the grid • Small demonstration plant in Oxfordshire (see case study above)

Table 5: Biomethane production and injection options considered for Whitehill Bordon

94

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: Quiet Revolution

Photo: LDA Design

Wind

Opportunities have been considered for wind energy both in the rural areas surrounding Whitehill Bordon and on some sites within the town itself.

to be taken to mitigate the potential impacts.

The viability of an investment in wind turbines depends on finding a suitable site which strikes the right balance between potential output and installation costs. There are a number of constraints which need to be taken into account to assess the suitability of sites for wind energy, particularly when larger wind turbines are being considered.

Potential output will be determined by the size and number of wind turbines that can be installed on a site and local wind speeds. As a rough rule of thumb, suitable sites with average wind speeds of over 5m/s present a potential opportunity for large wind turbines, which would be worthy of further consideration. Output increases rapidly with wind speed, so a small increase in average speeds can make a big difference to viability.

These include exclusion zones around residential areas and other infrastructure, and other environmental and planning constraints which might limit or prevent wind energy development or require action

To identify potentially suitable sites for large wind turbines in the rural areas around the town, we have mapped a range of physical, environmental and planning constraints which might prevent

wind energy development or increase the risk associated with gaining planning permission. We have also mapped locations with average wind speeds of over 5m/s and highlighted priority sites where average speeds exceed 6.5m/s.xlix The map is shown on the following page. Several potential sites for one or more large wind turbines have been identified within 10km of the centre of the town, based on this initial screening exercise. The largest of these sites is north of Headley, just adjacent to the district boundary. Small to medium scale wind turbines are less constrained in terms of suitable sites, as the exclusion zones required are smaller and their impact on environmental designations

and other sensitive areas is likely to be less significant. Two potential sites for small to medium wind turbines were identified within the draft masterplan; the employment area to the north of the town and Standford Grange Farm. Both sites are shown in the inset on the wind energy map below. Three potential options have been assessed for wind energy in and around Whitehill Bordon. They are not the only options available, but serve to illustrate the scales of project that might be considered and their implications. The results of this assessment are shown in Table 6. Further detailed feasibility work would be required to establish whether wind energy could be generated in practice at any of

95

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: Bristol City Council

Community to benefit from Bristol City Council’s wind turbines Bristol City Council is to install two wind turbines with a combined capacity of 6MW, becoming one of the first authorities in the UK to do so. The turbines will be located on a brownfield site in Avonmouth and are expected to become operational in early 2013. Preliminary work was funded by the council’s energy management unit, whose profits are invested in sustainable energy projects. Prudential borrowing will cover the installation costs, estimated at £9.4 million. The turbines are expected to generate £1 million a year from ROCs, Levy Exemption Certificates and electricity sales. Some of this will pay for energy efficiency improvements and other projects in the local community. A council which applies to itself for planning permission cannot appeal so preparation work was very thorough. Local people were kept informed throughout and have been extremely supportive, with 99% of responses to the consultation positive. This is helped by the presence of the nearby Bristol Port Authority wind farm, where “local people felt their initial concerns about visual impact were unfounded”. Due to the industrial nature of the area, people have suggested that the turbines will enhance the local environment. Source: E.ON and Regen SW

96

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

these sites. This should include more detailed consideration of planning constraints on a site by site basis. Such constraints include any limitations imposed by the MOD, Civil Aviation Authority or telecommunications operators in the vicinity of the site.

Although the technology is proven and can be commercially viable, there is some risk in the planning process, particularly in the community response to large scale wind. That said wind farms do get planning permission in the right location.

Installation costs can vary significantly, depending on numerous site-specific factors including proximity to the electricity grid, access for delivery and construction of turbines, and ground conditions. It has not been possible to quantify the impact of such site-specific factors as part of this study, and benchmark figures have been used which represent average installed capital costs.

Sites can be selected, designed and laid out to minimise local impacts. In addition, the communities that accept wind farms in are increasingly benefitting financially from them by taking part or full ownership or a share of the revenues. Guidance is available on delivering community benefits from wind energy.l


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO Š Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data Š Crown copyright and database right 2011.

WindEnergy Energy Wind EnergyWind Whitehill WhitehillBordon BordonEco-town Eco-town Policy PolicyBoundary Boundary District Districtboundary boundary Nature Naturedesignations designations--RAMSAR -RAMSAR -National -NationalNature NatureReserve Reserve -Site -Siteof ofSpecial SpecialScientific Scientific Interest Interest -Special -SpecialArea Areaof ofConservation Conservation -Special -SpecialProtection ProtectionAreas Areas -Ancient -AncientWoodlands Woodlands -National -NationalPark Park Local LocalNature NatureReserve Reserve Green GreenBelt/ Belt/Green Greengaps gaps National NationalPark Park RSPB RSPBBird Bird Sensitivity Sensitivity

L15 L15 L1 L1

Wind Windspeed speedat at40m 40mAOD AOD 55m/s m/s --6.5 6.5m/s m/s Over Over6.5 6.5m/s m/s Whitehill WhitehillBordon BordonEco-Town Eco-Town Masterplan Masterplan Other Otherareas areaswithin within Whitehill WhitehillBordon Bordon Masterplan Masterplan

MC5 MC5

Areas Areasidentified identifiedas as potential potentialwind windenergy energy locations locations

97

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

Conclusions and recommendations

and estimate the time and costs involved in delivery.

• Initial investigations suggest that large scale wind turbines may be an option on some sites outside of the town. Large on-shore wind turbines are one of the most cost-effective ways of supplying renewable energy and could make a major contribution to the energy strategy for the town.

• If any sites are still considered to have potential, it would be recommended to erect a local wind monitoring mast should be erected to measure wind speeds and directions throughout the year to establish a more accurate estimate of potential output.

• Site-specific factors should be the subject of further, detailed study if wind energy is to be pursued as part of the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon. This should include an assessment of the proximity of the site to a suitable point for connection to the electricity grid and engagement with Scottish and Southern to understand any local capacity constraints, assess the works required to obtain a connection

98

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Dialogue is recommended with the local community, particularly residents of the villages, to understand any concerns and discuss community involvement and potential benefits. • Small to medium wind turbines are also attractive because of the higher FIT rates available, although their contribution to energy supply and carbon savings

would be much smaller. It is recommended that the masterplan keeps open the option of a small to medium scale wind turbine in the employment area to the north and Standford Grange Farm to the south east.


Photo: Toby Smith

Wind energy

Wind farm north of Headley

Role

Supplying electricity to the whole town via the distribution grid

Scale

Ten large wind turbines, total 25MW peak output. 125m height to tip of blade.

Energy output

63,500MWh electricity per year

Carbon savings for the town

33,600 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

Equivalent to annual carbon emissions from around 13,000 new homes, after energy efficiency taken into account.

Capital cost

£32.3 million

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

Minimal

Potential returns

Electricity sales and ROCs could provide a simple payback period of around 7 years.

Key implications

• Turbines could be located at least 800m from nearest residential settlement • Non-residential buildings can be located closer to the turbines, generally with a separation distance of at least the height from the base to the tip of the turbine blade (topple distance) • Wind farm would be laid out across an area of around 250ha • Land around turbines can still be used for agriculture • Land ownership needs to be considered • Environmental impacts would need to be demonstrated acceptable to secure planning • Connection to 11kV or 33kV electricity line required • Potential site constraints not yet identified

Table 6: Wind energy options considered for Whitehill Bordon

99

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

Wind energy

Medium wind turbine at Standford Grange Farm

Role

Supplying electricity to the whole town via the distribution grid

Scale

One medium wind turbine, 330kW peak output. 55m height to tip of blade.

Energy output

680MWh electricity per year

Carbon savings for the town

360 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

Equivalent to annual carbon emissions from around 140 new homes.

Capital cost

£680,000

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

Minimal

Potential returns

Electricity sales and FITs could provide a simple payback period of around 5 years.

Key implications

• Turbine could be accommodated at least 300m from nearest building • Close to but outside of area of bird sensitivity

Table 6: Wind energy options considered for Whitehill Bordon

100

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: Toby Smith

Wind energy

Small wind turbine in employment area to the north of the town

Role

Supplying electricity to the employment area

Scale

One small wind turbine, 50kW peak output. 35m height to tip of blade.

Energy output

90MWh electricity per year

Carbon savings for the town

47 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

Equivalent to annual carbon emissions from around 18 new homes.

Capital cost

£123,000

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

Minimal

Potential returns

Electricity sales and ROCs could provide a simple payback period of around 5 years.

