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Estonian Space Technologies Phone Book Selection of Estonian Space Technologies and their mapping to the ESA Technology Tree 2020


Contents Foreword____________________________________________________________________________________________ 4 Introduction_________________________________________________________________________________________ 5 Technology Readiness Level__________________________________________________________________________ 7 High Volumetric Efficiency Nanosatellite Bus Development______________________________________________ 8 On-Board Self-Health Awareness _____________________________________________________________________ 9 Electrical Power Systems for Nanosatellites ___________________________________________________________ 10 On-board Computer System for Nanosatellite BUS____________________________________________________ 11 Hardware Encryption via FPGA Softcores (HSM)_______________________________________________________ 12 Reaction Wheel Condition Monitoring Using AI Tools___________________________________________________ 13 Asymmetric Encryption PKI__________________________________________________________________________ 14 Software Development for Nanosatellites_____________________________________________________________ 15 Fast Sparse Data Processing & Analysis with GPU Accelerators _________________________________________ 16 Multi-Sensor Sparse Data Reconstruction with Machine Learning _______________________________________ 17 Ocean Monitoring Indicators of the Baltic Sea_________________________________________________________ 18 Water Mapping from EO-data _______________________________________________________________________ 19 EOGuard - Earth Observation Data Trust Service______________________________________________________ 20 Machine Learning methods for Sea Ice Mapping from Earth Observation Data ___________________________ 21 SAR Value Added Products via API___________________________________________________________________ 22 Earth Observation Data GPU Processing______________________________________________________________ 23 Monograin Layer Solar Cell Technology for Space Application__________________________________________ 24 Fuel Cell Based Electric Generators ___________________________________________________________________ 25 Closed Cathode PEM Fuel Cells_______________________________________________________________________ 26 Fully Electrospun Durable Electro- chemical Double-Layer Capacitor_____________________________________ 27 Charged particle trackers and detectors for ionizing radiation___________________________________________ 28 Image-based recognition of Objects in Space _________________________________________________________ 29 Integrated Altitude Determination and Control System for Nanosatellites ________________________________30 Communication System Development for Nanosatellite BUS____________________________________________ 31 Radio Frequency Reconnaissance and Countermeasures _______________________________________________ 32 Telecommunication Devices_________________________________________________________________________ 33 Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing Services________________________________________________________ 34 Science Operations Configuration Control Infrastructure _______________________________________________ 35 Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Data Trust Service______________________________________________ 36 Resonance/MIDA for Space__________________________________________________________________________ 37 Mission Planning & Scheduling Services, Portable Across Ground and Space Segment ___________________ 38 GNSS Augmentation Service Aggregator for RTK, DGNSS Positioning __________________________________ 39 GNSS-based Structure Health Monitoring ____________________________________________________________40

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Ground Station Hardware and Software_______________________________________________________________ 41 Motion Planning, Control and Learning for Autonomous Systems _______________________________________ 42 Intuitive Telerobotics________________________________________________________________________________ 43 Situational Awareness for Firefighters, Rescue and Police _______________________________________________ 44 ‘Unsinkable’ Robotics _______________________________________________________________________________ 45 Trace Oxygen Sensors ______________________________________________________________________________ 46 Target Reconstruction Using Fly-by or Drive-by Imagery _______________________________________________ 47 Solutions for Monitoring Cardiovascular Parameters ___________________________________________________ 48 Design, Consultation and Precision Manufacturing of Metal and Plastic Space Systems and Their Integration_ 49 Automatic Image and Navigation Sensor Calibration ___________________________________________________50 Simulation of Space Imagery ________________________________________________________________________ 51 Miniature Radiometrically Accurate Cameras for Nanosatellites _________________________________________ 52 Space Camera Development for Mission Configurations _______________________________________________ 53 High Accuracy Interferometer for Testing Optical Elements and Systems ________________________________ 54 LiDAR Camera for Acquiring Precise 3D Images in Real Time (LightCode Solid State 3D Camera)__________ 55 FEA Multiphysics Simulations ________________________________________________________________________ 56 Soft Actuators and Robots___________________________________________________________________________ 57 Self-deployable habitat for extreme environments _____________________________________________________ 58 O2 Production on Mars from CO2 ____________________________________________________________________ 59 Radiation hardening for onboard digital circuits ________________________________________________________60 SpaceCap Supercapacitor___________________________________________________________________________ 61 Industrial COTS Supercapacitor Family _______________________________________________________________ 62 Additive Manufacturing of Thermal Management Systems with Tailored Properties_______________________ 63 Atomistic Scale Material Damage in Extreme Environments and in RF Fields _____________________________ 64 Solar Energy Fabric _________________________________________________________________________________ 65 Testing Services: Thermal, Vibration, Shock __________________________________________________________ 66 KSI Blockchain — Global Signature and Verification Platform ___________________________________________ 67 Blockchain-based Identity authentication for smart autonomous devices in space technology _____________ 68 Multi-sensing Satellite Tracking Drifters _______________________________________________________________ 69 Hydrogen Drones ___________________________________________________________________________________ 70

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Foreword Estonian industrial enterprises and scientific research establishments have experience in the creation of space technologies and the development of space equipment since the 1960s. Estonian membership in the European Union and in European Space Agency (ESA) has opened new avenues for businesses that have potential in space affairs. Moreover – operating in space affairs helps increase the influx of technology-intensive investments and improves the synchronicity of science and business, helping it to develop into an interdisciplinary field. Cooperation with ESA presents Estonian enterprises and scientific establishments with a unique opportunity to participate in ESA’s fast-moving technological development, with results that can also be implemented in Estonia. With the help of ESA optional programmes, we can support the development of the Estonian technology sector. Cross-border cooperation is one of the most important preconditions for achieving the objectives set out in Estonian Space Policy and Programme 2020-2027. The main goal of the space policy and programme is to create an improved environment for Estonian technology companies and to increase their competitiveness. Estonia’s activities in the space domain will help our companies to integrate into the supply chains of major system integrators as well as facilitate the development of local integrators framework. One of the main tasks of the mapping exercise at hand was to develop an understanding of the skills and competencies of the Estonian industry and how these skills could fit into the global space ecosystem. The information gathered will serve as an input to creating measures that are going to support the diffusion of technologies already used on Earth to space and vice versa. The first results of the Estonian space technologies mapping, carried out in autumn 2020, are presented in the current document. The taxonomy of technologies is based on the ESA Technology Tree. For each technology, appropriate pertinence with the ESA Technology Tree is determined. This makes the mapping coherent with appropriate activities of the ESA Technology Harmonization Group (THAG). The current mapping will serve two main goals: 1. Make Estonian capabilities and competencies related to space technologies more visible and known in the world, potentially resulting in concrete cooperation and business; 2. Based on mapping results, Estonian Space Industrial Policy and ESA Technology Development Strategy and global trends in Space field Estonian Space Technology Roadmap should be created. The mapping exercise will continue, and new technology descriptions will be added when they occur. Further actions will be coordinated by the Estonian Space Office. We titled the document Estonian Space Technologies Phone book to encourage readers to get in touch with their potential partners.

Madis Võõras Head of Estonian Space Office Enterprise Estonia

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Introduction Estonian ‘Space Technologies Phone Book’ presents an overview of technologies by Estonian entities that are associated with Space activities. Each technology described is described on a separate page, with Technology Domain (TD), Subdomain (TS), and Group (TG) shown, according to the ESA Technology Tree. The pages are ordered by the ESA Technology Tree. As the name suggests, the document acts like a phonebook. A reader can quickly go through the booklet, look for the TD, TS, and TG of interest, and find the corresponding technologies. Further, the document allows the readers to obtain a feel for the maturity of the technologies described — Technology Readiness Level (TRL) is indicated under each technology title. Contact details are shown for each technology, as well as illustrations, wherever possible. The document at hand is not a comprehensive directory of Estonian Space Technologies. However, it is the first step towards it. I encourage Estonian space sector stakeholders who feel that their technology descriptions could be included here to get in touch with the Estonian Space Office, to have technologies included in the next revision of this document. My gratitude goes out to the people who contributed to the document at hand. Special thanks go out to Mihkel Pajusalu, Sven Lilla, Taavi Raadik, Kaupo Voormansik, Erkin Najafli, Maiko Kiis, Rauno Gordon, Marika Popp, Priit Anton, Martin Jüssi, Roman Mugur, Pearu Orusalu, Stefano Alberico, Karl Taklaja, and Henry Aljand, as well as many others who gave their valuable time and contributed to the Estonian Space Technologies Phone Book.

Krister Kasemaa Project Manager Estonian Space Office November 2020

WANT TO ADD YOUR TECHNOLOGY? Contact kosmos@eas.ee

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Technology Readiness Level The technical readiness level of the technologies is assessed by the widely used technical readiness level scale. The scale is defined in the table below: TRL

DEFINITION

TRL9

actual system proven in an operational environment (competitive manufacturing in the case of key enabling technologies; or in space)

TRL8

system complete and qualified

TRL7

system prototype demonstration in an operational environment

TRL6

technology demonstrated in a relevant environment (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies)

TRL5

technology validated in a relevant environment (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies)

TRL4

technology validated in a lab

TRL3

experimental proof of concept

TRL2

technology concept formulated

TRL1

basic principles observed

Table 1: Technology Readiness Levels defined

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High Volumetric Efficiency Nanosatellite Bus Development TRL9 for some parts, others should reach TRL9 soon

KEY INFORMATION Integrated satellite bus with high volumetric efficiency. The engineering model has been developed with a plan to spacequalify the satellite platform for future interplanetary missions with nano spacecraft which includes the electric solar wind sail.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Hans Teras, MSc CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS An integrated satellite bus with high volumetric efficiency, being developed for ESTCube-2. Most of the bus electronics are housed in a 0.3U volume of a standard CubeSat unit. The bus includes an Electrical Power System (EPS), Communications System (COM) and On-board Computer System (OBCS) and FPGA based Star-Tracker (ST) optics and electronics. Attitude determination and control system’s (ADCS) sensors are located on OBCS board and reaction wheels are located in cutouts of the bus. System batteries are scalable and located outside of the bus electronics volume. Sensors which are located at the sides of the satellite, have their own electronic boards on satellite side panels (SP). SPs are used to house MPPTs for solar cells, sun sensors and mission dependent modules, like magnet-torquers or payload connectors which need direct exposure to space. ESTCube-1 bus operated successfully in space for over two years (2013-2015) and is TRL9. Its heritage has partially been commercialized by CrystalSpace. The ESTCube-1 bus was developed in various Estonian universities, centred around Tartu Observatory. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The custom nanosatellite bus IP that is owned either by the Estonian Student Satellite foundation or Tartu University. Companies like CrystalSpace have tried to commercialize the bus.

TD:1 TS:B TG:I 8

On-board Data Subsystems On-board Data Management On-board Data Management Subsystem


On-Board Self-Health Awareness TRL4-5

KEY INFORMATION Self-Health Awareness technology that enables on-board realtime electronics integrity monitoring for instant fault recovery, prognostics, and adaptation to damage. Health Management software performs on-board analytics for telemetry data reduction.

TESTONICA LAB testonica.com CONTACT Artur Jutman Managing Director artur@testonica.com +372 517 9012

DETAILS Modern complex commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) electronics have various reliability concerns, in particular caused by aging and radiation effects which are especially pronounced in space applications due to high radiation and non-existent serviceability. It is therefore essential to manage the health of such electronic systems by closely monitoring the status of hardware resources and carefully planning their utilization. This allows to attain the highest possible performance using the remaining resources when some have already gone out of order. This is commonly referred to as graceful degradation. When these procedures are executed in the system itself, it becomes self-health-aware. The health status is monitored either directly by embedded instrumentation for monitoring, the Built-In Self-Test procedure, etc., or indirectly via detected faults. The system maintains health statistics and generates a “health map” to avoid using faulty components and thus can continue working with somewhat reduced performance. The concept of hierarchical cross-layer health management divides the self-health-awareness between the heterogeneous parts of the system according to the control hierarchy: the execution unit reports its health to a local controller which aggregates the data from several units and then in-turn, reports the status to the central controller higher in the hierarchy. Fault detection, information collection, analysis and scheduling/control decisions are commonly performed at different levels of the system: hardware, OS software, application software.

