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WAY OF LIFE: A mother carrying her child is seen returning from the jungle with additional load of firewood on her back in Kiphire district.
EM Images| Aaron Jimomi
Eastern Mirror weekend supplement
September 22, 2012
Eastern Mirror | Dimapur Saturday | September 22 | 2012
The Talking Animals of Naga Hills: Adventures of Angengyu and Atsügho (Leopard Cat and Otter) - by Xüsali Naga ...continued from previous issue At the sight of the tall and fuming, bare-footed, cracked-heeled human figure the intruders became petrified with fear: claws out, bristles spiked up, pupils dilated and their minds seized by unimaginable terror. It took a frozen moment or two for the thieving duo to realise their sticky situation and amidst the chaotic hullabaloo Anengyu knew of a hole in the corner of the coop from his previous visit, he instinctively darted across and escaped unable to warn his friend. Meanwhile Atsügho, an amateur thief, knew nothing of escape routes and in his terrified state thought this might be the flat end of him--exterminated to oblivion, leaving nothing significant behind in an already meaningless life—in the smouldering hands of human chicken-lord. Atsügho was badly bruised and burned by the man’s firewood but he somehow managed to scamper his way out of the horrid place swearing never to return. The starving Anengyu having drained off whatever little energy left in him in the failed operation lay half-dead by the river bank; his body pricked all over by shooting pain like he was dumped into a bush of stinging nettles. Atsügho too was very hurt physically and emotionally. How could his comrade desert him to die in the enemy camp? He thought, “I shouldn’t have accompanied this selfish cat.” Anengyu noticed his friend’s sulking face and said in a feeble voice barely managing to lift his head, “My friend, I know you have every right to be cross with me and I am sorry” he said, “helpless and unjust hunger can turn even noble creatures into monsters and thieves, I had no option in front of the powerful man but to
run away like that but I’m truly happy that you escaped.” Anengyu yelped in pain as he uttered those words because it hurt all over whenever he tried to talk. “I think the time for my death is nearing,” he sorrowfully thought and sobbed. Looking at the condition of Anengyu, Atsügho was moved and said, “My friend, never mind what happened; you must please accompany me into the river to catch some fish as I too agreed with your request earlier.” “There are no humans to catch us in water, besides you can swim well.” “I have no strength left but I could try for your sake,” said Anengyu. “Very well then, hold my tail if you feel faint; let us catch as much as we like– there is plenty for everyone.” So they jumped into the river and Atsügho caught a lot of fish just as he did every day. Anengyu could not catch anything but he did not want to disappoint his friend so he kept trying and trying despite his failing strength. The water icy cold and Anengyu began to shiver like an autumn leaf about to fall off; his body numb and pale but he finally caught a small fish. Biting the fish with
mirror time pass Cowboys and the Wild West
ARIZONA BANDANA BISON BLACK HAT BLUE JEANS BOOTS BRONCO BUSTING BUCKAROO BULLWHIP CALVES CAMPFIRE CATTLE CHAPS
COWBOY COWGIRL COWPOKE COYOTE FRONTIER GRASSLAND GUITAR HERDER HORSE KANSAS KNIFE LASSO LEATHER LEGEND
LONGHORN MIDWEST MOUNTAIN LION MUSTANG NECKERCHIEF RANCH RATTLESNAKE RIDING RODEO ROPING ROUNDUP SADDLE SALOON
SONG SPURS STAMPEDE STIRRUP TERRAIN TEXAS TRAIL TRAVEL UNSETTLED WAGON WHITE HAT WILD WRANGLER
To answer the trivia question, look for a word or phrase that is hidden in the puzzle, but not in the word list.