Key implications

• Turbine could be accommodated around 150m from nearest building • Close to but outside of area of bird sensitivity

Table 6: Wind energy options considered for Whitehill Bordon

101

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

Solar

Opportunities for solar energy to contribute to the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon have been considered at two scales: â&#x20AC;˘ Large scale solar farms, with ground-mounted PV arrays supplying electricity â&#x20AC;˘ Building-integrated PV and solar thermal arrays, supplying electricity and heat There has been a recent boom in proposals for large scale solar farms, particularly in the south of England, thanks to the generous feed-in-tariff support for systems up to 5MW in size. There have been several proposals to build solar farms in Hampshire, including one in Kingsley, north of Bordon. Revised rates for systems over 50kW proposed in the review of the feed-in-tariff are likely

102

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

to affect the viability of solar farms in the short term, based on todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s equipment costs and energy prices. As a result, some proposals have been halted, including the one at Kingsley. However, costs are coming down significantly and energy prices are expected to go up, so in the medium to long term solar farms could be a viable prospect without subsidy, potentially during the construction of new development at Whitehill Bordon. A map has been prepared showing areas where solar farms might be accommodated around the town, taking into account various environmental designations. It also shows the relative intensity of solar radiation, taking into account the effect of topography on shading. The map is shown

on the following page. While there is no absolute constraint on developing solar farms in designated areas, including the national park, sites outside of these designations might be selected for development as a priority. As can be seen from the map, there are various locations in the vicinity of Whitehill Bordon which might present an opportunity for a solar farm, should the economics change sufficiently to justify the investment. PV can also be installed on buildings, with relatively little local impact compared to other technologies. Roofs are ideal, although walls, shading louvres and other structures can also be used. Roofs should be unshaded and flat or roughly south facing to get the best output from the PV. New development can be designed

to maximise suitable space for PV, but it can also be fitted to a large number of existing buildings. A map has been prepared which indicates areas of new development and the rough orientation of existing roofs in the town (see map on the following page). Solar thermal systems can also be installed on many new and existing roof tops, with similar requirements to PV. They can typically supply around 60% of domestic hot water demand, and are ideally suited to homes and other buildings where there is demand for hot water throughout the summer, when output is greatest. The useful output from solar thermal systems can be improved by using underground interseasonal thermal stores to store the excess heat they produce in the summer. A heat


Photo: LDA Design

pump can be used to extract the heat when needed. This technology is being trialled at the demonstration eco-house being built at the old Fire Station site in Whitehill Bordon. Three options have been assessed for solar technologies, to illustrate potential in and around the town. The results are shown in Table 7.

Conclusions and recommendations • One or more large scale solar farms could make a significant contribution to energy supply and carbon savings. Viability is marginal at present but likely to improve further, and planning risk is likely to be less than for other large infrastructure.

• It is recommended that these are considered further as part of the energy strategy for the town, looking at specific sites and local constraints such as access to the electricity grid in more detail. • There is a strong financial case for investing in roof mounted PV systems at present, and it is a relatively low impact option which is available to many existing and new properties in the town. • It is recommended that further action is taken locally to encourage existing propertyholders to invest in PV. The support needed may include enabling more people to access low interest loans to cover the up-front costs, building on the success of the scheme that has already been launched in the town and

increasing the number of loans available significantly. • The grid impacts of major take-up of building integrated PV systems will need to be discussed with Scottish and Southern Energy. • The financial case for solar thermal and the contribution it could make to energy supply and carbon savings is more limited, but it could still be an option that is worth taking forwards as part of the overall energy strategy for the town. • Developing a local supply chain, and potentially purchasing systems in bulk, is recommended to drive down costs for both buildingintegrated PV and solar thermal systems.

103

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO © Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data © Crown copyright and database right 2011.

FARNHAM

p

ALTON

BORDON

Large Scale PV

NEW ARLESFORD

Large Scale PV

Whit ehill Bo rdon Eco-town Policy Zone District boundary

PETERSFIELD MIDHURST

Nature designations -RAMSAR -National Nature Reserve -Site of Special Scientific Interest -Special Area of Conservation -Special Protection Areas -Ancient Woodlands Green Belt/ Green gaps Local Nature Reserve National Park Woodlands Relative intensity of solar radiation, based on topography

HORNDEAN

Increasing intensity

HAVANT

104

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO Š Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data Š Crown copyright and database right 2011.

Roof mounted Roof mounted PV PVPV Roof mounted Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Policy Zone Policy Zone Redevelopment proposed Redevelopment proposed Majority SE - SW facing domestic Majority SE - SW facing domestic roofs, PV and solar thermal roofs, PV and solar thermal potenial potenial Some large south facing nonSome large south facing nondomestic roofs, potential for large domestic roofs, potential for large PV PV Around 50% roughly South Around 50% roughly South facing domestic roofs, PV facing domestic roofs, PV and solar thermal potential and solar thermal potential Mixed layout domestic, potential Mixed layout domestic, potential local shading from trees and local shading from trees and buildings buildings Majority East and West Majority East and West facing domestic rooftops facing domestic rooftops Mobile home park Mobile home park

105

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Image: LDA Design

Solar energy

Solar PV farm

Role

Supplying electricity to the whole town via the distribution grid

Scale

One large solar farm, total 5MW peak output. Up to 10ha land required.

Energy output

4,250MWh electricity per year

Carbon savings for the town

2,250 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

Equivalent to carbon emissions from around 875 new homes, after energy efficiency taken into account.

Capital cost

£11.8 million

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

Minimal

Potential returns

Simple payback of around 18 years, based on electricity sales and revised FIT. Could be improved if some of electricity sold at retail price direct to a large customer.

Key implications

• Visual impact would need to be demonstrated acceptable to secure planning • Land should be fairly flat or on a roughly south facing slope • Land can be used for grazing small animals, poultry or biodiversity • Land ownership needs to be considered • Connection to 11kV or 33kV electricity line required • Potential site constraints not yet identified

Table 7: Solar energy options considered for Whitehill Bordon

106

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

Solar energy

Roof-mounted PV

Role

Supplying electricity to the properties connected and excess to the distribution grid

Scale

PV installed on 50% of existing domestic roofs and 75% of new buildings. Total peak electrical output around 20MW, from a total panel area of 137,500m2.

Energy output

16,690MWh electricity per year

Carbon savings for the town

8,830 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

1 tonne.

Capital cost

£59 million

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

Minimal

Potential returns

Simple payback of around 10 years, based on electricity sales, savings from using own generated electricity and FIT.

Key implications

• Peak output may coincide with periods of low demand locally. The cumulative impact of exporting electricity to the grid needs to be managed • Local storage may be used to get the most benefit from the electricity generated

Table 7: Solar energy options considered for Whitehill Bordon

107

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Solar energy

Roof-mounted solar thermal

Role

Supplying hot water to the properties connected

Scale

Solar thermal installed on 50% of existing domestic roofs and 75% of new domestic roofs. Total peak thermal output around 10.5MW, from an area of 15,000m2 of solar collector.

Energy output

7,750MWh heat per year

Carbon savings for the town

1,705 tonnes per year

Carbon savings for a typical new home

0.3 tonnes

Capital cost

ÂŁ12 million

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

Minimal

Potential returns

Simple payback of around 18 years, based on savings from using less gas for hot water and RHI.

Key implications

â&#x20AC;˘ Need for thermal store and alternative heat source like a gas boiler

Table 7: Solar energy options considered for Whitehill Bordon

108

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Heat pumps

Heat pumps are an efficient way of using electricity to provide heating or cooling to a building. Opportunities for two types of heat pump have been considered: â&#x20AC;˘ Ground source heat pumps â&#x20AC;˘ Air source heat pumps Air source heat pumps take heat from the outside air and efficiency drops significantly in cold weather. Ground source heat pumps are more efficient, because they take heat from below the ground where the temperature is relatively stable year round. To take account of seasonal variation, an average annual efficiency is used. The efficiency of a heat pump is better the lower the difference between the temperature of the heat

source (ie the air or the ground) and the temperature of the heat output (ie the water or air being heated). A heat pump runs more efficiently if it is providing low temperature space heating, such as underfloor heating or oversized radiators, and is best suited to homes which are well insulated. It can supply domestic hot water, but this reduces efficiency. Because they operate better at lower temperatures, heat pumps are not ideal for use in a district heating system with other heat sources such as CHP engines which produce hot water or steam at higher temperatures. A communal heat pump could serve a large building, block of flats or cluster of buildings. The emissions performance

of heat pumps depends on the carbon intensity of the electricity they run on. Most heat pumps use electricity from the grid. Based on the emissions factors for grid supplied electricity today, the emissions savings from a typical ground source heat pump are small compared to an efficient gas boiler and air source heat pumps can actually lead to an increase in emissions. When used to replace oil or coal fired boilers or traditional electric heaters the savings are greater. As the carbon intensity of grid supplied electricity drops, heat pumps will become more attractive compared to gas boilers. To illustrate the difference, annual carbon savings have been calculated based on the emissions factor for grid electricity in 2011 and

a projected emissions factor for 2030, and the range is shown in the results (Table 8).xvii Air source heat pumps are relatively simple to install, requiring an external, fanassisted heat exchanger which is mounted in a box on the side of the property. They also require space inside the property for the heat pump and a hot water tank. We have assumed that it would be feasible to design all new properties in Whitehill Bordon to use an air source heat pump. They can also be installed in existing buildings, but may not be suitable for all properties because of noise from the fan and the need to install low temperature space heating. We have therefore assumed that around half of existing

109

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


properties in Whitehill Bordon could use an air source heat pump. Ground source heat pumps typically have a heat exchanger coil installed in the ground either vertically in a borehole or horizontally in a trench. They can be installed in the foundations of new buildings or underneath open space. We have assumed that it would be feasible to design all new properties to use a ground source heat pump. It is also possible to install them in existing properties, generally under the garden. Because of the disruption involved we have assumed that ground source heat pumps are not likely to be the preferred choice for the majority of properties in Whitehill Bordon. The efficiency of ground

110

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

source heat pumps can be improved by coupling them with underground interseasonal thermal storage for excess heat produced by solar thermal panels in the summer months. This technology is being trialled at the demonstration eco-house being built at the old Fire Station site in Whitehill Bordon.

