AN EDAPHIC APPROACH To the Three Vaster Partners of the Biosphere Note to the Reader: All references are available as links within the document
(OVERVIEW) “WHEREVER AIR AND WATER AND ROCK MEET, LIVING THINGS ESTABLISH THEIR HOME. THE BIOSPHERE GOES NOT MUCH HIGHER THAN 17,000 FEET INTO THE AIR. IT RARELY REACHES MUCH FURTHER THAN 10,000 FEET IN THE OCEAN. APART FROM DEEP DRILLED MINES AND WELLS, THE USABLE PART OF THE LITHOSPHERE IS REPRESENTED BY A FEW FEET OF SOIL. BUT, THIS RELATIVELY TINY FRACTION OF THE PLANET CAN ONLY SUPPORT LIFE BY ENGAGING IN CONTINUOUS INTERCHANGES BETWEEN ITS THREE VASTER PARTNERS.” (Only One Planet, Barbara Ward and Rene Dubos, p.39) "Our artificially constructed world is not isolated from the real world. It is enmeshed in a larger natural world that cradles and nourishes us making all of our activities possible." Janine Benyus, *Biomimicry*, p. 241.
THEORY 1. “THE WHOLE FIRST” – “3 VASTER PARTNERS” (see infra, “In conclusion” page
6). “What is important with Hamaker's Thesis on the Nutritional Basis of Glacial Cycles, was his considering the ‘Whole First’”. - Pierre Lehmann, Nuclear Physicist.
FOUNDATIONAL REFERENCE: Ages of Gaia, James Lovelock, W. W. Norton. (See ‘Reference 1’ attached). ○ 2. LIVE BIOMASS = LIVING SYSTEM = BIOSPHERE 3. ORGANIC ACIDS = FULVIC AND HUMIC = DECAY PROCESS = The Return = Total Recycling = The Catabolic Side of Photosynthesis = Biodegradation = Thermal Heat is Self-Generated
4. HUMUS = ORGANIC ACIDS
References: Gernot Graefe’s patents 4,211,5451; 4,311,511; 4,343,907 ENERGY AND FERTILIZER FROM GRAPE MARC. (Biomimicry through Humification) (See ‘Reference 2’ Attached) ○ Plants and their Microbial Assistants: Nature’s Answer to Earth’s Environmental Pollution Problems, Wm. Wolverton, in Biological Life Support Technologies; Commercial Opportunities. NASA N911-13851 (See ‘Reference 3’ attached). ○ The Design of Living Technologies for Waste Treatment, John Todd and Beth Josephson, Ecological Engineering, 6(1996)109-136 Elsevier - available online Reference 4 ○ The Surface Chemistry of Humic Substances in Aquatic Systems, Ronald Beckett, Water Studies Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.. (See ‘Reference 5’ attached). ○ Life as a Geological Force, Peter Westbroek, W.W.Norton (See ‘Reference 6’ attached). ○ Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Fourth edition, Vol 10, Fermentation, pgs 361, John Wiley and Sons (See ‘Reference 7’ attached). ○
5. ROCK DUST = THE LIVING EARTH
ORIENTATIONAL REFERENCES: EDAPHOS: Dynamics of a Natural Soil System, 2nd ed. Paul D. Sachs, 1999, The Edaphic Press, Box 107 Newbury,VT.05051 (See ‘Reference 8’ attached) It includes illustrations, diagrams, charts and bibliography. ○ ‘The Importance of Calcium and Magnesium in Plant Growth,( a chart after Steinen and Rademacher), 1983. in: Soil Remineralization Research Packet Agriculture, published by. Joanna Campe, Editor, Remineralize the Earth, Northampton, MA01060, 413-586-4429 (See ‘Reference 9’ attached). ○
6. PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION ON THE LEVEL OF ALL CELLS
VIA CELLULAR RESPIRATION AND MITOCHONDRIAL ACTIVITY References: ○ Membranes and Micelle Model for Humus in Soils and Sediments and It’s Relation to Humification; Robert L. Wershaw, U.S. Geological Survey – Water Supply Paper 2410. (See ‘Reference 10’ attached) ○ Generation of Free Radicals by Humic Acid; Implications for Biological Activity, Mark D. Paciolla et al, in Humic Substances: Structures, Properties and Uses, G. Davies,et al, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1998 (See ‘Reference 11’ attached). ○
Physiological Action of Humic Substances of Microbial Cells, S.A. Visser,
Soil.Biol.Biochem.vol17,No4 pp457-462,1985 [mitochondrial membrane] (See ‘Reference 12’ attached) Some Biological Effects of Humic Acids in the Rat, S. A. Visser, Acta. biol. med. germ. Bande 31, Seite 569-581(1973). [mitochondrial membrane] (See ‘Reference 13’ attached) Effect of Humic Substances on Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxidative Phosphorylation, S.A.Visser,1987,Laval Univ. Que., Canada, G1K 7P4,The Science of the Total Environment, 62(1987)347-354, Elsevier.[mitochondrial membrane] (See ‘Reference 14’ attached) Effect of Dissolved Organic Matter on the Movement of Pesticides in Soil Columns, K.M. Spark, et al, in Humic Substances: Structures, Properties and Uses, G. Davies, et al, Royal Society of Chemistry, 1998 (See ‘Reference 15’ attached) Co-Composting Process of (Sugar Beet) Vinasse and Grape Marc, M.J .Diaz ,et al, in The Science of Composting. (See ‘Reference 16’ attached) Effects of A Soil Humic Compound on Root Initiation, M. Schnitzer and P.A. Poapst, Soil Research Institute, Ottawa, Nature, Feb 11,1967. (See ‘Reference 17’ attached). Humic and Fulvic Acids: Isolation, Structure, and Environmental Role, J.S.Gaffney, ed., Argonne National Laboratory, ACS Symposium, Washington, D.C. (See ‘Reference 18’ attached).