TD 1: On-board Data Subsystems TS B: On-board Data Management TG I, II: On-board Data Management Subsystem; On-board Computers

TD 5: Space System Control TS A: Control (Sub-) Systems Engineering TG II: Autonomy and FDIR 9


Electrical Power Systems for Nanosatellites TRL4, should reach TRL9 soon

KEY INFORMATION Electrical power systems (EPS) based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS ) components.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Hans Teras, MSc CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS An Electrical Power System has been developed in Tartu Observatory for ESTCube-1, which operated successfully for over 2 years in a low Earth orbit and included many redundancy mechanisms, and a robust firmware update mechanism that was used multiple times in orbit. ESTCube-2 EPS is a simple design, which includes redundant power distribution modules, and a software based MPPT module for fast power tracking. It gives regulated 3.3V supply and battery line for internal bus systems and switchable battery lines for payloads . It is due to launch in late 2021. CrystalSpace offers a derivative of ESTCube-1 EPS as a commercial product. Description of ESTCube-1 EPS: kirj.ee/public/proceedings_pdf/2014/issue_2S/Proc-2014-2S-232-241.pdf INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The custom ESTCube-2 EPS is owned either by the Estonian Student Satellite foundation or Tartu University. Companies like CrystalSpace have tried to commercialize the device.

TD:1 On-board Data Subsystems TS:B On-board Data Management TG:II On-board Computers 10


On-board Computer System for Nanosatellite BUS TRL4, should reach TRL9 soon

KEY INFORMATION OBCS based on COTS components which includes AOCS sensors, processing algorithms and control capabilities.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Hans Teras, MSc CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS The on-board Computer System (OBCS) is the main system which gathers sensor data, bus health and status data. It is used to execute ADCS algorithms, read sensor data, and control ADCS modules, for example, reaction wheels, ST, and magnet-torquers. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The custom nOBCS is owned either by the Estonian Student Satellite foundation or Tartu University. Companies like CrystalSpace have tried to commercialize the device.

TD:1 On-board Data Subsystems TS:B On-board Data Management TG:II On-board Computers 11


Hardware Encryption via FPGA Softcores (HSM) TRL6

KEY INFORMATION FPGA soft cores implementing a fully functional Hardware Security Module (HSM) which can be integrated to implement end-to-end hardware encrypted data communication for space applications. We demonstrated its functionalities via a VHF radio link by encrypting the CCSDS SDLS/TC/TM protocols.

SKUDO skudo.tech CONTACT Stefano Alberico stefano@skudo.tech

DETAILS Skudo is focusing on Cybersecurity solutions based on pure hardware encryption, rather than Software, as this guarantees the highest level of security for our customers. Our HSM (built within a single FPGA chip) is entirely verifiable by independent third parties. The FPGA chip is designed and implemented in Europe. While the Hardware Security Modules are widely available on the market and used in many applications, none of those chips can be verified to ensure they don’t contain any undocumented backdoors. This is where we differ from our competitors who have chosen “blind trust” towards the technology they propose. For ESA we are currently working on a PoC (aimed to be completed by March 2021) which will have our encryption FPGA chip launched on a strato balloon to simulate a High Altitude Pseudo Satellite (HAPS conditions) and demonstrating an asymmetric encryption data link (fully deployed by a PKI) working at an altitude of 25 km in the stratosphere. One of the next steps will be to integrate our solution on a satellite and demonstrate our SDLS/TC/TM encryption technology in a real space environment where also the Operation Control Center will be involved. In the past, we have demonstrated our encryption chip by integrating it with a commercial drone system while encrypting its wireless telemetry link (using the MAVlink protocol) between the flying drone and the Ground Control System. For the consumer market we are launching a PCB device which offers our fully functional HSM chip (FPGA) for the makers community (RaspberryPi, Arduino, integrators, etc.) skudo.tech/kryptor In the near future, we plan to develop and increase the number of available soft cores while migrating them also to other FPGA brands (e.g., space graded). We also aim to design and implement custom built solutions for mission critical applications based on our chip. Among those we want to target IoT, drones and space applications to start with.

TD:1 On-board Data Subsystems TS:C Microelectronics for Digital and Analogue Applications TG:II Digital and Analogue Devices and Technologies 12


Reaction Wheel Condition Monitoring Using AI Tools TRL3

KEY INFORMATION Proekspert in space: Our team works to increase the longevity of mission critical equipment for the European Space Agency. Making the reaction wheels that steer spacecraft last longer.

PROEKSPERT proekspert.com CONTACT Henry Aljand Business Development henry.aljand@proekspert.ee

DETAILS Reaction wheels in spacecraft for three-axis control and operated as a momentum wheel have an important role in spacecraft smooth operations in space. Proekspert is mapping machine learning and advanced signal processing techniques for the monitoring and analysis of anomalous behavior of reaction wheels from a spacecraft’s telemetry data and ground tests. The life expectancy of space missions follows an increasing trend as missions lasting 15 to 20 years become more common. This sets higher demands on the operational life and robustness of mission-critical equipment. The project aims to improve the life expectancy of mission-critical equipment and implement a solution for all mission-critical components. Anticipation and prediction of anomalies, together with fast intervention, is especially relevant for critical faults, which could potentially disable or break mission-critical equipment and place a mission in danger. Anomalies may be detected by Proekspert’s solution. These anomalies will be categorized into “known” and “unknown” categories, based on causes or “symptoms.” The solution will be verified against such types of anomalies. The project culminates with proof-of-concept software. The software provides verification for and gives insights about the quality of the proposed predictive maintenance solution. Interactive visualization techniques will be applied to help improve the finding of deterioration or anomalies. This enables the identification of reaction wheels more prone to shorter lifetimes. TD:1 On-board Data Subsystems TS:D Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence for On-board Data Subsystems TG: I Machine Learning for On-board Data Subsystems 13


Asymmetric Encryption PKI TRL6

KEY INFORMATION Design and implementation of a fully functional PKI architecture which is demonstrated by providing asymmetric encryption to a flying strato balloon simulating a vehicle in HAPS conditions (25 km of altitude). In 2021, we aim to demo our HSM/PKI technology by encrypting the communication “OPS-SAT/ESOC”.

SKUDO skudo.tech CONTACT Stefano Alberico stefano@skudo.tech

DETAILS A fundamental feature of a public key encryption system, is that the party using a public key, usually does not know the corresponding private key. Instead, it relies on this being the ‘correct’ public key for its needs. We therefore refer to this party as the relying party. For the relying party to rely on a given public key for some purpose, it should be able to validate, with acceptable certainty, that this is the correct public key for the particular purpose and application. This is exactly the goal of the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI). PKI provides the infrastructure that allows a relying party to obtain a public key and validate that the public key fits its purpose. The PKI supports and allows the identification and authentication of various digital entities in the data network, by taking advantage of the use of digitally signed public certificates. Finally, once the parties are securely authenticated, it allows the safe exchange of data, e.g., avoiding MitM threats. We are currently working on the PKI within the scope of a procurement contract signed with ESA where we aim (by March 2021) to demonstrate this technology integrated on certain hardware equipment which is sent by a flying balloon to an altitude of 25 km (HAPS conditions). The flying vehicle will exchange encrypted data (SDLS/TC/TM links) with the ground control station by using the above mentioned PKI. All the encryption is executed within our Skudo’s HSM chip which runs within a single FPGA unit. The entire encryption architecture, the hardware controlling units (on the vehicle and on the ground) and the HSM chip are then integrated together with our own custom software developed ad-hoc for the demo project. During 2021, we plan to further improve the PKI architecture and integrate it with a real satellite vehicle (OPS-SAT) and with a ground OCC (ESOC) in order to provide a fully operational solution. Combining the PKI with our HSM/FPGA and the SDLS/TC/TM protocols is a very unique solution which meets ESA future cybersecurity plans. At the moment, most missions (which use encryption) adopt a symmetric scheme and are forced to pre-share and upload the encryption keys to the satellite before every launch. The adoption of the PKI would allow not only to bypass this very unsecure step but also allow to re-key the satellite during the mission. It will also allow to provide a secure mechanism (though bi-directional authentication) for the remote update of mission-critical software operations. TD:2 Space System Software TS:A Software Technologies TG:II Software Functions 14


Software Development for Nanosatellites TRL9 for some parts, others should reach TRL9 soon

KEY INFORMATION Fault tolerant software architecture based on a real-time operating system (RTOS).

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Hans Teras, MSc CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS The software is developed for STM32 microcontrollers including custom Hardware Abstraction Layer, RTOS based task scheduling approach to the entire system INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Custom nanosatellite bus IP that is owned either by the Estonian Student Satellite foundation or Tartu University. Companies like CrystalSpace have tried to commercialize.

TD:2 Space System Software TS:B Space Segment Software TG:I Methods and Tools for On-board Software Engineering Processes 15


Fast Sparse Data Processing & Analysis with GPU Accelerators KEY INFORMATION Speed up intensive data analysis with efficient sparse algorithms on GPUs. This is being test-driven at CERN/CMS and will reduce the time-to-insight while allowing for efficient parameter optimization.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS AND BIOPHYSICS, HIGH ENERGY AND COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS LABORATORY Joosep Pata, PhD CONTACT Joosep Pata, PhD joosep.pata@kbfi.ee

DETAILS Data-intensive projects such as high-energy physics experiments need to continuously reanalyse billions of records of structured numerical data on a regular basis to produce scientific results. These analyses are typically more complex than current query languages allow, such that custom ad-hoc numerical codes are used. As highly parallel computing architectures are increasingly important in the computing ecosystem, we consider how accelerators such as GPUs can be used for data analysis in order to reduce time-to-insight. We are developing software and algorithms that allow multi-terabyte numerical data in the form of sparse arrays from HEP experiments to be analysed to the final statistical results on a small set of GPUs, avoiding the costs & overhead of large distributed systems and thus allowing iteration on the timescale of hours instead of days. The deliverables for this project are efficient and reusable computational kernels in a reusable software package that can be applied on sparse data that typically arises from highly granular sensor arrays. The technology is being test-driven in flagship physics analyses at the CMS experiment at CERN. Potential applications outside high-energy-physics include dataintensive fields which produce irregular data, or where the use of irregular, sparse data structures can potentially reduce the dataset sizes dramatically, including radio astronomy, climate science, healthcare and genomics. Collaborations: CERN, Princeton, FNAL; Funding: ETAG (current), NSF (previously).

TD 2: Space System Software TS D: Ground Data Processing TG II: Ground Data Processing 16


Multi-Sensor Sparse Data Reconstruction with Machine Learning KEY INFORMATION Combine and reconstruct irregular data from multiple sensors using machine learning. The technology is being test-driven at CERN/CMS and aims to improve the computational & physics performance of reconstruction.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS AND BIOPHYSICS, HIGH ENERGY AND COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS LABORATORY Joosep Pata, PhD CONTACT Joosep Pata, PhD joosep.pata@kbfi.ee

DETAILS We develop machine learning (ML) algorithms to reconstruct signals from irregular, multi-sensor data. In high-energy experiments such as the CMS detector at CERN, particles created in high-energy proton-proton collisions are recorded by a multi-layered highly granular detector consisting of various subsystems that measure the charge, energy, interaction types and momentum of the particles, such that each particle may leave partial signals in different subsystems of the detector. Current state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms achieve superior resolution by combining, for example, tracker information with calorimetry, relying on spatial correlation, with the algorithm being combinatorial in nature. This, however, makes the current algorithms computationally expensive and reliant on a large number of ad-hoc parameters. We are developing ML methods that allow the signal to be reconstructed based on an end-to-end learnable regression, relying on massive parallelization and increasingly well-established industry tools (e.g., tensorflow) available for artificial neural networks. Crucially, we focus our attention on sparse methods (e.g., graph neural networks) that take advantage of zero-suppression, such that we can efficiently represent and assess highly granular readouts that arise in particle detection. This technology is currently being test-driven at the CMS experiment at CERN as an R&D effort aimed for the Phase 2 upgrade. We foresee potential translational uses of this technology in other areas where multiple readouts from highly granular readouts need to be used efficiently to reconstruct complex sparse signals. Collaborations: CERN, UCSD, FNAL; Funding: ETAG (current), NSF (previously).

TD 2: Space System Software TS D: Ground Data Processing TG II: Ground Data Processing 17


Ocean Monitoring Indicators of the Baltic Sea TRL9

KEY INFORMATION Ocean Monitoring Indicators (OMIs) provided by the Copernicus Marine Service (CMEMS) are free downloadable trends and data sets covering the past quarter of a century.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF MARINE SYSTEMS CONTACT Priidik Lagemaa, PhD priidik.lagemaa@taltech.ee

Figure: Depth/time section of annual subsurface temperature anomaly averaged over the Baltic Sea during the period of 1993-2019 and relative to the climatological period 1993-2014 from CMEMS regional reanalysis product

DETAILS OMIs which are based on satellite and model data are used to track the vital health signs of the Baltic Sea and signals in line with climate change. The indicators include: Baltic Sea ice extent, temperature anomaly, temperature trends, etc. Data can be downloaded from Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service web site: marine.copernicus.eu/science-learning/ ocean-monitoring-indicators Baltic Sea OMIs are calculated by the Baltic Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (BAL MFC) which includes five leading operational oceanography centres around the Baltic Sea: Marine Systems Institute at Tallinn University of Technology (MSI), Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (BSH), Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI).

