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Aerospace Supplier eXchange 2009

Aerospace Industry: The Sky’s The Limit M.I.C.A. (P) No. 119/12/2008

May-June 2009

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Building Customer

ProFITABILITy

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ISCAR TAIWAN 395, Da Duen South Rd. Taichung 408 Tel +886 (0)4 247 31573 Fax +886 (0)4 247 31530 iscar.taiwan@msa.hinet.net

ISCAR THAILAND 57, 59, 61, 63 Soi Samanchan-Babos Sukhumvit Rd. Phra Khanong, Khlong Toey Bangkok 10110 Tel + 66 (2) 7136633 Fax + 66 (2) 7136632 iscar@iscarthailand.com

ISCAR VIETNAM (Representative Office) Room D 2.8, Etown Building, 364 Cong Hoa, Tan Binh Dist., Ho Chi Minh City, Tel + 84 8 8123 519/20 Fax + 84 8 8123 521 iscarvn@hcm.fpt.vn

CV MULTI TEKNIK JL. Balikpapan Raya No. 28 Jakarta Pusat 10140 Indonesia Tel + 62 21 6307303 Fax + 62 21 6348062 multi@centrin.net.id

SINO TOOLING SYSTEM Blk 502, Jurong West Ave 1 #03-813 Singapore 640502 Tel + 65 6566 7668 Fax + 65 6567 7336 sinotool@singnet.com.sg

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Milling Intelligently

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Contents May-June 2009

ASIA PACIFIC METALWORKING EQUIPMENT NEWS (M.E.N.) is published 8 issues per year by Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd, 1100 Lower Delta Road, EPL Building #04-02 Singapore 169206 Tel: (65) 6379 2888 Fax: (65) 6379 2806. Thailand Office: Thai Trade & Industry Media Co Ltd. 16/F Italthai Tower, 2034/73 New Petchburi Road, Bangkapi, Huaykwang, Bangkok 10310, Thailand Tel: 66(0) 2716 1722 Fax: 66 (0) 2716 1723 SUBSCRIPTION RATES: M.E.N. is available to readers on a per annum subscription basis depending on location: Singapore: S$60.00, Malaysia: S$60.00, Asia Pacific/America/Europe/Others: S$100.00. Refer to the subscription card in each issue for further details. For change of address, please notify our Circulation Manager. For more subscription information Fax: (65) 6379 2806 Singapore E-mail: irenetow@epl.com.sg

22 FIRST CUT

Going The Exotic Way

Machining exotic metals is difficult but it can be very rewarding as they often bring superior properties. By Dr Moshe Goldberg, marketing technical advisor, Iscar

IMPORTANT NOTICE THE CIRCULATION OF THIS MAGAZINE IS AUDITED BY BPA WORLDWIDE. THE ADVERTISERS' ASSOCIATION RECOMMEND THAT ADVERTISERS SHOULD PLACE THEIR ADVERTISEMENTS

26

ONLY IN AUDITED PUBLICATIONS

Cool Under Fire

Drilling at high temperature is both a challenging and precise undertaking. By Kalle Schenning, product manager, Seco Tools AB, Sweden

JOINT ADVERTISING DISCOUNT WMEM, 30,000 copies circulated quarterly in China combines with M.E.N, 10,000 copies circulated bi-monthly in ASEAN in joint advertising. Ask for more details now.

30 TECHNOLOGY UPDATE Die Casting & Mould Processes: The Soft & Hard Truth Introduction of software and improvements in hardware combine to bring a traditional industry to new heights. By Augustine Quek

32 SOFTWARE & MEASUREMENT CMM Technologies & Advances: Time For A Face Lift?

A peek into the past of CMMs and its relevance today as the grand father of metrology goes for a makeover. By Joson Ng

Endorsements

SPETA

Singapore Precision Engineering and Tooling Association (SPETA) Federation of Asian Die & Mould Associations (FADMA) Federation of Malaysian Foundry & Engineering Industry Associations Indian Machine Tool Manufacturing Association (IMTMA)

36

Deep Sea Rated

Laser scanning and design softwares provide a fast and efficient route from prototype to production for the smaller boat builder. By Deri Jones, MD, Deri Jones & Associates.

38

Blast From The Past, Or Is It?

Profile projectors are maintaining its relevance in the fast changing world of metrology. By Tom Groff, North American sales manager, Optical Gaging Products Inc 2

INDUSTRY

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

China Machine Tool & Tool Builders' Association (CMTBA)

Machine Tool Club (MTC)


JETSTREAM TOOLING

TM

DIRECTED COOLANT STRAIGHT TO THE EDGE.

ST WITH

ENQUIRY NO 062

WORKS BE

NOW FOR MILLING, DTURNING, R AND GROO ILLING VING Answering a call from the aerospace industry to improve the machining of difficult to machine alloys, Seco developed Jetstream Tooling – a revolutionary new solution to the age old problem of delivering coolant precisely to the cutting zone. Jetstream Tooling works by delivering a concentrated high pressure jet of coolant at high velocity straight to the optimum position close to the cutting edge. This jet of coolant lifts the chip away from the rake face, improving chip control and tool life enabling increased cutting data to be applied – not just in aerospace materials. Jetstream Tooling has been proven to work in nearly all material groups and with a wide choice of coolant pressures.. The future is here, head straight to www.secotools.com Singapore Tel + 65 68412802 Malaysia Tel + 60 3 90591833 Thailand Tel + 66 2 7467 801 Vietnam Tel + 84 8 9144393 Indonesia Tel + 62 21 8088 8122

MILLING NEWS:

INTRODUCING: SQUARE 6TM


Aerospace Supplier eXchange 2009

Contents

M.I.C.A. (P) No. 119/12/2008

Regulars

Sheet Metal Advances: Old Ideas, Move Over!

30% More proDUCTIVITy Turning Intelligently

P M K N S H 3

P M K N S H 3 3

P M K N S H 3

P M K N S H 3 3

P M K N S H 3 3

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Cover May09.indd 2 COVER-19.4.09.indd 1

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58 FEATURES

May-June 2009

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• 8 Business News • 20 Business Statistics • 73 Product Finder • 79 Exhibition Programmes • 80A Product Enquiry Card

42 FAB & FORM Processing thin sheets of metal can be more economical if innovative designs and fresh process selection are used. By Melvin Tham, product manager, bending technology, Trumpf Asia Pacific

Aerospace Industry: The Sky’s The Limit

4/23/09 9:57 AM 19/4/09 15:05:35

44

Sheet Metal Advances: High Speed Stamp Of Approval

The faster, the better — this simple notion takes on a complex view in high speed stamping. By H Pecik, marketing manager, Bruderer

46 INDUSTRY SPOTLIGHT Aerospace: The Sky’s The Limit

Asia Pacific sees emerging aerospace manufacturing plants despite the economic slowdown. By Syahril Shariff, consultant, Asia Pacific aerospace & defence practice, Frost & Sullivan.

50

A Quick Fix

Dimensional measurements are sometimes complicated matters where special fixtures are required to aid the operators. By Maren Roeding, PR manager, Witte Far East.

The changing operating climate facing automotive component manufacturing is placing increasing demands on metalworking fluids. By Laurent Barnagaud, global marketing manager of Shell Metalworking Lubricants.

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52

Tech & Tact

Sky Works

It is worthwhile to identify new approaches that would help tool shops minimise pains which technology alone cannot help alleviate. By Hari Sridharan, VP of Engineering, Cimatron

Machining of aero components is in the class of it’s own where special requirements and advanced technology are quite simply, the industrial norm. Contributed by Bernhard Weihermüller, Walter Tools

66

Remanufacturing: A New Lease Of Life

56

Often misunderstood, the concept of remanufacturing brings crystal clear benefits. By William C Gager, president, Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association

Aerospace Supplier Exchange 2009

70

Metalworking Fluids: Bigger Bang For Your Bucks

EVENTS & EXHIBITIONS

Machine Tool & Manufacturing Indonesia 2009 • Precision Engineering Business Forum 2009 • MTA Vietnam 2009 HCMC

• Refer to Advertising Index...

Pg 80

for Advertisers' Enquiry numbers


Are you moving in the right direction to stay competitive?

www.delcam.com marketing@delcam.com

CHINA +86 010 6298 5591 INDIA +91 20 2729 3333 6 INDONESIA +62 21 6452 647 KOREA +82 2 210 877 00 MALAYSIA +60 327 110 145 6 PHILIPPINES +63 271 137 51 SINGAPORE +65 901 241 87 TAIWAN R.O.C. +886 282 001 299 THAILAND +66 289 911 825 VIETNAM +84 211 834 842

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editor’s note

Published by:

Eastern Trade Media Pte Ltd (a fully owned subsidiary of Eastern Holdings Ltd)

Reg No: 199908196C

managing director Kenneth Tan managing editor Eileen Chan

eileenchan@epl.com.sg

assistant editor Joson Ng

josonng@epl.com.sg

advertising sales manager Derick Chia

Blue Skies

derickchia@epl.com.sg

editorial assistant Sharifah Zainon sharifah@epl.com.sg senior art director / studio manager Lawrence Lee lawrencelee@epl.com.sg graphic designer Jef Pimentel jeffreypimentel@epl.com.sg

There are many different types of love in this world. Be it between friends or between family members, wherever they may be, people in love share a connection transcending distance and time. Like lovers with a special bond, precision engineering and the aerospace industry go hand in hand, each a subset of the other. In the recent Precision Engineering Business Forum in Singapore, this is all the more evident when the aerospace industry is in one of the core threads along with medical technology. The high regard for safety in the aerospace industry naturally brings ab out a h ig he r st a nda rd i n p a r t tolerancing and machining. This leaves very little room for error and heralds the introduction of precision engineering. With tolerances often in the micron level these days, there is no better time to put precision engineering in the spotlight. Although airlines have had their wings clipped by the global economic turbulence, the aerospace industry is still ma inta ining a n acceptable

cruising altitude in Asia, with the big boys in the industry like Rolls Royce and Honeywell Aerospace setting up shop in this region. Supported by the pent-up demands accumulated over the past few years, things are not as bad as initially thought. Focussing on the aerospace industry in this issue, we have put together plenty of evidence to support this optimism. From industry spotlight where the outlook of the aerospace industry is discussed in- depth, to technical articles in precision engineering, they can be found in this issue of Asia Pacific Metalworking Equipment News. Also in this issue, the notion of remanufacturing is visited, as we hope to bring the interesting idea to your attention. Often misunderstood and confused with recycling and repair, we hope to clear the misconception of this concept, so manufacturers and buyers can make the most informed choice and stretch their money to the maximum in these trying times.

contributing graphic designer Tristan De Los Trinos tristantrinos@epl.com.sg circulation executive Irene Tow

irenetow@epl.com.sg

contributors Kalle Schenning, Augustine Quek Deri Jones, Tom Groff, Melvin Tham, H Pecik, Syahril Shariff, Maren Roeding Bernhard Weihermüller, Laurent Barnagaud Hari Sridharan, Dr Moshe Goldberg William C Gager board of consultants Wäinö A Kaarto AB Sandvik Coromant Dr Moshe Goldberg ISCAR All rights reserved. No portion of this publication covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced in any form or means – graphic, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, taping, etc – without the written consent of the publisher. Opinions expressed by contributors and advertisers are not necessarily those of the publisher and editor. Printed in Singapore by Fabulous Printers Pte Ltd MICA (P) No. 119/12/2008 PPS 840/10/2009 (028102) ISSN 0129/5519

Eastern HOLDINGS Ltd Executive Board

chairman Stephen Tay group executive director Kenneth Tan financial controller Robbin Lim

etm

Eastern

Trade Media Pte Ltd an Eastern Holdings Ltd company

Joson Ng Assistant Editor

6

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

Head Office & Mailing Address: 1100 Lower Delta Road, EPL Building #04-02, Singapore 169206 Tel: (65) 6379-2888 Fax: (65) 6379-2806 Thailand Office: Thai Trade and Industry Media Co., Ltd 16/F Italthai Tower, 2034/73 New Petchburi Road, Bangkapi, Huaykwang, Bangkok 10310, Thailand Tel: 66(0) 2716 1722 Fax: 66 (0) 2716 1723


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The Haas SL-10 Turning Center Includes a Special Feature You May Not Notice Right Away...

a Lot of Machine for the Price.

Machines shown with optional equipment.

Haas Automation, USA | www.HaasCNC.com | CNC Technology Made in America Thailand A DIVISION OF MACHINE TECH CO LTD Bangkok, +662 7267-1915 Chonburi, +66 3811-2700

Philippines A DIVISION OF GAYLAN TECHNOLOGIES Manila, +632 915-8725

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Businessnews Gildemeister Cooperates With Mori Seiki Bielefeld, Ger ma ny: Gildemeister ha s sig ned a cooperation agreement with the Japanese machine tool manufacturer, Mori Seiki. The cooperation covers production, purchasing and the development of machines, as well as sales and services in selected markets. This strategic partnership allows both companies to extend their business activities. They will both benefit from short and long-term mutual advantages. The aim of this ‘win-win’ partnership is to achieve synergies of about €15 million (US$20 million) per

year for both sides. To strengthen the alliance, a cross shareholding has been agreed. Investment in five percent of the shares each, confirms the long-term character of the cooperation. Gildemeister has already purchased two million Mori Seiki shares and will increase this up to a total of 4.4 million shares (five percent). Mori Seiki will purchase 2.3 million (five percent) Gildemeister shares, arising out of a capital increase in authorised capital excluding share options.

Singapore & US Institutes Collaborate In Sustainable Manufacturing Technologies

LVD & HD Establish JV In China

S i n ga p o r e: Si n gap ore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (SIMTech) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Golisano Institute for Susta inability (GIS) of the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), USA, to advance the development of sustainable manufacturing technologies. The two-year collaboration between the institutes will build on the collective and complementary research capabilities in sustainable manufacturing technologies in SIMTech, and expertise in the areas of sustainable development and design combining real world experience with a strong academic and research background in GIS. Specific research collaboration areas include joint R&D in sustainable manufacturing technologies, renewable energy and fuel cells, clean production process technologies, clean technologies, reverse logistics and green supply chains, intelligent testing and diagnostics and sustainable design for remanufacturing. Sustainable manufacturing technologies will shape future living as they open up manufacturing possibilities to create new environmentally friendly products. These products can be produced cost-effectively to improve quality of life minimising or minus the costly repercussions of pollution, damage to the environment and depletion of resources among others. Sustainable manufacturing technologies can be used in multiple industries for clean production and services. 8

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

Gullegem, Belgium: LVD and Hubei Tri-Ring Metalforming Equipment (HD) have formed a joint venture company in Huangshi City, Hubei Province, China. The joint venture company will produce LVD sheet metalworking equipment, including turret punch presses, laser cutting systems, and CNC press brakes, as well as HD’s own design machinery, for the Chinese and export markets. Production from the new joint venture will complement LVD’s existing production facilities in Belgium, USA, France, Slovakia and Romania and will provide key capacity for LVD and HD’s strategic growth plans. HD is a state-owned enterprise employing over 1,000 people in three plants. The company specialises in manufacturing CNC precision equipment. Its main factory is equipped to manufacture specialised large press brakes up to 10.000 ton – 12.5 m in capacity, geared toward offshore, energy, oil and gas applications.


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Aluminum Association Sees Increase In New Orders Virginia, US: The Aluminum Association recorded an increase of 4.5 percent in January after declining for eight consecutive months. Orders for flat roll products (including can stock and foil) increased 8.0 percent while order receipts for extruded products rose 10.7 percent. Orders for ‘other’ mill products, including drawing stock, electrical conductor and forgings, fell 22.4 percent. Compared to January 2008, new orders were down 26.9 percent from the previous year.

Jim Southwood, president of CRU Risk Management said: “In our last industry survey, extruders reported that January shipments were better than December. With the Aluminum Association reporting that orders were up 11 percent in January over December, it appears February shipments may mark the bottom of the US aluminium demand decline. A quick recovery is not likely, but it is reasonable to expect that business will stabilise.”

Bombardier Awarded ABB Sets Up Manufacturing Contract For Queensland Rail Facility Near Bangalore

Canada: Bombardier Transportation and joint venture partner, Downer EDI Rail, have been awarded a contract valued at approximately €104 million (US$131 million) by the Queensland government in Australia to build 20 three car electric commuter trains. The company’s share of the contract will be about €48 million. Deliveries are scheduled to start in August 2010 and continue until December 2011. This order is a follow on from an order for the SMU260 vehicles currently entering service with QR (Queensland Rail). Assembly of the new trains will be carried out at the manufacturer’s facility and EDI Rail’s facility in Maryborough, Queensland. Propulsion and traction equipment will be manufactured at the company’s plants in Västerås, Sweden and Pittsburgh, USA. Testing and commissioning will be carried out jointly. This order builds on over 600 narrow gauge carriages already in service in Brisbane and Perth.

Bangalore, India: ABB in India has inaugurated its greenfield automation products facility near Bangalore. This facility is one of many initiatives that ABB has taken up in India to build and expand capacity to meet the needs of the future. Spread over 18 acres, the factory will manufacture products such as air circuit breakers, switch fuse units, moulded case circuit breakers, low and medium voltage drives and systems, MCC & PLC products, high power rectifiers, static excitation systems and main & auxiliary traction converters. A ‘Demo Room’ showcasing ABB products was also inaugurated on this occasion. May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

9


businessnews

Delcam To Set Up SEA Base Camp In Singapore Birmingham, UK: Delcam has established its Professional Services Group in Singapore and the group’s services will be featured for the first time at MetalTech (Kuala Lumpur, May 6 - 10). Even though the company’s software has been sold throughout Asia, the Singapore site is the first office in the region for the Professional Services Group. Like the existing team based in the UK, the new office will provide process development and prototyping services based on the company’s range of CADCAM software. A similar focus on helping compa nie s w it h t he ma nu fac tu re and repair of aerospace components will be the main priority, although the Singapore team will also provide its services to other industries. Most of the projects undertaken by the group involve the development of turnkey work cells using the company’s machining technology. It uses a combination of machining and inspection technology to allow the production of complex components to a consistent level of accuracy and quality. Typically, the systems involve automation, allowing them to be operated by lower-skilled staff.