VII. EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY References: ○ Evolution Symposium ‘Ion Transfer across Fish Gills’… “Fish gills constitute most of the body surface and are the major site of exchange of ions and water between the blood and the environment.” (See ‘Reference 19’ attached). ○ Website: (Cell Longevity) http://www.newton.dep.anl.gov/askasci/mole00/ mole00482.htm ○ Mitochondria - wiki – evolutionary biology – cyanobacteria “might be the cellular precursors, ‘genes-wise’ for making mitochondrial precursors. Mitochondrial membrane (structure) was once independent bacteria”. (Reference:http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria)
METHOD (MODIS OPERANDI) A “soaker hose” delivery system, suspended and trailing from ocean vessels, is employed for nutrient distribution at the surface and at various depths for the ingredients, separately or in selected combinations. The nutrients are glacial moraine rock dust and free atmospheric N, O2, and the rare gasses, unmanipulated. Various depths reflect various trophic regions.
Observations are made visually and with computer enhancements using several video cameras for live observation. Sample monitoring channels and analysis of “bubble orifice optimization” will provide data for equipment refinement. Some sophisticated design questions could be tested with ‘spray’ designs and ‘foam element’ designs. The “soaker hose” will bubble free air, ~19% approximately, O2, under pressure through this hose that by ‘design’ puts oxygen into the water. In places where there are micro-plankton who would take this up, it will increase their metabolic activity and presumably their reproduction rate.
Acknowledging the critical nature of the dys-functionalities on the ocean ecosystem, ALL OCEAN FLEET VESSELS BE REQUIRED BY NATIONAL GOVERNMENTS TO BE FITTED-OUT WITH THE SOAKER HOSE EQUIPMENT AND OPERATE IT AT ALL TIMES, (exceptions need to be accounted for). With the size scale of nearly 100,000 vessels, the scale of this action could have a pronounced positive effect as soon as it begins from the time it is acted on ‘in reality’. Satellite data will probably pick up patterns of “increased growth” on one or several sensing parameters and use “forecasting” strategies. Missions and cruises are planned based on synthesized information from previous missions and cruises. A powerful handle on this strategy is to have the where withal to restore extensively, bio-geo-chemically and spatio-temporally interdependent ecosystems. Coral reef rescue is a top priority.
CONCLUSION In conclusion, permit me to quote from “Only One Planet”, by Barbara Ward and Rene Dubos , a pioneering legacy of the U.N. Conference on the Human Environment (1972),
“WHEREVER AIR AND WATER AND ROCK MEET, LIVING THINGS ESTABLISH THEIR HOME.THE BIOSPHERE GOES NOT MUCH HIGHER THAN 17,000 FEET INTO THE AIR.IT RARELY REACHES MUCH FURTHER THAN 10,000 FEET IN THE OCEAN. APART FROM DEEP DRILLED MINES AND WELLS, THE USABLE PART OF THE LITHOSPHERE IS REPRESENTED BY A FEW FEET OF SOIL. BUT, THIS RELATIVELY TINY FRACTION OF THE PLANET CAN SUPPORT LIFE ONLY BY ENGAGING IN CONTINUOUS INTERCHANGES BETWEEN ITS
THREE VASTER PARTNERS.” (p.39) Written by, Richard S. Bennett, B.A. Nelson, B. C., CANADA, V1L 6M5 see earthseason.blogspot.com June 5, 2009.