TD:2 Space Systems Software TS:E Remote Sensing Payload Data Exploitation TG:I; II; III 18

Figure: (a) Time series of average sea ice extent derived from remote sensing and in situ observations. Long-term mean (black line) and one standard deviation (blue shading) are calculated over the period October 1992 – September 2014. Daily sea-ice extent is for 2019/2020 ice season (red line). (b) Time series of the area integrated daily sea-ice extent for the Baltic Sea in 1993–2020. Initial data are smoothed using 7-day window moving average filter


Water Mapping from EO-data TRL7

KEY INFORMATION Data processing prototype for mapping open water and water under vegetation from Sentinel-1 satellite imagery. A prototype will be implemented as an operational service by the Estonian Environment Agency. A future plan is to export the methodology to public services in Latvia, Lithuania and Belarus.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF MARINE SYSTEMS CONTACT Liis Sipelgas, PhD liis.sipelgas@taltech.ee +372 532 67509

Figure: Sentinel-2 satellite image.

Figure: water mapped from satellite imagery (blue).

DETAILS The methodology enables operational mapping of open water (including flood) and water under vegetation from Sentinel-1 imagery. The data processing set up also allows deriving statistical information about flood frequency inside the area of interest (defined area). Processing steps include automation downloading of EO data, pre-processing of Sentinel-1, raster based water mapping and post processing for filtering false alms (look-alikes). Testing showed the accuracy of the water mapping from Sentinel- 1 is 95%.

TD:2 Space Systems Software TS:E Remote Sensing Payload Data Exploitation TG:I;II Remote Sensing Data and Information Processing and Exploitation; Remote Sensing Applications and Services 19


EOGuard - Earth Observation Data Trust Service TRL7

KEY INFORMATION Fundamental digital integrity platform for Earth Observation Data products, providing immutable proof of integrity and provenance for all satellite data residing on long term archives.

GUARDTIME guardtime.com CONTACT Marika Popp Head of Space Solutions marika.popp@guardtime.com

DETAILS The technical objectives are: + ensured integrity, auditability and quality control for the long term archives that are the main source of data for a data access front-end system; + enhanced EO Data Quality Assurance framework with new capabilities to manage, control and distribute data; + enabled identical capability for long term archives. Available also for the Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) and National datahubs. The focus of the technology is: + securing long-term data archives, to ensure and facilitate the accessibility and usability of the preserved data sets; + reducing the storage capacity of EO products by applying the on-demand product processing; + provision of the proof and evidence of time, provenance chain and processes used for development of EO downstream services. Challenges to be tackled: EO Data archives and supply chain immutability, situational awareness, composition and dissemination.

TD:2 Space System Software TS:D Ground Data Processing TG:I Ground Data Archiving Subsystems 20


Machine Learning methods for Sea Ice Mapping from Earth Observation Data TRL7

KEY INFORMATION Machine learning methods are implemented for operational processing of Earth observation data from the Copernicus program to retrieve sea ice information over the Baltic Sea and Estonian lakes. The developed sea ice mapping algorithms will be running in in fully operational mode in Estonian Environment Agency in 2021.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF MARINE SYSTEMS CONTACT Rivo Uiboupin, PhD rivo.uiboupin@taltech.ee +372 620 4302

DETAILS The development will provide operational and accurate sea ice charts and lake ice extent products to professional users and to the public in Estonia. Operational processing of the EO data ensures timely distribution of ice information via Web Map Service (WMS) and interactive webpage for public use (navigation, safety, tourism). The Estonian Environment Agency and IT Centre of the Ministry of the Environment are responsible for the routine operations of the ice monitoring service. The Department of Marine Systems at Tallinn University of Technology and CGI Estonia are responsible for: (1) Development of the operational algorithms that enable to derive ice extent, type, concentration, thickness and snow cover from the Sentinel-1,-2 and-3 imagery; (2) The ICT modules which enable to archive the satellite sea ice products, deliver the products to expert users and distribute the ice info to general public via WMS service and web page. The Estonian Weather Service is a national ice service in Estonia. During the winter navigation period, the Estonian Weather Service is responsible for providing daily ice reports (marine bulletin) and sea-ice charts over the exclusive economic zone and internal waters of Estonia. The operational sea ice service is based on a manual interpretation of satellite data and ground measurements. The sea ice information is relevant for the transportation sector and ice breaking services as the accurate and timely information can reduce the fuel consumption of an ice breakers by 20%. The improved ice breaking service reduces the waiting time and atmospheric emission/ pollution of cargo vessels that in turn reduces the costs of vessel operators. Secondly, the coastal and lake ice information provided by the service is relevant for safety reasons (permission to go on ice) and for planning re-creational activities, such as fishing and hiking on the ice. Moreover, in case of accidents (e.g., people on drift ice) the satellite data enables to carry out Search and Rescue missions on sea and lake ice. TD:2 Space Systems Software TS:E Remote Sensing Payload Data Exploitation TG:I;II;III 21


SAR Value Added Products via API TRL6

KEY INFORMATION We deliver both Sentinel-1 calibrated and noise corrected coherence and backscatter time-series as statistics for parcels (areas of interest) and as raster images for clients who need data for further raster based analyses or visual interpretation.

KAPPAZETA kappazeta.ee CONTACT Tanel Tamm , PhD tanel.tamm@kappazeta.ee

DETAILS Kappazeta has developed an automated processing chain for Sentinel-1 satellite images to produce a time series for several parcel-related parameters. The calculated time series can be shared in various formats: e.g., database dump, .csv, through API, or through a custom requested format. Which parameters and statistics can we calculate? All parameters can be calculated over the area of a clients interest. We can provide: + Coh VH, Coh VV - 6-day repeat pass interferometric coherence in VH and VV polarization + VH/VV ratio - VH and VV polarization back-scatter ratio + s0VH, s0VV - Calibrated and noise corrected back-scatter (sigma0) in VH and VV polarization Why our Sentinel-1 time series are the best on the market? + Covering smaller parcels – we can reliably process 35 to 50% more parcels than other services on the market. Depending on the parcel shape we can go down to 0.5 ha parcels. + Handling the noise correction professionally – compared to the output of common processing software, e.g., ESA SNAP, the parameters are less biased resulting in more accurate and reliable models. + Solid performance for operational services – in 2017 we enabled the first country-wide mowing detection system (Estonia) and have kept it operational since then. Where time series from satellite data is already used? Our time series together with machine learning algorithms are being successfully used in nationwide system for automated monitoring of mowing events on grassland. This near real-time system has been operational in Estonia since 2017. In addition to working solution in Estonia we have performed several user trials in Sweden, Denmark and Poland to enhance the existing cutting and grazing detection methodology. Check out our demo map: demodev.kappazeta.ee/demo. Different parameters have been used to monitor activities in peat production fields, mapping flood areas and monitoring characteristics of buildings as well as ice coverage, de-forestation, etc., Satellite data is more and more used in precision farming, providing both small and large scale insights into crop health and soil moisture, recommendations for harvesting date and fertilization needs. The Sentinel-1 time series can improve models which at the moment are solely base on optical data. Where are our and Sentinel-1 limits? Spatial resolution: We use Sentinel-1 products (SLC IW) which have spatial resolution approx. 5x20m. We can process smaller than 1 ha geometries depending on the shape of the field. Maximum time span: From year 2017 to present. Coverage: Sentinel-1 revisit frequency over Europe, parts of Antarctica, Hawaii islands and Galapagos islands is 6 days. This coverage is ensured from same, repetitive relative orbits. Over other parts of world the frequency is 12 days.

TD:2 TS:E TG:II 22

Space System Software Remote Sensing Payload Data Exploitation Remote Sensing Applications and Services


Earth Observation Data GPU Processing TRL5

KEY INFORMATION Common pre-processing routines for Sentinel-1 SAR imagery have been implemented as GPU-accelerated tools providing faster processing capabilities. The future plan is to extend the portfolio of the tools also with optical data processing.

CGI EESTI AS cgi.ee CONTACT Martin Jüssi Director of Space & Earth Observation Consulting Services martin.jussi@cgi.com +372 5646 6997

DETAILS The outcome of this technology development are software tools for running Earth Observation (EO) data processing on Graphical Processing Units (GPU-s). The tools are designed to work in processing infrastructures where both EO data and GPU-s have been made accessible for the software. The tools utilize the Nvidia CUDA framework, so having Nvidia GPU-s available is a prerequisite. The tools implement pre-processing routines for commonly used Optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) EO data, allowing users more timely and convenient access to analysis-ready data without having to do manual preprocessing, that is conventionally a time-consuming activity. The technology development started in 2017 when CGI Estonia received funded through the ESA Estonian Industry Incentive Scheme (IIS) to demonstrate GPU-based SAR processing on an existing hardware and software platform previously developed by Elmer SKB OÜ. As an outcome of the IIS activity, nearly interactive processing and display of Sentinel-1 imagery was achieved. The results were specific to the platform infrastructure and not portable to other infrastructures. CGI Estonia received funding from the ESA EOEP-5 Block 4 Open Call in 2019 to develop stand-alone GPU-accelerated SAR tools based on the outcome of the IIS activity. As an outcome of the activity, common SAR pre-processing routines, such as generation of coherence pairs and time-series, and calibration, shall be made available as open-source. The Open Call activity is currently in progress and anticipated to be completed by February 2021. In a follow-on GSTP activity, CGI will investigate also optical use cases and additional functionality required to support machine learning applications.

TD:2 TS:E TG:II

Space System Software Remote Sensing Payload Data Exploitation Remote Sensing Applications and Services 23


Monograin Layer Solar Cell Technology for Space Application TRL3

KEY INFORMATION Monograin layer solar cell technology is one of the promising technologies for in-situ resource utilization in space. It will allow us to manufacture solar cells from Lunar - or Mars regolith.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING, DEPARTMENT OF MATERIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, LABORATORY OF PV MATERIALS, LABORATORY OF OPTOELECTRONIC MATERIALS Taavi Raadik, PhD CONTACT Taavi Raadik, PhD taavi.raadik@taltech.ee +372 5649 1983

DETAILS The monograin layer solar cell (MGL) has a superstrata structure: Back foil/graphite/absorber/buffer/ZnO/ glass (or polymer film), where the absorber is a monolayer of nearly unisize, with a typical diameter of 40 μm, semiconductor powder crystals embedded into a layer of epoxy without contaminating the upper surfaces. CdS buffer layer is deposited onto the monograins by chemical bath deposition. The intrinsic ZnO and Al doped ZnO are deposited by RF sputtering. Solar cell structure is completed by vacuum evaporation of In grid contacts onto the ZnO window layer. Graphite paste is used to make the back contact. The advantages of MGL solar cell technology are the following: (1) the absorber material monograins with single crystal`s optoelectronic properties could be obtained, (2) it is possible to achieve uniform distribution of elements due to high synthesis temperatures in the molten phase of flux where the material diffusion and transport processes are fast and therefore unwanted secondary phases can be avoided, (3) the material and the solar cell are prepared separately, enabling to perform post treatments only to the monograins, (4) the area and shape of the MGL solar modules with uniform properties is not limited, and (5) flexible cheap substrates can be used enabling versatile applications. Additionally, various semiconductors having photosensitivity could be used as an absorber in the MGL solar cell. Currently, MGL technology has proven to work well with semiconductors such as CuInSe2, CuInS2 , Cu2ZnSnS4 , Cu2ZnSnSe2 and their solid solutions Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4, also Cu(In,Ga)Se2, and CdTe. With ketserite materials Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x)4, device performance close to the World record efficiencies in the field, are obtained. Due to the advantages of MGL solar cell technology TalTech has been collaborating with ESA. ESA has shown remarkable interest to the technology for in-situ resource utilization in order to manufacture MGL solar cells from resources available on moon or other celestial body. TD 3: Spacecraft Electrical Power TS B: Power generation technologies TG I: Photovoltaic generator technology 24

TD 22: Environmental Control Life Support (ECLS) and In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) TS B: In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU)


Fuel Cell Based Electric Generators TRL7

KEY INFORMATION Development of portable, lightweight and durable electric generators for mobile and stationary applications. A full product family that extends from 200 W to 15 kW is planned. UP200 and UP400, respectively 200 W and 400 W models are currently commercially available. 1 kW and 6 kW generators are to reach production within the next 2 years.