Siemens Sets Up Centre Of Competence In India Mumbai, India: Siemens Building Technologies has set up a Graphics and Engineering Centre of Competence (GECC) in Chennai. This is the first competence centre of Siemens building technologies in the Asia Pacific region. The GECC will provide engineering design services for the Indian market and also for the Asia Pacific Region. The centre will also have capabilities to provide need based, on-site support. In the initial phase, the GECC will have about 30 engineers and the employee strength will be ramped up in line with business demands. 10

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

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Gildemeister at CIMT 2009

Bejing, China: With 138 machines sold at CIMT, Gildemeister posted an order intake of €22.4 million (US$29.5 million). The company presented itself in Asia in a dimension comparable to its European exhibitions with 25 exhibits on an area of more than 1,000 sq m, A particular highlight of this show was the special concentration on the industry sectors: aerospace, medical, die & mould and energy.

FedEx Opens US$150m Asia Hub Facility Guangzhou, China: Located on the grounds of the Baiyun International Airport at Guangzhou, China, FedEx will make it the centre of its operations in the Asian-Pacific area for the next 30 years. The Guangzhou facility replaces the one at Subic Bay. Although that will be decommissioned, FedEx maintains presence in the Philippines where Manila and Cebu are integral components in its AsiaOne network. A first for an international air express cargo carrier is the Guangzhou facility’s ramp control tower that permits FedEx to manage and control movements of aircraft. The facility also offers dedicated customs clearance. As it begins operations, the facility’s package and sorting systems can handle 24,000 packages per hour. Some 136 weekly flights will move into and out of the new hub, connecting it to the 220 countries and territories served by the company.


businessnews

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Timken To Supply Wind Power Equipment Manufacturer

Canton, Ohio: Timken, manufacturer of bearings headquartered in the US has signed an agreement to supply wind turbine gearbox bearings for Nanjing High Speed Gear Manufacturing (NGC), a manufacturer of wind power, marine, construction, and industrial gear transmission equipment based in China. Under the terms of the agreement, the company will supply tapered and cylindrical roller bearings for use in NGC’s wind power gearboxes. Revenues in the first phase of the agreement are expected to be worth an estimated US$30 million to Timken, with additional growth anticipated after 2010.

Get Ready for the Upturn!

13-15 Oct 2009

Messe BITEC Dusseldorf • Bangkok Pre-register your visit NOW at Asia

www.wire-southeastasia.com www.tube-southeastasia.com

IPS Opens Shanghai Facility Incorporating :

Industry partner :

International Wire, Cable, Tube & Pipe Trade Fairs for Southeast Asia wire / Tube Southeast ASIA

wire Southeast ASIA Sponsored by : IWMA - International Wire & Machinery Association

Supported by : Messe Düsseldorf, organizer of

Supported by : Industry Partner Associations

IWCEA - International Wire & Cable Exhibitors Association • Austrian Wire and Cable Machinery Manufacturers Association (VÖDKM-AWCMA) • International Wire and Cable Exhibitors Association - France (IWCEA-France) • German Wire and Cable Machine Manufacturers Association (VDKM)

Italian Wire Machinery Manufacturers Association (ACIMAF)

Organized by :

Messe Düsseldorf Asia Pte Ltd 3 HarbourFront Place #09-02 HarbourFront Tower Two Singapore 099254 Tel : (65) 6332 9620 Fax : (65) 6337 4633 Email : wire@mda.com.sg tube@mda.com.sg

ENQUIRY NO 076

Singapore: Invensys Process Systems (IPS) has opened its latest and largest facility in Asia to meet China’s growing development and energy demands as well as to serve as the company’s regional sales and operations headquarters. The 18,300 sq m technology showcase centre in Shanghai, China comes with an engineering excellence centre, a staging area, and a training and customer support service centre. The opening coincides with the company’s recently signed US$250 million contract with China Nuclear Power Engineering (CNPE) to develop and implement four large-scale, fully digitised nuclear control rooms, equipped with the latest simulation technologies, critical control and safety systems, for two nuclear power plant sites in Fujian and Zhejiang. Some of Invensys’ major clients in China include the country’s largest electricity producers, China Nuclear Power Engineering, China Nuclear Power Operation Technology, China Huaneng Group, PetroChina and Datang Yungang Power Plant.

May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

11


businessnews

Jason Cohn

World Crude Steel Production Lower In March

Brussels, Belgium: World crude steel production for the 66 countries reporting to the World Steel Association (worldsteel) was 92 million metric tons (mmt) in March. This is 23.5 percent lower than March 2008. World steel production in the first quarter of 2009 was 264 mmt, a decrease of -22.8 percent compared to the first quarter of 2008. In the first three months of 2009 Asia produced 173 mmt of crude steel, a decrease of -8.9 percent over the first quarter of 2008. China showed a slight increase of 1.4 percent while all the other major steel producing countries showed a decrease in the first quarter of 2009. China’s crude steel production for March 2009 was 45.1 mmt, -0.3 percent lower than March 2008. Japan produced 5.7 mmt of crude steel in March 2009, down by -46.7 percent compared to the same month last year. South Korea showed a decrease of -21.2 percent from March 2008, producing 3.7 mmt of crude steel in March 2009.

DHL Partners Makro In Thailand Singapore: DHL Supply Chain plans to build a US$4.6 million automated warehouse with Makro. Located in Wang Noi on the northern outskirts of Bangkok, the warehouse under construction spans 14,500 sq m and has handling capacity of more than 80 million cases per annum. It offers a lead-time of six hours from the moment the supplier’s goods arrive at the warehouse to the time they reach the retail stores in Bangkok, an improved in efficiency of up to 50 percent in lead-time. The automated warehouse, slated to commence operations in July of this year, will enhance the efficiency for Makro’s supply chain and reduce the time-to-market for its dry products. The increased throughput of the automated warehouse is made possible by an Autosort system, which can handle more than 9,000 cases per hour. 12

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

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MHI, Wartsila & CSIC To Establish JV In China Tokyo, Japan: Qingdao Qiyao Wartsila MHI Linshan Marine Diesel Company (QMD), a company jointly established by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), China Shipbuilding Industry Corporation (CSIC) and Wartsila of Finland to manufacture and market large low-speed marine diesel engines, completed construction of a manufacturing plant in Shandong Province. T h e p l a n t w a s co m p l e te d a t t h e H a i x i w a n shipbuilding base in Qingdao, where QMD has its main office. Under license from MHI and Wartsila, QMD has begun manufacture of two-stroke low-speed marine diesel engines with a cylinder bore of up to 960 mm. The plant has an annual production capacity of about 1.2 million bhp, with potential to expand to near 3.5 million bhp. At a time when the global market for marine diesel engines is lackluster amid the worldwide economic slowdown and financial crisis, the trend of cargo volume has already begun showing signs of recovery in the Chinese market. Completion of the QMD plant signifies that the JV is now structured to meet future demand from the Chinese market, which is expected to expand over the medium to long term.

Industrial Laser Sales To Fall 32 Percent In 2009 Farmington, USA: The industrial laser market will fall 32 percent in 2009, to the level of 2004, if sales stay at current levels. Sales will return to 2008 levels by 2013, helped by military, biomedical instruments, and energy related applications. Many materials processing applications spanning laser marking to metal cutting and welding will take longer to recover. Fibre laser suppliers will see a shallower decline of 24 percent to $US 230 million, and will experience faster recovery than other types of lasers. These are some of the conclusions of a report from Strategies Unlimited, market research firm. Coherent and Trumpf remain at the top of the list in market share. While the industrial laser business is highly fragmented, the top 10 suppliers earn about 86 percent of the laser revenues, while many dozens of small suppliers share less than five percent of the market. IPG Photonics continues to dominate fibre laser sales. Yet, the recession is so severe that every supplier will be forced to pick and choose the laser businesses in which it wants to continue to compete. Afterward, not only will there be fewer players, but the remaining players will play in fewer niches.


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ENQUIRY NO 066


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OIL & GAS

Largest Gas Transmission Project For GE Oil & Gas

Miroslav Saricka, Slovakia

Florence, Italy: GE Oil & Gas technology has been selected for one of the largest gas transmission projects in the world. The company will be the primary supplier of compression equipment for the western section of China’s second West-to-East gas pipeline. The second West-to-East pipeline will be part of the ongoing natural gas pipeline infrastructure in China that, when completed over the course of the next five to six years, will total approximately 20,000 km. This second pipeline, 8,700 km in length, will be 2,000 km longer than the Great Wall. This pipeline will snake through 13 provinces and autonomous regions, and will play a role in supporting the country’s energy security and economic development. Existing Chinese natural gas pipelines total 30,000 km in length. PetroChina is the developer and owner of the West-toEast pipeline in China. The second West-to-East project features pipes with 48-inch diameters, some of the largest in the industry. When completed, it will add 30 billion cubic meters of capacity of natural gas transmission per year, half of China’s annual total natural gas production, allowing 400 million people access to natural gas. This will bring China’s primary energy consumption rate of natural gas to five percent, up from 3.5 percent. The compression stations in phase two of the second West-to -East gas pipeline are expected to go into commercial operation between the second half of 2010 and the end of 2011. Since 2005, GE has been awarded bids by PetroChina worth over US$600 million.

Sakhalin II In Partnership With Osaka Gas Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia: Sakhalin Energy Investment Company signed a sale and purchase agreement (SPA) for liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply to the Japanese company Osaka Gas. The deal calls for the supply of approximately 0.2 million tonnes per annum (mtpa) of LNG for a period of more than 20 years. As the second largest gas company in Japan, Osaka Gas manages over 56,000 km of gas transmission pipelines, serving nearly seven million gas customers in the Kansai region. 14

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

Total Exploration & PetroVietnam In Partnership Vietnam: Total Exploration and Production Vietnam (Total), has signed a production sharing contract with Vietnam Oil and Gas group (PetroVietnam) for the exploration blocks DBSCL-02 and DBSCL-03. The blocks, which are located in the Mekong delta area onshore, will be operated by Total with a 75 percent interest, PetroVietnam Exploration Production (PVEP) holding a 25 percent interest. Block DBSCL-02 covers an area of nearly 14,850 sq km and block DBSCL-03 covers an area of almost 13,800 sq km. Under the terms of the agreement, the first exploration phase will cover the acquisition of 2D seismic on each block. Having created a partnership in 2007 with PVEP and the South Korean company SK on offshore block 15-1/05, the company continues to develop its presence in Vietnam. T he compa ny’s e x per ience in ma na g ing t he environmental impact of its activities will be important in the Mekong delta. Exploration activities will be carried out without disruption of the community’s activities.

OMV Starts Test In Pakistan Sindh, Pakistan: OMV has started to test a well located in the L atif block – about 10 0 k m from Sukkur in southern Pakistan’s province of Sindh with its joint venture with partners ENI and PPL. The company’s current production in Pakistan amounts to approximately 17,000 boe/d. As part of the fast track development, the gas is routed via a 23 km long pipeline to the Kadanwari gas plant, which is operated by OMV Pakistan. During the first three quarters of 2009 the testing gas rate from Latif-1 will be around 1,000 boe/d whereas in the fourth quarter 2009 additional gas from the second well Latif-2 will be available starting with approximately 4,000 boe/d. Helmut Langanger, OMV executive board member responsible for exploration and production said: “Our investments in international exploration and production projects have once more strengthened OMV’s position as a reliable partner for energy supply. Furthermore, this success with Latif-1, contributes to the gas supply in Pakistan as well as to OMV’s position within the Middle East core region”. After the testing phase a field development plan will be submitted to the government of Pakistan for approval and will, after execution, further increase Latif gas production from 2011 onwards.


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The globalized economy has created new responsibilities for companies such as TaeguTec. We measure our success by customer satisfaction. This success sees an ever-increasing number of machine tools all over the world being commissioned with TaeguTec’s cutting tool product lines.

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AEROSPACE

GE Aviation Completes Acquisition of ATI-Singapore

Hamilton Sundstrand Extends CARE Programme Connecticut, USA: Hamilton Sundstrand has extended its Comprehensive Asset Repair and Exchange (CARE) programmes with SIA Engineering (SIAEC), a Singaporebased aircraft maintenance company, to provide repair services and asset management for engine and airframe components on Airbus A320 and Boeing 777 aircraft. The deals consist of support for Hamilton Sundstrand and other suppliers’ equipment, including support for up to 105 Airbus A320 and 13 Boeing 777-300 aircraft. The agreement also includes spare parts support for electric power and air management assets for the Boeing 777-300s, and support for V2500 engine accessories, electric power and emergency power equipment for the Airbus A320s. Total repair and inventory support services and is fully supported by key OEM accessory suppliers.

ST Aerospace In JV With XAICO Ruth Canton, UK

Singapore: GE Aviation has increased its ownership of Airfoil Technologies International-Singapore (ATISingapore), a jet engine components repair operation, from 49 to 100 percent by purchasing Teleflex ownership stake. By completing the acquisition, GE Aviation will enhance the repair capabilities key to its global base of airline and industrial customers. Also, the acquisition supports GE’s growing services operation, which had revenues approaching US$7 billion in 2008, and expands the company’s investments in Singapore, where it operates several aerospace facilities. ATI-Singapore repairs compressor airfoils. The facility was built in 1998 to service CF6 and CFM56 engines, but has expanded to include all GE commercial aviation, marine and industrial engines as well as Pratt & Whitney and Honeywell components. Located in Loyang industrial park, ATI-Singapore has about 535 employees who repair more than two million compressor airfoils a year. GE Aviation also operates a 30,000 sq ft (2,787 sq m) material distribution and sales centre in the Changi area of Singapore. The centre’s used-serviceable parts and components improve material availability and support for customers in the Asia-Pacific region from China to New Zealand. This is one of only three GE Aviation used-serviceable parts distribution centres in the world. 16

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

Singapore: Singapore Technologies Aerospace (ST Aerospace) has conducted the groundbreaking, together with its JV partner, Xiamen Aviation Industry (XAICO) of its new engine facility to be located at a 28,500 sq m plot of land near the Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport in Xiamen, China. Construction commenced immediately following the groundbrea k ing. Completion a nd operations commencement of the facility is expected around 2010. ST Aerospace Technologies (Xiamen) Company (STATCO) will have a total investment of US$78m. The company will initially provide MRO and total support services for the CFM56-5B and CFM56-7B engines that power narrow-body aircraft such as the Boeing 737 next generation aircraft and the Airbus A320 family of aircraft. ST Aerospace owns an 80 percent stake of STATCO, while XAICO owns 20 percent.

Boeing Opens Research & Technology Centre In India Bengaluru, India: Boeing has opened its Research & Technology-India centre. This is the company’s third advanced research centre outside the US, the others being in Europe and Australia. The centre will also coordinate the work of more than 1,500 technologists, including 100 advanced technology researchers, from across India on projects that will help define the future of aerospace.


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AUTOMOTIVE

Hyundai-Kia To Develop Eco-Friendly Cars Seoul, South Korea: Hyundai-Kia Automotive Group ( HK AG), which includes Hyundai Motor and Kia Motors, will focus on the development of eco-friendly cars and completing the construction of an integrated steel mill. This is in line with the group’s intension to overcome current economic difficulties by maintaining 2008’s investment levels, to secure competitiveness and create jobs. HKAG forecasts that demand for fuel-efficient and ecofriendly cars will rise when the global economy recovers, and therefore plans to strengthen its investment in these areas, including training and nurturing talent. In order to achieve these goals, HKAG will invest a total of about nine trillion won (US$6.8 billion) this year, similar to last year’s levels. Of this figure, six trillion won will be invested in facilities, including a two trillion won investment into an integrated steel mill being built by Hyundai Steel. The other three trillion won (of the nine trillion won) will be invested in R&D. Separately, HKAG will invest 2.4 trillion won into the development of eco-friendly cars in phases and expand the R&D workforce to as many as 1,000 in the future. The two trillion won investment in Hyundai Steel will be made this year for the 5.84 trillion won project, which is 58 percent completed.

Honda To Begin Production In Indonesia Jakar ta, Indonesia: Honda Prospect Motor, H o n d a’s a u to m o b i l e manufacturing and sales joint venture in Indonesia, is planning to produce and sell the Freed model in Indonesia, starting June 2009. Exports to multiple countries in the Southeast Asia region are scheduled to begin before the end of this year. Indonesia will be the first country in regions outside Japan where the Freed will be produced and sold. In Indonesia, demand for multi-passenger vehicles, categorised as Multi Purpose Vehicle (MPV) is high and increasing to the point where it accounts for approximately 40 percent of total auto sales in that country. In the case of the Freed, parts and components will be procured in multiple countries, mostly in the ASEAN region including Thailand, Malaysia and the Philippines, to enhance the competitive advantage of the product. 18

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

APPOINTMENTS

Master Chemical Gets CFO

Cary R Glay

Ohio, USA: Cary R Glay has joined Master Chemical as Chief Financial Officer. In this role, Mr Glay will have global financial responsibility for the corporation to direct and oversee all financial and information systems functions assuring compliance and continuous improvement.