Conclusions and recommendations • Air source heat pumps are currently not cost effective and offer few carbon savings compared to gas fired heating. • Ground source heat pumps have slightly better performance, in terms of carbon savings and financially thanks to the RHI. Domestic systems are currently not very cost effective compared to gas boilers, but they may be a worthwhile investment in areas

off the gas grid such as the surrounding villages.

emissions from grid supplied electricity come down.

• The cost, space requirements and the disruption of installing ground source heat pumps may limit their application in existing properties in the town. At present, they appear to be more viable for commercial properties, due to economies of scale and the rates offered by the RHI.

• It may be worth developing the local supply chain for heat pumps, particularly focusing on properties which are off the gas grid at present.

• Heat pumps may be more appropriate for new buildings which can be designed to accommodate the equipment and have high energy efficiency and suitable low temperature heating systems. • Heat pumps could have a role to play in future, as they provide an efficient way of using electricity for heating and carbon savings will improve as


Image: LDA Design

Photo: Kensa Engineering

Photo: Jo Peattie

Heat pumps

Air source heat pumps

Ground source heat pumps

Role

Supplying space heating and hot water to the properties where they are installed.

Supplying space heating and hot water to the properties where they are installed.

Scale

Air source heat pumps installed in 100% of new buildings and Ground source heat pumps installed in 100% of new buildings, but 50% of existing buildings. no existing buildings. Total peak thermal output around 37MW.

Total peak thermal output around 19MW.

Energy output

65,000MWh heat per year

35,100MWh heat per year

Carbon savings for the town

Between 3,700 tonnes increase (based on 2011 grid emissions factor) and 4,300 tonnes saving per year (based on 2030 emissions factor)

Between 1,670 tonnes saving (2011) and 4,300 tonnes saving per year (2030)

Carbon savings for a typical new home

0.3 tonne increase (2011) to 0.34 tonne saving (2030)

0.25 tonne saving (2011) to 0.65 tonne saving (2030)

Capital cost

ÂŁ31.6 million

ÂŁ19.4 million

Fuel, operating and maintenance needs

35,100MWh electricity used per year to run equipment.

11,700MWh electricity used per year to run equipment.

Potential returns

There is no payback for installing air source heat pumps compared to gas fired heating, although it could make sense compared to electric heating.

No payback for domestic heat pumps replacing gas boilers, unless phase 2 RHI tariffs higher for domestic systems. Financial benefits of switching to biomass better if oil or coal used currently. Non-domestic heat pumps could payback in around 8 years.

Key implications

Need to be situated to ensure noise from external fans is not an issue

Buried heat exchanger coils need to be installed in boreholes or trenches

High standards of energy efficiency required in building fabric Need low temperature space heating system New low temperature space heating system needed in existing Unlikely to be installed in many existing buildings buildings (eg underfloor heating or larger radiators) Efficiency lower in winter Table 8: Heat pump options considered for Whitehill Bordon

111

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Hydropower

Hydropower has been used traditionally in the area around the town, with sites such as Headley Mill using power from the local rivers to drive machinery. During the consultation undertaken as part of this study, it was raised as a potential opportunity for the town. Potential hydropower sites in the UK have been assessed by the Environment Agency for capacity and environmental sensitivity. We have obtained the data on sites in East Hampshire and produced a map, which is shown on the following page. There are several potential hydropower sites in and around the town. However, the Environment Agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s assessment indicates that they would all be low output

112

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

(less than 10kW each) and high sensitivity in terms of the potential environmental impact, particularly the effect on fish. While there is potential for a few small schemes offering some very local benefit, hydro energy is unlikely to make a significant contribution to the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon. It has therefore not been considered further.


Based on Ordnance Survey HMSO © Crown Copyright 2011.All rights reserved. Licence number 0100031673. OS Open data © Crown copyright and database right 2011.

FARNHAM FARNHAM

ALTON ALTON

BORDON BORDON

NEW NEW ARLESFORD ARLESFORD

Hydro Energy

Hydrological HydrologicalResource Resource

PETERSFIELD PETERSFIELD MIDHURST MIDHURST

Waterbody Waterbody Environment EnvironmentAgency AgencyHydropower Hydropower Opportunity Opportunity 0 0- 10 - 10kW kWhigh high sensitivity sensitivity 0 0- 10 - 10kW kWmedium medium sensitivity sensitivity 0 0- 10 - 10kW kWsensitivity sensitivity ungraded ungraded 1010- 20 - 20kW kWmedium medium sensitivity sensitivity

HORNDEAN HORNDEAN

1010- 20 - 20kW kWsensitivity sensitivity ungraded ungraded 2020- 50 - 50kW kWmedium medium sensitivity sensitivity

HAVANT HAVANT

113

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


6.0 Energy Strategy Scenarios There are various factors which will shape Whitehill Bordonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy strategy and limit what is achievable in practice. Some of these factors are clear cut, such as restrictions on the amount of wind or biomass that can be found in the area, or rules about what can or cannot be built in places which are protected for nature conservation or landscape value, or near infrastructure such as roads or urban areas. The future of transport options for the area also has a direct effect on the type of energy supply, with the use of electric vehicles or alternative fuels to petroleum based transport. Many other factors are more subtle and how they are addressed will depend on the level of ambition in the town and the relative priority of energy and carbon emissions

114

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

targets alongside other environmental, social and economic objectives. To frame a discussion about the energy options and what each could mean, and inspire debate about the more subtle decisions that need to be made, this chapter compares several scenarios for the future energy strategy. These are contrasting visions for how energy could be supplied to the town in future. They deliberately represent the extremes of what could happen, if particular emphasis and reliance were placed on certain technologies. The aim of this is to draw out the differences and highlight issues that need to be considered.


Photo: LDA Design

The scenarios presented here are:

1. The Biomass Town 2. The Electric Town 3. The Solar Town It may be that these extremes are not deliverable or desirable in practice. While there are efficiencies in adopting a common approach across large areas of the town and it could provide a more equal outcome for existing and new residents, different technologies may work better in different parts of the town or offer the optimum solution at different times. For example it might only be possible to fit heat pumps in some existing properties, because their heating systems cannot easily be adapted to work well with

this new technology. Some buildings may not be suitable for solar technologies because of the roof layout. In addition, there may be a limit to how much the town wants to rely on wood fuel. The following pages compare the four scenarios, by considering the following questions: • Cost, value and delivery: what will it take to make this happen? What will this mean for the existing town and the masterplan? • Ambition: how far can we really get towards the carbon neutral target? • Environment: how can energy supply be delivered alongside other priorities for nature and the landscape?

• People: will this work for people in and around the town? How will it affect people’s homes and their day to day lives, as consumers of energy and users of the technologies and services described here? What will they have to invest? What does it mean for equality and individual or community ownership? And what about people affected by the impacts of some of the energy options? • Economy: what opportunities will this present for local businesses and communities? • Risk: what could delay or prevent this strategy from working? How likely is there to be a problem later on? The scenarios were discussed at a consultation event held on 31 March in Bordon. A

115

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


summary of the comments raised in the consultation is provided in Appendix 3, and the comparison of the scenarios also takes these comments into account. Conclusions and recommendations • The carbon targets for the town are achievable with different combinations of renewable and low carbon technology. • For each scenario, there is a different balance of benefits and impacts to the local economy, environment and community which need to be weighed up. • The feasibility and viability of each option will depend on further work to consider site specific issues that may shift the

116

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

balance one way or the other. • The more ambitious options, which offer the greater potential carbon savings and economic benefits such as a large biomethane project or wind farm, are also the highest risk. • This study provides an evidence base and framework for the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon. To develop it further, the local benefits and impacts of the different options will need to be weighed up and decisions will need to be made on the priorities for the town. This should be the subject of more detailed consultation with local residents and other stakeholders, which could be undertaken as part of the neighbourhood consultations being held to inform the masterplan.