POWERUP ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES powerup-tech.com CONTACT Maiko Kiis Head of Marketing maiko@powerup-tech.com +372 5359 1093

DETAILS PowerUP is developing a range of innovative hydrogen powered portable electric generators to offer a clean alternative to “dirty” and noisy diesel generators. The generators combine proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, Bluetooth module, lithium-ion batteries and more, all into one product, being unique in doing so. The generators are small. As an example, the UP1K (1,000W model) weighs 15 kilograms and is the size of a toolbox. The solution gives out 1kW continuous power at 48/110 volts, depending on what is needed by the user. The generator works on pure hydrogen gas. Hydrogen gas is directed into the fuel cell and a chemical reaction strips its electrons. Negatively charged electrons provide the current through wires. As long as there is a hydrogen and oxygen supply, fuel cells will generate electricity. There are ventilation holes in the generator through which it obtains a continuous supply of oxygen. The generators are unique on the market. They provide: a) polymer-based lightweight fuel cell stacks; b) modular design – two or more generators can be stacked together to raise the power output; c) specially developed mixture of recycled plastics and foam composition. The specific parameters in focus were UV resistance, chemical resistance, mechanical strength, electric conductivity properties to protect the generator; d) “smart-grid” – the customers are encouraged to combine wind turbines and solar panels with UP generators. It is possible to store the excess energy from the sun or wind in generators internal battery and use it later, or integrate the system with an external power bank for increased storage. This allows boats, homes and camper vans to become energy neutral and independent from the grid. UP1K is the first generator on the market with this capability; e) power electronics that allows to operate high currents at low voltages. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY WO2018098357A1 : Portable Fuel Cell Backup Generator System TD:3 TS:B TG:II

Space Systems Electrical Power Power Generation Technologies Fuel Cell Technologies 25


Closed Cathode PEM Fuel Cells TRL3

KEY INFORMATION Fuel cells generate electricity through a chemical reaction that requires oxygen and a fuel (normally hydrogen). Closed cathode fuel cells require oxygen and hydrogen to be supplied from a cylinder.

POWERUP ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES powerup-tech.com CONTACT Ivar Kruusenberg, PhD CEO and Founder ivar@powerup-tech.com +372 503 6963

Figure: Closed cathode PEM fuel cell technology visualized.

DETAILS A fuel cell is a device that generates electricity by a chemical reaction, which requires hydrogen and oxygen. Every fuel cell has two electrodes – anode and cathode. The reactions that produce electricity take place in the electrodes. Fuel cells also have an electrolyte, which carries electrically charged particles from one electrode to the other, and a catalyst to speed the reactions at the electrodes. A single fuel cell generates a tiny amount of direct current (DC) electricity. In practice, many fuel cells are usually assembled into a stack. Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells operate at a low temperature, which makes them suitable for homes, cars and other similar applications. Usually oxygen can be taken from surrounding air, but in case of Mars and Moon, there is no oxygen. Thereby, closed cathode fuel cells are required. These fuel cells require oxygen to be supplied from a cylinder. PowerUP’s closed cathode fuel cells are lightweight and corrosion-proof that can be potentially used in Mars and Lunar cargo ships and rovers. We have developed our own highly active bio-based and CO2-derived nanocatalyst. Industrial biowaste and CO2 are being used to synthesize a high surface area and highly porous nanocarbon supports which are further modified with metal nanoparticles. Closed cathode fuel cells are more efficient than open cathode fuel cells.

TD:3 TS:B TG:II 26

Space Systems Electrical Power Power Generation Technologies Fuel Cell Technologies


Fully Electrospun Durable Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor TRL2-3

KEY INFORMATION Fully electrospun, flexible, electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC), which is suitable for utilizing limited and irregular space of satellites, can operate at high frequency without significant loss of capacitance under specific environmental conditions of space missions.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, LABORATORY OF POLYMERS AND TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY Andres Krumme, PhD CONTACT Andres Krumme, PhD andres.krumme@taltech.ee +372 620 2907

DETAILS Storage and availability of energy in satellites and during space missions is of critical importance. If commonly used Li-Ion batteries can store large amount of energy, then supercapacitors can provide high bursts of energy in short time or high frequencies. Therefore, supercapacitors can be used for compensating a fluctuating power supply, protect batteries against peak loads, activating pyrotechnic separation mechanisms or other actuators, operating solar cells or energy harvesting devices, operate in radars or other observation components. Conventional supercapacitors have operational limitations at high frequencies, under extreme temperatures and vibration. Our studies have shown, that electrospinning method combined with novel conductive copolymers can yield electrode and separator materials of high specific surface areas, increased high frequency capabilities and good mechanical properties. Electrospun supercapacitors can be used in applications with demanding shape/volume and vibration requirements. The devices can efficiently utilize irregular and limited space of launchers and satellites. Two main applications can be foreseen for high energy density cells – thrust vectoring control and battery size reduction in satellite applications with longer pulse lengths – such as SAR satellites. The main industrial partner for the technology development is Skeleton Technologies OÜ. The development is supported by ESA Contract No. 4000119258/16/NL/CBi “Fully electrospun durable electrode and electrochemical double-layer capacitor for high frequency applications”. The foreseeable activities (starting TRL 4) are customization of the lab scale prototypes to the needs of companies collaborating with ESA and development of small scale, industrial facility for production of the energy storage devices. INTELLECTUAL PROPERY Invention: A method for manufacture of electrochemical system of supercapacitor of flexible ultra-thin structure; Owners: Tallinn University of Technology , Skeleton Technologies OÜ; Authors: Andres Krumme, Natalja Savest, Jaan Leis, Mati Arulepp, Anti Perkson, Siret Malmberg; Priority number: US62/301,649; Priority date: 1.03.2016. TD 3: Space Systems Electrical Power TS C: Energy Storage Technologies TG I: Electro-Chemical Technologies for Energy Storage 27


Charged particle trackers and detectors for ionizing radiation TRL3-5

KEY INFORMATION The University of Tartu and the company GScan OÜ develop collaboratively detector systems, algorithms and software to measure the tracks and flux rates of charged particles. The focus of the development is on compact, accurate and lightweight tracker systems. It makes the developed systems especially suitable for space applications. Further, non-space deliverables include a technology for allowing the characterization of internal structure of objects without applying additional radiation, functionally similar to x-ray scanners today.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS Madis Kiisk, PhD; Andi Hektor PhD gscan.eu CONTACT Madis Kiisk, PhD madis.kiisk@ut.ee +372 516 9239 Andi Hektor, PhD andi.hektor@cern.ch +372 5615 0288

DETAILS The key sub-competencies: (plastic) fiber scintillators, photodetectors, multichannel DAQ systems, tomography algorithms, machine learning, artificial intelligence, numerical simulations of particle transfer (Geant4). The key application areas: muon tomography, tomography on natural radiation, tomography for security, industrial and medical scanners, particle trackers for research projects, trackers for gamma-ray and cosmic ray detectors in space. External links: + tinyurl.com/y2ddcts7 + researchinestonia.eu/2020/09/15/good-bye-x-rays-new-scanner-technology-sees-through-things + en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muon_tomography INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The WIPO patent application no. PCT / EP2019 / 055333 has been submitted to the patent offices of EU (EPO), United States, Japan and China. TD:4 Space Systems Environments and Effects TS:A Space Environments TG:II In-flight Environments Monitoring 28


Image-based recognition of Objects in Space TRL4

KEY INFORMATION Developing methods for automatic recognition of objects in a space environment.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SCHOOL OF IT, DEPARTMENT OF SOFTWARE SCIENCE Andri Riid, PhD CONTACT Andri Riid, PhD andri.riid@taltech.ee

DETAILS Image recognition these days is based on the application of Convolutional Neural Networks, which can show very good performance depending on the task. The task can be formulated as image classification, object detection or image segmentation and the technology for that is at our disposal. Characteristic to Machine Learning, a large number of teaching examples (i.e., images with known objects) is required to teach the networks. In previous research we have applied convolutional neural networks to a variety of problems, e.g., for the recognition of road boundaries, pavement type and pavement defects from orthoframes, for the segmentation of various objects from panoramic images and for the classification of objects from point clouds.

TD:4 TS:A TD:11 TS:A

Space Systems Environments and Effects Space Environments Space Debris Ground- and Space-based Debris and Meteoroid Measurements 29


Integrated Altitude Determination and Control System for Nanosatellites TRL4, should reach TRL9 soon

KEY INFORMATION Integrated ADCS system

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Hans Teras, MSc CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS Unscented kalman filter for fast attitude determination and controlled spin-up of the satellite (>1rps) Attitude determination and control algorithms and sensor fusion with ADCS actuators. Includes ST, Sun-sensors, MEMS based IMU sensors, reaction wheels and magnet-torquers) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Custom nanosatellite bus IP that is owned either by the Estonian Student Satellite foundation or Tartu University. Companies like CrystalSpace have tried to commercialize.

TD: 5 Space System Control TS: C;D Control Techniques and Tools; AOCS/GNC Sensors and Actuators 30


Communication System Development for Nanosatellite BUS TRL9 for some parts, others should reach TRL9 soon

KEY INFORMATION Communication System (COM) based on Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and adapted to Radio-amateur community needs.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Hans Teras, MSc CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS Communications system to transmit and receive modulated RF signals in the UHF band. It includes a reserve VHF receive module for redundancy. An RF signal can be decoded by the radio-amateur community, because transmitted and received packets are encapsulated using AX.25 standard. Will be tested on ESTCube-2. ESTCube-1 Communication System was co-developed by Tartu Observatory, Tallinn Technical University and others. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Custom nanosatellite bus IP that is owned either by the Estonian Student Satellite foundation or Tartu University. Companies like CrystalSpace have tried to commercialize.

TD:6 RF Subsystems, Payloads and Technologies TS:A Telecommunication Subsystems TG:I;II Telecommunication Subsystem and Engineering Tools; Telecommunication Signal Processing 31


Radio Frequency Reconnaissance and Countermeasures TRL9

KEY INFORMATION Intelligent and automated C-UAS based on RF detection, Edge AI and jamming.

RANTELON rantelon.ee CONTACT Karl Taklaja Head of Sales karl@rantelon.ee

Figure: Rantelons drone detection system DTS-2458

DETAILS Rantelon develops technologies for detection, identification, and neutralization of commercial unmanned aircraft systems (UASs). Such UASs typically utilize the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) radio frequency (RF) bands for remotely controlling the UASs from a ground station. The developed counter unmanned system (C-UAS) technologies rely on detecting, identifying, and neutralizing those remote-control signals and also the signals that travel in the opposite direction, from the UAS to the ground station. In addition, Rantelon has integrated into the C-UAS systems the capabilities to prevent UASs from using different global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) in order to prevent malicious UASs from carrying out pre-programmed missions while relying on GNSS for navigation. Data management and artificial intelligence are key aspects of Rantelon’s C-UAS research and development efforts. That is because the principal challenge in detecting and identifying UASs using RF sensors is distinguishing between the different signal waveforms used by different UASs and other spectrum users that are not necessarily UASs. Artificial intelligence provides an efficient and accurate method for classifying between those different waveforms used by UASs and other spectrum users. Indeed, AI based systems are outperforming classical identification systems in a wide range application. Data management and data gathering, on the other hand, allow to build the artificial intelligence models and attain necessary accuracy. Continuing from the technology selection from detection and identification to destruction, RF based neutralization is and most probably will be one of the primary concepts in countering adversarial remotely controlled UASs. This encompasses simple denial-of-service attacks through jamming but also more complex approaches through spoofing. TD:6 RF Subsystems, Payloads and Technologies TS:E RF Technologies and Equipment TG:II RF Equipment 32


Telecommunication Devices TRL9

KEY INFORMATION From antenna design and electronic component selection to signal boosters and more, Rantelon is capable of designing to clients needs. It can be for your satellite television or the newest 5G networks.

RANTELON rantelon.ee CONTACT Karl Taklaja Head of Sales karl@rantelon.ee

DETAILS Rantelon has a long history of creating telecommunications devices. The first devices ever produced were DVB-T amplifiers. Nowadays we design and produce a large range of different devices. Mostly we operate in the private area network of infrastructure devices. We have made different products for government and private entities. One of our biggest partners is EXFO OY for who we make a wide range of 3G and 4G devices. For governments we have made devices for TETRA networks.

TD:6 RF Subsystems, Payloads and Technologies TS:E RF Technologies and Equipment TG:II RF Equipment 33


Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing Services KEY INFORMATION The space technology laboratories of Tartu Observatory are part of the Testing Centre of the University of Tartu. The quality management system of the Testing Centre fulfils the requirements of ISO 17025:2017 standard.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Riho Vendt, PhD CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS The laboratory complex of Tartu Observatory in Tõravere, Estonia offers laboratory services for development and testing of space technology, environmental testing and optical measurements. The laboratories include special electrostatic discharge (ESD) safe areas, cleanroom (Class 8, ISO 14644-and anechoic environment. All laboratories include automatic control for ambient temperature and humidity conditions. The space technology laboratories of Tartu Observatory are part of the Testing Centre of the University of Tartu. The quality management system of the Testing Centre fulfils the requirements of ISO 17025:2017 standard. The Testing Centre was firstly accepted as accredited testing laboratory in 2003 and calibration laboratory in 2008 by Estonian Accreditation Centre. The Tartu Observatory’s laboratories are also a part of ADAPTER, the network of Estonian universities, research and development organizations. Further details can be found at: kosmos.ut.ee/en/services/laboratory-services. Brochure detailing technical parameters of all Tartu Observatory testing facilities can be found at: kosmos.ut.ee/sites/default/files/kosmos/toravere-laborid-eng-30-05-2019-netti.pdf INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Custom designed test setups that could potentially be commercialized. IP belongs to Tartu University. TD: 7 Electromagnetic Technologies and Techniques TS: C EMC/RFC/ESD TG: II EMC Test Techniques 34


Science Operations Configuration Control Infrastructure TRL9

KEY INFORMATION The Science Operations Configuration Control Infrastructure (SOCCI) provides a platform to support the software development and maintenance processes of all SCI-O units at ESA’s European Space Astronomy Center (ESAC).