Trivia: This American soldier, famous for his traveling “Wild West Shows,” helped popularize the cowboy culture. Answer: B________________ B_________ (2 words)
Across 5. Disease with which Naaman was afflicted 9. How many times a day did the priests burn incense on the altar of incense? 10. David’s nephew was known for killing what certain kind of person? 11. “King Ahasuerus ruled over one hundred twenty seven provinces, from _____ to Ethiopia.” 13. An old priest who had very wicked sons 15. Complete the quote,” These six things the Lord ______.” 16. One of the two wildernesses, whose names sound alike, through which the children of Israel passed 17. Oldest son of Shem 20. From where was the witch (medium) whom king Saul visited? 22. How often each year did the High Priest enter the Holy of Holies? 24. What was the name of the chief priest who had seven sons who practiced exorcism by the name of “Jesus, whom Paul preaches”? 25. To the chuch in Philadelphia, John was told to write, “I have set before you an _____ door, and no one can shut it.” 27. “Sallu, _____, Hilkiah and Jedaiah. These were the heads of the priests.” 30. Who stole her father’s images when she left home with her husband? 32. The name of the city where king Saul ordered the eighty-five priests and their families killed for helping David 34. One of the two tribes of Israel whose name had only three letters 35. This was one of the chief places in the land of Moab, later called Areopolis. 37. “Examine me, O Lord, and prove me, _____ my mind and my heart.” 38. One of the rivers of Damascus in whcih Naaman wanted to dip himself instead of the Jordan River 40. The attitude with which Christians spread the Gospel in the first century 42. Whose son was king Saul? 43. This is the man who,
his teeth he came out of the water and collapsed on the pebbles of the river bank showing all his teeth chattering with cold as he was dying. Atsügho, thinking that Anengyu was smiling because of the catch exclaimed, “My friend, you don’t have to laugh with happiness for catching a small minnow!” But Anengyu could not hear a thing because he lay stiff and lifeless with his eyes wide open as though he was gazing at the blue sky in wonder about the marvellous mysteries our universe could uncover. His mouth agape and his tongue hanging out, his sharp teeth all visible and unmoving, Anengyu died without eating the small minnow. (Concluded) Inviting short story writers. Through this page, Eastern Mirror aims to provide a platform for Naga writers to exhibit as well as hone their writing skills. Let the readers be provoked through your art of story telling. Interested writers can send their materials to email@example.com
along with Aaron, held up Moses’ hands while the Israelites were fighting the Amalekites. 44. He was sent by King Rehoboam to collect tribute from the rebellious Israelites. Down 1. In which book is Peter’s sermon at Pentecost found? 2. Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, “_____, ____, lama sabachthani?” (same word) 3. This is another name for the city of Thebes in Egypt. 4. The craftsmen who were named by the Lord for the building of the tabernacle were called this. 6. “But on the day that Lot went out of Sodom, it ______ fire and brimstone from Heaven and destroyed them all.” 7. This man was a king of Egypt. 8. “Elijah took his ______, rolled it up, and struck the water; and it was divided” 10. One of the four riverheads from the Garden of Eden that “goes around the whole land of Cush” 12. Where did God tell Jonah to go and preach repentance, but at first he disobeyed? 14. What David used to soothe Saul 18. “Are You the Coming One, or do we ______ for another?”
19. The Jews were not allowed to charge this when giving a loan. 21. The seventy told Jesus, “Lord, even the demons are subject to us in Your _____.” 22. A town of lower Egypt whose priest’s daughter Joseph married 23. What common household animal is not mentioned in the Bible? 26. Wife of Raguel
28. What tree gave name to a famous hill overlooking Jerusalem? 29. Where did Samson die? 31. King of Persia 33. Occupation of Tertullus 36. “Every ____ of a man is right in his own eyes.” 39. This is the mountain where Aaron was buried. 41. A king who had a disease of the feet
Answer in next issue of Mirror Plus LasT Week’s Answers
Bliss by Harry Bliss
...making sure he takes his medicines
“I was going to make lemonade, but I was more lonely than thirsty.”