Photo: Calorex

Photo: Tim Parkinson

The Biomass Town Biomass is used to heat all of the buildings in the town and supply hot water. Some electricity is also generated and supplied to the town via the local distribution network. A central gasification plant uses wood collected from the local area to produce biomethane for use in: • A central CHP engine, supplying power to the grid and heat to a district heating network serving the town centre, new flats and terraced houses and the employment areas • Gas boilers in the rest of the town, supplied via the gas grid • Small scale wood boilers serving properties off the grid, mainly in the surrounding villages All of the wood fuel is supplied from managed woodlands within 20km of the town centre. Biogas could also be supplied from anaerobic digestion projects using wet organic waste and buildings that are off the gas grid might use wood chip or wood pellet boilers. Cost, value and delivery

• The CHP plant and district heating network would need to be installed early in the development of the areas served, to ensure that it is online as properties are completed if it is part of their strategy for compliance with the Building Regulations. It is recommended to install heat mains while roads are being constructed and other utilities installed, to minimise costs. This is likely to need coordination and leadership from a single organisation, rather than being delivered by the developers of individual plots. Total cost around £4.8 million for the CHP plus £12.7 million for the heat network. • The gasification plant would require a large capital investment and several years of planning, design, construction prior to commissioning and operation. Total cost not known, estimated as about £26 million. This may not be commercially viable at present, but this could change in future. • Annual wood chip costs in the region of £4.75 million, based on price per tonne. This may be returned to the local economy if wood is sourced locally. • The wood fuel supply chain will take some time to develop. Guaranteeing a market for the fuel, making haulage trucks and forestry machinery available and establishing a central processing facility to produce wood chip and/or wood pellets may help to encourage woodland owners to take action.

Ambition

• Up to 25,600 tonnes total carbon savings per year, which is more than enough to achieve the Eco-town carbon neutral target. The electrical output from the CHP helps to boost the carbon savings.

117

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Environment

• The processing facility and gasification plant would be industrial sites. Potential impacts on local traffic, air quality, biodiversity and the landscape need to be assessed and managed. • Wood fuel harvesting also has potential implications for biodiversity and the landscape. The Forestry Commission report has taken account of this in assessing the sustainable wood fuel resource which could be harvested from forests within 20km. • There may be opportunities for habitat creation and enhancing biodiversity if new woodlands are planted and sustainable managed.

People

• Minimal cost and disruption for those properties which use biogas in conventional boilers.

Economy

• Jobs and value created in undermanaged woodland, particularly beneficial for the surrounding villages potentially. This will still be a future opportunity, even if the wood is not used locally. • Developing and running the wood haulage operations, processing facility and gasification plant could provide business opportunities. • Opportunities in installing and running the CHP and heat network. Less opportunity for installation of equipment across the town as a whole, other than replacing conventional gas boilers and installing solid wood. • Availability and cost of fuel could be a risk in the longer term as competing demands increase.

Risk

• Although the technology is available, there are few examples of its commercial application at present so this is relatively high risk compared to the other scenarios. • There may be some local resistance to a gasification facility of this scale and the potential benefits to the community would need to be communicated clearly. • Although the wood resource is local, there may be risks to securing a long term steady supply due to competing demands and escalating prices. • The commercial case is not yet proven.

118

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

Photo: Electriccarsite.co.uk

The Electric Town The town meets most of its energy needs using electricity, and demand for other fuels dwindles. The following technologies play an important role: • Electric heat pumps used as the main source of heat, either installed in individual properties or as communal systems serving clusters of buildings • Wind farm with around 10 large turbines provides major contribution to energy supply • PV on majority of new development and half of existing buildings High uptake of electric vehicles means there will be a need for low carbon electricity supply to meet this demand too. To deliver on the carbon savings targets, the generation mix supplying the national electricity grid would need to change substantially, bringing down the emissions associated with the electricity supply used to power the heat pumps. Widespread use of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels in the town and possibly a smaller wind turbine on Louisburg Barracks or Standford Grange Farm to generate electricity for local use. The town has a smart grid capable of balancing electricity supply and demand locally and getting the best use out the renewable and low carbon electricity generated, offering variable tariffs to consumers to encourage this. Cost, value and delivery

Widespread use of heat pumps and electric vehicles are very much part of national government projections for the way that energy use could change over the next 50 years or so, implying that the electric town could be a viable option. The extent to which local generation will be viable compared to using electricity from the grid is up for debate. Wind farm cost in the region of £28.6 million. It may be viable as a commercial investment. Unusual, site-specific installation costs may emerge which affect viability such as the need for access roads to be built for construction or the need for long distance cables to connect to the grid. Total PV cost up to £59 million for the scale of installation envisaged. Heat pump costs of up to £31.6 million. This would be borne by a combination of developers, existing property owners, and government incentives. With the exception of the wind farm, most of the investment costs can be spread over the phasing of the Eco-town project, as equipment would be fitted to individual buildings as they are built or refurbished. The cost of the smart grid required for the town cannot be estimated at this stage. The balance of operating costs and revenues for the wind and PV systems at present suggests that these could be a viable investment. The financial case for heat pumps is less clear.

119

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

Ambition

• Wind farm could offer 33,600 tonnes of carbon savings a year, plus a further 8,360 tonnes from PV and up to 4,300 tonnes from air source heat pumps if the carbon emissions associated with grid supplied electricity come down. • Grid decarbonisation will help to support the carbon savings, but cannot be taken for granted. Whitehill Bordon will need to play its part in providing the renewable and low carbon generating infrastructure that will enable the grid to decarbonise.

Environment

• Likely to benefit local air quality. • Noise from air source heat pumps may be an issue, but electric vehicles significantly quieter than conventional ones. • Potential impacts from wind farm on landscape and biodiversity would need to be assessed and managed to ensure they are acceptable. Issues or constraints may emerge which render this option unfeasible.

People

• Good levels of insulation would be needed, possibly with changes to radiators in existing buildings, as heat pumps are best suited to work with a lower temperature heating system than has traditionally been designed into the majority of homes. Retrofit could be disruptive and costly. • There may be local resistance to a wind farm. • Opportunities for a large number of people to take ownership, with heat pumps and PV installed in the buildings they serve.

Economy

• Significant opportunities in the short to medium term supplying and installing PV and heat pumps. Some opportunity for maintenance and replacement in the longer term, but fewer job opportunities after initial installation push. • Opportunity to design, build and run the wind farm. • Also potential business in designing, developing and installing the smart grid. Early adoption of the smart grid in the town may attract businesses looking to be involved in this sector.

Risk

• Relatively low technological risk, with the exception of the approach to developing a smart grid for the town, which is not yet well understood. A smart grid is essential to make this scenario a success. • The financial risks would appear to be relatively low for the wind and PV elements of this scenario. • There may be some local resistance to wind energy development. Long term energy supply relatively secure although variability of output needs managing.

120

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

The Solar Town The town relies on highly energy efficient design of new buildings and refurbishment, with some of its power and heat supplied by the sun, comprising: PV panels on all suitable roofs in the new development and existing communities Solar hot water systems for all suitable homes, new and existing. Two large solar PV farms The smart grid will be important to integrate supply and demand with this scale of PV installed across the town. An alternative heat supply such as a conventional gas boiler would still be needed, as solar panels can typically only provide around 60% of the hot water needs for a home. Electric storage heaters could provide heat and store spare electricity generated by the PV system. Cost, value and delivery

• PV and solar thermal may not be the cheapest option. The total cost of the building–integrated PV systems proposed could be up to £59 million. The solar thermal systems would add around £12 million. • Two solar farms of 5MW could cost about £30 million in total, based on today’s prices. • Most of the investment costs can be spread over the phasing of the Eco-town project, as equipment would be fitted to individual buildings as they are built or refurbished. The solar farms could be added later once viability has improved. • Both PV and solar thermal require little effort to manage and have virtually no running costs after they are installed. • Solar farms will require planning permission, but the development process is generally much quicker than for a wind farm or other large energy infrastructure. • Revenues currently depend largely on the feed-in-tariff and renewable heat incentive, although capital costs are coming down all the time and the more energy prices increase the more competitive solar energy becomes.

Ambition

• Total carbon savings in the region of 15,000 tonnes per year. Less than the other scenarios considered, but still potentially enough to achieve the Eco-town carbon neutral target.

Environment

• Limited local environmental impact. Cumulative visual impact with widespread installation across the town.

121

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

People

• PV and solar thermal systems are equally applicable to existing buildings and new development, and installing them on buildings also gives people more ownership of their energy supply and a share in the benefits. • Not all buildings will be suitable, as some south facing roof or suitable walls would be required, so some people will miss out. • The initial cost is high, so some people will not be able to afford to invest in solar technologies for their home without a low interest loan or other assistance. • Once installed, running the solar systems will have little impact on people in the town.

Economy

• Jobs and value created in installing solar panels across the town. Some opportunity for maintenance and replacement in the longer term, but fewer job opportunities after initial installation push.

Risk

• Technologically and politically this is likely to be the lowest risk option, but the carbon savings and financial returns could also be lower.