CGI EESTI AS cgi.ee CONTACT Martin Jüssi Director of Space & Earth Observation Consulting Services martin.jussi@cgi.com +372 5646 6997

DETAILS The Science Operations Configuration Control Infrastructure (SOCCI) is a single, highly customizable platform for system engineering, providing tools and guidelines for requirement management, problem and change management, test management, project and document management, source version control and continuous integration. The infrastructure provides support to the software development and maintenance processes of science operations units at the European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC). SOCCI reduces effort and knowledge to setup and maintain the Systems Engineering Environment and supports the users by providing guidelines and good practices learned from previous experiences. SOCCI also reduces the need for ad-hoc development and facilitates the software engineering processes’ compliance with the ECSS standards. The development of SOCCI started in 2014 and has being operationally used from June 2017. Recently, the range of functionalities already covered by SOCCI have been extended through SOCCI Evolution and SOCCI Test Framework projects. The user base of SOCCI is constantly growing – it is currently used by over 100 engineers from existing missions (e.g., INTEGRAL, BepiColombo, XMM, Athena) and the use of SOCCI is now mandatory for all new science missions. TD:8 System Design & Verification TS:A Mission and System Specification TG:II Requirement Engineering 35


Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Data Trust Service TRL5

KEY INFORMATION SST Data Trust Service enables SST Catalogue Data providing entities to share SST data with each other in a decentralized manner, with full confidence and trust that the integrity and provenance of the shared data is conserved.

GUARDTIME guardtime.com CONTACT Marika Popp Head of Space Solutions marika.popp@guardtime.com

DETAILS The SST Data Trust Service is based on Distributed Ledger Technologies and is aimed at implementing a secure distributed ledger (blockchain) for SST data, to ensure integrity, add resiliency and allow for users to reach consensus on shared data across catalogues. A blockchain-based solution naturally fits the role of a decentralised, secure and trusted SST data sharing platform, resulting in a system not controlled by any single entity, yet acting as a single system, synchronised across all participants and application areas. The SST Data Trust Service system is represented by business logic, web, and client separate application tiers. It’s implemented within the Hyperledger Fabric framework, enabling to host and operate multiple separate tier-specific peers by all participants. Thus, high flexibility is secured in choosing and implementing future administrative, trust and computation distribution schemes among all the participants. In the future, the goal is to further investigate secure exchange mechanisms between space operators by enforcing rules (e.g., via smart contracts) for acknowledgement of collision risks and subsequent negotiated procedures (e.g., automated manoeuvre execution). The proposed solution is aimed to be integrated and/or compatible with ESA’s future Collision Risk Estimation and Automated Mitigation (CREAM) platform. TD:9 Mission Operation and Ground Data Systems TS:B Mission Operations TG:II Automation, Autonomy and Mission Planning Concepts 36


Resonance/MIDA for Space TRL6

KEY INFORMATION The Guardtime MIDA Product Suite aims to protect ground station system infrastructure and defend against advanced cyber threats. It consists of configurable agents, services, and APIs to be tailored to match space industry specific cyber threats, or leverage templates to quickly and easily deploy a baseline system based on certified standards and policies. The MIDA agents and services provide continuous monitoring and secure management of the system and associated data in a holistic, end-to-end set of capabilities. With Guardtime MIDA, security and compliance are no longer based on expensive manual tasks but a continuous and provable system state. This decreases the overall compliance burden on IT Managers and allows them to refocus valuable IT resources to protect their most crucial IT assets.

GUARDTIME guardtime.com CONTACT Marika Popp Head of Space Solutions marika.popp@guardtime.com

DETAILS MIDA is composed of two operational components, the MIDA Edge Agents and the MIDA State Management Services. The MIDA Edge Agents provide state collection and cryptographically verifiable management validation at the ground station system assets. The MIDA State Management Services provide the backend functionality to create real-time alerts, remediation profiles, visualization, and integration with other backend investments and assets. By leveraging this approach, Guardtime can provide: + Accidental or Malicious misconfiguration and compromise detection and remediation; + Decreased cost and complexity in correlating security events; + Decreased time to detection of malicious or accidental events; + Decreased cost for storage of inputs to correlating events; + Enhanced attributed data protection, provenance and lineage; + Granular Data Access Control and Data Rights Management; + Granular Device and Machine management and control; + Enhanced governance and DevOps management; + Streamlined Converged Compliance and Audit. TD:2 Space Systems Software TS:E Remote Sensing Payload Data Exploitation TG:III Operation Support Processes 37


Mission Planning & Scheduling Services, Portable Across Ground and Space Segment TRL6

KEY INFORMATION The goal of the activity is to specify Mission Planning and Scheduling services in the context of the CCSDS Mission Operations Services standard. The main beneficiaries are agencies operating missions, system integrators and ground segment software providers who will use the standardized CCSDS services for the integration of the mission operation functions between their products.

CGI EESTI AS cgi.ee CONTACT Martin Jüssi Director of Space & Earth Observation Consulting Services martin.jussi@cgi.com +372 5646 6997

DETAILS The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization that supports collaboration and interoperability between member agencies through the establishment of space data and system standards. The goal of this technology development is to specify Mission Planning and Scheduling services in context of the CCSDS Mission Operations Services standard, and apply them in an operational context for validation and improvements. The activity started in 2013 as a PECS project and continued in 2018 through GSTP. As an outcome of the activity, CGI obtained a good overview of the mission planning domain through specification of the CCSDS MP services and development of a prototype external interface to ESA Mission Planning System Framework (MPSF) that implemented the MP services. In addition, CGI implemented the MP services in NanoSatMOFramework (NMF), the operating platform of ESA’s OPS-SAT mission. An OPS-SAT experiment was also developed that demonstrated on-board autonomy using the MP services. The purpose of the experiment was to enable autonomous, on-board decision making of an optical Earth observation satellite based on cloud cover.

TD:9 Mission Operation and Ground Data Systems TS:C Ground Data Systems TG:II Preparation and Procedure Tools 38


GNSS Augmentation Service Aggregator for RTK, DGNSS Positioning TRL6-7

KEY INFORMATION Stargate RTK is a GNSS augmentation service aggregator that provides RTK and DGNSS corrections, and value-added services for emerging application markets like robots, drones, autonomous vehicles. Designed to be global, affordable, sustainable.

PRNS prns.io CONTACT Simon Litvinov simon@prns.io

DETAILS It’s hard to deploy and precisely track thousands of connected devices. There is a growing trend of the emergence and increasing usage of innovative lightweight GNSS modules for mass applications. Important players in the revolution of cheap, lightweight GNSS modules dual-frequency GNSS chipsets are U-blox: (ZED-F9P); Quectel: (L26-P); Septentrio: (mosaic-X5). All chipsets mentioned above target the industries of LEV, AV, robotics, drones, and asset tracking. To reach cm-level positioning accuracy, all of these applications will need access to GNSS augmentation services like Stargate RTK to achieve cm-level positioning. There are 4 types of competitors: 1. TNC’s whose market we are aiming to disrupt: Trimble, Leica Geosystems/ HEXAGON Geosystems, Topcon & Sokkia. They provide correction services at premium prices, which are unaffordable for companies that aim to scale. 2. Local public GNSS CORS operators: ESTPOS in Estonia, SAPOS in Germany, Orpheon in France. Despite being affordable, these providers usually have limited coverage (available only within a country). They also have limited features (these systems designed to serve land-surveyors and precision agriculture) and cannot serve the new market applications (robots, drones, IoT). It usually takes much effort to get access to correction services (it takes days/weeks or even months to get access), or sometimes they restrict the usage (Estonian ESTPOS is unavailable to private companies). 3. GNSS network aggregators. They provide broad coverage and democratic prices; however, they are also targeting their services in traditional industries (land surveying, precision agriculture). 4. Other emerging correction services (PPP-RTK and similar technologies by Swift Navigation, Sapcorda, Trimble, Hexagon). Not every equipment can support these types of corrections, and they are at high prices. Stargate RTK grows at the expense of the existing infrastructure and unites all existing GNSS CORS networks and provides easy access to all of them in one window. Stargate RTK does not charge for the correction data itself, but for value-added services: + unconventional protocol usage for data transmission (MQTT, NTRIP over UDP, etc.); + innovative frequency resampling; + advanced GNSS filtering; + others. Behind Stargate RTK there is an engine to process GNSS observations — receive, archive, convert to the desired format and deliver to the customer via realtime streaming or downloadable archives. It consists of: 1. A back-end server software, collecting and processing GNSS data from a global network of reference stations, as well as handling the customer requests for navigation information. 2. A web service to discover, request, and configure the solution required for the specific case; as well as tools for administrators to monitor the state of the system and perform maintenance. 3. Cloud storage to accumulate terabytes of GNSS information, organised in a scalable, reliable, and easy-to-access system. TD:10 Flight Dynamics and GNSS TS:B GNSS High-Precision Data Processing TG:I Ground Tracking Networks 39


GNSS-based Structure Health Monitoring TRL7

KEY INFORMATION Low-cost mm-level precision geodetic and construction structure health monitoring solution. High precision is achieved both in dynamic and static scenarios, the signal data can be processed both locally and in the cloud. The sensor device is very simple and cheap. The signal processing techniques are more effective than existing RTK-based solution.

ESTIMO-GNSS estimo-gnss.com CONTACT Igor Tsarik igor.shashaev@ estimo-gnss.com

DETAILS The basis of our technology is GNSS augmentation method (Differential Correction). With our advanced signal processing techniques, we achieve millimeter-accuracy with very simple Hardware needed. The product consists of GNSS positioning equipment (Hardware) installed on customer premises (Object under Monitoring) and Software to process the received signals and information, and a User interface to display the desired data and control the System. The Hardware and Signal Processing Software utilize only L1 band open codes from GNSS systems available at the moment. With the launch of the Galileo system our system performance improves significantly due to increased availability of quality signal.

TD:10 Flight Dynamics and GNSS TS:B GNSS high-precision data processing TG:I, II Ground Tracking Networks & NSS and Geodetic Data Processing 40


Ground Station Hardware and Software TRL9 for some parts, others should reach TRL9 soon

KEY INFORMATION Multiple antenna systems for satellite RF signal transmission and reception.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Viljo Allik, MEng CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS RF signals can be sent and received in the VHF, UHF bands. Exists S-band reception capability. Exists SDR capability and know-how. Radio-amateur compatible systems (AX-25 standard). Antenna systems are capable of tracking satellite passes. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Custom designed ground stations that could potentially be commercialized. IP belongs to University of Tartu. TD:12 Ground Station Systems and Networks TS:A Ground Station System TG:II Ground TT&C and Payload Data Reception Antenna Systems 41


Motion Planning, Control and Learning for Autonomous Systems TRL5

KEY INFORMATION Developing advanced AI driven algorithms for perception and control of mobile robots, autonomous cars, manipulators and drones. We merge fundamental algorithmic research with strong applied expertise for real-world deployment of robotics.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Arun Kumar Singh, PhD CONTACT Arun Kumar Singh, PhD arun.singh@ut.ee +358 4655 76207

DETAILS 1. We are developing autonomous driving motion planners for the UT-Bolt consortium on Autonomous Driving. 2. We are developing a fleet of autonomous mobile robots to assist healthcare workers in their fight against COVID-19. Our robots will be able to autonomous transport food, test samples, medicines across hospital premises and allow healthcare workers to remotely interact with patients. 3. We are developing novel algorithms and software for real-time control of robots in uncertain and dynamic environments. Our research is funded by the Estonian Research Council and other industrial partners. Our collaboration network includes Tampere University, Johannes Kepler University, Austria, Aalto University and the University of Maryland.

