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EDAPHOS

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Dynamics of a Natural Soil System by Paul D. Sachs

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THE EDAPHIC PRESS P.O. Box 107 Newbury, Vennont 05051

EDAPHlC

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ABOUT THE AUTHOR In 1983, when PauIfounded North Country Organics' , he de< it was important to learn something about the soil if he was goi seIl natural fertilizers. However, as time went on, the obje

Copyright c 1993 by Paul D. Sachs

changed from an obligatory curiosity to_a quest of passion. A information accumulated, Paul began to see metaphoric simila between the soil system and all other terrestrial dynamics incll the social and economic structures established by human civiliza He decided that many analogies from the soil such as competi

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 93-70568 0-9636053-0-5

growth, adaptation and symbiosis could be applied to all of I relationships, including running a successful business.

EDITOR'S NafE

After only two years of study. Paul became known as a sour good information for people involved in organic crop producti, land care. Requests for articles and seminar appearances beg' increase. As time passed. his knowledge about natural soil sys

As I read through Paul's manusaipt for the fust time, I was struck by the sincerity of his voice and by his genuineconcem for our world. After my second reading however. I was struck more forcefully by the relevance of the infonnation he was giving to my own life and the world around me. Edaphos helped me to realize, not only the need for a life-style and attitude change toward the physical world. but it also helped me to understand why this need exists and how to go about making some of these changes.

began to encumber his work (i.e. seIling natural land care sUPI because so much time was being spent on consultation. In 1991,

Paul's simplification of chemistry and language helps the layperson to understand a subjeclthat is, all too often, kept out of reach from him. The analogies that are drawn between human systems and relationships and those of the soil bring the soil to life... a characteristic which can not help but increase one's reverence for the earth we live with. Sadly enough, Edaphos also helped me to realize that the soil, like the human, is mortal too. And if we do not take ownership for the practices we have concerning it, we will lose it. It-is refreshing to find that in a time when most want to take, take. take; and a time when we look for instant gratification and thai quick fix, Edaphos offers a reasonable plan to give back some of whal we have taken. Paul gives his reader valuable information not just specific to gardening. but to living life in general. Paul reinforces

what the late Fred Franklin

once

advised my husband; Weshould live each day of our lives as ifit were the last and use our soil as if we were going to live forever.

Wendy

began work on EDAPHOS to help diffuse the tremendous an of valuable information out to the people who need it the most. work represents almost ten years of his research on the subject 0 system dynamics.

CONTENTS" INTRODUCTION PART 1

In Edaphos,

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'

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All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, without written permission from the author. except when brief quotations are used in critical articles or reviews.

ISBN

-

-IN PRINCIPLE

1 .

North Country Organics is a Bradford. VT based supplier o£ nabJral £""

and soil amendmenlS

CHAPTER 1

SOIL EVOLUTION

7

CHAPTER 2

HUMUS: A STABLE ORGANIC MATTER

33

CHAPTER 3

53

WATER CHAPTER 4

THE CONCEPT OF PESTS

65

PART11- IN PRACTICE CHAPTER 5

COMPOSTING & PRESERVING ORGANIC MATTER

85

CllAl'TER6 ORGANIC

107

vs INORGANIC

Goldsworthy CHAPTER 7

TESTING THE SOIL SYSTEM

139

CHAPTER 8

RELATIONSHIPS

169

GLOSSARY

173 181

INDEX

£oc,commercial

use.


~

- 6).

e of Organic Matter on Erosion

WATERCYCLE

!1.3 ~I.I

~H 0:0.3

~ I

"p'.J.j 1'''''11941

-

CONTROLLING

2

~

JI

-

Effects of pH on Soil Life

r~6

IEI6 .!!IEI4 ~IEI2 go'E'O IE8 IE6

(oC

3

4

% Organic UaRef' in Sod

SOIL MOISTURE

.

INFLUENCE OF PLANT ROOT

..-

Figur# 4-2 IVc.tbmQII

19J6

s

6

8

pH

p9

ON BACTERIA POPULATIONS

IEII ~EIO. 31E9 ':.1E8

. ""1E7 IE6 Fi,~r~ .1./ RahIM"

Synthetic Pesticide Production

~"

.~

From1945to 1985

~ 8MINERALCOMPONF~TS Elements Comprise 98% or All Soli Mmeral

'I-lI,600,fXXJ,fXXJ =~;:~=:Slral945 1,400,fXXJ,fXXJ-liing.

..I,200,fXXJ,fXXJ a lOO

19.16

N_pafOduartO

mcnbxic.

Sodium

~1,fXXJ,fXXJ,fXXJ

&

~

8OO,fXXJ.fXXJ 6OO,fXXJ,fXXJ

400,fXXJ,fXXJ 2OO,fXXJ,fXXJ

o

Flg"re".j E Magazine

(2.8%)

Iron (5.0%) Potassium(2.6%) 1945

1955 1950

1965 1960

1975 1970

1985 Silicon

1980

Oxygen (46.5%)

(27.6%)

Year

}.2192

,

Calcium (3.6%)

Influence of Soil Temperature @}) on Humus Accumulation

Magnesium (2.0%) . Aluminum (8.0%)

Influence of Mulch

./

on Soil Temperature

~

Influence of Temperature

High

on Soil Organic Matter Content

.. .. i64 Average Soli Temperature (F)

Fit"" $-4 Wci.brtdA

/9J6

jj10 .. :; -115 .. E!' o .,.0

ill FIgure 5.5 Jenny 19-11

~

.