122

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: Rupert Fleetingly Photomontage: LDA Design

123

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


7.0 Recommendations Developing the energy strategy

Photo: LDA Design

This study provides an evidence base and framework for the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon. To develop the energy strategy further, the local benefits and impacts of the different options will need to be weighed up and decisions will need to be made on the priorities for the town. This should be the subject of more detailed consultation with local residents and other stakeholders, which could be undertaken as part of the neighbourhood consultations being held to inform the masterplan. It will also be important to ensure that the findings of this study are integrated with the other studies and strategies that are underway or have been completed recently for the Eco-town. Some iteration of the energy strategy and

124

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

other pieces of work may be required. The recommendations for the energy strategy will also inform the revision of the draft masterplan. The following specific actions are recommended to take forward elements of the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon: â&#x20AC;˘ A more thorough survey of the condition of the existing building stock is recommended to inform plans for energy efficiency and microgeneration retrofit, if not already underway as part of the development of the energy efficiency strategy for the Eco-town. This should include non-domestic buildings which are due to be retained as well as homes. â&#x20AC;˘ The economic opportunities and community benefits


Photo: East Hampshire District

Photo: Calorex

Council (EHDC)

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

available to residents and businesses in the town, surrounding villages and rural areas should be promoted. • An electric vehicle strategy should be developed as part of the emerging transport strategy. This should include an estimate of potential uptake in Whitehill Bordon, based on transport modelling and public consultation. It should set out what incentives and support will be made available locally and the approach that will be taken to installing charging points across the town. • Electric vehicles should be considered as an option as specifications are developed for the bus services and car club. • Further work is recommended to obtain

a better estimate of future non-building related energy demands and emissions. This should focus in particular on transport, but could also include street lighting, waste and water management. • A smart grid research and development programme should be developed in partnership with Scottish and Southern Energy. Funding for this should be sought from the Low Carbon Networks Fund. The scope of this work should include: - The impacts of proposed new development on the electricity grid - The cumulative impacts of widespread take up of electric vehicles and electric heating - The cumulative impacts of

installation of microgeneration technologies, particularly PV, across the town - The connection of larger power generation projects to the grid, including an assessment of site-specific constraints in priority locations - The extent to which supply and demand can be balanced locally - Recommendations for the smart grid, including controls, cables and substations - Recommendations for energy storage on the individual property and community scale - Recommendations for reinforcements or upgrades to the infrastructure connecting the town with the national grid

One of the new development sites expected to come forward in the first phase should be selected as a focal point for the initial research. The longer term programme should determine what will be needed to deliver a smart grid for the town as a whole, including extending it to existing communities. • Scotia Gas Networks should be consulted as the energy strategy for Whitehill Bordon is developed and more detailed feasibility work is completed for specific projects, including new property developments or a biomethane production facility. • A more detailed analysis should be completed of the financial case for a district heating network in the town, with an assessment of hourly heat loads, proposals for

pipework routing and a more accurate estimate of installation costs, taking into account ground conditions and any physical constraints. • An action plan for developing the wood fuel supply chain should be prepared in partnership with the Forestry Commission’s Biomass Energy Centre. Actions could include providing training in sustainable forestry practices, providing equipment, networking and brokering supply contracts, supplying a mobile wood chipper or setting up a local wood fuel processing, storage and distribution centre. • Further research is recommended to establish viability of biomethane production and injection, if it is to be proposed as part

125

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

of the energy strategy for the town. Access to and capacity on the local gas network will need to be assessed during site selection if a biomethane facility is to be developed. • The potential for anaerobic digestion of sewage should be considered further, as proposals for the new or extended sewage treatment works are progressed. • Site-specific factors should be the subject of further, detailed study if wind energy is to be promoted as part of the energy strategy for the town. This should include an assessment of the proximity of the site to a suitable point for connection to the electricity grid and engagement with Scottish and Southern to understand any local capacity constraints, assess the works

126

required to obtain a connection and estimate the time and costs involved in delivery. If any sites are still considered to have potential, it would be recommended to erect a local wind monitoring mast to measure wind speeds and directions throughout the year to establish a more accurate estimate of potential output. Dialogue is recommended with the local community, particularly residents of the villages, to understand any concerns and discuss community involvement and potential benefits. • It is recommended that solar PV farms are considered further as part of the energy strategy for the town, looking at specific sites and local constraints such as access to the electricity grid in more detail.

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Action to encourage development of a local supply chain, and potentially coordinated bulk purchasing of equipment, is recommended to drive down costs for microgeneration, electric heating and electric vehicle charging infrastructure. • It is recommended that further action is taken locally to encourage many more existing property-holders to invest in PV. The programme for retrofitting PV to existing buildings should be accelerated while the attractive FIT rates remain available. This could be through a major extension of the Eco-fit programme, local promotion of the Green Deal or a third party investment. • Action could also be taken to encourage and facilitate the uptake of biomass boilers,

solar thermal and heat pumps. Effort here should be targeted on specific locations in the town and surrounding area, particularly properties which are off the gas grid. Promotion of awareness and understanding of the options through the Eco-station and demonstration house will be an important element of this


Masterplan, planning policy and guidance

While some of the components of the energy strategy are not guaranteed at this stage, it will be important to ensure that decisions made now about the masterplan do not preclude any of the energy opportunities described above. Spatial allocations, and the layout and phasing of the site will need to allow for flexibility in the future energy strategy and maximise the potential for energy efficiency and renewable and low carbon energy supply. Accompanying planning policy and guidance will need to be supportive, encourage economic and social benefits to be distributed to the local community and ensure that any impacts on local people or the environment are managed to an acceptable level.

The following provisions are recommended to be made in the masterplan, planning policy and supporting guidance documents to support the energy strategy for the town:

Site allocations, density and phasing â&#x20AC;˘ Suitable locations should be identified amongst the early development sites for pilot or demonstration projects. In addition to the ecodemonstration house already planned at the Old Fire Station, such projects could include an all-electric development and smart grid pilot project. â&#x20AC;˘ Density should be maximised in the town centre and surrounding residential areas (ideally 55dph or more) to support the case for district heating. Mixed use development should also

Photo: Electriccarsite.co.uk

127

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


be encouraged, particularly commercial, residential and leisure. Phasing plans should take into account the optimum phasing for a heat network, including ensuring that an energy centre or temporary heat source can be accommodated in the first phase of connected development. The build-out of the network should be staged to allow investment costs to be spread throughout the development process and allow developer contributions to be obtained where relevant. Heat mains should be installed before or during road construction, or soft verges should be incorporated in the street layout for later installation.

128

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Site allocations should include an allowance of one or more options for sites which could accommodate an energy centre, should a district heating network be developed in the town. An energy centre would require a site of around 1ha located in the town centre or the employment areas to the north or south of the town centre. It should be part of the first phase of proposed development. The site proposed in the draft masterplan at Louisburg Barracks would be appropriate for this purpose.

gas grid, this will need to be located close to the medium or high pressure gas mains and Scotia Gas Networks should be consulted on potential sites, to determine whether there is capacity in the network to accommodate such a facility.

• Some industrial space should be allocated in the masterplan to allow for the potential development of future largescale energy projects, such as a biomass gasification plant or anaerobic digestion plant. If gas is to be injected into the

• A Code for Sustainable Homes level 6 target has been proposed in the Core Strategy preferred policies for new residential development from 2016. The energy and carbon requirements for Code level 6 are not defined in the most

• It is recommended that the masterplan keeps open the option of a small to medium scale wind turbine in the employment area to the north and Standford Grange Farm to the south east.

Targets and standards for new development

recent government guidance. If the Code level 6 requirements are brought into line with the Building Regulations definition of zero carbon, this should mean that it is both technically feasible and financially viable for development to achieve them. Earlier versions of the Code required new homes targeting level 6 to be net zero carbon through on-site measures alone. If the earlier definition of Code level 6 is retained, the proposed target would be significantly more stringent than the Building Regulations and an evidence base would be required to justify its inclusion in planning policy for Whitehill Bordon. Any work on the evidence base for this target should also look at the wider requirements of the Code, including water


Photo: LDA Design

Photo: LDA Design

efficiency, materials, waste, and ecology and demonstrate that it is feasible and viable for developments to achieve this standard in Whitehill Bordon. • Design standards or guidance for new buildings should encourage developers to maximise south-facing roof space for PV and/or solar thermal systems. Even if they are not installed at the time of construction, this leaves the option open for the future.

Large scale renewable and low carbon energy infrastructure • Policy towards large scale renewable and low carbon energy infrastructure, including wind turbines, large scale PV and biomass energy centres, should be supportive in principle. The application process should

be straightforward, with simple guidance on what is expected. In particular, clearly defined criteria should be set out for determining applications in relation to the level of community support, potential impact on protected landscapes and habitats, and other environmental impacts.

Local Development Orders • Local Development Orders could be used to simplify the planning process for some types of renewable and low carbon energy infrastructure in specified locations. LDOs could cover, for example, PV installations on non-domestic buildings or the district heating network. The LDO can impose conditions about the type of development that will be permitted, refer to more detailed criteria such as design

guidance in a supplementary planning document, or require the developer to undertake certain actions such as notifying neighbours about the planned development.

