Page 6

4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7

4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.2 5.3

What are the main adaptation and mitigation policy options? National adaptation plans for health Approaches to adaptation and mitigation Mitigation and co-benefits Case study in mitigation: sustainability and health gains in European cities Case study in mitigation: health co-benefits from action on agriculture and food systems Case study in adaptation: actions to tackle the increasing threat of infectious disease Systems thinking for developing coherent strategy: identifying and clarifying synergies, disconnects and inadvertent consequences 4.7.1 Capitalising on synergies 4.7.2 Avoiding disconnects and unintended consequences Wider economic and development consequences Conveying the urgency of the challenges: tackling barriers to implementation

32 32 33 34 35 37 39

Conclusions and recommendations What do we know and why are we concerned? What should we do about the challenges? Generating and using the evidence base 5.3.1 Filling knowledge gaps by research 5.3.2 Improving monitoring and integration of data sets 5.3.3 Health in all policies 5.3.4 Health risk communication 5.3.5 What is the continuing role of the academies?

45 45 46 46 46 47 47 49 49

Appendix 1 Appendix 2 Appendix 3 Appendix 4

Working Group composition and timetable Scope of climate change impacts for human health: some previous reviews of evidence The need to connect science, health and policy in the wider EU climate change strategy development context Examples of the relevance of SDG targets to climate change and health issues

40 40 41 41 43

50 51 52 54

Abbreviations

56

References

57

iv  |  June 2019  |  Climate change and health

EASAC

The imperative of climate action to protect human health in Europe  

Opportunities for adaptation to reduce the impacts and for mitigation to capitalise on the benefits of decarbonisation. The pace and extent...

The imperative of climate action to protect human health in Europe  

Opportunities for adaptation to reduce the impacts and for mitigation to capitalise on the benefits of decarbonisation. The pace and extent...

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