TD: 13 Automation, Telepresence & Robotics TS: A Robotic Applications and Concepts TG: I, II Planetary Robotic Exploration; Orbital Robotic Systems 42


Intuitive Telerobotics TRL5

KEY INFORMATION Developing advanced AI driven algorithms for perception and control of mobile robots, autonomous cars, manipulators and drones. We merge fundamental algorithmic research with strong applied expertise for real-world deployment of robotics.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Karl Kruusamäe CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS The role of operator interfaces is to empower a human to solve a task with the help of a remote or co-located robot. We focus on developing and validating intuitive telerobotics operator interfaces for minimizing cognitive load to ensure fault tolerant and long-term autonomy. Intuitive telerobotic user experiences take advantage of all available communication modalities (e.g., speech, gestures and touch) as well as cultural and psychological profile of the intended user. We are developing: (1) autonomous driving motion planners for the UT-Bolt consortium on Autonomous Driving. (2) a fleet of autonomous mobile robots to assist healthcare workers in their fight against COVID-19. Our robots will be able to autonomous transport food, test samples, medicines across hospital premises and allow healthcare workers to remotely interact with patients. (3) novel algorithms and software for real-time control of robots in uncertain and dynamic environments. Our research is funded by Estonian Research Council and other industrial partners. Our collaboration network includes Tampere University, Johannes Kepler University, Austria, Aalto University and the University of Maryland. Potential use cases include: + teleoperation during planetary exploration; + teleoperation for system maintenance; + robotic assistants during manned missions. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP belongs to UT. TD: 13 Automation, Telepresence & Robotics TS: A Robotic Applications and Concepts TG: I, I Planetary Robotic Exploration; Orbital Robotic Systems 43


Situational Awareness for Firefighters, Rescue and Police TRL6

KEY INFORMATION Autonomous surveillance system for combatting landscape fires with Machine Vision and AI.

KRATTWORKS krattworks.com CONTACT Mattias Luha mattias@krattworks.com +372 5346 4313 +44 7376 923 106

DETAILS KrattWorks detects the location of the fire front without human input and shares the collected data instantly to multiple users. We offer a system that delivers rapid situational awareness for firefighters, rescue workers or police. KrattWorks machine vision platform can also be used to detect other objects of interest: missing persons, cars, trucks, number plates, flooded areas, etc. We eliminate two of the most crucial problems for police and rescue teams – outdated technology and lack of situational awareness. Our product: while we are developing designated UAV system for firefighters we already offer fire front detection service in our servers. Firefighters can use their drones they already have, map the fire, upload the video and telemetry data into our server and we will send them back *.kml file with detected fire front location. For product inquiries please contact sales@krattworks.com.

TD:13 Automation, Telepresence & Robotics TS:C Automation & Robotics Components and Technologies TG:I Perception for Robots 44


‘Unsinkable’ Robotics TRL5

KEY INFORMATION Remotely operated semi-autonomous lightweight inspection class ROV for near shore applications.

ESTIMO-GNSS unsinkable.eu CONTACT Timmu Tollimägi info@unsinkable.eu

DETAILS Unsinkable builds lightweight ROV-s (remotely operated underwater vehicles) for near shore inspection applications. The robot is used to perform inspections and maintenance to near shore fish farms. The ROV will be docked at the farm and will conduct the mission with regular intervals to determine the integrity of the net and to evaluate the need for cleaning. The ROV uses 4G and RTK based GNSS for manoeuvring. With regular missions the ROV will eventually conduct the missions autonomously when the location has been mapped. There are other companies like Akva Group doing ROV development on the market.

TD:13 Automation, Telepresence & Robotics TS:C Automation & Robotics Components and Technologies TG:III Motion and Actuation of Robots 45


Trace Oxygen Sensors TRL7

KEY INFORMATION The sensor system allows to precisely measure molecular oxygen concentration in environments with concentrations of 0-100ppm with below 0.5 ppm detection limit. Similar sensors with different configurations can be used to measure in environments with higher concentrations of O2. Main target is astrobiology, geobiology and other fields requiring oxygen free environment. Discussions for potential production is underway with Protolab.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY , SPACE TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS Optoelectronic oxygen sensors based on luminescence lifetime for measuring oxygen concentration from sub microbar to present atmospheric levels and above (depending on configuration). The technology was originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) for astrobiology and geobiology purposes (by Dr. Mihkel Pajusalu). The technology was licensed as open source and currently we are looking into commercial manufacturing in Estonia. The technology is based on using a modulated light source to excite dye and measure its luminescence lifetime, which correlates with the amount of oxygen present. The main use of this is simulation experiments on ground for testing astrobiologically relevant scenarios and for verifying oxygen-free environments on ground. Technology could be modified for space use. Publications: + doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206678 (detailed description) + www.nature.com/articles/s41550-020-1069-4 + www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1804-0 (application in experiments) INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP has been released into Open Source under BSD and CC BY licenses. TD:14 Life & Physical Sciences TS:A Instrumentation in Support of Life Sciences TG:I Sensors and Analytical Instrumentation 46


Target Reconstruction Using Fly-by or Drive-by Imagery TRL 7 (used in practice)

KEY INFORMATION System for reconstructing a 3D model of an environment based on images from cameras and other sensors.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY , SPACE TECHNOLOGY Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Tartu Observatory Space Technology mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

Figure: Reconstruction of the trajectory view of SC and asteroid fly-by. Camera positions are shown as blue dots.

Figure: Surface of the asteroid reconstructed by simulation pipeline.

DETAILS The same technology is used as described under ‘Automatic image and navigation sensor calibration,’ for a different applications. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP of the reconstruction engine under study. Might be impossible to sell, but could be a service. IP of some versions belongs to Milrem Robotics.

TD:14 Life & Physical Sciences TS:B Instrumentation in Support of Physical Sciences TG:II Imaging Diagnostics and Image Treatment Technologies for Physical Sciences 47


Solutions for Monitoring Cardiovascular Parameters TRL5; 2-3

KEY INFORMATION Methods and Technologies for Non-invasive, Simultaneous and Continuous Monitoring of Cardiovascular system state assessment.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH TECHNOLOGIES Kristjan Pilt, PhD CONTACT Kristjan Pilt , PhD kristjan.pilt@taltech.ee

DETAILS Evidence-based research is required to resolve cardiovascular risks that could most likely compromise long-duration space missions. Therefore, simple, non-invasive technologies are needed to monitor the cardiovascular system status. In a previous project (PECS feasibility study, agreement No 4000103170/11/NL/KML), a feasibility study was carried out in order to evaluate the preconditions for developing a portable device for the 24-hour recording of ECG and pulse wave signals from peripheral arteries. It was continued with the project (ESA study Contract No. 4000109975/13/NL/ KML), where the prototype was developed and tested on healthy and unhealthy subjects. The development of methods and signal processing algorithms has been continued in order to improve the technology. The developed prototype is in the level of TRL 5 as it has been tested on patients. However, there are improved methods, which are in TRL level 2 or 3. TD:14 Life & Physical Sciences TS:C Applied Life Science Technology TG:I Application of Human Physiology Technologies 48


Design, Consultation and Precision Manufacturing of Metal and Plastic Space Systems and Their Integration TRL9 (manufactured components successfully deployed to space)

KEY INFORMATION Product development, in the field of precision mechanics, from idea development to small-scale production.

PROTOLAB Protolab.io CONTACT Pearu Orusalu Lead Mechanical Engineer pearu@protolab.io +372 53 824 828

DETAILS ProtoLab’s competencies and ability to deliver is demonstrated by previous developments, which have included the metal frame for Estonian CubeSat ESTCube-1, and a number of further developments that have made it to orbit through ESA activities. Cooperation with Tartu Observatory is ongoing on OPIC and THEIA Projects. ProtoLab holds first-class mechanical engineering competencies and know-how: + ProtoLab is ISO 9001 and ISO 14 001 certified. + Two ProtoLab engineers hold the highest mechanical engineering qualification possible (level 8) and one engineer is accredited with level 7. + ProtoLab grew out of producing spectrometers, flying observatories and UV radiation sensors for Soviet Space Programmes. Thus continuous engagement in the field of advanced precision manufacturing and design of space components spans over 50 years for the people of Protolab. The backbone of ProLolab manufacturing is based on advanced CNC (Computer Numerical Control) processing. Bench operators are trained and certified by training centres licenced by bench manufacturers: DMG Training centre in Germany , etc. Most notable CNC tools used: + DMU 40 monoBLOCK (2009) + Okuma MB56 (2014) + Okuma MB46 (2017) + DMC 635 (2007) + NEF 400 (2009) TD:15 Mechanisms TS:G Mechanism Engineering TG:I Engineering Disciplines

5-axis, simultaneous machining 3-axis 3+1axis 3-axis Lathe TD:16 Optics TS:A Optical Subsystem Engineering 49


Automatic Image and Navigation Sensor Calibration TRL 7 (used in practice)

KEY INFORMATION System for using images gathered from a moving camera in an unstructured environment to calibrate camera intrinsic and extrinsic parameters.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY , SPACE TECHNOLOGY Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu

Figure: The need for image calibration, as explained by a photo from the Curiosity rover on MARS. Left: real image, with clearly visible distortions (credit NASA/ JPL). Right: rectified image after passing through our calibration pipeline.

DETAILS Parameters of cameras change during their operational lifetimes and this changes how the data from them should be interpreted for navigation and mapping. For Earth-based applications the calibration is usually done manually by moving a calibration target in front of a camera and analysing the resulting data. However, once a planetary rover or a probe is in its operational environment, this kind of calibration becomes impossible. Our system is based on tracking image features between multiple images and reconstruction both the 3D scene, camera locations, and camera parameters using bundle adjustment. Has been used for calibrating cameras for an US Lunar Rover, will be used in the future for other European and worldwide rovers and satellites. Currently in use on ground at Milrem Robotics. For more information: bit.ly/35kUVvc INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP of the reconstruction engine under study. Might be impossible to sell, but could be a service. IP specialized for the use on off-road vehicles belongs to Milrem Robotics, as an application using this approach was developed for them.

TD:16 Optics TS:A Optical Subsystem Engineering TG:II Optical Design Performance Evaluation and Analysis 50


Simulation of Space Imagery TRL 7 (used for missions, but not yet streamlined)

KEY INFORMATION Simulation capability for modelling camera images for testing data processing, navigation and mapping algorithms for space missions.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS We are developing a system to model photorealistic space imagery for fly-by, orbiting and surface missions. The system is built around Blender and its Cycles rendering engine. The technology is being used on Comet Interceptor mission for OPIC instrument simulations, but discussions are ongoing to integrate the technology to Comet Interceptor MIRMIS instrument. Further, the possibility of integrating the technology to ESA HERA mission is being discussed. Further, the imagery simulation is being used for Lunar rover prototyping efforts. The system itself can be accessed at github.com/SISPO-developers/sispo . A journal article is being prepared, but three conference papers related to its development have been released: + www.dropbox.com/s/5gxjjqw662rptiy/IAC-20.A3.4B.4.x61048_final2.pdf?dl=0 + www.dropbox.com/s/d86pk4d36utj781/Latt%20et%20al.%20-%202020%20-%20 Converting%20an%20Industrial%20Autonomous%20Robot%20System%20i.pdf?dl=0 + www.dropbox.com/s/gky4xtizx7ei1qg/M.%20Pajusalu%20and%20A.%20Slavinskis%20-%20 2019%20-%20Characterization%20of%20Asteroids%20Using%20Nanospacecraft.pdf?dl=0 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP will be released under GPL. TD:16 Optics TS:A Optical Subsystem Engineering TG:II Optical Design Performance Evaluation and Analysis 51


Miniature Radiometrically Accurate Cameras for Nanosatellites TRL9

KEY INFORMATION Earth observation multispectral imager for nanosatellites with 5% radiometric accuracy that has a post-flight calibration model. Ground resolution at 650 km: 35 m, full field of view is 30.7 × 23.8 km. Can select custom spectral bands in 200—1000 nm range. Currently engineering model being built, to be flown on GOMX-5.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Hendrik Ehrpais, MSc CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

DETAILS The current engineering model built will be flown in 2022 where the experiments will measure the NDVI (Normalized difference vegetation index). The technology will reach TRL 9 by 2022. Further potential use case is high temporal frequency quantitative remote sensing - when using a constellation of such imagers. Two spectral bands can be chosen by the user. Main competitor is HyperScout by Cosine. HyperScout is a hyperspectral imager for nanosatellites. Funding sources used to develop the system: IIS, GSTP. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP regarding to the overall design of the camera. Ways are being studied to commercialize this.