Neighbourhood planning • Neighbourhood plans developed by the parish councils should be consistent with the local plan for East Hampshire, and should be supportive of the proposals outlined in the energy strategy for the town. They could include Neighbourhood Development Orders for projects including district heating and microgeneration on non-residential buildings, in a similar way to Local Development Orders at the local authority level.

Community Infrastructure Levy and Allowable Solutions • The Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) could provide a mechanism for obtaining some developer contributions to community and large-scale renewable and low carbon energy infrastructure, if East Hampshire implements CIL locally. This would need to be justified by an evidence base which assesses opportunities and needs for community and large-scale energy infrastructure, considers these infrastructure needs in relation to proposals for built development, and identifies a need for developers to make a financial contribution to it. This will have to demonstrate that there is a funding gap for the infrastructure after all other potential funding sources have been taken into account.

A key challenge will be demonstrating that the energy infrastructure is necessary to “support development and the creation of sustainable communities”. This need to demonstrate that the infrastructure which the CIL pays for in some way enables or mitigates the impacts of the development which pays for it may be more flexible than the restrictions on planning obligations raised under S.106, but it may still limit the energy projects which are eligible. The total CIL charge per unit of new development will be based on the amount that is viable, likely to be determined through negotiation with developers. Based on our experience, we expect that in the vast majority of local authority areas the viable level

129

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Photo: LDA Design

of developer contributions (say around £10 – £15k per dwelling) is likely to fall short of the funds needed to fill the funding gap for infrastructure investment. East Hampshire District Council will therefore need to prioritise where they spend the CIL money. Again, a strong evidence base and negotiation would be needed to justify some of this being allocated to sub-regional energy infrastructure. • The allowable solutions element of the Building Regulations from 2016 onwards may provide another source of developer contributions towards local energy projects. The work of the Zero Carbon Hub to develop the allowable solutions mechanism should be followed closely, to understand the implications

130

for the town in terms of how much money could be raised from developers and how the funds will be managed and distributed.

Community benefits • Provisions should be made in policy and guidance to encourage community benefits to be delivered from large scale renewable and low carbon energy projects. This could be a direct financial contribution to a local community fund. DECC has produced guidance on the types of community benefits that can be obtained from wind energy projects.

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

Consultation

There are complex issues associated with the various energy opportunities described above, with implications for residents, local businesses and other organisations with interests in the town and surrounding area. The consultation that has been undertaken as part of this study was limited in its scope and reach. Broader public consultation and effective engagement will be essential to ensure successful delivery of the energy strategy. The neighbourhood consultations proposed for autumn 2011 as part of the masterplan development process could provide a useful forum for consultation on the energy strategy. The following issues are recommended to be addressed through consultation:

• Views on the energy strategy proposals and recommendations for the masterplan, planning policy and guidance • Attitudes to microgeneration and what would be required to make people install them on their own properties • Attitude to electric vehicles and what would be required to make people use one themselves • Level of support for or opposition to large-scale generation projects, including large biomass energy centres and wind farms in the area • Perceptions of the benefits that could be provided to the community from these larger projects and what might encourage more people to support proposals


Photo: RefGas UK

Monitoring

The energy strategy should evolve over time, informed by monitoring and regular reviews of progress, to ensure that Whitehill Bordon remains on course to achieve its energy and carbon targets. The following actions are recommended for monitoring the energy strategy: • Complete the baseline assessment: A more thorough analysis of the transport proposals for the town is recommended, looking at energy demand, emissions, how these may change in future, and assessing in more detail the impacts of different scenarios for the transport strategy in terms of cost and delivery, economic, social and environmental impacts.

• Monitor annual energy consumption: Use national datasets, including the DECC sub-national energy consumption figures, to monitor actual energy consumption over time. If the energy strategy is successful, total energy demand should decline. Electricity consumption could be expected to go up, while gas, petrol and diesel consumption should decline. The share of energy supplied from renewable and low carbon sources should increase.

what is installed as permitted development will be more difficult, but could be achieved through voluntary reporting or surveys. Anything that is installed through the Eco-fit programme or other local initiatives should be recorded. • Monitor changes in policy, technology and economics, and feed the findings back into a regular review of the energy strategy to ensure continuous improvement.

• Collect data on what is installed locally: Information on what is installed can be collected through the planning and building control processes, in the case of community or large-scale infrastructure and equipment installed in new homes. Keeping track of

131

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


132

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Appendix 1: Context Mapping The following figures describe the context for the energy feasibility study. They are: 1. Townscape character Layer Mapped

Source

Townscape Character

Reproduced from Figure 2.5 of the AECOM draft masterplan (2010)

3. Electricity network (existing) Layer Mapped

Source

Electricity Scottish and Southern Energy Power distribution network Distribution

2. Draft masterplan 4. Gas network (existing)

Layer Mapped

Source

Draft masterplan

Reproduced from Figure 5.1 of the AECOM draft masterplan (2010)

Layer Mapped

Source

CAD layers produced by AECOM (2010)

Gas distribution network

Scotia Gas Networks

New development sites

133

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


134

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Appendix 2: Opportunities and Constraints Mapping The following maps have been prepared to show the renewable and low carbon energy opportunities and constraints in and around Whitehill Bordon:

1. H  eat map, Scenario 1: Good practice energy efficiency 2. H  eat map: Scenario 2: Best practice energy efficiency Layer

Source

Lower Layer Super Output Areas

Office of National Statistics

New CAD layers produced by AECOM development sites (2010) Existing domestic heat demand density

LDA Design analysis using annual domestic gas consumption figures published by DECC (2009)

Existing nondomestic heat demand density

LDA Design analysis using annual non-domestic gas consumption figures published by DECC (2009)

New LDA Design analysis using masterplan development heat area schedule and benchmark data density

3. Biomass and energy from waste map Layer

Source

Agricultural land

Defra Agricultural Land Classification Submitted applications to the Energy Crop Scheme (ECS) for 2009-2010

National and international nature designations. Including:

www.magic.gov.uk

- RAMSAR - National Nature Reserves - Sites of Special Scientific Interest - Special Areas of Conservation - Special Protection Areas - Sites of Biological Importance - Ancient woodland Local nature designations

GIS layer provided by East Hampshire District Council

135

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Layer

Source

Layer

Source

Landscape designations:

www.magic.gov.uk

- National Parks

GIS layer provided by East Hampshire District Council

Permanent pasture and grassland

No one spatial dataset exists to define this. Can be considered as the combination of all of the following areas:

- Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty - Common land Other exclusion areas for energy crops including: - Hard roads and tracks - Areas of hard standing - Rivers and lakes - Woodland - Common land - Historic designations (Scheduled Monuments, Registered Battlefields, World Heritage Sites)

- D  raft Coastal and Floodplain Grazing Marsh BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 1.1 Natural England

Defra Agricultural Land Classification

- D  raft Fen BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 1.2

OS Strategi

- D  raft Lowland Heathland BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 1.2

GIS Layer from East Hampshire District Council

- L owland Calcareous Grassland BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 2.0.1

www.magic.gov.uk

- L owland Dry Acid Grassland BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 2.0.1 Natural England

- Parks & gardens

- L owland Meadows BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 2.0.1 - M  illennium Greens (England) - P  urple Moor Grass and Rush Pastures BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 2.0.1 - Traditional Orchards - Provisional (England) - U  ndetermined Grassland BAP Habitat Inventory for England Version 2.0.1 Natural England - U  pland Calcareous Grassland BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 2.0 Natural England - U  pland Hay Meadows BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 2.0.1 Natural England - U  pland Heathland BAP Priority Habitat Inventory for England Version 2.1

136

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Layer

Source

Layer

Woodland

National Inventory of Woodland and Trees

Energy from waste facilities

Hampshire County Council

National and international nature designations. Including: - RAMSAR

Energy from waste proposed facilities Sewage treatment works

Thames Water

Anaerobic digestion proposed sites

Planning application has been sought for an AD plant at Tower Brick and Tile Company (476810,134144).