Volkswagen Opens Plant In India

Michi

Pune, India: With a total financial commitment in India amounting to €580 million (US$ 782 million), the plant represents the largest investment to date by a German company in the country. The facility has a maximum annual production capacity of 110,000 vehicles destined for delivery to the Indian market. Despite the impact of the financial and economic crisis the desire for individual mobility in India remains high. Experts predict that the Indian automobile market will grow from the present 1.2 million vehicles to over 2 million vehicles by 2014. The Pune plant will begin building the Skoda Fabia compact car in May 2009. Production of a hatchback version of the Volkswagen Polo developed for the Indian market will be added from 2010. The plant has a high level of vertical integration and a large share of local suppliers. It is the only production plant operated by a German automaker in India that covers the entire production process from press shop, body shop and paint shop to final assembly.


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FOUNDRY

Essar Steel Inaugurates US$16.8 Million Service Centre

enable Essar Steel to cater to even single sheet customer, provide small lot and customised deliveries for ready to use steel. Essar’s service centre is backed by its 4.6 MTPA steel plant at Hazira. This will ensure the consistent supplies and quality of the products. The company has three more service centres one each in Hazira, Pune and in Bahadurgarh near New Delhi. C

M

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MY

CY CMY

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ENQUIRY NO 083

Chennai, India: Essar Steel inaugurated its steel service centre facility at Oragadam near Chennai, India. The service centre has been set up at a cost of Rs 750 million (US$16.8 million) and has a capacity to process 2.5 lakh tonnes of steel per annum. Located at one of largest auto hub of the country and including a CR slitting line, CR narrow cut to length line, CR wide cut to length line and HR cut to length line. It will

May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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Business

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statistics

Global Steel Can Recycling Reaches Highest Recorded Level Brussels, Belgium: The World Steel Association (worldsteel) announced that 7.2 million metric tonnes (mmt) of steel cans were recycled across the 37 countries reporting in 2007. This avoided approximately 13 mmt of CO2 emissions. The global recycling rate for steel cans was 68 percent in 2007, a slight increase from 67 percent in 2006. This is the highest level ever and is the third consecutive year that the steel can recycling rate has increased. Amongst countries covered by the 2007 statistics, Belgium and Germany topped the league with the highest recycling rates of 93 percent and 91 percent. Of the

individual countries that reported directly to worldsteel, Japan had the highest recycling rate at 85 percent. Europe, North America and South Africa have been particularly consistent in gathering good data and increasing recycling rates year-after-year. South Africa recorded a recycling rate of 70 percent in 2007, a two percent increase compared to 2006. Europe recycled 2.5 mmt of steel cans in 2007, a recycling rate of 69 percent. In the US, 1.6 mmt of steel cans were recovered for recycling in 2007, an increase to 65 percent compared to 63 percent the previous year.

2007 Steel Can Recycling Data Recycled (‘000 tonnes)

Country/Region

Brazil 284 Canada 109 China 1,597 Europe * 2,560 Japan 707 South Africa 155 South Korea 101 Turkey 101 USA 1,592 Total 7,206 * Europe here includes EU 27, Norway and Switzerland.

Recycling Rate 2007 (Percent)

Recycling Rate 2006 (Percent)

49 66 75 69 85 70 69 35 65 68

47 62 75 66 88 68 73 33 63 67

Possibility For Slow Recovery Says MAPI Afonso Lima, Brazil

Arlington, USA: While the global economic picture will remain troubled for the near term, slightly improved US economic data could be a harbinger of positive signals for a grim world landscape, according to a new report. In the Manufacturers Alliance (MAPI) quarterly forecast of US exports, global growth, and the dollar: second quarter 2009 through fourth quarter 2010, economist Cliff Waldman writes that signs of firming demand in the US economy, along with a global move towards historically accommodative monetary policies, suggests that a weak rebound in industrialised country output and a modest acceleration of developing country output could begin in the later months of 2009. “While the rare financial underpinnings of the current global crisis make it more difficult than ever to assess the impact of policy, it is difficult to believe that rock-bottom prices for fuel and commodities, the lowest interest rates in a generation, and a growing effort to repair bank 20

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

balance sheets won’t eventually be sufficient to restore at least weak positive activity,” Waldman said. Aggregate developing country growth is expected to be a sluggish two percent during the second quarter of 2009 and accelerate to 2.5 percent during the third quarter, to three percent during the fourth quarter of 2009 and the first quarter of 2010, gradually followed by further gains to 3.7 percent by the fourth quarter of 2010. “Developing country prospects are mixed, with China appearing to sidestep the feared ‘hard landing’ scenario, but the Indian economy slowing more than expected,” Waldman said. “Developing and newly industrialised economies in East Asia have turned surprisingly weak, but prospects are seen as being good for modest recoveries both in economic and in manufacturing growth during 2010.” Most advanced economies are expected to experience weak recoveries in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and in manufacturing output during 2010. GDP in non-US industrialised countries are expected to contract by three percent during the second quarter of 2009 and further contract by one percent during the third quarter. MAPI forecasts growth to resume during the fourth quarter of 2009.


ENQUIRY NO 077


FIRST

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cut

Going The

Exotic Way Machining exotic metals is difficult but it can be very rewarding as they often bring superior properties. By Dr Moshe Goldberg, marketing technical advisor, Iscar

T

he ongoing pursuit for lighter aircraft and better fuelefficient jet engines brought about the development of new grades of materials, such as new nickel based alloys, titanium alloys, composites and high strength aluminium alloys. Aerospace metals, which are light and strong, are hard to machine, yet remain popular due to their basic properties that are ideal for this industry. Machineability assessments on these materials regarding tool wear, productivity, materia l remova l rate, cutting forces, chip disposal and workpiece integrity have indicated poor results. As a guide, machining a component in an advanced alloy can be five to ten times more expensive than machining standard ferrous or nonferrous material. This results in lower productivity, the need for specialist tooling, high specification machines, advanced cutting fluid and supply systems, operator skills and tighter quality procedures. W hile abrasive carbon fibre reinforced metal matrix composites can be cut effectively with PCD and carbide tool materials, a solution for Ni and Ti alloys is difficult to obtain.

The Nickel Family Nickel-based superalloys appeared in the ea rly 1940s. This group includes nimonics, renes, inconels, 22

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009


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incoloys, hastelloys, waspaloys and udimets ranging from 150 to 450 HV depending on heat treatment. Super-alloys constitute about 50 percent of the weight of aircraft engines and provide resistance to oxidation, corrosion and creep, while maintaining strength at expulsion up to 1,000 deg C. Nickel alloys are both tough a nd ‘adhe sive’, demonst rating temperature and wear resistance. From a machineability perspective, nickel alloys tend to work harden rapidly. The high pressure produced during machining causes high tooth loadings, as well as residual deposits build up on the cutting edge. The work-hardening phenomenon ha s a n adve rse a f fe c t on t he machining process, calling for slow down, and in cases of small parts, leads to distortion. The preferable option for machining is a workpiece at cold - d raw n st re ss - re l ie ve d conditions. Hot-rolling conditions are a less desirable alternative, while annealed condition is the least preferred for most applications.

Making The Cut In general terms, cutting tools with a positive rake cutting edge are

Aerospace metals, which are light and strong, are hard to machine but they remain popular.

recommended for machining these materials, as they literally cut the metal rather than push it forward. To ac h ie ve a n ide a l she a r i n g mechanism, sufficient feed rate and depth of cut are also essential, while attention should be given to the tool geometry in order to prevent friction. Even under the best conditions, stress could occur, which might cause distortion of the work. The best practice for maximum dimensional stability is to apply a roughing operation to the part, bringing it almost to size, to stress relieve it, following by finishing it to size. It is important to note that stress relieving

has little effect on dimensions, but could affect mechanical properties. Having a discontinuous chip, or breaking the chip into small ma na ge able seg ments is of ten impossible when machining inconel. This condition occurs due to the high wear resistance of the material, leading to a very high temperature at the cutting interface. During operation, where there is continuous contact of the tool with the material, the heat and generated pre ssure could lead to pla stic deformation on the cutting edge. Therefore, a sharp edge minimises stress on the material and improves chip formation. The rigidity of the tooling system and the ability to deliver coolant at the cutting edge also plays a significant role. Too-low a cutting speed may lead to a built-up-edge phenomenon that has a direct effect on the tool, reducing its life. Lighter feed rates combined with tighter control of cutting speed have proved to work well, when using endmill cutters with more than four teeth, to support higher removal rate without increasing tooth load and material stress.

Cutting Fluids: The ability to deliver coolant at the cutting edge plays a significant role.

Water-based fluids are preferred in high speed turning and milling, due to their greater cooling effect. These can be soluble oils or chemical solutions. For slower operations, such as drilling, boring, tapping, May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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and broaching, heavy lubricants and very rich mixtures of chemical solutions are needed.

Turning: Single-point turning tools used for cutting nickel alloys must have positive rake angles so the metal is cut instead of pushed, as would occur if negative rake angles were used. A secondar y function of the rake angle is to guide the chip away from the finished surface. It must be large enough to provide clearance, but small enough to give adequate support to the cutting edge. The nose radius, which joins the end and side cutting edges, strengthens the tool nose and helps to dissipate the heat generated in cutting.

Chip Control: Nickel alloys present a minimum of chip disposal problems when cut with carbide tools that have properly-designed chip curlers or breakers. The lip should include the proper rake angles for the alloy and should be wide and deep enough to cause the chip to curl and break but not to force it into a tight knot. With these devices, tool rake a ngles a re pla ne surfaces that terminate at the chipbreaker wall. The radius joining the wall of the chipbreaker and the rake angle plane must be kept very small. A small radius and the proper angle will usually prevent the chip from adhering to the chipbreaker. Width and depth of the chipbreaker depend on the feed rate used.

In a world where one micron can make all the difference, various collet chucks and adaptors are deployed to ensure everything falls within tolerance. The combination of the cutter, collet, adapter, spindle and machine rigidity all have a directly influence on precision machining. In most cases the precision is defined or characterised in terms of runout parameters. That explains the growing development of the tooling system that aims to compensate for this discrepancy. The runout phenomenon not only damages the surface finish but also produces inconsistent dimensions, and significantly shortens tool life. The phrase runout has become a catch-all word for the sloppiness, flexibility, non-repeatability or just plain ‘poor quality’ of a machining job, with various meanings to different people. In the strict sense of the word, runout means the amount of deviation from the theoretical position. The term can be applied to rotary or linear motion, static or dynamic. One large cause of runout is due to manufacturing defect, or damage. A bent shaft will not run ‘true’, even if it was very stiff and had no free play. If a machined rail is not produced/set up straight, then the rolling carriage will deviate from the theoretical straight line – causing runout. If a 4-flute endmill is placed into a dirty collet, which could cause it to sit slightly askew, a dial indicator will get different readings from the flute edges – meaning runout.

Enquiry No. 4002

Iscar: Runout Correcting Equipment

The essential requirements of milling are accuracy and smooth finish. Therefore, it is imperative to have sharp tools, rigid machines and fixtures. Since milling involves an interrupted cutting action, the correct feed and speed are important. Too light feed, nearly rubbing the surface, will cause an excessively workhardened layer. MEN

One way of combating runout inconsistency is to use the Iscar Shortin tooling system. This short holder is available for ER32 spring and shrink collets, providing rigidity and improved cutting conditions. Among the advantages is the short overhang. The short collets provide high gripping force, thereby reducing cutting vibrations and improving runout and repeatability. Each chuck is balanced to 2.5G at 20,000 rpm and has a symmetrical design for high speed machining, where a balanceable collet chuck system should be employed. The Balanceable Collet Chuck System utilises a simple balancing procedure on all types of balancing machines. Furthermore, it provides direct readings from its rings for balance, with added features to compensate for unbalance up to 61 g/mm.

Enquiry No. 4001

Enquiry No. 4003

Milling:

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Precision Machining

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009


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Cool Under

Fire

Drilling at high temperature is both a challenging and precise undertaking. By Kalle Schenning, product manager, Seco Tools AB, Sweden

T

he term ‘superalloy’ describes a broad range of nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), and cobalt (Co), alloys developed specifically for applications dema nding exceptional mechanical and chemical properties at elevated temperatures. Some 70 percent of all superalloy production is consumed by t he aerospace indust r y for the manufacture of power turbines (jet engines) and related components. Unfortunately their superior mechanical and chemical properties at elevated temperatures do have significant negative impacts on their machinability; superalloys a re ge nera lly cha lle ng ing a nd costly to machine. As high temperature strength increases, the alloys become harder and stiffer at cutting temperature. This results in increased forces on the cutting edge during machining. Edge breakdown by chipping or plastic deformation often appears. Because of the material’s high strength, toughness and ductility at elevated temperatures, chipbreaking can be difficult during the machining process. As the alloys are mostly heat-treated to modify the as-cast or solution - treated proper ties, abrasive carbide precipitates or other second phase particles are often formed. Such particles may also cause rapid abrasive wear at the cutting edge. Most superalloys work-harden like austenitic stainless steels, which 26

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

means that during machining, a harder surface is created. As the thickness of this zone is normally larger than the feed per revolution (drilling) the cutting edge will cut continuously in areas much harder than the bulk material. Rapid cutting edge wear follows and it can be difficult to maintain precision tolerances or critical me t a l lu rg ic a l i nte g r it y of t he component surface. A damaged surface may also compromise fatigue strength. Tool material properties as well as cutting edge conditions are of utmost importance when machining superalloys.

Titanium Alloys A group of materials closely related to superalloys are Titanium (Ti) based alloys selected for their superior strength to weight ratio and advantageous chemical properties. Ti-alloys appeared first in the 1950s when it became clear that the requirements of airframe and engine components were exceeding the capabilities of existing lightweight alloys. Ti, with its low density and high melting point appeared to be a good solution. Not only are Ti-alloys used in aircraft applications, but because of their excellent corrosion resistance, they are also applied in other challenging chemical and structural environments. W h i l e s o m e w h a t e a si e r to machine than superalloys, Ti-alloys


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can still be challenging. More difficult to machine than steels with the same hardness, Ti is a poor conductor of heat. Most of the generated cutting heat is concentrated at the cutting edge. Like superalloys and austenitic stainless steels, Ti-alloys workharden during machining. Ti has a low modulus of elasticity and component deflection can be serious, often resulting in chatter. Ti is also more reactive than other high temperature alloys. In fact, some Ti-alloys can ignite during the machining process. This reactive nature of Ti results in chemical interaction with the cutting tool material and cratering wear may be a typical symptom.

Drilling Dissected The drilling operation has much in common with turning operations; the cutting edge is continuously engaged. However, essential differences exist. Whilst in turning considerable effort is focused on chip breaking, chip guidance is more essential in drilling. Cutting speeds in turning are constant while they vary in drilling (0 in the drill centre, maximum at the periphery). For turning applications, cutting data is generally specified within narrow limits, in drilling

Some 70 percent of all superalloy production is consumed by the aerospace industry for the manufacture of jet engines.

the tool must be able to cut at ‘0 m/min’, which complicates the process since modern tool materials generally require high cutting speeds (high temperatures). In other words, specific compromises are necessary to reach good drilling performance. The elastic modulus as well as the hardness and acceptable amount of plastic deformation and even frictional properties of the tool material are to be balanced with the geometrical strength of the cutting edge. The right combination of cutting conditions and tool properties is of decisive importance to the machining costs when drilling in superalloys as

compared to drilling operations in normal steels and cast irons.

‘Classical’ Drilling Drilling in superalloys, Ti-alloys or stainless steels today is still sometimes performed with tools made of High Speed Steel (HSS). Typically cutting speeds then hover around 5 m/min and feed rates are up to 5 mm/min. Wit h to ols made of solid carbide, 20 m/min and 90 mm/min are acceptable values. For smaller diameter holes, if solid carbide drills are used, secondary machining reaming - can be eliminated since the

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ENQUIRY NO 075

May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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surface integrity requirement is often achieved with the solid carbide drill tool. Using carbide tools, production rate as well as machining costs can be radically improved.

New Drilling Programme Studying of superalloy worn drilling edges, clearly shows two areas that are heavily affected, the centre and the periphery of the drill. Wear at the centre is mainly a consequence of low cutting speeds ( low temperature) and high hardness (deformation hardening) of the work material. The wear at the periphery stems from the heat induced at higher cutting speeds. In superalloy machining, special consideration is given to the drill centre wear. The edge hardness of conventional drill materials needs to be increased. This is achieved with new drill generation made of submicron carbide grains (grain size < 1 um). Decreasing the grain size of the tungsten carbide (WC) grains improves the hardness of the composite materia l a nd the hardness/transverse rupture strength ratio. This improves the drill performance even at lower temperatures, which are prevalent at the centre of the drill. High speeds at the periphery c au s e h i g h te mp e ra t u re we a r – crater we a r, f la n k we a r a nd deformation of the edge. The best solution to overcome this type of rapid wear is a thin wear resistant coating that lowers friction, temperature and as a consequence; tool wear. Low temperature PVD coatingte c h n i q u e s ( Ph y s i c a l Va p o u r Deposition) allow for sharp and evenly coated cutting edges. T his t y pe of edge ca n g ive outstanding results in superalloy drilling. PVD -TiN, titanium nitride, is known to generate high toughness w h i l e t h e ‘A l ’ p a r t p r o v i d e s out sta ndi n g h ig h te mp eratu re wear resistance to the coating. The 28

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Seco: High Pressure Coolant Tooling To i m p r ove t h e m a c h i n i n g o f difficult alloys, Seco has developed Jetstream tooling. A high-pressure coolant supply, when pumped through a small nozzle, produces an acute, high velocity jetstream, which penetrates the friction zone between the cutting edge and the workpiece, providing lubrication, cooling, and chip removal. There are three pressure based coolant delivery systems. Low pressure, the standard system supplied today with most machine tools having up to 20 bar pressure, high pressure, ranging from 20 to 70 bar pressure and ultra high pressure, from 70 bar pressure and higher. In addition, chip control can be improved by using the tool. Coolant is applied to the cutting edge, lifting the chip away from the rake face and preventing crater wear. The resulting chips are smaller enabling them to be removed from the cutting area without damaging components and tooling.