TD:16 Optics TS:C Optical Equipment and Instrument Technology TG:II Cameras, Illumination Devices, Displays 52


Space Camera Development for Mission Configurations TRL9

KEY INFORMATION Technologies and know-how for development of miniature cameras for customer defined space mission configurations.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY , SPACE TECHNOLOGY Hendrik Ehrpais, MSc CONTACT Hendrik Ehrpais, MSc hendrik.ehrpais@ut.ee Joosep Kivastik joosep.kivastik@ut.ee Mihkel Pajusalu , PhD mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee

DETAILS Space imaging hardware previously developed by Tartu Observatory have included cameras for European Student Earth Orbiter, ESTCube-1 and ESTCube-2 (three cameras on orbit and two being prepared for launch). Currently, cameras for use on Lunar rovers and Optical Periscopic Imager for Comets for ESA F-class mission Comet Interceptor (ESA Contract No. 4000131003/20/NL/IB/ig) are being developed. Lunar rover camera development is together with CrystalSpace/Krakul. We have background in all aspects of optics testing, qualification for space environment, sensors, readout electronics, and the facilities to perform such tests in the form of Tartu Observatory’s Space Technology Labs. We can design custom cameras per ESA/ NASA mission requirements both based on reflective and refractive optics. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP regarding to the overall design of the camera. Ways are being studied to commercialize this.

TD:16 Optics TS:C Optical Equipment and Instrument Technology TG:II Cameras, Illumination Devices, Displays 53


High Accuracy Interferometer for Testing Optical Elements and Systems TRL7

KEY INFORMATION High accuracy interferometer for testing shape and wave front quality of optical elements and systems. The interferometer D7 is proven for x-ray and semiconductor applications. Expansion is planned to space and other industries.

DIFROTEC difrotec.com CONTACT Mariia Voznesenskaia maria@difrotec.com +372 5901 6617

DETAILS Traditional interferometers existing on the market use a special certified optical element as a reference for testing other optical elements. Due to the growing complexity of forms and shapes of optical elements (e.g., aspheres and free-form mirrors for space telescopes) physical optical references became insufficient to achieve high level of accuracy. To overcome this limit optics manufacturers use several metrology tools combining and averaging the results. Therefore, high accuracy measurements became time and cost intensive process. Difrotec has developed the next generation interferometer D7 for testing any type of optics with accuracy 10-20 times exceeding competitive interferometers. Instead of using an interferometer and at least 3 or even 4 accessories like Zygo, Mahr-ESDI or QED do, Difrotec technology requires an interferometer and only 1 or 2 universal accessories which cover wide range of optical shapes. Previously Difrotec worked with US and Chinese customers who makes optics for x-ray and semiconductor applications. Now we move to test D7 for space and other not-optics related industries (e.g. automotive). INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY The D7 technology has patented in US (10247539) and Europe (EP318782). In addition to hardware Difrotec has developed analytical software for processing measurement results and moving from hardware sales to services and software. For this we need to expand our production capabilities and complete software development. TD:16 Optics TS:C Optical Equipment and Instrument Technology TG:IV Interferometry, Aperture Synthesis and Optical Phased Arrays 54


LiDAR Camera for Acquiring Precise 3D Images in Real Time (LightCode Solid State 3D Camera) TRL4

KEY INFORMATION Precise 3D imaging based on Lidar technology, somewhat similar to more widely used sonar technology. Further, computational imaging based on raw LIDAR data. Commercial interest for investigation for potential use in imaging technologies not requiring a direct line of sight to the object observed and imaging through obstructions — like fog and semi-transparent environments.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, INSTITUTE OF PHYSICS Heli Valtna, PhD CONTACT Heli Valtna, PhD heli.valtna@ut.ee +372 56 915519

DETAILS Precise short and medium range (0-20m) imaging for robotics applications. The technology will be developed into a solid state 3D camera for object detection and beyond in the spin-off company LightCode Photonics OÜ. The technology is based on superresolution direct time-of-flight 3D camera with flexible resolution and frame rate control.

TD: TS:C

16 Optics Optical Equipment and Instrument Technology 55


FEA Multiphysics Simulations TRL4

KEY INFORMATION Computer multyphysics simulation with FEA (finite element analysis), including mechanical responses, acoustics, fluid structure interactions, thermomechanics and topology optimization.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Vahur Zadin, PhD CONTACT Vahur Zadin , PhD vahur.zadin@ut.ee +372 5554 4178

Figure: Acoustics in an apartment, acoustic-structure interaction and sound movement through the walls.

DETAILS Capacity to develop on demand FEA Multiphysics FEA models and optimization based designs. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP belongs to UT.

TD:20 Structures TS:A Structural Design and Verification Methods and Tools TG: II Structural Analysis Tools and Methodologies 56


Soft Actuators and Robots TRL4

KEY INFORMATION Material-level programming of metamaterial-based robots using 4D-printing of microfluidic composites.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Indrek Must, PhD CONTACT Indrek Must, PhD indrek.must@ut.ee +372 737 4832

Figure: Electroactive tweezers based on ICL actuators.

Figure: A miniaturized ICL (ionic and capacitive laminate) manipulator containing a mobile ionic liquid phase operating in vacuum and observed in-situ via scanning electron microscopy.

DETAILS Fundamental research on robotic materials for insect-scale mobile robots and human-interfaced robots. 1st objective: mimicking biological hierarchical structures in mechanically programmed materials, using materials (e.g., chitin) and activation methods (e.g., osmosis) intrinsic for movements by living bodies. 2nd objective: energy-autonomy of insect-scale robots using nonconventional sources such as ambient humidity absorption as well as smart energy management in space-constrained conditions. 3rd objective: Development of a human-interfaced, wearable robotic platform that acts seamlessly as if being a piece of clothing rather than a prosthesis. The research is supported in part by H2020 (twinnims.eu) and the Estonian Research Council. Technology is verified in lab setting prototypes. Further reading: + doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2019.00140 + doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.00408 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP belongs to UT. TD: 20 Structures TS: E Active/Adaptive Structures TG: I Sensor/Actuator Technologies 57


Self-deployable habitat for extreme environments TRL5

KEY INFORMATION Self-deployable habitat for planetary explorations.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Alvo Aabloo, PhD CONTACT Alvo Aabloo, PhD alvo.aabloo@ut.ee

Figure:SHEE deployed in Rio Tinto for its first mission in the Mars analog environment.

DETAILS To integrate human labour into construction on the lunar or Martian surface is very risky, complex and costly. To mitigate drawbacks of human construction activity it is an imperative to apply autonomous construction methods. Therefore, self-deployable autonomous habitats are needed in particular in extreme environments without infrastructure and heavy machinery. Such habitats will mitigate construction safety risks and reduce costs. EU FP7, SHEE - Self-deployable Habitat for Extreme Environments projects (2013-2015) goal was to develop a planetary habitat testbed for terrestrial analogue simulations. The SHEE habitat provided significant background for further development and evolution of extra-terrestrial habitable structures. The main objective of the SHEE project was the exploration of an effective integration of architecture and robotics for space applications. SHEE is envisioned to be a hybrid structure system composed of inflatable, rigid and robotic components. The final product took the form of an example of a functional habitat for further testing and development corresponding to an analogue testing habitat. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP belongs to UT.

TD: 20 Structures TS: H Crew Habitation, Safe Haven and EVA suits TG: I Habitation Primary and Secondary Structure Technologies 58


O2 Production on Mars from CO2 TRL3

KEY INFORMATION The Energy Technologies Laboratory is developing a technology to split CO2 into solid carbon and gaseous oxygen in molten salts to obtain breathable oxygen on Mars.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS AND BIOPHYSICS Ivar Kruusenberg, PhD CONTACT Ivar Kruusenberg, PhD ivar.kruusenberg@kbfi.ee

DETAILS The atmosphere of Mars consists (by volume) over 95% of oxygen and carbon, elements that are crucial for human life. However, most of it is stuck in CO2, which is a very stable molecule and difficult to break. Molten salt carbon capture and electrochemical transformation (MSCC-ET) is a technology where the CO2 molecule is broken up into solid carbon and molecular oxygen via a carbonate salt electrolyte. On earth, this technology has been touted to be the solution to the rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere. On Mars, it could be a solution to two problems: energy storage and oxygen production. The carbon created on the cathode of the CO2 electrolyser could be burnt or re-oxidized afterwards in direct carbon fuel cell. In the literature, the charge efficiency of the deposition-oxidation of the carbon has been found to be up to 95%. On earth the deposition rate is limited by the low partial pressure of CO2, which is not a problem on Mars. On the anode side, one molecule of oxygen is created for each carbon atom added to the cathode product, which could be used to regenerate artificial air. A similar process is already in use by ESA to generate oxygen from moon regolith and in NASA’s MOXIE. A reactor technology is being developed, where solar power is used to drive the electrochemical splitting of CO2 into solid carbon and gaseous oxygen, which are then separated and stored. The issues that need to be solved are: 1) What is the efficiency of solid carbon storage and re-oxidation in Mars atmosphere under a voltage conceivably producible with solar panels, 2) What is the purity of the gaseous oxygen products in such a reactor, whether or not it can be used to regenerate artificial air and 3) If the relatively high temperatures needed for melting the electrolytes are achievable in a small reactor in Mars conditions. MSCC-ET technology has the potential to provide oxygen for the regeneration of artificial air as well as a method for energy storage for space missions. Thus far a lot of the focus in the development of this technology has been on cheaply producing carbon nanomaterials, but other uses such as oxygen production and energy storage as carbon have been overlooked. The Energy Technologies Laboratory aims to study this process in a variety of atmospheres replicating conditions of space missions and to reduce the working temperature while increasing the energy efficiency. TD:22 Environmental Control & Life Support (ECLS) and In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) TS:B In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) TG:II ISRU Fuels 59


Radiation hardening for onboard digital circuits TRL6-7

KEY INFORMATION Development, analysis, and testing in neutron beam of multiple structures for circuit radiation hardening, including redundancy and parallelism.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SCHOOL OF IT, DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Samuel Pagliarini, PhD CONTACT Alex Norta , PhD alexander.norta@taltech.ee

DETAILS We are developing a number of approaches for hardening digital circuits: based on redundancy, parallelism, and other hybrid approaches. Collaborations have included UFRGS (Porto Alegre, Brazil), Carnegie Mellon University (Pittsburgh, US), Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (Los Alamos, US), ISIS (Didcot, UK). Our methods are for digital circuit meant for onboard systems. The approaches have been validated and shown to work under accelerated neutron testing, displaying the expected resiliency rates. We expect the methods to behave the same in space where the neutron count is orders of magnitude lower.

TD:23 Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Components and Quality TS:A Methods and Processes for Product Assurance of EEE Components TG:II EEE Components Radiation Hardening 60


SpaceCap Supercapacitor TRL5

KEY INFORMATION Supercapacitor development for space verification.

SKELETON TECHNOLOGIES skeletontech.com CONTACT Egert Valmra Programme Director egert.valmra@ skeletontech.com +372 522 4542

DETAILS Skeleton Technologies uses proprietary Curved Graphene (Carbide Derived Carbon, CDC) electrode material, which can be tuned for high power or high energy, with 60% more capacitance available for its size. The currently in development “SpaceCap” product is oriented towards high power (over 90 kW/L), with 100F of capacitance. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Patent granted for Carbide Derived Carbon synthesis.

TD:23 Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Components and Quality TS:B EEE Component Technologies TG:I EEE Components Evaluation and Testing 61


Industrial COTS Supercapacitor Family TRL5

KEY INFORMATION Commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Supercapacitors, 300 - 3200 F.

SKELETON TECHNOLOGIES skeletontech.com CONTACT Egert Valmra Programme Director egert.valmra@ skeletontech.com +372 522 4542

DETAILS Skeleton commercial cylindrical supercapacitors have the highest power density (80 kW/ kg) accompanied by a competitive energy density (6.8 Wh/kg). Currently being incorporated into one commercial launch programme with first planned flight in 2021. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Several patents pending concerning electrode manufacturing methods.

TD:23 Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) Components and Quality TS:B EEE Component Technologies TG:I EEE Components Evaluation and Testing 62


Additive Manufacturing of Thermal Management Systems with Tailored Properties TRL4

KEY INFORMATION FACT Industries is producing feedstock for additive manufacturing of thermal management parts with tailored properties. Currently, we adjust technology to make multi-material components in few times, less times, and human resources.