4. Wind Energy Map

Locations where average annual wind speed exceeds 5m/s and 6.5m/s at 40m above ground level (agl) Potential wind energy locations identified in the masterplan

- National Nature Reserves - Sites of Special Scientific Interest

Sewage treatment works with anaerobic digestion

Layer

Source

Source

- Special Areas of Conservation - Special Protection Areas - Sites of Biological Importance - Ancient woodland Local nature designations

NOABL wind speed database.

www.magic.gov.uk

Landscape designations:

GIS layer provided by East Hampshire District Council www.magic.gov.uk

- National Parks Energy, Waste and Climate Change Adaptation Strategy identifies two potential locations:

- Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty

- H  ampshire County Council land to the south of Lindford village (masterplan site MC5)

- Common land

- E  mployment area to the north of the site (masterplan sites L1, L15)

Areas of high sensitivity for birds

GIS layer provided by East Hampshire District Council RSPB bird sensitivity map layer

Sites of historic interest: - Scheduled Monuments www.magic.gov.uk - Listed Buildings

137

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Layer

Source

Conservation areas

GIS layer provided by East Hampshire District Council

Urban areas with:

Urban areas from OS Strategi

600m exclusion zone 800m exclusion zone Roads (motorway, A roads, B roads) plus 150m exclusion area either side Railways plus 150m exclusion area either side Inland water (rivers, canals, lakes, reservoirs)

Layer

Source

Exclusion zone based on LDA Design experience of industry practice

Relative intensity of solar radiation, based on topography

GIS output using topography

OS Strategi

National and international nature designations. Including:

Highways Agency guidance

RAMSAR OS Strategi

OS Strategi

Airports and airfields OS Strategi and RESTATS plus 5km exclusion area Green belt and Green Gaps

5. Large scale PV map

East Hampshire District Council Core Strategy CP18 PREFERRED GAPS BETWEEN SETTLEMENTS POLICY

National Nature Reserves Sites of Special Scientific Interest

www.magic.gov.uk

Special Areas of Conservation Special Protection Areas Sites of Biological Importance Ancient woodland Local nature designations

GIS layer provided by East Hampshire District Council

Landscape designations:

www.magic.gov.uk

National Parks Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty Common land Conservation areas

138

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

GIS layer provided by East Hampshire District Council GIS layer provided by East Hampshire District Council


Layer

Source

Airports and airfields

OS Strategi and RESTATS

Roads and railways

OS Strategi

Urban areas

OS Strategi

Green belt

East Hampshire District Council Core Strategy CP18 PREFERRED GAPS BETWEEN SETTLEMENTS POLICY

Green gaps

7. Hydro map Layer

Source

Hydropower potential sites

Environment Agency GIS layer for the South East Region from the “Opportunity and environmental sensitivity mapping for hydropower” study

6. Roof-mounted PV and solar thermal map Layer

Source

Relative suitability of LDA Design analysis of aerial photography orientation and shading of existing roofs for PV and solar thermal

139

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


140

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Appendix 3: Consultation A workshop event was held for invited stakeholders in three sessions (morning, afternoon and evening), to present intermediate outputs from the energy feasibility study and inform further work. The observations made during the workshops are summarised below. • Concern about potential pollutants from the operation and transportation of biomass fuels and waste for energy from waste schemes.

local timber supply and affect other local timber consumers. It was noted that the cost of fencing has already increased due to the existing number of wood burning stoves in the area and there is concern that this would increase further if a CHP plant were introduced. - Increasing demand for wood fuel elsewhere in the UK, for example for large scale power generation, would raise the price of wood and local small scale operations would be unable to compete and have to shut down.

• Several concerns and suggestions were expressed about the potential use of wood fuel:

- Transporting timber over any great distance for use as fuel may not be cost-effective.

- Increased use of wood for fuel may cause competition for

- Currently the local woodlands are not managed

due to low wood fuel and products demand. Thought that if demand increased management of woodland would become economical. - Wood fuel seen as more reliable than other biomass crops; however a plant would require security of supply which would require negotiations with landowners. - South Downs National Park Authority plans to remove pine trees from some heathland— these could contribute to resource but cannot be viewed as reliable source. - Biomass may be better suited for use in district heating rather than widespread individual use. District heating would work better

Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

141

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


in the predominantly higher density new areas. Questions were raised about how the development of a network would be funded as it was recognised that there is less government funding available. - Air pollution is a concern and currently air quality limits are in place for some parts of the area due to the presence of the A30. This could affect Sites of Special Scientific Interest. - People are likely to object strongly to large biomass schemes if they are proposed close to housing. • Greater acceptance within the community for anaerobic digestion than other energy from waste schemes. Hampshire County Council confirmed that there is capacity in the current Hants Waste Plan

142

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

to take extra waste from WB to existing plants. • A planning application has been made for an anaerobic digester based at Selborne Brickworks, to be fuelled by 20,000 tonnes of food waste per year. In future it may be able to accommodate all food waste of East Hampshire (Alton, Liphook, Bordon, Petersfield), reducing the distance that this waste is currently transported to Southampton. The proposed anaerobic digester has faced local objections due to claims about potential odours, fumes and pollution associated with the plant and increased vehicle movements to serve the plant. It was suggested that these may be due to fear or a lack of knowledge about the technology.

• There are no longer plans to install an anaerobic digester at Blackmoor Estate Farm. • The residue produced from anaerobic digestion is only cost effective to dispose of if transportation distances are minimal, due to its weight. • Existing sand pits may be a possible site for new landfill sites, which could then be used for landfill gas collection. It was explained that County policy requires waste to be diverted from landfill and that gas can be generated from waste in more efficient ways. • Local community would be likely to oppose wind turbine applications and this resistance could damage the Eco-town reputation and status. There were some conflicting comments about the impacts


Photo: East Hampshire District Council (EHDC)

and cost effectiveness of wind energy. The county council was recognised as not being keen on wind turbines due to potential impacts on the surrounding areas. It was also suggested that public opposition to wind turbines could undermine support for the Ecotown.

that RAF Yeovilton uses reflectors to protect the radar signals from wind turbine interference. • Standford Grange Farm was identified as a potential location for some small scale wind turbines.

• It was recognised that in order to promote the Eco-town it will be necessary to encourage community support for such infrastructure. Community ownership or benefits from wind turbines could reduce objections and be useful in influencing local attitudes.

• Most of the £10k loans made through the Eco-fit scheme have been for domestic PV installations. Blackmoor Farm considering large scale PV system to be installed on roofs of farm buildings, looking at a 15 year payback. Ground based PV schemes could be suitable for ‘dead land’ such as former landfill sites.

• Previously problems have been experienced within Hampshire when considering wind turbines due to the potential impact on the radar system and low helicopter flights at RAF Odiham near Basingstoke. It was recognised

• Concern was expressed about the suitability of ground source heat pumps for the area due to the local geology –ground source heat pumps were thought to work more successfully in sand or gravel soils, not clay soils.

Radian Housing was identified as having installed heat pumps in some of their properties. They concluded that they did not think heat pumps were cost effective when compared with gas heating, but compared with conventional electric heating or other heating fuels, heat pumps are more cost effective. • While hydropower is considered a low priority for the area with minimal potential it was recognised that there are some local mills within the area using micro-hydro power schemes. Guildford Mills was identified as using mill to generate power. A small scale hydropower scheme at Headley Mill was suggested as a potential demonstration project. • Transport was identified as a key issue. Questions were raised about the scale of the potential role for electric vehicles in the

area and what the likely energy demands, deployment and the potential impacts on electricity supply of their use. • Possible biogas market for cars discussed – however insurance places limits on quantity that can be stored and that food waste alone could not produce enough gas for the area’s cars. • Cost of grid connection is identified as a significant barrier to potential renewable energy suppliers and generators. Identified that if the Eco-town could contribute to this cost it would improve the viability of schemes within its boundaries. • The community must be involved in and trust the planning process, and be confident that it will not go on over the community’s heads.

143

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


• Sites with existing or planned energy efficiency and low carbon technologies were identified: - The Old Fire Station is being converted into a new office building and will use biomass. Plan to demonstrate the use of biomass in the new show houses on the site. - Wayford Infant School is having a biomass boiler fitted. - 4 other schools are implementing energy efficiency measures. • Due to the timetable for the release of the MOD land it was felt that the biggest opportunity to make energy improvements in the short term is in the existing residential areas.

144

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

• Radian Housing and Annigton Properties were identified as the main Registered Social Landlords (RSLs) in the area and the need to work with them and their properties was identified. • Eco-fit loans have been successful in the town and the Town Council’s role in helping people access funding and advice was acknowledged.


Appendix 4: Data Tables Figure 1 (p 29) Annual consumption (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;000 kWh) Use Domestic Commercial and industrial Street lighting Water management

Electricity

Gas

24,606

85,323

13,169

46,162

Petrol

Diesel -

14,000 35,000

Other fuels 2,000 7,000

126,000 101,000

318

300

4,717

5,000

Waste management

-

Transport Total

Total

42,811

131,485

82,000

95,000

82,000

144,000

177,000 9,000

405,000

145

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Figure 2 (p 39) Annual consumption (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;000 kWh) Use

Electricity

Gas

Petrol

Diesel

Other fuels

Total

Domestic

36,239

55,304

-

14,000

2,000

108,000

Commercial and industrial

24,420

55,428

-

35,000

7,000

122,000

Street lighting Water management

543

500

7,105

7,000

Waste management Transport Total

146

-

-

17,700 86,008

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study

73,800 110,732

73,800

85,500 134,500

177,000 9,000

414,500


Figure 3 (p 40) Annual consumption (â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;000 kWh) Use

Electricity

Domestic

Gas

55,468

Commercial and industrial Street lighting

64,797

Petrol

Diesel

Other fuels

-

-

14,000

2,000

-

-

35,000

7,000

Total 71,000 107,000 500

543

Water management

7,000

7,105

Waste management Transport

41,000

88,500

Total

216,414

-

41,000

47,500

96,500

177,000

9,000

362,500

Figure 5 and 6 (p 46) Year

Buildings

Electric vehicles

Peak electrical load (kW)

Peak load from electric vehicles (kW)

