DEVELOPMENT EDUCATION â€“ CASE STUDY ALBANIA FROM AN EFFECTIVE MODEL TO A CHALLENGING PERSPECTIVE APPROACH
Global developments are coupled with the emergence of new concepts about different fields in life. Education as a crucial social institutions plays a key role in globalizing development. Today, it is accepted by almost everyone, that education not only refers to the acquisition of essential knowledge (reading, writing, clear articulation of thought, etc.), but it should create opportunities for the acquisition of "technical and professional knowledge" in order to prepare individuals to practice a particular profession, develop the spirit of initiative to work together and be trained to adapt to new social conditions. In the framework of strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals all countries, including Albania, have oriented their activities to education policy. Today education is regarded as a powerful instrument of development, eliminating poverty, the reduction of social inequality, etc. To prepare living in a world of constant changes in education, the foundation is standing concept is "of learning throughout all life." Thus, individuals should not only stop at receiving education by appropriate educational institutions, but must be constantly in touch with the latest knowledge in all areas of life. Only in this way they will be able to adapt to new social conditions and professionally affirmed.
The research taken in a period of 6 months, initiated by a local NGO located in Durres WASP, in collaboration with Municipality Gramsh and upon availability and good will of participation of many actors that were indirectly involved in such initiative, specifically refers to the concept of Education for Sustainable Development.. The concept of EAS is also present in Albania, but reality shows that knowledge and activities are undertaken at scarce scenarios within it are scarce or not yet well designed for implementation. EAS strategy was initially brought to Albania by REC, Regional Environmental Centre, which operates in the country since 1994.
Development Education - Case Study Albania
Methodological reflections The study is based on the social science research methods. After identifying the problem and setting goals was developed a quantitative and qualitative research platform. The research is approached by the symbolic interaction theory. The survey data are obtained through the sample survey method. Basic research instrument was a survey with open and closed questions. The combination of open questions with closed-gathering was intended as more data to confirm or not the hypothesis. Survey of this study consists in two sections: the first section is information questions, which handles information about the organization / institution and its field of action and secondly, the section of questions on the activities of the Education Development (EAS). The study is based not only in empirical data, but is also based on the analysis of various sources of information on education and especially on Development Education. These sources include reports, surveys, evaluations and other documents by the European Commission and the World Bank. The main aim of this study is, to evident and analyze the role of public and private Albanian entities in field of Development Education activities.
The aim of this Poll is the recognition of the involving level of public and private organs/ entities in the activities with EaS focus and the thematic of their involving in frame of European Integration (global also) of Albania. The survey questions were addressed to at least 50 public and private entities in particular; NGOs / local and national institutions / universities nationwide, who constitute the study sample. The survey aimed at testing the knowledge and perceptions of citizens on matters relating to education and development.
The general trend of activities focused on EAS in Albania. (Analysis of data obtained from the survey) Of the 50 players involved in this survey, NGOs constitute the most significant part of the sample, namely 78%, while the representation of local and national institutions is relatively low, 10% and 12%. The relatively high number of NGOs involved in the study, compared with local Development Education - Case Study Albania
and national institutions, intends to strengthen the role of civil society in Albania, and readiness in completing the questionnaire implies, among other things, the goal of these organizations to promote themselves. A considerable part of public and private entities, claim that the projects on the EAS are the main activities of their activity, for the most part, to the extent of 44%. The data obtained show that young people, minors, women and civil society are the main beneficiaries of the activities of public and private entities that conduct their activities in our country. Specifically, young people are taken at a policy priority, while vulnerable groups, such as the diseased persons (HIV / AIDS, persons with disabilities etc.) and alcoholic-dependant result almost excluded from the attention of civil society and state in this aspect. Almost half of the NGOs stated that undertake projects within the EAS, and only a small fraction of them have claimed that undertake such activities in a relatively low mass. Central institutions have stated that suffer the lack of activities within the EAS as a result of lower investment in human and financial resources One of the objectives of the study was, knowing the degree of cooperation/ coordination of public
A very peculiar finding in this context was the debate "make group" & "doing group" which in few words meant for most of the respondents a community that learns, shares and transform ideas and division / interest for a score of only multiple benefits. The analysis of data shows that NGOs have a relatively good cooperation with organizations in the same field of action, and that some of them adhere to the international network. But still continues to be a lack of cooperation and coordination between them and the most important limit that prevents their participation in the group is selected, among other things, the necessity of an alternative level of major investment in human and economic resources (in 60% ). Still among the important questions was: Do you think Education for development projects are important?
Based on responses received show that projects with a focus EAS are important, and following the ordering given them by the perception of citizens about the importance of these activities; 1) Yes because they seek to influence economic, social, environmental and human rights in order to be more fair and stable (70%). Development Education - Case Study Albania
2) Yes because encourage full participation of all citizens in the fight against poverty and against exclusion (60%) 3) Yes because strengthen civil society (46%) 4) Yes because the challenge global injustice and poverty (32%) 5) If they are a political and legal liability (24%) 6) do not think are very important (6%) 7) They are significant (2%) By selecting the above results that the policies within the EAS are considered as important because they affect the economic, social, environmental and human rights in order to be productive and affect the development of society. Develop and implement policies EAS is submitted as a necessity because they not only encourage participation of citizens in the fight against poverty and social exclusion, but also help in understanding the causes and consequences of global change. After analyzing the data obtained show that the EAS concept is perceived in different ways. Activities with specific focus its promotion lacking. Methods which are different and operated differ not only in time but also from one institution to another. Despite attempts by the NGO - s for its promotion, development of EAS in Albania is not in proper standards. Evaluated as the main obstacle; the lack of human and financial resources, and lack of information still remain as problematic and present. So as a conclusion, we assert that the Albanian reality proves that principles and activities are undertaken in the framework of EAS, the efforts are still scarce or not well designed for implementation.
Recommendations: 1. Creating a local-regional network that deal within EAS. These entities need to promote their activities to society and further share the importance of development of EAS. Also, citizens not only have the right to be informed about the activities of the EAS, but also have the right of involvement in their realization. 2. Improved communication and information tools.
Development Education - Case Study Albania
It is very indispensable that all state institutions, private and civil society bodies to improve the means of communication and information circulated and used. There are also recommended transparent attitudes towards the massive public, not only in the context of information sharing but also in financial terms. It is positive that the public is aware of the financial resources spent on each activity.
3. More qualifications. It is further required preparation of individuals specializing in EAS.
engaged in development issues and education. 5. The role of civil society. It needs to be strengthened over the role of civil society, promote the issues that they deal and to ensure cooperation in national and international level. 6. Coordination of activities between public and private institutions within the education and development policies. Specifically need more cooperation between state institutions, civil society and international organizations. These actors need to coordinate their activities so that they are more productive, be accessible to society and to attract attention and interest of donors. 7. Including the concept of EAS and its problems in the curriculum. There is an indispensable need that EAS and the issues it addresses are part of the curricula at all levels of the education system, particularly in universities.
8. Greater level of investment in human and economic resources. It is required a greater investment in human and economic resources. The presence of experts in their fields and larger investments in the financial sphere play a crucial role in policy development within the EAS.
Development Education - Case Study Albania