- Rev Dr Toshi Langu
Are We Just Wannabes?
any years ago, when I was still a young pup trying to impress everybody, especially the fairer sex, I remember reading a novel, a spy thriller in which the starting sentence was “Calcutta, the dirtiest city in the world”. Calcutta alone was mentioned, I presume, only because they couldn’t mention all the cities of our great nation. I am not qualified to judge if the statement is true despite the fact that this city cannot be called the cleanest city of the world either. It is common knowledge that rural India and most of the backyards of our great cities are not the most hygienic of places. Just look out of the windows early in the morning, after crossing the north-east region, if you travel by train, and you will see rows of homo sapiens squatting along the railway tracts paying tribute to mother earth in return for all the blessings she has given them. You’ll also see herds of swine eagerly awaiting to partake of the mother nature’s bounty. This sight has greeted me many times, it must have greeted you too if you love travelling by train. It greets everybody who comes this way. This is just a vague portrait of the real masterpiece in the mainland. Open human defecation is one of the greatest contributor to environmental pollution in India. Both government and civil societies have been trying hard to deal with this problem but considering the size and population of our nation, it has been like drops in the ocean. The story is told of an NGO that decided to help the villagers maintain healthy environment in a particular region in India by providing scientific, hygienic and modern latrines in the villages. After a prolonged research and study they identified an area. This locality was notorious for open defecation and the only janitors of the villages were the pigs they reared. The pigs brought them triple benefits by providing meat, by bringing extra income and by acting as garbage disposal squad. It was a tradition and common practice for villagers of this area to use the outskirts of the villages as their open latrines. Therefore, the NGO constructed rows and rows of modern concrete latrines with septic tanks in the locations where the villagers used to defecate. The villagers were very happy and appreciated the new development in their villages. However, to the bewilderment of the NGO, the villagers just shifted their place of defecation to another site and refused to use the modern one. The experts, after scratching their heads in perplexity for sometime, went back to their drawing board again and did another research. Through this study they found out that for the villagers of this area, the place of defecation was their information and media centre. Every morning the villagers used to congregate at such places outside the village, squat in their favourite places in the open in close proximity to one another, and start conversing at the top of their voices while performing their daily ritual of relieving their bowels. This was the prime time for them to exchange news and information, learn about the village gossips, discuss village politics, not to mention inhaling a generous amount of the aroma wafting like morning mist from the ground behind them. The villagers were not using the hygienic modern latrines because the latrines were constructed in rows of concrete individual cubicles partitioned by concrete walls because of which they were unable to communicate with each other. The modern latrines turned out to be the villain that completely destroyed the transmission of information in the villages. That’s why they were not using them. Subsequently, the NGO went back to the latrines and opened windows, at eye level, ( at squatting height ) on both left and right side of the individual compartments which made it possible for the villagers to maintain a healthy and hygienic excrement disposal system and at the same time freely communicate with each other. Thus, modern hygienic latrines that incorporated tradition and custom of the area became a hit with the villagers. Thereafter, the villagers were happy to use the modern latrines. The information and media centre was now restored and fully functional. There is a wealth of lessons we can learn from this true story. Just about 150 years ago, we were still ( more or less ) swinging from branch to branch and tree to tree, so to say. Please don’t take me literally. I am just trying to bring into perspective as to how far we have come in terms of civilization. We were not much different than the villages mentioned above, even though there is no denying that, hygienically, we have advanced much more and faster than those people. However, we have a tendency to fast-forward everything we do, with all good intention I believe, aspiring to emulate other states or countries who are ahead of us. In the process of trying to catch up with others, we have unconsciously started to harbor and nurture too much of a Wannabe Syndrome which has inhibited originality and creativity in the Naga person. What is a wannabe? A Wannabe is a person who wants to be what he/she is not. I know there is nothing wrong with aiming high and aspiring for something great but wannabees are not that. A wannabe is a person who is obsessed with the fantasy of