Scenario one

Scenario two

Scenario one

Scenario two

2010

19,609

19,609

0

0

2015

23,783

35,113

1,341

3,352

2020

19,833

46,184

2,681

6,703

2025

35,456

64,270

4,022

10,055

2028

43,850

72,563

4,826

12,066

2031

47,590

79,003

5,631

14,077

2035

47,590

79,003

6,703

16,758

147

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Figure 7 and 8 (p 54) Year

Peak gas load (kW) Scenario one

Scenario two

2010

41,424

41,424

2015

44,351

35,481

2020

46,919

23,528

2025

57,347

16,274

2028

67,143

8,147

2031

75,407

0

2035

75,407

0

Figure 10 (p 63) Use

Annual CO2 emissions (tonnes) Existing

2035,

2035,

scenario one

scenario two

Domestic

33,000

33,000

14,000

Commercial and industrial

25,000

32,000

21,000

Street lighting

200

300

100

Water management

2,000

4,000

1,000

Waste management

0

0

0

Transport

43,000

48,000

39,000

Total

103,200

117,300

75,100

148

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


Endnotes i.

works.

 hitehill Bordon Eco-town: A Green Community Vision, Whitehill Bordon W Opportunity (2006, updated 2008)

ii.

 hitehill Bordon Eco-town: Draft Framework Masterplan, Produced for W East Hampshire District Council, AECOM (2010). Draft masterplan and all related publications available from www.whitehillbordon.com.

iii.

 ource: All figures are for Whitehill, Bordon and Lindford. Domestic S energy consumption: actual figures obtained from DECC Sub-National Energy Consumption Statistics Domestic Gas and Electricity Estimates (LLSOA) (2009). Commercial and industrial energy consumption: actual figures obtained from DECC Non-Domestic Gas and Electricity Consumption (MLSOA) (2009). Other fuels used for domestic and commercial and industrial uses: DECC Sub-National Estimates of Non Gas, Non Electricity and Non Road Transport Fuels in 2008 for East Hants (ie oil and coal use primarily), allocated to Whitehill Bordon according to percentage of the districtâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s electricity and gas demand which occurs in the town.  treet lighting: actual figures provided by Hampshire County Council S for East Hampshire, allocated according to length of streets in Whitehill, Bordon and Lindford compared to total length of streets in the district. Water management: estimated for Whitehill, Bordon and Lindford from actual energy consumption figures provided by South East Water for the Headley and Oakhanger boreholes and actual energy consumption figures provided by Thames Water for the Bordon sewage treatment

T ransport: DECC Road Transport Energy Consumption at Regional and Local Authority Level (2008) figures for East Hampshire used to derive an estimate of transport fuel use for the town, assuming that the ratio of transport energy demand to building energy demand is the same for Whitehill Bordon as it is for the whole of East Hampshire. iv.

See www.passivhaus.org.uk for further information.

v.

 arbon Compliance: Setting an Appropriate Limit for Zero Carbon New C Homes, Findings and Recommendations, Zero Carbon Hub (2010) and Defining a Fabric Energy Efficiency Standard for Zero Carbon Homes, Task Group Recommendations, Zero Carbon Hub (2009).

vi.

Energy Saving Trust, www.energysavingtrust.org.uk

vii.

www.cocoonyourhome.co.uk/section/content/?pageid=206

viii.

Information on Warm Front grants available from www.directgov.uk. Information on CERT and CESP available from www.decc.gov.uk.

ix.

x.

 trategies for the Uptake of Electric Vehicles and Associated Infrastructure S Implications, Element Energy for the Committee on Climate Change (2009) T he Fourth Carbon Budget: Reducing emissions through the 2020s, Committee on Climate Change (2010)

149

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


xi. Turning London Electric: Londonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Strategy, Draft for Consultation, GLA (2009)

xx.

F urther information is available from Ofgem (www.ofgem.gov.uk ) and DECC (www.decc.gov.uk)

xii.

xxi.

Energy Saving Trust, www.energysavingtrust.org.uk

xxii.

Biomethane into the Gas Network: A Guide for Producers, DECC (2009)

xxiii.

 aluation of energy use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Appraisal V and Evaluation, IAG, HM Treasury and DECC (2010) available from www.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/statistics/analysts_group/analysts_ group.aspx

xxiv.

 ww.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/uk_supply/ energy_ w mix/renewable/feedin_tariff/fits_grants/fits_grants.aspx

 tandard based on Specification C- with natural ventilation in Defining a S Fabric Energy Efficiency Standard for Zero Carbon Homes: Task Group Recommendations, Appendix A: Work Group 1 Form and Fabric, Zero Carbon Hub (2009)

xiii.

TM46: Energy Benchmarks, CIBSE (2008)

xiv.

 tandard based on Passivhaus with mechanical ventilation and heat S recovery in Defining a Fabric Energy Efficiency Standard for Zero Carbon Homes: Task Group Recommendations, Appendix A: Work Group 1 Form and Fabric, Zero Carbon Hub (2009)

xv.

2050 Pathways Analysis, DECC (2010)

xxv.

 ww.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/ uk_supply/energy_ w mix/renewable/policy/incentive/incentive.aspx

xvi.

T he Fourth Carbon Budget: Reducing Emissions through the 2020s, Committee on Climate Change (2010)

xxvi.

 ww.decc.gov.uk/en/content/cms/what_we_do/ uk_supply/energy_ w mix/renewable/policy/renew_obs/renew_obs.aspx

xvii.

xviii.

 arbon Compliance: Topic 2, Carbon Intensity of Fuels, Zero Carbon Hub C (2010)

xxvii. T he Green Deal, DECC (2011) [WWW], available from www.decc.gov. uk (accessed 22/04/11)

Whitehill Bordon Energy Infrastructure Study, Royal Haskoning (2011) xxviii. Electricity Market Reform Consultation Document, DECC (2010)

xix.

T he Whitehill Bordon Opportunity Revised Baseline Report: Executive Summary (Volume 1), GVA Grimley (2008)

150

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


xxix.

 missions factor for natural gas taken from Government’s Standard E Assessment Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings: 2009 edition, BRE on behalf of DECC (2010); factors for petrol and diesel taken from the Digest of UK Energy Statistics, DECC (2010)

xxxvi. P  ower in Numbers: The Benefits and Potential of Distributed Energy at the Small Community Scale, Element Energy for the Energy Saving Trust; The Potential and Costs of District Heating Networks, Poyry and Faber Maunsell for DECC (2009)

xxx.

 lanning Policy Statement: Eco-towns - A supplement to Planning Policy P Statement 1, CLG (2009)

xxxvii. The Potential and Costs of District Heating Networks, Poyry and Faber Maunsell for DECC (2009)

xxxi.

www.communities.gov.uk and www.zerocarbonhub.org

xxxviii. Standard based on Specification C- with natural ventilation in Defining a Fabric Energy Efficiency Standard for Zero Carbon Homes: Task Group Recommendations, Appendix A: Work Group 1 Form and Fabric, Zero Carbon Hub (2009)

xxxii. www.idea.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=23051802 xxxiii. R  enewable and Low Carbon Energy Capacity Methodology: A Methodology for the English Regions, SQW Energy for DECC (2010) xxxiv. R  enewable and Low Carbon Energy Capacity Study for Yorkshire and Humber. Part B: Opportunities and Constraints Mapping – Draft Report, AECOM for Local Government Yorkshire and Humber (2010) xxxv. T he Government’s Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings: 2009 edition, BRE on behalf of DECC (2010); SBEM: Simplified Building Energy Model, Technical Manual, CLG (2010)

xxxix. TM46: Energy Benchmarks, CIBSE (2008) xl.

 oodfuel Supply from Local Woods for Whitehill Bordon Eco-town, Draft W Report, Forestry Commission (2011)

xli.

 K Agriculture: Forage Maize in the UK, [www], available from www. U ukagriculture.com/crops/forage_maize.cfm, accessed 28/04/2011

xlii.

Agricultural and Horticultural Land Survey, England, Defra (2007)

xliii.

Dealing with Food Waste in the UK, Eunomia for WRAP (2007)

151

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


xliv.

 oodfuel: A technical study for South Hampshire, CEN for Hampshire W County Council (2008); Biomass Supply Chains in South Hampshire, CEN for Partnership for Urban South Hampshire (2009)

xlv.

www.verdorenewables.co.uk/

xlvi.

www.alfagy.com

xlvii.

http://chp.decc.gov.uk/cms/initial-considerations/

xlviii. T he Potential for BioSNG Production in the UK, Final Report, E4Tech and NNFCC for DECC (2010) xlix.

Source: NOABL wind speed database

l.

 elivering Community Benefits from Wind Energy Development: A Toolkit, D CSE for the Renewables Advisory Board (2009)

152

Whitehill Bordon - Energy Feasibility Study


www.whitehillbordon.com Produced on behalf of East Hampshire District Council Penns Place Petersfield Hampshire GU31 4EX 01730 234 329

Energy Feasibility Study  

Whitehill Bordon Eco-town Energy Feasibility Study

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you