Enquiry No. 4004

final coating consists of nearly 70 percent Al, probably the highest Alcontent of today’s popular coating materials. The thickness of the coating is controlled within narrow limits reducing tool life variation to a minimum. It is possible to produce a homogeneous structure of the three components Al, Ti and N. The toughness can be kept high with the absence of pores and other crack nuclei. A low friction surface is created. Slow, even wear is achieved, as large particles are not likely to be worn away. A t h i n , ye l low T i N - co at i n g finishes the coating process. Since the main coating, (Ti,Al)N is dark in colour, the TiN top coating makes it easy for the user to determine when a drill has already been used. However, it is stressed that the tool life is set by the black (Ti,Al)N-coating. This layer wear has to be studied before deciding to change the tool.

Drill Geometry Superalloys as well as Ti-based alloys have high tensile and yield strength.

High amounts of energy are required to machine these materials. Most of the energy is transformed into heat. To address this energ y-heat issue, drills are usually designed with light cutting geometries. To provide a light cutting action, an edge sharpness of radius 0.015 mm with extremely narrow tolerances (+/- 0.005 mm) is achieved with new production techniques. The use of sub-micron cemented carbide was a given since coarse grain sizes and sharp edges are incompatible. The front clearance angle is increased from 10 to 12 degrees to further reduce the work hardening effects in the component material. To minimise friction and heat generation, the flute back taper size is double that of a standard drill. A broad periphery land margin can increase edge temperature and frictional work and affect the quality of the machined surface. The width of the land was also reduced for the aerospace drill package. MEN Enquiry No. 4005


ENQUIRY NO 157


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Die Casting & Mould Processes:

The Soft & Hard Truth Introduction of software and improvements in hardware combine to bring a traditional industry to new heights. By Augustine Quek

D

ie - casting is a mass production process which manufactures designed metal parts through highpressure injection of molten metal into reusable steel moulds. The moulds, also called dies, are designed to produce almost any shape with a high degree of accuracy and complexity. Parts can be highly well defined, with smooth or textured surfaces, and are suitable for a wide variety of attractive and serviceable finishes. The metal is usually forced into the mould under a pressure of 10 to 210 Mpa (1,450 to 30,500 psi). The result is usually a uniform part with good surface finish and dimensional accuracy of up to 0.2 percent of casting dimension. For many parts, post-machining can be totally eliminated, with some very light machining required occasionally to bring dimensions to size.

Hot Or Cold? Die-casting can be done using a cold or hot chamber process. Cold chamber machines are used for alloys such as aluminium and other metals with high melting points that alloy easily with iron at higher temperatures. The molten metal is ladled into the cold chamber, or cylindrical sleeve, manually or automatically. A hydraulically operated plunger seals 30

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

the cold chamber port and forces metal into the locked die at high pressures. Time exposures of the melt to plunger walls are low. In contrast, hot chamber machines are used primarily for zinc, copper, magnesium, lead and other low melting point metals of high fluidity. T he se meta ls do not a l loy easily with steel at their melting temperatures. The molten metal is exposed to the plunger and cylinders for a longer time since these metals do not erode the casting equipment. Therefore, in this process, the die cavity is immersed permanently in the molten metal. The inlet port of the pressurising cylinder is uncovered as the plunger moves to the open (unpressurised) position. This allows molten metal to fill the cylinder and at a faster rate than the cold chamber process. As the plunger moves to the close position, it seals the port and forces molten metal into the die cavity. After the metal has solidified in the die cavity, the plunger is withdrawn.

Software Invasion T he advent of computers a nd their rapid increase in information processing capability has helped the die-casting industry. Many companies now use software modelling to improve their die and mould processes. Some

programming software and existing CAD can even reduce typical lead times for producing die - casting moulds by 30 percent. According to MK Tool and Die, such a time saving feat is possible. The manufacturer of low-pressure moulds and gravity fed dies for cast aluminium components uses SolidWorks CAD software to create a manufacturing model for customers. The software allows changes to be made and provide the customer with an accurate visual aid to assess the finished component. It also helps visualise the positions of shut lines, air bleed vents, feeders and risers. Creation of cutter path directly on the computer model is possible. No features, layers or component data are lost through the use of translators and programming errors are eliminated. A similar experience was seen in Swiss electric motor component maker, Stanzwerk. By modelling tooling for stamping and die-casting, they claimed it has cut its development time in half for tool design and parts production. The company uses CoCreate OneSpace Suite modelling software to design the stamping tools, die-casting moulds and equipment that shape the components. They have a lso relied on the modelling and management software to speed tool design and


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map complex die-casting moulds. The software simplifies reuse of existing designs and offers support for the development of new tools and processes due to its modelling based approach to product development. Designers can split work on models during the detailing phase and later merge them regardless of t he cre at ion histor y a nd parametrical dependencies. In the recent past, the company also put an automated assembly line for aluminium casting into operation. A robot arm puts six laminations simultaneously into one master mould, and the mouldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s elements can be changed on the machine within 20 minutes. This has allowed company engineers to use stamping technology on very narrow parts with the smallest of diameters, and can reliably produce millions of such pieces.

Hardware Improvements Several die-cast and mould making hardware have also improved in recent years, due to the increasing stringent requirements in the final parts and products. For example, Haas Automation has expanded its line of vertical machining centres (VMC) designed for the mould making and tool and die industries. Its large-frame VM-6 is a VMC that provides the accuracy, rigidity and thermal stability required for precision work. It has 64in x 32in x 30in travels, a 12,000 rev/min spindle driven by a 30 hp vector dual-drive system, a

24-pocket side-mount tool changer and a high-speed control with full look-ahead capability. The VM-6 features massive castiron construction, with extensive internal ribbing on the castings to increase rigidity and damp vibrations. To f u r t he r e n su re t he r ma l stability, coolant is circulated through the VM-6â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s head casting to remove heat generated by the spindle. To prevent radiated heat from affecting the casting, the headstock is insulated and cool air is circulated through the entire assembly. An electronic thermalcompensation algorithm in the Haas control accurately models ballscrew heating from high-duty cycles and automatically corrects for any expansion that could cause positioning errors. TaeguTec has the Chase F-Ball. Designed for the mould and die and aerospace sector, the tooling insert holder has a wide prism contact between the insert and holder to provide a stable structure. It has a maximum run-out of 0.01mm and a repeatability of 0.01mm. The guide roll of the prism shape provides easy clamping between the insert and holder, supported by a high tensile screw, providing a strong clamping structure. This structure is further supported by a carbide shank that, according to the maker, allows the product to machine deep mould cavities. The company claims this rigidity is the same as a solid carbide end

In hot chamber machines, the molten metal is exposed to the plunger and cylinders for a longer time.

mill, improving tool life, surface finish and accuracy in comparison to steel shank tooling. They also claim the system is suitable for semifinishing and finishing operations. The casting of metals to produce smaller dimensions and greater accuracies is also now possible. The latest die- casting machines are able to produce a thin-walled, yet warp resistant magnesium alloy die-casting with a very high surface quality. This requires an optimum interaction between the die-casting tool and the machine control. Frech hot chamber magnesium die casting machine range is an example. Its DAM200F magnesium hot chamber diecasters are used for the supply of thin-walled housings for the handsets of several cellular phone manufacturers. These machines can also be upgraded to complete diecasting cells, with optimisation of multicavity die design. Other features include automatic spraying devices and casting extraction units for fully automatic production. Its DAW-C Series have locking forces of 200, 500, 800 and 1250 kN, with a Meltec single-chamber furnace with a stainless steel crucible. The hydraulics on the injection end is fully proportional, allowing the first and second phases to be programmed from the control panel. Die-cast products are now the most com mon ma ss - pro duce d items in the metalworking industry. They can be found in thousands of consumer, commercial and industrial products, ranging from automobiles to trinkets, from as simple as a sink faucet to as complex as a connector housing. Improvements continue in the alloys used in die-casting, software algorithms, simulation strategies, and the machining processes. Once limited to simple lead type, todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s die casters now produce castings in almost any known size and shape, with applications in almost every known market. MEN Enquiry No. 4101 May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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measurement

CMM Technologies & Advances:

Time For A

Face Lift? A peek into the past of CMMs and its relevance today as the grand father of metrology goes for a makeover. By Joson Ng

C

o ordinate Me a su r ing Machine (CMM) is a device used for measuring the physical dimension of an object. Coming in the form of bridge, gantry and arm types, an operator may manually control this machine or it may be computer controlled. From a report from Wenzel, the machine first appeared in the early 1960’s. The earliest CMM was a 3D device with a simple DRO displaying the XYZ position of the XYZ Machine. Funda menta lly a metrolog y equipment that requires contact between the probe and the object before measurements can be made, it has been the dominating force in terms of parts measurements in the manufacturing industry. The moving axis of the CMM produces a series of X, Y and Z coordinates of the contact points. The algorithms in turn interpret these data.

What’s In Between The C-M-M? A typical CMM comprises three axes, an X, Y and Z. These axes are 32

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

perpendicular to each other in a threedimensional coordinate system. The operator or programmer directs the machine while it reads inputs from the probe. It then uses the X, Y and Z coordinates of each of these points to determine size and position. Location of the axis is indicated by a scale system on each axis. There are different types of CMMs in the market today. A bridge type is a type of measuring system with a horizontal beam holding the probe. It is also the most common type. The gantry type is essentially similar to the bridge type but the difference is in size. Gantry type CMMs, some big enough to measure cars, has two legs and is often called a bridge. They can move along the granite table with one leg following a guide rail and the other leg resting on the granite table following the vertical outline. In order to minimise unnecessary vibration and jerking, air bearings are deployed to achieve friction free travel. The base of fixed CMMs is also cushioned this way. A point to note is the discipline of the operator

– who must ensure no external disturbances are introduced while measurements are taking place ie: the measuring platform to be clean and free of stray objects, and the temperature of the room. In the air bearings, compressed air is introduced via series of small holes in a flat bearing surface to provide a smooth but controlled air cushion on which the machine can move. The movement of the bridge or gantry along the granite table forms one axis of the XY plane. The bridge of the ga ntr y is movable and it traverses between the inside and outside legs and forms the other X or Y horizontal axis. Zaxis is supplied by the addition of a vertical spindle, which moves up and down through the centre of the carriage. The touch probe completes the basic structure of the CMM. While they provide accurate measurements, the integrity of results must be verified if the technician is not properly trained. A qualified CMM technician should perform the machine installation. In addition, accuracy needs to be checked


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per iodica lly ; the t y pica l CM M calibration interval is 12 months.

Technology Advances Most advances in personal computers today are in processing speed and memory space. Computers of the near future are likely to feature a monitor and a keyboard still. This is the same for CMMs, where it is difficult to see much advances in terms of hardware designs. Apart from the traditional three axis machines, CMMs have evolved to include arms that mimic the action of a human arm in order to measure difficult to reach places. Such CMMs are often used where their portability hold an advantage over traditional fixed bed CMMs. Fluctuating operating e nv i ro n me nt a l s o re su lte d i n t he proliferat ion of automat ic temperature compensation, which is now standard on most machines, such as the advances in the technology. Improvements however, are an ongoing process. CMMs will continue to evolve, along with advances in computer technology, electronics and materials. Together they will make the machines more flexible, faster and more accurate. For the case of CMMs, advances will come in the form of integration. T h e m a r r i a g e o f n o n - co n t a c t measurement devices with existing probing systems will be used in both portable and fixed CMMs. Convergence of ava ilable technologies, ie: the incorporation of a laser tracker with a portable CMM to provide accurate measurements over large distances and volumes will prove to be the way forward. In addition, with the increasing use of nanotechnology, machines can now measure below a sub micron, giving manufacturers the ability to measure smaller volumes with higher accuracy.

Probing Into The Future In addition to the contact probe CMM; video CMM is becoming more common. The multi-sensor machine

Advancement in CMM â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the Leitz PMM-C infinity by Hexagon Metrology incorporates drive components design to improve driving forces from the moving axes.

with a combination of touch and video has become popular with Wegu, Mahr, and OGP who are the main suppliers. Scanning sensors using laser scanning technology have also being integrated to the CMMs. According to a report from Wenzel, the future of the CMM is difficult to predict. Many are suggesting that the technology will become obsolete in the coming decade. CMM products however continue to dominate the manufacturing inspection arena and unless a major technological

innovation occurs, the machine will remain the focal point of quality laboratories. The current trend is to move CMM measurements to the production floor and many new designs have come to the market in recent years specifically aimed at this application. CMMs have also gotten faster over the past decade although few customers need speed to be achieved at the expense of accuracy. MEN Enquiry No. 4201

Hexagon Metrology: High Precision Measuring System Hexagon Metrology has developed Leitz PMM-C infinity, a version based on its previous Infinity-class PMM-C. The company claims that the machine has an accuracy specification of 0.3 microns and repeatability of 0.1 microns. The machineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s body is a closed-frame structure, which is stiff due to the fact that the main components are all made of granite and cast iron. Its probing unit is LSP-S4, which can measure form and profile on every probing point based on 3D scanning; normal to the surface with low force of 0.5 to 0.16 N. Use of very small diameter probing styli is allowed. Moreover, the maximum permissible surface pressure is not exceeded even on softer materials. The remaining stylus bending is compensated by a built-in bending correction. In addition, by the attached high-resolution glass ceramic scales, it allows a metrological resolution of four nm.

Enquiry No. 4202

May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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Product Highlights Carl Zeiss: Gantry Type CMM

Wenzel: Mobility Induced

The Smart 500 mobile by Wenzel is based on the coordinate measuring machine Smart CMM, where the difference to the conventional machine is in its mobility. As a 3D shop measurement machine, it is designed to measure small to average-size work pieces and can also change its location with the help of a lift truck. In addition, the machine offers a range of application due to its design. A cantilever arm design offers a measuring volume that can be accessed from three sides. The high temperature tolerance and all protected guides facilitate measurements even under rough environmental conditions.

Enquiry No. 4203

Tesa: Portable Measuring Equipment

The accuracy of parts for wind turbines determines the efficiency of the system. Carl Zeiss supports the rising quality requirements for these components with MMZ 3D coordinate measuring machines. The machines are for the measurement of large parts. They can deliver reproducible measuring results as the measuring machines and software are matched. Applications are found in production and measuring laboratories to measure and document machined prismatic and round parts, as well as freeform surfaces. Each MMZ gantry measuring machine, such as the MMZ G200 with linear measuring tolerance of 2.8 + L/400 µm, features the required accuracy. The company offers the machine with measuring volumes of up to 4,000 x 8,000 x 4,000 mm.

Enquiry No. 4205

Metris: Inspection Software

Tesa Multi-Gage is a portable tool that provides the user with measuring possibilities for dimensional inspection. A manual, modular gauge featuring a six-axis configuration is designed for checking complex work pieces. User requires little initial training due to its easy to use interactive interface. The equipment is available with different probe and optional WiFi wireless connection. Initial setup is not required. The product has an accuracy of E = 5+L/40≤18 R = 8 (µm) according to ISO 10360-2.

Enquiry No. 4204 34

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

Focus Scan 5. 2 sof t ware speeds up the preparation and exe cution of CMM laser scanning inspection jobs. The product by Metris allows automatic scan path programming and virtual point cloud simulation, resulting in acquisition, analysis and reporting workflow. Besides laser scanners’ inherent advantage of requiring simpler motion paths, automatic scan path programming in the product reduces measurement preparation time. One click on the CAD surface area and a scan macro is generated to define scanner path with probe angles. Scan path visualisation helps metrology engineers to validate scan programming before going live. These visualisations include collision detection between scanner and part and an estimation of CMM execution time, taking into account the actual scanner type.

Enquiry No. 4206


28. – 31. March 2007 · Hall 6/Booth 6H1-01

NE W

BSTA 500

BSTA 200 BSTA 250

The biggest obstacle in the production of Lead Frames and other sensitive electronic parts lies in maintaining the exact punch position during the cutting and coining process. Only BRUDERER can assure a prolonged tool life due to the unique ram guiding technology and the dynamic ram BDC adjustment.

Small in size but huge in precision and performance! The compact machine design of the new BSTA series guarantees the best possible cost /benefit ratio and is the perfect choice for small but precise stamped parts like connectors, contacts, watch parts or razor blades.

Different parts used in the communication industry require an extremely high level of accuracy arising from complex bending and coining stages. The BSTA series offer not only accuracy but also unsurpassed repeatability and high performance for increased output and reduced manufacturing costs.

Welcome to the world of high performance stamping.

Welcome to BRUDERER. from the unequalled durability of the stamping machines. The proof of this is a large number of satisfied customers – who have been using our products for decades – from diversified fields, including the connector industry, watchmaking,

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Headquarters BRUDERER AG CH-9320 Frasnacht · Switzerland Tel. +41 71 447 75 00 · Fax +41 71 447 77 80 info@ch.bruderer-presses.com

automotive and lamination industries. No matter how complex your application is, the worldwide BRUDERER team will find a solution that serves your needs efficiently and effectively.