FACT INDUSTRIES fact-industries.com CONTACT Marina Aghayan, PhD marina@fact-industries.com +372 372 5558 8124

DETAILS The ceramic composite material was developed by the Fact Industries team during the FACTTHERM project funded by EIT RM Booster (PA 15099-BCLC-2018-3), where it was demonstrated that the direct additive manufacturing of metal-ceramic based heat sinks is a promising approach in terms of environmental, economic and material functionality perspectives. The technology readiness level (TRL) of 5 was demonstrated during the AMITEC fast track project when the powder was produced and successfully applied in a selective laser melting (SLM) 3D printer. The technological advantage of the material is: (i) The powder enables production of ceramic based materials by AM. AM technology itself will enable both significantly increased component design flexibility, as well as on-demand and waste-less production. (ii) Ceramic based thermal management systems have beneficial properties such as high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion, high chemical and ambient resistance, broad temperature operating range, and adjustable electrical resistivity. Ceramic-based thermal management systems are under development for commercial unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) . The competitive advantage of the material and technology is the high thermal conductivity/weight, low weight, and possibility to manufacture customized geometry heat sinks. Currently, our innovative group works to develop additive manufacturing technology to make multimaterial components in few times, less times, and human resources. FACT Industries has developed FACT Therm composite materials for efficient and smart thermal management. The composites combine high thermal conductivity with a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (CTE) tailored to packaging materials and semiconductors. FACT Therm is adjusted for additive manufacturing of the multi-material parts which enables to achieve more advance geometries eliminating the heat efficiently. Currently, our innovative group works to develop additive manufacturing technology to make multimaterial electronic packages in few times less time and human resources, simultaneously improving the functionality. TD:24 Materials and Manufacturing Processes TS:I Advanced Manufacturing Technologies TG:II Additive Manufacturing 63


Atomistic Scale Material Damage in Extreme Environments and in RF Fields TRL4

KEY INFORMATION Multiscale simulations of materials damage mechanisms at atomistic level with combinations of DFT, molecular dynamic, Monte Carlo and FEM with coupling to (RF) electric fields and plasma calculations.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Vahur Zadin, PhD CONTACT Vahur Zadin, PhD vahur.zadin@ut.ee +372 5554 4178 Andreas Kyritsakis, PhD andreas.kyritsakis@ut.ee

Figure: Dynamic coupling of molecular dynamics simulations, electric field, heat transport and emission currents calculations.

DETAILS The technology is developed with funding from Horizon 2020 ERA Chair Matter, Estonian Research Council. Collaboration network includes CERN, Uppsala University, Helsinki University. The technology includes capacity for material-electric field interactions in DC/AC conditions, including RF frequencies, emission current calculations, vacuum arcs, atomistic scale material damage evolution, radiation damage and nanoscale thermomechanical behaviour. Work is done in for vacuum breakdown (vacuum arc) studies in CERN, CLIC accelerator design. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP belongs to UT.

TD:24 Materials and Manufacturing Processes TS:E Modelling of Materials Behaviour and Properties TG: I, II, V 64


Solar Energy Fabric TRL4

KEY INFORMATION The goal of WUTANY is to develop an energy generating, storing and transferring fabric (EG/ES/ET Fabric), which can be designed into a variety of products, to provide self-sufficient power source for charging devices.

AUGTEX OÜ (WUTANY) CONTACT Martin Nõlve nolvemartin@gmail.com

DETAILS The goal of WUTANY is to develop an energy generating, storing and transferring fabric, which can be designed into a variety of products, to provide self-sufficient power source for charging devices. Today, the team includes two 3-person teams from UWE Bristol (UK) in EG & ES fabric development Led by Ph.D. Nazmul Karim, a 3-person team from from Meredot SIA (Latvia) an ET component development led by Ph.D. Roman Bysko, and a 2 person team from [a] industri AB (Sweden) led by Ph.D. Rickard Lindqvist for manufacturing blueprinting. Before committing to the status of only textiles manufacturing and B2B sales, WUTANY wants to explore the possibility of creating a relationship with end-customers and offering a full solution in at least one segment. WUTANY is currently creating a Bionic Limb development project in parallel to the fabric, as they see that Bionic Limbs currently on the market do not address end-user needs. WUTANY believes that a lot more is possible with technology that exists today. As to competitors, many companies and universities have been thinking about this over the past 30 years. No company has successfully done a true fabric with these functionalities. QI Consortium has tried for the past 5 years to do a system that has the qualities that our ET component has. Big players in wearables are Tommy Hilfiger, FraunhoferGesellschaft & e5Solar. Further, Google has dipped into Smart Textiles.

TD:24 Materials and Processes TS:H Materials for Electronic Assembly TG:II Electronic Assemblies Technologies 65


Testing Services: Thermal, Vibration, Shock KEY INFORMATION The space technology laboratories of Tartu Observatory are part of the Testing Centre of the University of Tartu. The quality management system of the Testing Centre fulfills the requirements of ISO 17025:2017 standard.

UNIVERSITY OF TARTU, TARTU OBSERVATORY, SPACE TECHNOLOGY Riho Vendt, PhD CONTACT Mihkel Pajusalu, PhD Head of Space Technology Department at Tartu Observatory, University of Tartu mihkel.pajusalu@ut.ee +372 5381 5711

Figure: Sine and random vibration testing.

Figure: Mechanical shock testing.

DETAILS The laboratory complex of Tartu Observatory in Tõravere, Estonia offers laboratory services for development and testing of space technology, environmental testing and optical measurements. The laboratories include special electrostatic discharge (ESD) safe areas, cleanroom (Class 8, ISO 14644-and anechoic environment. All laboratories include automatic control for ambient temperature and humidity conditions. The space technology laboratories of Tartu Observatory are part of the Testing Centre of the University of Tartu. The quality management system of the Testing Centre fulfils the requirements of ISO 17025:2017 standard. The Testing Centre was firstly accepted as accredited testing laboratory in 2003 and calibration laboratory in 2008 by Estonian Accreditation Centre. The Tartu Observatory’s laboratories are also a part of ADAPTER, the network of Estonian universities, research and development organizations. Further details can be found at: kosmos.ut.ee/en/services/laboratory-services. Brochure detailing technical parameters of all Tartu Observatory testing facilities can be found at: kosmos.ut.ee/sites/default/files/kosmos/toravere-laborid-eng-30-05-2019-netti.pdf INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IP belongs to UT.

TD: 25 Quality, Dependability and Safety TS: C Product and Quality Assurance TG: II Quality Assurance Processes for Flight and Ground Systems 66


KSI Blockchain — Global Signature and Verification Platform TRL9

KEY INFORMATION KSI blockchain technology enables its customers to know and be able to forensically prove, whether any part of their systems or stored electronic data and logs have been changed, either by insiders, external actors, or technical malfunction. KSI blockchain provides a mathematically tamper-evident audit trail and evidence for post-incident investigations, establishing who, what and when with a forensic precision.

GUARDTIME guardtime.com CONTACT Marika Popp Head of Space Solutions marika.popp@guardtime.com

DETAILS High-scale, high-frequency blockchain technology for real-time integrity instrumentation of systems, networks, processes and data. KSI blockchain allows to register and verify 1012 data items every second, with high availability (99,999%) and 100% data privacy guaranteed. KSI signatures are server based, meaning that signing data requires online access to the KSI service. The verification of the signatures can be done both offline and online. There are two options for access to KSI: 1) KSI Software Development Kit (SDK) 2) Catena middleware The KSI SDK provides the lowest level of integration. It enables “full access” to the KSI functions (signing, extending, verifying) and lets the integrator fine-tune all possible options. As a consequence, it leaves many common challenges, such as signature storage and extension, to the integrator to solve. Catena is middleware that is meant to address common integration challenges, such as asynchronous signing, signature persistence, and automatic extension. It provides the integrators with higher-level functionality, such as annotating signatures and linking signing events (data provenance), in order to reduce the effort for building a complete solution. Catena internally uses the aforementioned SDK to perform low-level KSI operations. The functionality of Catena is grouped and packaged into logical applications (Catena-KSI, Catena-DB, Catena-Prov) so that the integrator can choose which ones to deploy and use. KSI SDK and Catena are not mutually exclusive: they can be used in combination if needed. This depends on the application type and the requirements for signing and verifying data. Use-cases trusted audit trails: Space systems, from satellites to mission control centres, are frequently the target of cyberattacks. TD:25 Quality, Dependability and Safety TS:C Product and Quality Assurance TG:II Product Assurance Processes for Space and Ground Subsystems 67


Blockchain-based Identity authentication for smart autonomous devices in space technology TRL4

KEY INFORMATION We are developing a blockchain-based machine-to-everything (M2X) identity-authentication system that autonomously acting satellites employ for data-trade transactions in accordance with this PhD-thesis I co-supervised. For details see Chapter 4: researchgate.net/publication/338711546

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, SCHOOL OF IT, DEPARTMENT OF SOFTWARE SCIENCE Prof. Alex Norta CONTACT Alex Norta, PhD alexander.norta@taltech.ee

DETAILS The design and development of novel security and authentication protocols for a satellite business model is a challenging task. Design flaws, security and privacy issues as well as incomplete specifications pose risks. Authcoin is a blockchain-based validation and authentication protocol for secure identity assurance. Formal methods, such as Coloured Petri Nets (CPNs), are suitable to design, develop and analyse such new protocols in order to detect flaws and mitigate identified security risks. In this work, the Authcoin protocol is formalized using Coloured Petri Nets resulting in a verifiable CPN model. An Agent-Oriented Modelling (AOM) methodology is used to create goal models and corresponding behaviour models. Next, these models are used to derive the Authcoin CPN models. The modelling strategy as well as the required protocol semantics are explained in detail. Furthermore, we conduct a state-space analysis on the resulting CPN model and derive specific model properties. The result is a complete and correct formal specification that is used to guide future implementations of Authcoin.

TD:25 Quality, Dependability and Safety TS:C Product and Quality Assurance TG:II Product Assurance Processes for Space and Ground Subsystems 68


Multi-sensing Satellite Tracking Drifters TRL7

KEY INFORMATION Multi-sensing satellite tracking drifter for rivers, lakes and coastal waters. GNSS positioning, inertial measurements, water temperature with satellite, cellular or LoRa radio communication. TRL 7.

TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY , SCHOOL OF IT, DEPARTMENT OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS Jeffrey A. Tuhtan, Dr.-Eng., EIT CONTACT Jeffrey A. Tuhtan, PhD jetuht@ttu.ee

DETAILS The majority of the Earth’s rivers, lakes and glaciers remain unexplored due to the high cost and complexity of conducting direct field measurements. New, easy-to-use and cost-effective methods are required for the direct measurements of the physical conditions occurring in these key surface water bodies. In addition to satellite positioning and inertial measurements, bespoke sensing payloads (e.g., water quality) can also be integrated into the existing design as needed. The GNSS sensor can also be configured for atmospheric monitoring. Widely used in maritime applications, Lagrangian multisensory drifters have been successfully implemented for the study of large-scale flows in seas and oceans, but there exists a lack of a viable commercial technology for freshwater applications. Currently, there are no commercial competitors to this technology. Applications include monitoring remote rivers, lakes and coastal regions where the sensors can be airdropped from drones or light aircraft at heights of up to 300 m: We are currently looking for firms interested in licensing the technology for commercial uses. Targeted applications include measurement of flows in rivers during flood events to improve flood risk mapping, along coastal shore protection structures and harbours, in aquaculture facilities to provide real-time information on the sea state, and in lakes and reservoirs used for water supply and hydropower. Data from multiple sensors can also be used for passive identification and tracking of surface vessels, improving situational awareness in littoral operations. The multi-sensing drifters have been funded by the ETAg PUT grant 1690 “Bioinspired flow sensing”, and have been used in the Norwegian research project “MAMMAMIA” since 2019. TD:26 Others

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Hydrogen Drones TRL6

KEY INFORMATION Hydrogen drones solve the key issues with battery and petrol drones - short-flight and lifetimes, expensive and frequent maintenance cycles, heat/pollution/vibration/ noise signatures and infrastructure dependency.

SKYCORP OÜ sky-corp.eu CONTACT Marek Alliksoo marek.alliksoo@sky-corp.eu +372 5672 9717

DETAILS The vision for the coming years is to start creating H2 Drone Cities and regions with fully autonomous and constant operations - whether that’s for medical/commercial deliveries, mapping, inspection and survey, smart agriculture or security and surveillance with support to emergency services. Someday, the same will be required also outside of our planet. There are about 6-7 hydrogen drone companies in the world currently with Ballard and Doosan being the largest and ISS AeroSpace and Silent Wings from Europe (UK and Germany). SKYCORP was first in Europe with a commercial hydrogen drone and wishes to push the boundaries even further with the help of being in a vibrant innovation region. Current TRL is based, in comparison with potential space deployments, where conditions are far more challenging than on earth (where there’s atmosphere). However in theory, hydrogen drones could be customised and developed to be space mission ready - there are already talks of a “hydrogen economy” on the moon. Past activities of SKYCORP have involved use-case validations and scientific R&D projects. Joining ESA BIC has opened up new development paths towards full autonomy (selfrefuelling), hydrogen drone hubs for constant operations and remote deployments and greater integration with other (satellite) remote sensing data and intelligence. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY Patent in the works for an Internet of Drones module to enable drones to be fully remotely managed and enable additional communication links such as SatCom with advanced satellite data input for mission support and planning. (( 12-25 additional patents have been mapped out from automated hydrogen refuelling to self-managing hydrogen refuelling hubs, control systems, pressure relief systems, connectivity and cloud operations platforms. )) TD:26 Others

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