wishing to be someone he/she admires and, therefore, apes that “someone”. Aping is not only stupid and disgusting but it is unhealthy, destructive and dangerous. This wannabe syndrome, from my perspective, has infected our thinking in a big way and has diluted the purpose and direction of even the State’s developmental initiatives grossly. I am constrained to think so by observing the developmental drives and enterprises of the last few decades. Personally, I find a total lack of originality in almost all the ambitious government projects. The only successful governmental initiatives with originality, according to my limited understanding, are the Hornbill Festival and Communitization Programms. These initiatives have great potential to be popular success stories if conscientiously reinforced, regulated and properly streamlined. The state government should lauded for such useful enterprises. However, such success stories are too few and too far in between and we watch in dismay as different departments continue to hastily embark on various ambitious projects without first studying the feasibility, applicability and suitability of whatever the project is for our land and its people. Just because a particular farming or method of farming, or novel developmental undertaking is successful in one part of the world doesn’t mean that it will be successful in our land. For example, we see mighty rows of wind turbines along the mountains in Gujarat and some other Indian states for harvesting wind energy. Can we do the same in Nagaland because it is windy? No. The kind of wind that blows in Nagaland will simply twist, mangle and destroy the wind turbines that cost crores of rupees. Moreover, to successfully harvest wind energy, the wind has to be constant and controllable throughout the year. Seasonal and sudden gusts of gale force winds are not useful. Therefore, our State is not suitable for wind energy harvesting. Another example worth citing is the Riverine Fisheries projects of our State. In some European countries I’ve seen, such fisheries are doing very well. They are successful because their rivers are mostly gently flowing and the use of any chemical for fishing is forbidden and the populace are law abiding citizens. However, our rivers are fast flowing and all through summer, flood waters rage through violently, bringing with them colossal amount of boulders, gravel, silt and other organic debris which fills up and levels any dam constructed for the purpose of creating riverine fisheries. My point is, many European rivers are suitable for riverine fisheries but rivers in Nagaland are not. Just because such enterprises are successful in Europe doesn’t mean that it will work here too. Therefore, the most logical thing to do would have been to experiment it at one place and test if it will work in our rivers, instead of embarking on many uncertain projects spending huge amount of hard begged ( not hardearned) Central money. The outcome? When you travel between Kohima and Dimapur, look below the road into the Chate river. The concrete derelicts of dams filled with gravel and boulders are neither Riverine Gravelries nor Boulderies but a part of the Riverine Fisheries enterprise. (Rev Dr Toshi Langu is an Associate Pastor at Ao Baptist Church, Kohima and has an inherent interest in illuminating the intrigues and foible of the versatility of human life through writing. The writer can be contacted at - firstname.lastname@example.org)
Eastern Mirror | Dimapur Saturday | September 22 | 2012
Dear inquisitive, animated young collegians. We dedicate this space for you, young minds to share thoughts and outlook on life on campus. Be it about your education, studies, love, life, sports, about teachers, your angst, heartbeats or even a poem or a footnote you scribbled during a boring lecture in the classroom…share. Also get to know what your friends in different colleges across the State experience and create a vibe. Or simply dedicate your fond thoughts of that someone, somewhere through this page! E-mail us at email@example.com
Young Leaders Parents and Money - Children Connect - 2 and Child Labour YouthNet
A look at some of the Speakers who will be joining us during the Young Leaders Connect-2 to be held at Kohima on October 20. Moji Riba (Arunachal Pradesh) Moji Riba captures oral history in moving images. A film-maker and cultural anthropologist, he is the winner of ROLEX Awards for Enterprise; a prestigious global honor in recognition of his work in ‘helping to preserve and document the rich cultural heritage of India’s Arunachal Pradesh tribes’ . He is the founder and head of the Centre for Cultural Research and Documentation (CCRD) in Naharlagun. Moji holds a masters degree in mass communication from the Mass Communication Research Center (MCRC), New Delhi . Riba has worked with firms such as TVE Asia Pacific, TVEAP series Digita4Change, Greenbelt Reports. In 2005, he directed Deep Divide, a three-country documentary on the state of environmental justice in South Asia. His firm with CCRD plan to implement the Mountain Eye Project, an unconventional and ambitious initiative that aims to create a cinematic time capsule documenting a year in the life of 15 different ethnic groups. Chekrovolu Swuro (Nagaland) Ace archer