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ENQUIRY NO 197

“Made by BRUDERER” is a guarantee that has, over the past six decades, become a worldwide synonym for outstanding precision, performance, reliability and highly efficient stamping technology. BRUDERER customers also profit


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Deep Sea

Rated Laser scanning and design softwares provide a fast and efficient route from prototype to production for the smaller boat builder. By Deri Jones, MD, Deri Jones & Associates

B

ased on the island of Islay, Stormcats are producers of commercial fibreglass boats in Scotland. They approached Glasgow based naval architects Marine Design Int’l (MDI) for advice on improving the flexibility of the existing hull range and creating the next generation of hull moulds. MDI are long term associates of Deri Jones & Associates (DJA), having worked on many marine projects together, from fishing boats to superyachts. Their awareness on the use of laser scanning on larger projects and a discussion on cost reduction led them to recommend laser scanning on these smaller vessels.

It is possible to capture existing structures for reverse engineering by working on a variety of software packages.

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The Scanning Process Geospatial Solutions (GSS) and DJA suggested scanning the existing range of hulls using Faro Laser Scanner LS880, producing a resolution point cloud model of the hull shape, accurate to +/-5mm. A method of scanning the hulls was devised, allowing the entire range of hulls to be scanned in one session. A total of 18 scans were carried out, capturing an average of 17 million points per vessel.

was continually checked against the original point cloud data, giving confidence in the supplied data. CAD model/point cloud mapping also allowed MDI and Stormcats access to information on the symmetry of the hulls – critical when dealing with fast vessels and allowing improvements in performance and efficiency. MEN Enquiry No. 4207

The Art Of Modelling Hull shapes varied from a simple rowing boat to a complex, high-speed hull shape known as a ‘Cathedral’ hull. Traditional naval architecture techniques for capturing hull shapes using plumb bobs, tape measures and optical levels would have required many hours of patient measurements and would not have been able to provide the level of detail achievable with the laser scanner. On return to the office, the laser scans were cleaned and separated to create point clouds for each of the hulls in Faro’s Scene software. Aligned to a common centreline and vertical axis, the point data was imported to Pointools and then to Rhino 3D CAD software. The software is recognised for marine modelling and for creating accurate 3D NUR BS surface models from point cloud data. It allowed GSS/ DJA to supply MDI with clean CAD data. Accuracy of the 3D CAD model

Point cloud data are converted to marine modelling and surface models.


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Blast From The Past, Or Is It?

Profile projectors are maintaining its relevance in the fast changing world of metrology. By Tom Groff, North American sales manager, Optical Gaging Products Inc. 38

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h e p r o f i l e p r o j e c t o r, a l s o k n ow n a s op t ic a l compa rator ha s be en used for quality control inspection for more than 70 years. Despite its maturity, the projector is still around and going strong. Its lasting value comes from its versatility in today’s manufacturing env iron ment s. T he eye of t he operator provides the precision. Although the fundamental design is essentia lly uncha nged, over time, the role of the projector has changed along with manufacturing technology. As its descriptive names imply, one of the earliest uses for the projector was the measurement of contours on a workpiece, its straight, curved or varying edges.

Simple Solutions All projectors offer a large viewing screen capable of displaying an enlarged profile image of features on the part at an exact optical magnification. This allows the magnified profile of the feature to be directly compared to a matching master profile printed on a customised chart gauge that is placed over the viewing screen. The typical chart gauge shows not only the nominal feature shape but also the min/max profile tolerances specified for the feature. The chart gauge allows relatively unskilled users to easily determine the conformance of the part to its specifications. This optica l technique is called measurement by comparison, commonly used on lead screws. While the projector offers a quick go/no - go eva luation, prov iding quantitative numerical data when measuring by comparison can be difficult. The measurement process is always subjective since the user’s eyesight and degree of care can both enter into the evaluation of the part. With the advent of digital position readout systems (DROs) for the projector’s table motion, the primary tasks that projectors perform today

have slowly changed from full screen measurement by comparison, to measurement by translation relative only to the screen centreline.

Video Measuring Systems Today nearly every manufacturer of projectors also offers several models of automat ic v ide o in sp e c t ion equipment. Modern video measuring systems use solid-state cameras to electronically evaluate optical images projected into the camera. Computers a re prog ra mmed to analyse the camera images for the location and size of pre-selected features on the part as they are brought into view. The system’s software detects edges automatically and evaluates pre-selected feature size and location numerically. When nominal values and tolerances for the feature are supplied, deviations from nominal and out of tolerance conditions can be generated automatically. CNC v ideo mea suring machines ca n automate inspections and eliminate user variability. If video measuring systems work quickly and automatically and provide numerical evaluations of features on the part without subjective human intervention why use a projector? This

is where the projector’s versatility comes into play.

Easier On A Projector There are a few tasks that are more efficiently performed on a projector than on a video inspection system. Measurement by comparison of parts that fit within the field of view with a chart gauge is fast and easy. The eye is excellent at determining pa ra llelism a nd spacing when aligning a chart gauge and a part. As the illustration shows, the shadow of the part is within the minimum and ma ximum profile tolerances shown as the dashed lines. There is a n impor ta nt te c h n ic a l co n side rat io n whe n measuring by comparison. Since t his me a su reme nt ut ilise s t he entire screen a re a, it require s accurate, distortion-free images across the full screen. High- quality optics and illumination sources play critical roles in making effective measurements w ith this technique. Precision assembly and manual alignment of miniature components are easier on a projector because orientation and adjustment are more easily performed when the user can see a large area on the viewing screen.

The projector (left) images the magnified view of the part directly on a large frosted screen. The video measuring system (right) images the part on a solid-state detector that is typically smaller than an inch across and contains numerous, individual pixels. The electrical signals of all the pixels, corresponding to different light levels, are analysed by software to determine feature locations and presented on a video monitor.

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Projectors allow evaluation of subtle characteristics in an image

A field of view of three inches is available at a magnification of 10 times on projector with a 30-inch diameter viewing screen. An entire three-inch workpiece magnified 10 times in a single scene on the screen makes position and alignment easy to see. Projectors with a horizontal viewing axis are particularly convenient to use for tasks requiring a lot of manual manipulation because the user is located directly in front of the screen with the assembly easily at hand on the worktable. Open set- up spot check measurements require less time and less skill to perform on a projector. In fact, the projector can have the answer before the video system has 40

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

even initialised. This is particularly true for angle measurements, which can be done in a couple of ways. A chart gauge with the specific a n g le o n it c a n b e me a su re d by comparison as above. Most projectors offer a rotating viewing screen with a protractor assembly for angle measurement. Aligning the screen crosshairs to an angled edge takes only a matter of seconds and is simple and easy for any user to do. An e x a mple o f ne we r te c h nolo g y applied to projectors is the use of digital rotary encoders that make angle measurements even easier. The procedure is the same, but the angles are digitally displayed in 0.01-degree increments on a DRO.

The alternative procedure on a video measuring machine or CMM requires acquiring points along each side of the angle, then fitting and intersecting those lines to get the angle. Tool presetting for adjustment of cutters used for metal removal on numerically controlled machine tools is a common exa mple of both the manual assembly and alignment functions, and the open set-up functions using the protractor and measurement by translation available on projectors. Projectors offer a mea ns to evaluate subtle characteristics in an image such as colour, texture, and roughness. These subjective eva luations ca n be done by comparing the part against a known standard part or, with experience, by making the required evaluations directly ba sed on selected characteristics in the image. Tasks like inspection for flaws and measuring features that are indistinct because of roughness, dirt, low contrast, or poor focus are often easily accomplished with projectors. Finding a burr can be a side benefit during a ny inspection. R a ndom f laws a nd i nd i st i nc t , variable features are difficult to programme on an automatic video system, and essentially impossible on a CMM.

Projecting The Future It is true that the modern projector can have electronic edge detection located at the centre of the viewing screen that will detect high contrast backlighted edges. The projector may also have a DRO for the table movement with geometric feature computation functions built in. While these capabilities can significantly extend the projectorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s usefulness the projector is still not nearly as capable of full automation as the modern video inspection system. So why is the projector still with us? With a projector we, the user, can easily and accurately perform a wide variety of tasks without


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programming anything. We are the source of the projector’s versatility. Over our lifetime each of us interacts with our surroundings primarily through our eyesight. The human eye and brain naturally provide critical judgments in the context of the measuring task at hand just by looking at the viewing screen. I t i s ou r e x p e r ie nce , whe n applied to the images we see on the screen of the projector that helps us extract information well beyond just dimensional relationships. This capability far exceeds even that of the most advanced video inspection systems. Projectors and video measuring systems will continue to co-exist because each is good at what it does. When and where you use each one depends on what you need, and how fast and often you need it. In any case, it is a safe bet that the big round projector screens would continue to be seen in manufacturing operations everywhere. MEN Enquiry No. 4208

The operator is the source of the projector’s versatility.

Using A Profile Projector? Read On... Not Lost In Translation

Appropriate Screen Size & Magnification

Before moving worktables were incorporated into projectors, special slide fixtures with accompanying chart gauges were used to measure long parts that did not fit within the field of view. Eventually, micrometer heads were incorporated into worktables to track changes in position. Higher end projectors now use glass scales integrated into a geometric processor with a DRO for making measurements. There are two main advantages to measuring by translation. First, because part features are measured at the screen centreline, there is no need to image the entire part at once. This means that large parts that could not possibly be imaged all at once no matter how large the projector can be measured easily. Second, projectors can operate in CNC mode when worktables are combined with motor drives, edge detection and automation software. This significantly increases productivity and reduces operator subjectivity. In order to measure accurately using worktable motion, optical stability and mechanical accuracy are paramount. In addition, when measuring in CNC mode, edge detection must be repeatable.

Projectors range from small benchtop units to floor models with screens of 30 inch diameter or more. Lenses from 5x to 100x are typically available. The field of view (size of the area being magnified) equals the screen diameter divided by the lens magnification. Here is the calculation for a 20x lens on a 20 inch projector: 20”/20 = 1” This means that one inch of the part will fill the screen at 20 inch. Therefore, a feature that is 0.01 inch will image as 0.2 inch on the screen. That same lens on a 30 inch projector will image an area of 1.5 inch on the part. Projectors make it easy to satisf y the 10:1 rule for measurement. Use a 10x lens and the image is ten times larger than the field of view. Quick-change lens mechanisms make it easy to use different magnifications on a projector allowing different levels of resolution for a particular inspection, or different magnifications per part.

Enquiry No. 4209 May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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Form

Sheet Metal Advances:

Old Ideas,

Move Over!

Processing thin sheets of metal can be more economical if innovative designs and fresh process selection are used. By Melvin Tham, product manager, bending technology, Trumpf Asia Pacific

T

he ma x imu m a llowable cost of a sheet metal part is determined before designing work beg ins. Natura lly, the more economical the part is, the better. There are two ways of achieving this. You can either save on material or cut costs in production. ‘Economical’ however, is not the same as ‘cheap.’ The goal is to combine the various production factors – t he t y pe of mater ia l, mater ia l consu mpt ion, t ime, machines, and tools – in the best way possible. Production factors influence each other. One change can often times have a positive effect on a number of different areas. For example, a reduction in the number

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of single parts used to create a module not only saves material, but it also concurrently reduces production time.

Change In Thinking As a general rule, it is better if comp one nt s compr ise a sma l l number of complex parts than a large number of simple parts. Today’s ma nu factur ing te chnique s a nd programming software make it easy to produce complex single parts but the joining process on the other hand are usually very time consuming. Why weld when you can bend? Welding not only takes up valuable time, but also generates heat that could potentially distort the workpiece. For this reason,

it is always a good idea to check whether an attached part can be subst itute d by simply bending another section. This eliminates the need for welding along with all the associated preparation work such as setting up, aligning, and clamping the parts. When welding is unavoidable, new designs and methods to doing things do have its benefits. For insta nce, cle a nup work ca n be reduced by eliminating welding seams entirely, by welding sections from the inside, or by designing edges so that they are straight and smooth a fter welding. New manufacturing techniques such as laser welding also help to reduce cleanup work.


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The ‘New’ Welding Generally welding application is for less precision parts. Welding process distorts the profile and therefore will not be considered for precision construction. TruDisk technology however, solves this problem. The laser application is able to apply welding process without distorting the sheet metal and therefore able to maintain within tolerance and reduce the cleanup work. Laserwelding sheet metal yields required flatness on sheet metal after welding. In addition, the sheet metal is water and airtight after the process. The salient point here is also the cosmetic effect on the product.

While considering the design, we also need to explore whether the technolog y of our machine can support and complete the process. For air bending, it reduces 5 to 10 t i m e s o f wo rk i n g fo rce required as compared to bottoming method (depending on the material thickness). For example, air bending can b e nd m i ld ste e l o f 10 m m w it h

a force of 607k N/m. Bottoming the mildsteel on the other hand, requires 4,400kN/m. Air bending has the advantage to bend different angle required. C o i n i n g / b o t to m i n g i s a l s o required at times but generally, we use it for forming purposes (eg: simple lourve, embossing). MEN Enquiry No. 4301

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Sheet Metal Advances:

High Speed

Stamp Of Approval The faster, the better â&#x20AC;&#x201D; this simple notion takes on a complex view in high speed stamping. By H Pecik, marketing manager, Bruderer

T

he term â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;high speedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; in connection with the stamping process is absolutely relative. Where block-cutting tools allow for the safe stamping of small parts with up to 2,000 strokes per minute, industrial applications often reach their limit at 100 strokes per minute. Depending

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metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

on the application and complexity of the part geometry, limits vary widely. It goes without saying that higher speeds are also in demand for the stamping sector. The constantly incre a sing cost pre ssure of ten creates temptation for users to raise the production speed. In many cases, however, the existing operating

facilities are simply running at higher speeds neglecting the fact that they are not designed for the higher number of strokes per minute. This invariably leads to problems and less than satisfying results. The entire stamping line must be attuned to the higher output if the direction for a higher production speed is taken.


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There are also different approaches to increa se productiv ity. More parts per stroke are more effective than mere speed boosting in most cases as it causes less wear and less unforseeable problems.

Cutting Speed & Quality In the pa st, severa l automatic punching presses with speeds of up to 4,000 spm were offered. Heralded as the latest trend at the time, it has however, fallen from grace as the problems with periphery, tool technology and heat influence led to unsatisfactory results. Additionally, such machines are only available with short fixed strokes and small clamping areas, which turns them into mere single-purpose machines. T he m ac h i ne sp e e d i s o ne criterion, but the resulting cutting spe e d of t he pu nching tool is something quite different. Next to the machine speed, the cutting speed also depends on the set stroke height and the angle at which the tool hits the material. Depending on the individual appl ic at ion, t he u se r ne e d s a higher or slower impact speed with which the tool hits the band material. Low speeds are mainly suited for embossing and bending, h ig h sp e e d s of fe r adv a nt a ge s in cutting processes. In general smaller strokes are preferred as the dynamic influences are reduced and tool wear is minimised. But how does the material react to the different cutting and impact speeds of the punching tools? Internal tests at the university of Darmstadt in 1990 showed that better results are achieved with cutting speeds above 0.8 m/sec in terms of burr formation and cut surfaces. They become better when increasing the ram speed up to 5 m/sec. In order to achieve this goal, however, the machine must allow for adjusting large strokes while the impact angle of the cutting tool must lie way below reaching the Bottom Dead Centre (BDC). To at least realise the said 0.8 m/sec, the

A well-balanced load distribution is key for desired results.

following adjustments would be necessary for instance: machine speed 1,000 spm, 30 mm stroke, impact point 2 mm before BDC. In case of smaller stroke heights, as they are to be found with fixed stroke machines for high speed applications, the speed would thus have to be raised to the extreme in order to achieve the same effect. This again leads to problems with the dynamic accuracy and the life of machine and punching tool. In contrast to most machines with longitudinal shafts, machines equipped with adjustable stroke allow for the adjustment of long strokes for high cutting speeds on the one hand, but also for setting small strokes suited for lower speeds on the other. With a machine concept offering the desired flexibility, the toolmaker may aim at the perfect compromise between tool life and part quality by an optimised tool design and construction.

Stamp Fast, Stamp Safe? How to incre a se t he sp e e d of stamping without compromising the safety of the process is the challenge which automatic punching press manufacturers are facing today. Bruderer offers machines, which may be operated at up to 2,000 spm. In cooperation with the press control, almost everything may be monitored, measured and where necessary, controlled with BSTA

type machines. The so-called first and last hit accuracy is also of importance in this context, as it must be granted that the ram speed upon reaching the BDC is high enough not to produce any noticeable variations i n t he s t a mp i n g de pt h o f t he punched parts. Fur thermore, it is just a s important to stop the ram as quickly as possible as soon as an error is detected in the system. What good does high speed do if the ram continues to run through the BDC 10 times after detecting a mis-stroke thus breaking the complex punching tools? The resulting damage would be substantial. A n automatic punching pre ss must comply w ith the se requirements on the whole. Which is why mechanics and electronics must be harmonised with each other without thereby abandoning the high flexibility, accuracy, and a long machine life. T he topic of h ig h - sp e e d in st a mpi n g pro ce s se s m i g ht b e elaborated on in much more detail at this point. The essence is to understa nd, however, that the forces do not rise linearly to the speed increase but quadratically. This means that a small cause may have a big effect. MEN Enquiry No. 4302 May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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Michelle W, Ocho Rios, Jamaica

spotlight

Aerospace:

G

lobal aerospace manufacturing revenue in 20 08 wa s estimated to reg ister more t ha n US$337 billion with growth below 7.0 percent, lower than the previous years. Frost & Sullivan estimated Asia Pacific’s revenue at US$47.9 billion or 14.2 percent of the global output, a slightly higher growth rate than the global average. Year 2008 has been a challenging year for the aerospace manufacturing industry with the record breaking oil price hike in decades, which has seen amplified logistics costs due to the globalised nature of manufacturing supply chain. This has resulted in many business experts disagreeing in the idea of expanding a company network of suppliers to other low costs countries because in the end they will still have to pay extra on the logistic costs. Prior to the oil price hike, Airbus in 20 06 tra nsferred their A 320 aircraft assembly into Tianjin, China due to the expected high demand in the region. The choice was made as they already enjoy a strong network of suppliers in the Asia Pacific region. The plant started operations in 2008 and is currently assembling four A320 aircraft with expected delivery this year.