Chekrovolu Swuro needs no introduction. She has become a houesehold name as the only other Olympian so far from Nagaland, representign India during the London Olympics 2012. We shall hear her share about the hard work , sacrifices and what it takes to excel . She will be a part of the Sports Forum with other Northeast sports stars on the potential & performance and vision road mapping to build more super sports stars from Northeast. Conrad Sangma (Meghalaya) Conrad is the current Leader of the Opposition in the eighth Meghalaya Legislative Assembly. In 2008, he became the youngest Finance Minister of the state government at just age 30. Educated at Wharton Business School, U.S. Conrad is the eldest son of P. A. Sangma, his sister, Agatha Sangma is member of the 15th Lok Sabha and a Minister of State in the current Union Cabinet, while his brother James Sangma is a fellow member of the State Legislative Assembly. Conrad will be here to share his views on Leadership and Governance in the NorthEast. YouthNet had organized the first Young Leaders Connect Conference October 3, 2011 in Kohima, Nagaland which was cochaired by Bhaichung Bhutia and Anato Zhimomi and supported by Government of Nagaland with the Hon’ble Chief Minister Mr. Neiphiu Rio as the Chief Patron. Young Leaders Connect will seek to develop greater awareness and understanding essentially through ‘connect’ ‘exchange” and ‘strengthen’ of issues that affect political, social, and economic development of our country-viz-a viz the Northeast, from young leaders’ perspective. The conference will bring together young leaders from the Northeast India and other parts of the country, to connect with themselves, and in the process bring policy makers, strategists, entrepreneurs, professionals, members of academia and students on a common platform. The conference will make young leaders interact with each other in the fields of Youth Employment , Education, Governance and Sports/Entertainment , which will not only enhance contact between the young leaders and provide an opportunity to exchange views and opinions and build network, but also be a stepping stone for carving long lasting association and friendship. Young Leaders Connect will seek to establish a powerful NETWORK of like-minded young leaders, with a desire for better India of tomorrow, which will strengthen us in playing a vital role in paradigm shifting and contribute towards building a vibrant economy, strong government, and common cultural identity. Young Leaders Connect is a landmark initiative representing outstanding achievers from the fields of business, literature, politics, academia, sports and entertainment, this forum will become a knowledge partner to plan for the roadmap for the future of the region and its people.
e are living in a highly competitive world everyone wants his place in the sun. Millions of young people are struggling to build a career. There is a cut throat competition. There is space only at the top. The result is quite disastrous .The present generation has to undergo a lot of stress and strain. Parental compulsion only adds to the problem. Every parent wants to make his child famous in their own way. I know we were born to them butt parents wanting their children to realize their dream through their children is never expected. Desire to excel and peer pressure adds to their stress and strain. The teenagers are thus overburdened and burnt out. The parents should owe their duty not to pressurize/popularize their children. They must not encourage them to indulge in cut throat competition. Let them decide their fate themselves. Why make them to work hard for only gaining attention or popularity? The heat of competition in academics must not take away the natural joy and pleasure of the present generation. Today’s age is one of insatiable hunger for consumerism. Minting money has become the only religion in the post modern age. I do say money should be earned, but not in matter of exploiting, young children, it doesn’t matter of late, there has been a mushrooming of children rights. Making children work at a tender age. The lure of money tempts the parents to send their children working. The poor children have to undergo a lot of inconvenience and suffering, due to their parents’ greed of money. The long working hours and the dazzle without light overstrain and trouble them. Over greedy and overambitious parents forget it is a sin to earn money at the cost of their children. Childhood is the spring of a man’s life, the joys of childhood should not be snatched away. The children sacrifice the innocence and joys of their childhood doing their things they don’t have to, at their young age. Many children don’t have proper education and are mainly illiterate. Do you think our country would develop to a super nation with this kind of children and parents? Are not children the backbone of the nation? Why do the parents let them cadge? Children are forced to bear the responsibil-
ities which are meant only for adults. They are made to enter the world of job which is fake and far from reality for a teenager. They have to work, to tune of their bosses. Indecency and vulgarity have become synonymous with the world of glamour. Many of the documentary movies if you happen to come across,” there would be some instances where some children would be saying I want to hide; I don’t want to work today. Please don’t drag me! Here they come! Protect me! The fate of millions of children is not different, it’s the same. Who can deny that bonded labour doesn’t exist in India or our state? Childhood is the spring of man’s life. But for millions of children the spring is lost. The carefree and playful childhood is overburdened with the job of earning money. The more hazardous the industry, the more children it employs. Our state got none so we can at least say Child Labour is lowest comparing to the other states. The glass industry in Firozabad, the carpet industry in Mirzapur and the fireworks industry in Shivakasi employ thousands of children illegally. Unfortunately the law against child law exists only in paper not in practical life. The government is only a mute spectator so far. Child Labour continues unabated. The employment of children in hazardous industries, hotels, garage, waste bins can’t be ignored. It features in the state too! No person in the state or the country can deny that they did not see any Child Labour! If any say they dint you deserve to go to hell if there exists one! You don’t have any right to stay as a human. The government definitely needs to wake up and give exempla nary punishment to the defaulters. The law which is written in paper must be enforced harshly. Cancellation of licenses’, heavy fines and worst punishment needs to be served as deterrents whoever it may be. The law must be followed for everyone. Everyone is equal before the law. The Earlier, the Better for the backbone the country. The need of the hour is a blanket ban on Child Labour. Let us kill it before the poison infects more of the children’s. “If you cannot be the change, you can be the cause for the change” I strongly fell that child labour should be completely banned. Exploitation of children in any form can’t be tolerated. It doesn’t matter that this tacit understanding and approval of their parents. Children should be allowed to lead their normal lives enjoying the bliss of childhood and not Child Labour. We have to save millions of children. Let’s combine ourselves into one and work against Child Labour. “Let us be an arbiter and not a churl human!” This is what I as a 17 yr old student has to apport on Child Labour. I am very sorry if I hurted the emotions of the parents. Please do forgive me!
- Apfukuo Kehie St Anthony’s College, Shillong
- Adrian P
Thank you! May god bless the children!
ysticercosis refers to tissue infection after exposure to eggs of Taenia solium, the pork tapeworm. The cause of human cysticercosis is the larval form of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). T. solium is a platyhelminth of the cestoidean class, the cyclophyllidea order and the taeniidae family. The common larval stage of T. solium was also known as Cysticercus cellulosae. Cysticercosis should be differentiated from taeniasiscarriage of the adult tapeworm in the intestine (which is through ingestion of cysts in an intermediate host, not the ingestion of the eggs as in cysticercosis). These represent two different stages of the parasite’s life-cycle. Though both forms of infection can potentially occur in the same individual at the same time, they are distinct disease entities and have different treatments and potential outcomes. The life cycle involves humans as a definite host and pigs as an intermediate host. Pigs ingest contaminated food or water that contains eggs or proglottids from human’s faeces. The ova develop into cysticercusin pig muscles. Human becomes infected when they ingest raw or undercooked “measly pork” that contains viable cysticercus and also due to handling of the infected meat without proper sanitation. Upon reaching the small intestine, it attaches to the intestinal wall and a proglottid chain grows. Nearly 250,000 ova are passed daily into the human faeces and to the environment, and the cycle continues. Infections with cysticercus occur after humans consume the ova from exogenous sources or through self-infection via the faecal-oral route. Humans, in this case, are intermediate hosts. Ova are digested in the stomach and release oncospheres which penetrate the intestinal wall and reach the bloodstream. These oncospheres develop into cysticerci in any organ but are common in brain, subcutaneous tissues, or eyes.
Clinical presentations in humans
don’t believe in religion, I believe in God. I believe in GIVE RESPECT and GET RESPECT. HYPOCRITES?? Sorry, no place for them in my friend’s list. ATTITUDE??? Show me yours; I’ll laugh my lungs out on you. That’s me. Hate me, point fingers on me, I don’t give a damn as long as I’ve a life to live. “Impossible is Nothing”, I totally opposed that coz its Impossible to be PERFECT. I’m friendly, free and frank. I fear not the man who has practised 10,000 kicks once, but I fear the man who has practised 1 kick 10,000 times. FORGIVE $ FORGET is what I do. Silent killers, not my type. I don’t fall I only attack floors. Love to hang out with friends and humour around. Ever ready to expand my Friends Circle. DAD-my superhero, my idol. MOM-my bread when am hungry, my shelter from troubled winds, my anchor in life’s ocean, but most of all My Best Friend.