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metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

The

Sky’s The Limit

Asia Pacific sees emerging aerospace manufacturing plants despite the economic slowdown. By Syahril Shariff, consultant, Asia Pacific aerospace & defence practice, Frost & Sullivan. Taking A New Route It is going to be tough for OEMs this year to sustain the growth that they have been enjoying in the past few years due to the current slowing economies. On Jan 9, 2009, Boeing said it would cut administrative manpower in its commercial aircraft division by 6.6 percent or 4,500 workers; however it will still retain the production work force due to the huge backlog orders in the pipeline worth more than US$270 billion. Manufacturing costs in North America and Europe is high. With the worsening economy, costs structures will need to be re-examined to face stronger competition which drives the industry to strategically re-align their business model to be able to sustain regionally and globally in the long term. L e a n m a nu fa c t u r i n g to d ay becomes more important for most

OEMs with the right sizing of their operations. A lot of OEMs today are adopting Six Sigma, Kanban, Kaizen, JIT, performance based logistics and any other best practices to reduce cost of operations and increase their efficiencies. The Nor th A merica n region currently commands about 49.0 percent of global revenue. With increasing cost structures in the region, we may see a reduction of revenue shares from North America shifting towards emerging and lower cost regions such as Asia Pacific, South America and Eastern Europe as OEMs shift their supply chain networks. Many OEMs integrators such as Airbus and Boeing are shifting their production facility to low labour cost countries in Asia Pacific. OEMs are also actively seeking ways to reduce manufacturing costs by outsourcing more ‘design to build’


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Tel: (62)21-898 0841 Fax: (62)21-898 0842 E-mail: ptmi@mitutoyo.co.id

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Tel: (84)4-3768 8963 Fax: (84)4-3768 8960

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packages rather than just ‘build to print’ to tier one OEMs. This has led to tier one OEMs to be responsible for the maintenance programmes for assemblies and parts that they design and manufacture. China

Friendly Skies

Taiwan India

Malaysia Singapore Indonesia

Countries Expected To Experience Growth In Aerospace Manufacturing (Asia Pacific), 2008 - 2020

North America

More Work Packages Outsourced To Asia Pacific Manufacturers

Europe

Australia

Aerospace Manufacturing Revenue Forecast (Asia Pacific), 2008 - 2020 $70 $60 Revenue, US$Billion

Asia Pacific will see or rather is already seeing the emergence of new aerospace manufacturing plants despite the economic slowdown. Examples of new manufacturing pla nt s t hat a re sta r t i n g t he i r operations in Asia Pacific in 2009 are Honeywell Aerospace and Spirit Aerosystems in Malaysia, Rolls Royce in Singapore and few other OEMs. Entrance of prominent primes or OEMs into the region will not only increase the work packages of Asia Pacific manufacturers but will also attract existing suppliers of OEMs from North America and Europe to invest and enter the Asia Pacific market. While other industries are cutting down manpower, job opportunities still ex ist in the aerospace manufacturing in Asia Pacific due to expansion. Most OEMs are also replacing high paying employees and expatriate with lower cost, local fresh graduates. Countries that are expecting to experience growth in aerospace manufacturing activities in the region are Malaysia, China, Australia, Taiwan, Singapore and a few other countries.

South Korea Japan

$50 $40 $30 $20 $10 $0 Airframe

Engines

Components

2008

2020

Avionics

Others Source: Frost & Sullivan

Air Turbulence Ahead? The price of oil dropped tremendously in the past few months. In addition, OEMs are bearing the brunt of the global economic slowdown. Total air traffic growth expected to reduce to below 6.0 percent per annum with air cargo market experiencing the highest decline in growth rates. Airlines have been the most affected industry due to the reducing air tra ffic dema nd resulting in capacity cut down and aircraft orders being cancelled or delayed. Some Asia Pacific Low Cost Carrier (LCC) is expected to bear losses with declining passenger demand in 48

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

certain sectors as consumers tighten their disposable income to prepare for the economic slowdown despite declining fuel price. Nevertheless, the stronger LCC players in the region are expected to sustain growth for 2009 as business travellers shift to LCC from legacy airlines in the move to cut their companies’ operational costs. Along with lower traffic volumes, another point to note is the effects of fuel hedging. During the price hike in June to July last year, a lot of major airlines hedged their fuel expecting jet fuel prices to stay

high. Right now they are suffering from this hedging as prices have dropped lower than expected. We estimate the global aircraft fleet will reduce by 2.0 percent due to the economic slowdown with Asia Pacific delivery reducing to 17,000 new aircraft within the next 21 years. Ending on a good note, there are very few airlines today cancelling orders, as air travel has become a commodity service in most Asia Pacific countries with few deferred deliveries. MEN Enquiry No. 4401


ENQUIRY NO 079


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A

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Quick Fix

Dimensional measurements are sometimes complicated matters where special fixtures are required to aid the operators. By Maren Roeding, PR manager, Witte Far East.

E

xhaustive control checks a nd ma intena nce of sensitive aircraft parts must be carried out regularly. Certain parts, such as landing gears, on which strong demands are made, are given to special repair companies.

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metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

As those companies often do not have the original drawings of the components available, dimensional checking in the range of quality control is often very extensive. They have to work according to basic data supplied by the manufacturers.

Position and diameter of bushes often fall into that category. Time and again it is not known in which alignment the part was measured. However, when it is a matter of highest accuracy, the alignment of a part and the support points must be


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is called for, whereby individual and highly accurate measuring fixtures are built on the spot.

Modular Systems

Modular systems allow flexibility as all components can be disassembled and made available to build a new fixture.

taken into account for dimensional measurement. As these details are often not available, checking of complex parts proves to be problematic. To get around this, part fixturing is used, especially with heavy parts, which are often the case in the aircraft industry. Part fixturing has considerable influence on the measuring results.

Getting Your Fix In order to achieve comparability of results, measuring must always take place with the part in the same situation eg: in installation position, horizontally or vertically.

After successfully measuring the data, results are sent to the part manufacturer for comparison purposes. If deviations are established, measuring with different alignment must be done again. Problems ensue when dedicated measuring fixtures cannot be adapted and therefore are no longer of any use for changed support situations. Additionally, it is mostly small quantities which have to be checked, whereby the manufacture of a new dedicated fixture is often not costeffective, especially if they have to be made two or three times. In such cases the use of modular fixturing systems

The user remains independent of fixture builders, which can lead to considerable savings. Modular s y ste m s suc h a s A lu f i x a l low precision and reusability of almost all components. It enables adaptation of finished fi x tu re s, cater ing for update d measuring requirements at the customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s plant. When the fixture is no longer required, it is completely disassembled and all components are free to build a new fixture. Investment in a modular fixturing system pays for itself after only a few applications. As parts in the aircraft industry to be checked are often large and require corresponding coordinate measuring machines, many repair companies in Singapore work together w ith me a suring laboratories. Witte Far East provides individual measuring fixtures for each part to be measured. Even for large parts up to 6 m, modular fixtures are built at short notice, whereby all special support requirements are taken into account. Enquiry No. 4402

Witte Far East:

Modular Fixturing System Made out of high-tensile aluminium for measuring fixtures, checking gauges, assembly or welding fixtures, cubing, gauges, meisterbocks, blue bucks, data control models, Alufix by Witte Far East is a modular fixturing system. Deployable in design, R&D and prototyping areas where a lot of changes take place, this modular system for holding workpieces is available in six sizes. The different system sizes can be combined with each other. After use, fixtures can be disassembled and the single components can be used for new fixtures. MEN

Enquiry No. 4403

May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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T

he mechanical machining of aero engine parts can hardly be compared with other areas of machining. There are very special requirements associated with hard-to-machine materials and comprehensive quality management. While automobile suppliers or machining companies use new tools and machining methods to optimise their general mechanical engineering processes, production processes especially for sensitive components in the aero engine industry have largely stopped. The reasons for this are far-reaching quality regulations, and in the end, safety. Under these circumsta nces, te c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n machining are usually applied to the aero engine industry some time afterwards. However, if new aero engine projects are being engineered, this of course is based on the most up to date machining technology.

SkyWorks

Machining of aero components is in the class of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own where special requirements and advanced technologies are quite simply, the industrial norm. Contributed by Bernhard WeihermĂźller, Walter Tools

Fine Margins Due to the long life cycle terms of single aero engine types (up to 40 years), many individual processes remain valid throughout this time. T he cu stome r s on l y p e r m it a specified range in which the supplier can move within the procedures without permission. This range is very small, with rotating parts inside the aero engine. With stationary parts on exterior surfaces, (eg: with casings) it is greater. The latter also applies to premachining which becomes critical when close to the final contour. 52

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

(Top)There is only a fine margin in machining aero parts (Bottom) Tools used in aerospace technology are almost all special tools


When it comes to testing the hardness of your workpiece or specimens, Mitutoyo has the widest range of Testing System to meet your needs...

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24 Kallang Avenue, Mitutoyo Building, Singapore 339415 Tel : (65) 6294 2211 Fax : (65) 6299 6666 E-mail : mapsg@mitutoyo.com.sg http://www.mitutoyo.com.sg Mitutoyo (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.

Mitutoyo (Thailand) Co., Ltd.

PT. Mitutoyo Indonesia

Ho Chi Minh City Rep. Office

M(M)S.B. - Penang Branch Tel: (60)4-641 1998 Fax: (60)4-641 2998 E-mail: mmsbpen@mitutoyo.com.my

MTC - Cholburi Branch Tel: (66)3-834 5783 Fax: (66)3-834 5788

Philippine Representative Office

Hanoi Representative Office

E-mail: mph@mitutoyo.com.ph

E-mail: mitutoyo-hn@mitutoyo.com.vn

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M(M)S.B. - Johor Branch Tel: (60)7-352 1626 Fax: (60)7-352 1628 E-mail: mmsbjhr@mitutoyo.com.my

Tel: (66)2-521 6130 Fax: (66)2-521 6136 E-mail: office@mitutoyo.com.sg

MTC - Amata Nakorn Branch Tel: (66)3-846 8976 Fax: (66)3-846 8978

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Tel: (63)2-842 9305/6 Fax: (63)2-842 9307

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“During machining, material can become compressed, and this can cause structural changes leading to t he build - up of u nintended tensions,” explains Michael Kirbach, purchasing manager at Aerotech Peissenberg, a manufacturer of aero engine components. “In thermally and mechanically stressed components such effects must be avoided, that is, specific limit values must not be exceeded,” he adds. The workpiece and its machining therefore requires authorisation from the customer. To attain this, the components are examined thoroughly in the laboratory before they go into production. For the aero engine specialists this means that changes to tools and cutting values, once fixed, are a ssociated with a renewed authorisation effort. If, for productivity reasons, you wish to d e v i a te f r o m t h e d e f i n e d manufacturing specification, the release procedure (eg: laboratory tests) must be initiated again.

Examining The Cut Demands for up to date machining technologies give manufacturing e x per t s t he oppor tu nit y to contribute. Most components almost always have low wall thicknesses and high cutting forces increasing the tendency to cause distortion. As such, special fixtures and brainstorming sessions are often required. “We sit down at a table with the aero engine designers to work out production-oriented solutions together,” reports Manfred Zimmer, production manager at Aerotech. Materials used for machining include high-temperature chrome nickel alloys, nickel based alloys and titanium alloys. People who work with such materials need a reliable tool partner. “The tools used in aerospace technology are almost all special tools which are produced according to customer specifications. The special features become evident during roughing and fine finishing 54

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

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with end, cylindrical and face milling cutters, in terms of projection lengths, corner radii, number of teeth and above all also with regard to the fine geometry of the cutting edges,” says Reinhold Sanhieter, technical consultant at Walter. Extremely sharp cutting edges tend to chip faster if there are vibrations. The cutting edges are rounded off at the µ level specifically for this reason. How much, and in which way, depends on the material. The tooth geometry also varies; Inconel needs a more stable cutting edge and consequently a smaller rake angle than in titanium alloys. Standard tools are a minority and are mainly confined to drills and taps. To the variety of the tool variants grouped together for the reasons mentioned, you can add that the milling cutter, indexable insert etc. are not used up until the end of their tool edge life, but are in use up until a permitted wear point on the cutting edge. “We replace tools much earlier than in other areas,” explains Mr Kirbach, “this again has to do with the continuity of the material structure; as wear on the cutting edge increases, unwanted surface compression also increases,” he concludes.

Aero-ing Into The Future Aero engine parts are predominantly turned parts, but the need for milling cutters is increasing. Years ago, the ratio for turning/milling machining was 80:20; today it is about 70:30. This follows the trend of more complex turning parts; the best examples are the casings, which have to be machined with many slots and flanges. On the other hand, the proportion of orders at Aerotech for static components is increasing steadily. The reason for this development is that aero engine manufacturers are steadily reducing the number of their suppliers. “This has also further increased t he imp or ta nce of complete mac h i n i n g u si n g mu lt it a sk i n g machines with as few clamps as possible,” explains Mr Zimmer. In turn, this requires a correspondingly flexible tool strategy. As a result, the number of indexable insert tools is increasing. It is precisely the stationary components with less strict approval procedures that provide a greater opportunity to implement a machining strategy that uses new tool types. MEN Enquiry No. 4404

Walter:

Designed For Cast Iron

With the Paradur ECO-CI tap for pocket and through-holes, Walter has now managed to speed up the job of making threads in cast iron. The reason behind the increase in productivity is to be found concealed in the technical details of this threading tool. On the one hand it is down to Xtra treat surface treatment ensuring that coating is a controlled process. On the other hand, a composite layer is given here which, together with the graded TiCN multilayer hard-materials coating, will ensure high cutting speeds and a long tool edge life. The product is suitable for making threads down to a depth of 3.5 x d in short-chipping cast-iron materials.

Enquiry No. 4405


ENQUIRY NO 086


IndustryspotLight EVENTS & EXHIBITIONS

Aerospace Supplier eXchange 2009

T

he inaugural Aerospace Supplier eXchange (ASX), a regional conference and exhibition that mainly showcases the aerospace suppliers in tier 3 and 4 of the industry â&#x20AC;&#x201D; where they provide support to the aerospace OEMs and after market maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) companies. The conference similarly focuses on the aerospace supply industry, looking both at macro issues as well as micro issues such as supplier certification and regulatory requirements. Organised by the Association of Aerospace Industries (Singapore) in partnership with IIR Exhibitions, the event will take place at Singapore Expo from May 27 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 29, 2009 from 1030 to 1800hrs. An estimated 3,000 trade professionals and visitors will network with some 50 exhibiting companies who are showcasing their most innovative products and services.

Exhibitor & Visitor Profile Supported by the Singapore Economic Development Board, IE Singapore and SPRING Singapore, ASX 2009 is a full two-day conference complemented by a three-day exhibition. It serves as a platform for the industry to meet, network, and participate in seminars by esteemed speakers, as well as understanding the procurement and quality needs of major OEMs. Intended to be a biennial event, the ASX aims to be the event for all tier 3 and 4 aerospace companies to exhibit their products and services, and one whereby buyers from the tier 1 and 2 suppliers and OEM will view as important to their sourcing needs. Major exhibitors range from materials suppliers, machine tooling, jigs and fixtures, technology suppliers, logistics and supply chain management, asset management, fasteners and plastics, design and manufacturing. Supporting industry in areas of training and development, trade compliance and more will also be part of the exhibition. Amongst the expected crowd will be procurement managers, quality assurance personnel, operations personnel, managers and supervisors and R&D heads of department. In conjunction with this event, Singapore suppliers can also look forward to meeting key aerospace procurement decision makers in one to one business meetings at the Global Asia Trade Exchange (GATE) 09 Aerospace. C o - o r g a n i s e d b y I n te r n a t i o n a l E n te r p r i s e ( IE) Singapore, G ATE 09 Aerospace pre -matches aerospace buyers with the most suitable suppliers in a 56

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prequalification process, to facilitate efficient sourcing of end-to-end solutions for the industry. To coincide with ASX 2009, the first Singapore Aerospace Awards (SAA) supported by the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS), Singapore Economic Development Board (EDB), International Enterprise (IE) Singapore, SPRING Singapore, Singapore Workforce Development Agency (WDA) and Workforce Safety & Health (WSH) Council will also be held to celebrate the outstanding achievements of companies in the Singapore aerospace industry in areas such as innovation, technology adoption, workforce development, safety and fast growth.

Aviation Hub As an aviation hub, the Singapore aerospace industry is a mature one with strong projected growth over the next few years. According to a research study released in 2007, Singapore is the number one Asia Pacific MRO hub with comprehensive MRO capabilities and key infrastructure. Contributing over three percent of Singapore’s GDP last year, and with a strong compounded annual growth rate of more than 12 percent over the last 15 years, this industry is a stable and increasingly dynamic one, commanding strong local supplier support, and providing over 19,000 jobs locally. In the past three years, a growth area has been in the arena of aerospace manufacturing. Singapore has benefitted from major investments in this area in recent years which include Rolls Royce’s location of its S$320 million (US$213 million) aero engine assembly and test facility plant in Seletar Aerospace Park and Pratt and Whitney’s setting up of their component workshops here, employing more than 2,500 employees. The ASX underscores this critical mass of aerospace activities in Singapore, with the spotlight now on promoting and further growing the pool of local aerospace manufacturers who are vital towards supporting the tier 1 and 2 giants. ASX 2009 Singapore Expo Singapore 27 – 29 May 2009 Enquiry No. 4406 May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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Metalworking Fluids:

Bigger Bang For Your Bucks The changing operating climate facing automotive component manufacturing is placing increasing demands on metalworking fluids. By Laurent Barnagaud, global marketing manager of Shell Metalworking Lubricants.

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ajor countries have made clear commitments to reduce their countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gasoline consumption in the coming years. For example, the US has committed to reduce their consumption by 20 percent in the next 10 years. The reduction in consumption would be met, in part, by raising fuel economy standards for cars. As a result, vehicle manufacturers are looking to manufacture more economical vehicles. Achieving this without compromise to performance and design has presented automotive manufacturers with a particularly difficult R&D challenge. Manufacturers will have to begin to produce higher fuel efficient and lower carbon emission producing vehicles.

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To achieve this, while retaining and increasing the market appeal of their vehicles, many manufacturers are investing in new production techniques and technologies.

Changing Processes Tr a d i t i o n a l l y a u t o m o t i v e manufacturers have been focused on lowest price technology to deliver financial savings to customers but the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles, coupled with g row ing compet it ion from Fa r Eastern manufacturers are leading many to realise that investment now can have a major positive impact on future profitability. There is an evolution taking place at the moment â&#x20AC;&#x201C; from unit cost reduction to overall manufacturing cost reduction.

One method that automotive manufacturers have utilised to improve overall vehicle efficiency i s t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f l i g h te r components. Reducing the weight of components such a s vehicle tra nsmission, body work a nd gearboxes lowers the total weight of the finished vehicle and the dema nd place d on t he eng ine during acceleration. Therefore, lower total vehicle weight equals le s s f ue l con su mpt ion du r i n g engine combustion, increasing fuel performance. To make components lighter, manufacturers have switched from using basic steel compounds to va r ious a lloys a nd ot her light non - fer rous mater ia ls. T his


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Automotive manufacturers have reduced the weight of transmission and gearboxes to increase performance.

switch provides a component of comparative durability to steel, so t hat ma nu fac tu re rs do not have to alter vehicle design or performance. Furthermore, vehicle safety can be improved as the new alloys offer greater resistance to failure during impact. However, increasing the strength of the metal that is being machined will lead to an increase in cutting duration, temperature and chipping. As the majority of cutting fluids are developed to operate within certain temperature parameters, manufacturers must ensure that the fluid used is able to perform even with harsher demands of machining stronger metals.

If not, they risk facing long periods of unscheduled stoppages and high levels of component and equipment damage. One particularly successful method of protecting against these risks is by using a fitfor-purpose metalworking fluid. For example, lighter aluminium alloys are notorious for staining during the metal working process, leading to poorer quality finished product and wastage, which impacts on profitability. As these alloys are used more and more in the

automotive industry, a coolant is used to address these problems. Shell Lubricants Companies have developed a coolant for aluminium machining to offer lubricity and minimise staining. Shell Sitala D 3403 has resistance to foaming in soft water, limiting the number of production stops required and allowing high pump pressure and flow rate. A u to m o t i v e m a nu fa c t u re r s using the coolant can benefit from reduced operational costs as a result of limited fluid maintenance requirements and extended fluid stability, in addition to the reduced waste disposal costs resulting from extended oil life. All this makes manufacturers more profitable overall even though the product may be more expensive when judged by unit cost.

Fluid Overview Metalworking fluids play an important role in the smooth and efficient running of automotive component manufacturing equipment as well as the successful formation of the finished part. The extreme temperatures, high level of chipping and long continuous operational hours of metalworking pro ce sse s, such a s de ep hole

Alternative Materials Using these alternative materials for component production can help reduce total vehicle weight by around 25 percent, offering manufacturers a cost effective way of significantly improving vehicle efficiency and environmental performance. However, to reap the full financial benefits of this production solution, manufacturers need to ensure that their tools and metalworking fluids are able to cope with the pressures and issues related to machining tougher metals.

Metalworking fluids play an important role in the successful formation of the finished part.

May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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drilling, turning and broaching, place multiple demands on the fluid. It must provide lubrication, flushing and cooling properties to protect the tool part from accelerated wear and the finished part from surface damage and deformation. A ll meta lwork ing proce sses generate intense heat as the metals o r n o n - fe r r o u s m a te r i a l s a r e processed. However, the heat must be dissipated across the part surface and the friction must be reduced to avoid part damage and poor surface finish, which can be extremely costly for operators in terms of wastage and delays in production.

Selecting The Right Fluid When it comes to metalworking fluids, there is no one size fits all and selecting the right fluid for the right application is key to protecting against tool failure or part damage. If ma nufacturers a re cha ng ing t heir pro duc t ion proce ss to accommodate new, tougher metals or non - fer rous materia ls, they should always consider reviewing the performance properties of their metalworking fluid. In many cases, an experienced m e t a l wo rk i n g f lu i d s p rov i d e r will be able to assist automotive manufacturers in auditing the cutting processes and identifying fluid

Selecting the right fluid for the right application is key to protecting tool and part from damages.

dema nds. This approach helps determine the required EP rating, wetting, cooling, anti-corrosion and flushing performance of the fluid. The right metalworking fluid, s u p p o r te d w i t h t h e r e l e v a n t application expertise, will help automotive manufacturers protect their processes against expensive tool and component damage, while

maintaining uptime. In a market that continues to demand more value from the finished vehicle in terms of efficiency and environmental compl ia nce â&#x20AC;&#x201C; t h i s cou ld he lp manufacturers to ensure that their process remains productive and profitable. Enquiry No. 4501

Shell Lubricants: Micro-Wax Free Preventatives The Shell Ensis fluid range of corrosion preventatives, suitable for the protection of ferrous and non-ferrous metal surfaces, has been expanded with the addition of Shell Ensis PL 1608, a prelube using a micro-wax free technology. According to the producer, the two in one product with anti-rust properties has been designed to deliver key benefits to both the metal sector and its carmanufacturing customers. The micro-wax free technology also reduces the chances of filter blockages, which can lead to regular cleaning requirements as well as unplanned maintenance and downtime. In addition, up to 25 percent less prelube is required when using the product. Another key benefit for car manufacturers is the productâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s compatibility with processes further down the line, including adhering and degreasing.

Enquiry No. 4502 60

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w

P w REw R .A EG er IS oS TE up R N pl OW ie rX @ .c om

SINGAPORE’S FIRST AEROSPACE SUPPLIERS EVENT

THE

AEROSPACE

SUPPLY SHOW OF CHOICE

27-29 MAY 2009 (10.30am - 6.00pm DAILY) SINGAPORE EXPO WHY YOU SHOULD ATTEND: Meet potential business partners in a highly effective and efficient business environment Learn latest trends and developments in the Aerospace Sector Network with the global industry professionals Attend a comprehensive conference that provides valuable knowledge on safety and risk management, business strategy, procurement, aerospace supply chain, certification and regulations, and many others. Topics will focus on the aerospace industry’s interest in general, encompassing requirements and topics for both the MRO and Aerospace Manufacturing community. Conference speakers will come from esteemed companies such as Aerostrategy Management Consulting, CAA International, Federal Aviation Administration and Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore.

SEND VIA FAX TO (65) 6319 2669 � Yes, I will be attending ASX 2009, please send me more information � I am unable to attend at this time but please include me in your mailing list Name:

Job Title:

Company: Address: Tel:

Fax:

Email:

Business Activities:

For more information on ASX 2009, you may contact: Ms Michelle Tan, Project Coordinator Email: Michelle.Tan@iirx.com.sg IIR Exhibitions Pte Ltd 205 Henderson Road, #03-01 Henderson Industrial Park, Singapore 159549 Tel: (65) 6319 2668

SN: APMEN MAY/JUNE 09

Main Organiser:

1 Changi Business Park Avenue 1 #03-03, Ultro Building, Singapore 486058 Tel: (65) 6787 5227 Fax: (65) 6783 9129

Supported by:

Official Media:

Co-Organiser:

205 Henderson Road #03-01 Henderson Industrial Park, Singapore 159549 Tel: (65) 6319 2668 Fax: (65) 6319 2669

Official Conference Content Partner:

Supporting Media:

Virtual Management Partner:

Held In:

ENQUIRY NO 072

REPLY FORM

• • • •


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Tech

&Tact

It is worthwhile to identify new approaches that would help tool shops minimise pains which technology alone cannot help alleviate. By Hari Sridharan, VP of engineering, Cimatron

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ike ma ny ma nufacturing sectors, the tooling industry continues to experience mounting global competition, placing ongoing bu sine ss a nd operational challenges on tool shops across the industry. Those that thought these cha llenges were temporary in nature have either gone out of business or realised that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;change is here to stayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. Delivery, quality, and cost are the top three challenges facing tooling companies, according to a recent survey conducted by CIMdata, an industry research firm. These findings 62

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prompte d CA D/CA M solut ion s providers to identify new approaches that would help tool shops eliminate or minimise these pains. As with any practical framework, t h i s i s wo rk- i n - p ro ce s s . I t i s continuously used and honed as more tool shops are engaging in this effort.

A Common Pitfall W hen ta lk ing to tool shop executives, it became apparent that many do not take the time to analyse their business processes. Working in a highly competitive e nv i ro n me nt , f i re f i g ht i n g h a s

be come t he sta nda rd mode of operations at most shops. When faced with a challenge, the common reaction is to grab for the most immediate solution â&#x20AC;&#x201C; be it purchasing a new machine, ex tending busine ss hours, out sou rc i n g, or add i n g a new detached software solution. A s a re su lt, ma ny of t he se solutions fail to address the root causes of the problem at hand. More than 50 percent of tool shops polled in the CIMdata survey indicated that their first priority wa s to implement advanced technology.


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purchasing not only saves time by minimising the need for multiple data translations, it also increases data reliability, reduces errors and repeat work and minimises engineering changes. To get started, reduce the use of printed documents, with the eventual goal of operating as a paperless company.

Measuring result is an important part of the optimisation process.

A nother analysis revealed that many of these implementations failed to solve the problems for which they were acquired, as the following examples show: • Facing the need to ex pedite delivery times, a tool shop invested a significant amount of money to purchase additional machines. While the investment helped speed up machining, it created new bottlenecks throughout the process and ultimately fell short of reducing overall delivery times. • A not he r to ol shop t hat had trouble meeting delivery times began outsourcing their design work. Not only did the outsourcing increase their cost, the need for greater communication between parties negated any improvement in delivery times. Investment in technology alone fa iled to deliver t he e x pected results. It became clear that tool shops needed to look for other ways to improve operational results and examine the entire business processes.

Tool Shop Optimisation The starting point in any improvement is a clear understanding of the business goals. They are: increase productivity,

shorten delivery times, reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction as well as employee motivation. The more difficult question was how to get there. To help tool shops with this undertaking, an eight-step methodology was developed. 1. Identify The Best Process & Flow: All too often, companies invest in new technolog y or software, but oftentimes this merely moves bottlenecks from one area to another or creates other burdens in translation, as seen in the case studies above. The first step is to establish a streamlined process that covers all deliverables and milestones – from the initial price quote to the finished product. Inputs and outputs for each step in the process must be clearly identified, along with quality expectations and the value added to the finished product. Only once the entire process has been laid out can specific technologies and methods be considered for individual tasks; these would be evaluated based on their impact on the entire process, not just the task at hand. 2. Streamline Internal & External Communications: Direct data transfer with the customer, the de sig n tea m, shop floor a nd

3. I m p l e m e n t 3 D D e s i g n & Manufacturing: Striving towards concurrent processes, implementation of 3D data reduces downtime and eliminates the level of redundancy caused by manually entering data into the machines, as is the case with 2D design work. 4. Re-examine Outsourcing: Including your outsourced activities in your process design may reveal opportunities to bring work back inhouse and reduce costs, eliminate communication obstacles, and speed up delivery times in order to be more competitive. If certain activities must be outsourced, focus on improving the communication process with these partners and better integrating them into the overall process. 5. P l a n Fo r S u c c e s s : A s o l i d implementation plan is the key to the succe ss of the entire process. The implementation plan should consider all factors and constraints and include a contingency plan for unplanned events such as fluctuations in the shop’s workload. To shield customers from any negative impact during the implementation, maintaining and even improving delivery times throughout the transition should be a priority. 6. Acknowledge The Cost Of Change: The cost of cha nge must be acknowledged and quantified. What will be the loss of productivity during the initial i mple me ntat ion? W he n i s it May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

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gained back? At what point does productivity surpass previous levels through the optimisation? 7. Get Buy-in: The optimisation plan results in a more streamlined operational approach, usually with fewer steps in the tool making process. Resistance to change is natural, so getting all parties involved in the process early on is crucial to its success. 8. Mea sure Result s: Me a sur ing success is an important part of the optimisation process. Using this approach, the company has been able to help tool shops achieve tangible and measurable results, with over 30 percent increase in productivity and up to 50 percent design cost reduction. MEN Quoting is another area identified for process improvement.

Enquiry No. 4503

Case Study: From Screen To Machine Streamlining operations give small companies big competitive edge. Cam Tool & Engineering is a small tool and die shop facing increased competition from larger tool shops and overseas manufacturers. The company knew that in order to remain successful, they would have to remove all bottlenecks from their operations by reorganising their processes and employing the latest technologies.

3D visualisations help mouldmakers plan out their job.

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Craig Mog, founder and co-owner of Cam Tool, launched an effort to improve operations in his shop. He upgraded both his equipment and software. These new capabilities have enabled the company to operate more efficiently. For example, a job which previously required 90 percent burning could be done without any electrodes — everything was cut — generating time and cost savings. Similar process improvements have been realised on the design side, where a project that took 177 hours now takes about 55 hours to complete. These savings translate to faster delivery times that give the company an advantage over overseas manufacturers. Streamlining the entire process, which owner Craig Mog refers to as ‘Screen to Machine’ brings the company additional benefits. The ability to read customers’ files and do the design, NC and electrodes all within the same software means there is nothing lost in translation, which makes the entire process efficient and cost effective. As a result, the company has reduced the number of steps involved in their tool making processes, allowing them to cut costs and reduce delivery times while improving accuracy and expanding their product offerings.

Enquiry No. 4504


ENQUIRY NO 065


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Remanufacturing:

A New Lease Of Jeinny Solis, Mexico

Life

Often misunderstood, the concept of remanufacturing brings crystal clear benefits. By William C Gager, president, Automotive Parts Remanufacturers Association

R

emanufacturing is the disassembly of products during which parts are cleaned, repaired or replaced then reassembled to sound working condition. A product is considered remanufactured if its primary components come from a used product. There are also other instances whereby a product is deemed remanufactured. When a product is dismantled to the extent necessary to determine the condition of

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its components, when its components are thoroughly cleaned (made free from rust and corrosion), when all missing, defective, broken or substantially worn parts are either restored to sound, functionally good condition, or when they are replaced with new, remanufactured, or sound, functionally good used parts. Remanufacturing puts the product in sound working condition â&#x20AC;&#x201C; such machining, rewinding, refinishing or other operations are performed as necessary. They are reassembled and determined that it will operate like a similar new product. Other terms may be used interchangeably with remanufacturing in certain specific industry segments. One such term is rebuilt. Rebuilt is synonymous with remanufacturing when used in connection with motor vehicle parts and systems but not the entire vehicle. Recharged is synonymous with remanufacturing when used in connection with imaging products, such as laser toner cartridges.

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many legitimate remanufacturers use this term to describe their product. However, many times a recycled product may be, as in the automotive sector, removed from a scrap vehicle and resold with little or no work performed on it. Some recycled products are superficially cleaned, boxed and sold. Obviously, as described, recycled would not be considered remanufactured and its reliability is questionable. Repaired - This is not a precise term. Essentially it means that the product has had enough work done to it to make it operational again, but this would probably not be considered remanufactured. A holistic root cause analysis is generally not performed in the repair process, which means the product may not perform like a new product.

The definition of what remanufacturing is describes a process. If a product goes through this process it can be considered remanufactured. There are many terms, which may be confused with remanufacturing; including the following:

Used - Generally, this is a product that has been subjected to previous use and is not new. Nothing has been done to repair it or correct any problems it may have. Therefore, its useful life is unknown.

Recycled - A â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;recycledâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; product may very well meet the minimum remanufacturing requirements; and

In summary, when determining if a product is or is not remanufactured, it is imperative to consider first

Abert Albert, Spain

Dispelling The Fallacy

Restored/Reconditioned - These are generic terms generally applied to antique or classic goods as opposed to a mass market consumer product.

It may come as a surprise, but office equipment like toner cartridges are remanufactured as well.

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and foremost the process utilised. Some products are remanufactured more than others. They are motor vehicle parts, compressors, robots and aircraft parts.