Cysticercosis in muscles Cysticerci can develop in any voluntary muscle in humans. Invasion of muscle by cysticerci can cause myositis, with fever, eosinophilia, and muscular pseudohypertrophy, which initiate with muscle swelling and later progress to atrophy and fibrosis. In most cases, it is asymptomatic since the cysticerci die and become calcified. Neurocysticercosis Neurocysticercosis, is the most common parasitic infestation of the central nervous system worldwide. The term neurocysticercosis is generally accepted to refer to cysts in the parenchyma of the brain. It presents with seizures and, less commonly, headaches. Intraventricular neurocysticercosis Cysts located within the ventricles of the brain can block
Yours Truly Mann Vam De Sainik School Punglwa
with Dr Michael Imchen
Pork and Cysticercosis
B.V.Sc & A.H, M.Sc.A.P.M,C.USG & R. Veterinary Surgeon Animal Concern, Circular Road the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid and present with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Racemose neurocysticercosis Racemose neurocysticercosis refers to cysts in the subarachnoid space. These can occasionally grown into large lobulated masses causing pressure on surrounding structures. Spinal neurocysticercosis Neurocysticercosis involving the spinal cord, most commonly presenting as back pain and radiculopathy. Ophthalmic cysticercosis In some cases, cysticerci may be found in the
globe, extraocular muscles, and subconjunctiva. Depending on the location, they may cause visual difficulties that fluctuate with eye position, retinal edema, hemorrhage, a decreased vision or even a visual loss. Subcutaneous cysticercosis Subcutaneous cysts are in the form of firm, mobile nodules, occurring mainly on the trunk and extremities. Subcutaneous nodules are sometimes painful.
Public health and prevention strategies
Cysticercosis is considered as “tools-ready disease” according to WHO. International Task Force for Disease Eradication in 1992 reported that cysticercosis is potentially eradicable. It is feasible because there are no animal reservoirs besides humans and pigs. The only source of T. solium infection for pigs is from humans, a definite host. Theoretically, breaking the life cycle seems easy by doing intervention strategies from various stages in the life cycle. 1. Massive chemotherapy of infected individuals, improving sanitation, and educating people are all major ways to discontinue the cycle , in which eggs from human faeces are transmitted to other humans and/or pigs. 2. Cooking of pork or freezing it and inspecting meat are effective means to cease the life cycle. 3. The management of pigs by treating them with proper dose of anthelmentics is another possibility to intervene in the life cycle. 4. The separation of pigs from human faeces by confining them in enclosed piggeries. In Western European countries post World War 2 the pig industry developed rapidly and most pigs were housed. This was the main reason for pig cysticercosis largely being eliminated from the region. This of course is not a quick answer to the problem in developing countries. The intervention strategies to eradicate cysticercosis includes surveillance of pigs in foci of transmission and massive chemotherapy treatment of humans. In reality, control of T. solium by a single intervention, for instance, by treating only human population will not work because the existing infected pigs can still carry on the cycle. The proposed strategy for eradication is to do multilateral intervention by treating both human and porcine populations. It is feasible because treatment of pigs with anthelmentics have been shown to be effective and once treated, they are protected from further infections for at least 3 months. (Dr Michael Imti Imchen can be contacted for pet and animal care related queries and concerns at firstname.lastname@example.org. Mobile-09436072892)
Eastern Mirror | Dimapur Saturday | September 22 | 2012
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Mirror Plus, the Eastern Mirror weekend supplement Sub-Editors: Imti Longchar; Vish端 Rita Krocha; Layout Designer: Viketu Atubu Liegise E-mail: email@example.com Ph Nos: Kohima 0370-2291977 Dimapur 03862-246001