Inherently, remanufacturing has positive environmental ramifications. In fact, many organisations are now using the concept of remanufacturing, if not the term, in their environmental literature. But why is remanufacturing considered the ultimate form of recycling? First, one must consider the definition of recycling. The term recycling is generally applied to consumable goods: such as newspapers, glass bottles and aluminium cans. However, recycling can also apply to durable goods – such as an engine. Once these goods are consumed, they may be recycled, meaning they are removed from the waste disposal stream, returned to their original raw material form and serve as raw materials for a manufacturing process. The environmental benefits of recycling are easy to comprehend; recycling reduces the quantity of waste headed for landfill space. If an engine were to be recycled, the steel from the item would be saved from the landfill space and could be used to produce another item requiring steel. H o w e v e r, r e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o f f e r s a b e t te r a lternative. According to a n entr y by professor Robert T Lund of Boston University in the book, ‘The American Edge: Leveraging Manufacturing’s Hidden Assets’, remanufacturing differs from recycling because remanufacturing ‘recycles’ the value originally added to the raw material. According to professor Lund: “Remanufacturing differs from recycling also, most importantly because it makes a much greater economic contribution per unit of product than does recycling. The essential difference arises in the recapture of value added.” “Value added is the cost of labour, energy, and manufacturing operations that are added to the basic cost of raw materials in the manufacture of a product. For all but the most simple durable goods, value added is by far the largest element of cost.” He went on to say: “Even in a product as simple as a beer bottle, the cost of the basic raw materials (sand, soda, and lime) is much less than five percent of the cost of a finished bottle. The rest is value added. For a product such as an automobile, the value of the raw materials that can be recovered by recycling is only in the order of 1.5 percent of the market value of the new car.” “Value added is embodied in the product. Recycling destroys that value added, reducing a product to its elemental value – its recoverable raw material constituents. Furthermore, recycling requires added labour, energy, and processing capital to recover the 68

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Robert Montgomery, Reno, USA

Ultimate Recycling

Rebuilt is synonymous with remanufacturing when used in connection with machine parts.

raw materials. When all of the costs of segregation, collection, processing, and refining are taken into account, recycling has significant societal cost. Society undertakes recycling only because, for all nondurable and many durable products, the societal cost of any other disposal alternative is even greater,” he concluded.

Other Environmental Benefits According to studies performed at the Fraunhofer Institute in Stuttgart, Germany, energy savings by remanufacturing worldwide in a year equals the electricity generated by five nuclear power plants or 10,744,000 barrels of crude oil which corresponds to a fleet of 233 oil tankers. They also determined that raw materials saved by remanufacturing worldwide in a year would fill 155,000 railroad cars forming a train 1,100 miles (1,770 km) long. Because products that are remanufactured are kept out of the waste stream longer, landfill space is preserved and air pollution is reduced from products that would have had to be resmelted or otherwise reprocessed. A product can always be recycled. Extending product life through remanufacturing though, is the key to leveraging the earth’s natural resources. Enquiry No. 4505


ENQUIRY NO 084


EVENTs&

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exhibitions

Machine Tool & Manufacturing

Indonesia 2009

E

ast Indonesia’s manufacturing show is moving to a bigger venue this year. To be held at the Grand City Convention & Exhibition Centre, Surabaya, Indonesia from June 3 - 6, 2009, the 2,442 sq m venue will showcase 239 exhibiting companies. Some 6,000 visitors are expected to attend this event. The 2008 show experienced growth over the show in 2007 and with the investment in East Indonesia’s economy on the increase, the decision was made to move the show to a larger venue. Exhibits on display will range from machine tools and metalworking technologies to automation and

control solutions, cutting and welding gear, test and measurement equipments and tooling. Supported by the Department of Industry, Indonesia and the Indonesian Moulds and Dies Industry Association, Surabaya, the opening hours are from 1100 – 1900 hrs. Grand City Convention & Exhibition Centre Surabaya, Indonesia June 3 – 6, 2009 Enquiry No. 4601

Precision Engineering

Business Forum 2009

H

eld over two days, on March 26 - 27, 2009, at Raffles City Convention Centre in Singapore, the event saw an participation of over 150 senior management and executives from contract manufacturers, fabricators, semiconductor manufacturers and personnel from R&D and academia. The key objective of the forum was to provide firms in the high-tech manufacturing sector with the momentum and know-how to increase their business channels through improved manufacturing strategies and R&D. Covering topics on aerospace, medical equipment, automotive and sustainable energy, the speakers and panelists addressed a spectrum of issues, including the required precision engineering capabilities and the necessary compliance of international standards and regulations for companies to penetrate these sectors. These insights offered companies with the inroads to capitalise on the mid- and long-term growth potential of these strategic industry segments. Desmond Goh, consultant at Frost & Sullivan, Singapore spoke on the opportunities in precision engineering for the aerospace industry in the Asia Pacific region. Despite the estimate that air traffic 70

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growth will slow to six percent per annum, the strong showing by low cost carriers looks set to sustain growth in 2009. Asia is poised to reap a larger part of the global aerospace manufacturing pie as “many OEMs are shifting production facilities to lower cost regions such as Asia Pacific,” said Mr Goh. An ageing population and a rising middle class have also been identified as critical factors contributing to the rapid growth of the medical devices market in Asia – estimated to be worth US$65 billion in 2008 and growing by 10 – 12 percent. Speaker Fredrik Nyberg, managing partner and co-founder of Biomedical Strategy Consultants said: “established products with well-defined manufacturing processes and low margins are strong candidates for outsourcing.” Raffles City Convention Centre Singapore March 26 - 27, 2009 Enquiry No. 4602


www.metalexvietnam.com

The 3rd International Machine Tools and Metalworking Technology Exhibition

8-10/10/09 9.00-17.00 hrs. Saigon Exhibition and Convention Center (SECC) Nguyen Van Linh Parkway, District 7

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

• Vietnam’s Premier Machine Tool & Metalworking Event • 500 global brands, 25 countries • 7,000 buyers • 20 Conferences & Technology Presentations

ENQUIRY NO 067

• Part of “METALEX,” Largest Event in ASEAN

Forging Vietnam’s Manufacturing Excellence Truly world-class metalworking event for your stronger, more resilient manufacturing! •

Get new technologies! Touch and see how over 1,000 new machinery and technologies save costs and increase productivity through live demonstrations.

Expand your business into new markets! Bond new overseas relations in International Pavilions from China, Germany, Japan, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, and the UK, that are bigger than last year!

Achieve business and personal goals with new know-how and wider horizons in Conferences and Technology Presentations

Special feature! Catch on with new tech and meet new people in electronics manufacturing industry in “Electronics Assembly 2008” offering the latest Surface Mount Technology from Singapore and more.

Co-located Show:

Vietnam’s Only Machinery Expo for Electronic Parts and Components Manufacturing – 2nd Edition

Co-organized by: Minh Vi Exhibition & Advertisement Co., Ltd.

Register to visit the show to get instant badge and show directory today at www.metalexvietnam.com. For more information, please call Contact Center: (08) 842 7755 or e-mail: metalexvietnam@reedtradex.co.th.

Organized by :

Important Note! “METALEX Vietnam 2009” is open to trade visitors only. Please dress in business attire. Those wearing shorts and/or sandals and minors under the age of 15 will not be permitted into the exhibition hall. The organizer reserves the right to refuse admission to anyone without cause or explanation.

Thailand and Vietnam’s leading exhibition and conference organizer


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MTA Vietnam Preview:

2009 HCMC

V

ietnam’s manufacturing solutions trade event, MTA Vietnam, is scheduled to return to Ho Chi Minh City for its sixth edition from July 8 – 11, 2009 to a new venue, the Saigon Exhibition & Convention Center (SECC) located on Nguyen Van Linh Parkway in the heart of Phu My Hung New City. The previous edition in 2008 attracted over 7,700 local and overseas visitors to view exhibits showcased by 220 exhibiting companies from 26 countries/regions. According to a survey conducted with participating exhibitors and visitors, over 80 percent of exhibitors felt that their participation at the event was worthwhile. More than 80 percent of visitors indicated that the show met their expectations, for its internationality of exhibitors, scope and range of exhibits, and potential for investment and business opportunities. This year, the event will offer international exhibitors an avenue to promote their brand and achieve high visibility for their products and solutions in the Vietnamese market. Vietnamese buyers will gain direct access to a wide range of machine tools and solutions, as well as acquire valuable industry intelligence through networking with local and international business leaders and industry professionals. More than 400 exhibiting companies from over 25 countries/regions (85 percent from overseas) will occupy over 9,000 sq m of exhibition space. The event this year will also feature a strong international presence with seven international group pavilions from Germany, Korea, Japan, Italy, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand MTA Vietnam 2009 will also incorporate Metrology Vietnam 2009, Tool Tec Vietnam 2009, Sub Con Vietnam 2009 and Automation Vietnam 2009. Opening hours are from 0900 – 1700hrs. Saigon Exhibition & Convention Center (SECC) Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam July 8 – 11, 2009 Enquiry No. 4603

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product finder

Bystronic: High Speed Laser Cutting System

Makino: Cost Effective 5-Axis Machining Centre

The By Sprint P ro 3 015 i s a high speed laser cutting system designed for operational a nd economic ef ficienc y. It s laser power has been increased to 4.4 kW in addition to other improvements, making it an efficient laser cutting system for thin sheet metal applications. Able to record speed when cutting thin metal sheets, the machine achieves the shortest part production times through the combination of high speed plasma cutting with machine dynamics. Additional factors are compressed air cutting, the 3.75-inch cutting head and the short start-up time of the laser source. Enquiry No. 4701

To d a t e , 5 - a x i s machining has of ten fa iled to deliver visible costeffective benefits. T he machine by Makino puts an end to that issue. The aims of the D500 concept are crystal clear. To o v e r c o m e cumulative error due to the increased number of axes and to provide acceleration performance unaffected by heavy table loads. Only by resolving these issues can a 5-axis machining centre be a solution for production innovation. Productivity in parts machining is achieved through multi-face machining and continuous unattended machining compatible with many automation systems. Enquiry No. 4703

Haas Automation: High Speed Milling Machine Tailift: Punch Press Machine

The Super Mini Mill 2 from Haas Automation provides a combi nat ion of h ig h speed capabilities, generous travels and compact footprint in an affordable package. Despite its compact size, the mill offers extended travels of f 20 inch x 16 inch x 14 inch (xyz) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a four inch increase on each axis over the standard milling machine. The machine comes equipped with a 15-hp vector drive spindle that spins to 10,000 rpm, and a 40 inch x 14 inch T-slot table that provides room for multiple fixtures or a single- or dual-axis rotary table. The machine also comes standard with a coolant system, rigid tapping, a 15 inch colour LCD monitor and a USB port. High-productivity options include a 15,000-rpm spindle, a high-speed 24+1 tool side-mount tool changer, 4th- and 5th-axis drives and more.

Tailift has developed MAX1250X, a thick turret punch press with Advanced Servo Hydraulic System (ASHS) employing the Complex Multi Auto-Index Tools (CMAIT). The machineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s efficiency and flexibility ensures quality CNC turret punch press for your sheet metal processing needs. ASHS allows fast punching, nibbling and forming of components while maintaining low noise emissions. The turret design is solid with minimal inertia and fast response speed. CMAIT offer the flexibility of 24 various sized tooling stations including four auto index D stations for multi tools 3B or 8A, giving more user options on the interchangeability of the tools used. As a result, the number of auto index can be as much as 6 to 16 times that of conventional punch press machines.

Enquiry No. 4702

Enquiry No. 4704 May-Jun 2009 metalworking equipment news

73


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Mitutoyo: Economical Hardness Tester

Optical Gaging Products: Multisensor Measuring Machine

T he M it utoyo D T10 ha rdne ss te ster is economical and suitable for material testing of a variety of hard and soft metals. A manual arm actuator, which will start t h e h a r d n e s s te s t i n g proce ss, is one of the m a i n fe at u re s o f t h i s measuring equipment. I n addit ion, it a lso features a ma x imum ac h ie v able work pie ce height using a flat anvil of 170 mm with an adjustable dial indicator for zero-setting and fast throughput. The unit is applicable for both Rockwell and Super Rockwell (scale N,T) testing. Enquiry No. 4705

SmartScope Flash 1500 is a floor model measurement machine where the instrument head moves in the X axis across a steel bridge while the entire bridge moves on parallel tracks in the Y axis. The large measurement range of the machine accommodates large parts, such as LCDs, plasma displays, circuit boards, and multicomponent fixtures. The machine is multisensor capable. Its design allows the additional precision of multiple sensors; including touch trigger probes, micro-probes, and laser scanners.

Gradient Lens: Cost-Effective Flexible Borescope

74

Enquiry No. 4707

Ma nufacturers of castings, welded tubes, and numerous other complex parts, now have a more a f fo rd a b l e w ay to improve quality control in their visual inspection process with the expanded line of Hawkeye Pro Flexible Borescopes from Gradient Lens Corporation (GLC). The borescopes provide images of cracks, burrs, voids, flash, surface-finish irregularities, and other defects that can affect the quality of a range of missioncritical products like fuel & hydraulic systems, engine blocks and medical equipment. Key feature includes high-resolution, 18,000 fibre, acid-leached, optical-glass imaging bundles that produce images and give the scope flexibility to reach into twisting, narrow paths. The fibre bundles are engineered to reduce crosstalk between the fibres and increase image contrast.

T he Ly n x ste re o microscope by Vision Engineering, the U K h e a d q u a r te r e d manufacturer of stereo microscopes and nonco n t a c t m e a su r i n g systems utilises the Dynascope technology to offer ergonomics by removing the need for restrictive eyepieces. This system is meant for intricate tasks requiring high-resolution stereo viewing. Aerospace components inspection tends to be challenging, as the components are complex and reflective, with curved and flat surfaces presenting reflections and glints. The machine uses a true, optical head, which presents a clear, sharp image without glare.

Enquiry No. 4706

Enquiry No. 4708

metalworking equipment news May-Jun 2009

Vision Engineering: Stereo Viewing Systems


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ESI Group: Weld Planner

Mori Seiki: Interactive Training Software

ESI Group, a supplier of digital simulation software for prototyping and manufacturing processes, has released Weld Planner, an enabling software to evaluate and control welding distortion engineering at the early stage of design and planning. Said to reduce time-to-production, the new planner is simple to use for the uninitiated in finite elements simulation. Training to be fully operational can be done in a day as the planner offers fast generation or automatic finding of weld seams between parts; convenient definition of the welding sequence as a robot plan; typical industrial clamping conditions; and versatile possibilities for the visualisation of computed distortion.

In recent years, the number of customers who face difficulty in providing technical trainings for their employees has been growing due to the advancement and complexity of machine tools. Education On Demand (EOD) by Mori Seiki is a human resource development tool, which reproduces machine operation systems by using interactive graphics, and allows anybody to learn a basic knowledge and technical skills for machines tools at anytime, anywhere. Features of EOD include an online training system, interactive graphics and comprehension quizzes at the end of each chapter to help users acquire the consistent quality of knowledge.

Enquiry No. 4709

Enquiry No. 4710

ďż˝

Almac CU1007 Versatility, Modularity

With the TORNOS/ALMAC SOLUTIONS, benefit from a single provider for all your high precision machining needs in MEDICAL and DENTAL applications! TORNOS Sigma 20 II Accessibility, Simplicity

TORNOS DECO 13a/e Constant Production, Very Complex Parts

TORNOS S.A. THAILAND REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE Tel. +66 2 662 3908 / Fax +66 2 662 3910 thailand.contact@tornos.com

For more information, please logon to www. tornos.com

TORNOS TECHNOLOGIES ASIA LTD MALAYSIA REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE Tel. +60 4 263 0118 / Fax +60 4 262 4118 malaysia.contact@tornos.com

ENQUIRY NO 071

TORNOS TECHNOLOGIES ASIA LTD Unit 4, G/F, Transport City Building 1-7 Shing Wan Road, Tai Wai Shatin, N.T., HONG KONG Tel. +852 2691 2633 / Fax +852 2691 2133 asiapacific.contact@tornos.ch

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VX Corp: Scalable Entry Level CAD

76

Wenzel: CT Solution For Industrial Applications

The VX Innovator was designed to put high-end CAD/ CAM within reach from a cost, learning and scalability standpoint. Innovator by VX Corpof Florida, USA, is valuepriced, comes pre-loaded with built-in tutorials and can be upgraded to any level of CAD/CAM including full mould & die, design and manufacturing. Billed as a true hybrid modeller, it uses modelling tools which work with surface and solid geometry. It can import and work with poor geometry while its healing and surface editing tools are available to work with nonsolid geometry. It also allows the addition complex sweeps, lofts and domes to models as it comes with an entire suite of detailing and layout tools.

Wenzel presents the integrated Computed Tomography workstation for the industrial applications. With this solution, contactless 3D measurements of inner and outer structures can be performed. This enables non- destructive and timesaving inspections for many industry processes like quality control, test engineering and reverse engineering. The manufacturer offers the full product range of this technology â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the manufacture of the systems, software, services, trainings and consultation. With the workstation, the maker sets a standard in the price-performance-ratio. The integration of mechanical engineering from Wenzel and image quality detectors gives quality.

Enquiry No. 4711

Enquiry No. 4713

Kennametal: Modular Drills

MMC: Face Milling Cutter

KSEM Plus modular drills, which combine the feed rates and length/diameter capabilities KSEM modular drills are known for with the speed and low consumable costs of indexable drills. The tools consist a steel body coupled to a highstrength steel head. Kennametal designed the drill body to feature a central coolant hole that maintains rigidity while allowing maximum coolant flow through the tool. A margin and relieved clearance eliminate trapping of chips between the drill body and hole wall to increase tool body life and improve hole surface finish, while differential helix flutes smooth chip evacuation and maintain rigidity. Suitable for holemaking in steel, stainless steel, cast iron, and nonferrous alloy workpieces, the single tool body can handle a range of drill head sizes.

MMC has manufactured an indexable face milling cutter series, the AHX640W for machining of cast irons. Cast iron that offers high durability and vibration absorption proper ties is used for various components such as diesel engines, automotive suspension components and machine cases. The AHX640W face milling cutter was designed to offer improved productivity and cost efficiency when machining both cast iron and ductile cast iron parts. This is possible due to the design of the cutter itself, the use of a CVD tool grade MC5020 and the use of heptagonal neutral inserts. This grade offers increased weld chipping resistance and wear resistance. This leads to stable cutting edge wear patterns and assist in achieving higher machining productivity.

Enquiry No. 4712

Enquiry No. 4714

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Asia Pacific Metalworking Equipment News

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