Figtlrt!j.6 .~'iSAl 19

Location

32 40 50 60 70 MeanAnnualTemperature

table5-' WASTE

C:NRATJO.

6

...1

~

('...00'L (~nJ

9-'5" t,." 3()50:' ...

Wood rid

..

sawdust

30(). 700: I

PIIpw

1!t().'(X):1

Bail

116-1285:1

Sir... Cow- fNIrV8 .bse" HenfT\8nu".

Sheepmat"U.

48.150:1 11-30: I 22.50:

1

l~

1

~i~

.!< 'C Ii:lil:l I~.. ~ .~

:

i

I~: .;.. ,

3-10:1 13-20:1

I

I

:. i

1

j i.l iiil';

i.3짜 1

I

1 :; J f:i l ; 1

l

I

::lo1::t J. :! = 1


.GANIC

VS INORGAN..IC

.~

Ir

NITROGEN CYCLE

INFLUENCE OF INORGANIC N ON NATURALN SYSTEMS (ALFALFA PLAN!S)

HIGH

N LIBERATED FROM ORGANIC MAneR

N FIXED

FROM ATMOSPHERE LOW o fig... 6.3 lI'oI_19J6

32

64

96

144

192

LBSINORANIC NtA ADDED TO SOIL

table 6-2

-------

INGREDIENT

C:N RATIO

'

1

--.

I

Blood meal 4: I Fealher meal 4: 1 Leather meal 4: I

Figure6-4

VegetableProtein mealI 7.8: I Animal

Vil/ee1962

3-5: I

tankage

~

Dried whey 7: I 1

Urc:a I0.4:I

11-30:I

Cow manure

SAMPLEA&L

SOIL ANALYSIS

REPORT

Horse manure 22-50:I 1

Hen manure I 3-10: I Sheep

%OM

ENR

PI

P2

K

Mg

Co

SOIL pH

BUFFER pH

"I. BASE

CEC

K

manure 113-20: I

4.5 7.3

ID4VH 83VH 121VH 139VH187VH 640M 171VH 1000H 160VH600VH210VH 2800H

6.0 6.3

6.8 6.7

6.2 19.3

5.7 8.0

SATURATION Mg Co H

25.0 51.3 3.1

9.1 72.510.!

HI"'" 7.)

B,utI,IVU

CI)

Figure7.2 is a sampleanalysisfromA & L EasternAgJiculturai Labcrarories in Richmond. VA %OM. percentorganicmatter. ENR Estimated NitrogenReleasein poundsper acrelooa).Pt AvailablePhosphorus in partsper miUion loom).P2 - re-

NO!

pH test.8iJtferpH pHsmp,CEe CationExchange Capacity.

.

Z....... O~

->O:c 0-, :I:-,0 -CI)

0.... CI)

.

.

servephosphorus inppm,K - Potassium iI ppm.Mg- "Magnesium inppm.Ca. Calcium inppm.SoilpH Waler

.

UNWEAJHERED ROCK'

~OIL

.

COMPONENTS

Typical analysis of a well developed loam TIME

-

SOIL DEVELOPMENT

CLAY PARTICLES' ,

Orgunic

CClIIHid

ItX-" 1~ \10..1_1'1)1.

MICELLES Figure7-4

Minerai 45%

ORGANIC COLLOID ...

Negatively charged clay particles shown with typical plate-like appearance and swarm of adsorbed cations fi

~

--

Organic Matter 5%

'1.t lWU

F 1.'.

C

U"I

E C

4.0 s.o

6.0 7.0 pI!

8.0


--

TESTINGTHE SOIL SYSTEMS.-!5'1)

~--

'abl.'.J Tab/.'-!

..,.... \Ii.J~

-'15'/ ......

"

ATOMIC WEIGIIT

VALENCE

I

I

I

24

. 2

12

Calcium

.0

2

20

POWSRun

,.

I

,.

I

18

EUMENTorCOMPOUND Hy<ngon Magnesium

-

"";I:lllt 7-A

18

EQUIVALENCE

[~_.

TEXTURE ANALYSISCHART Ca++

K~ NH

K~ H~ K+

~a++ .. Mg++ H~ K~ K~~ CaH K~ Ca~+ M ++' g K~ Mg++ Ca~~ NH4

CATION EXCHANGE

}

f~4.~.EDAPHOS

A LIST OF SOME SOIL TESTING LABORATORIES 70

A & L Agri. Labs. of Mcmphis 411 North 3rd SI. Memphis, TN 38105-2723 901/527-2780 A & L Eastern Agricullural Labs 7621 Whitepine Rd. Richmond, VA 23237-2296 8041743-940 I A & L Great Lakes Labs, Inc. Fort Wayne,

IN 46808-4414

3505 Conestoga

Drive

219/483-4759

A &.L Mid West Labs., Inc. 13611 "B" SI. Omaha, NE 68144-3693 402/334-7770

A & L Southern AgrLLabs., Inc. 1301 W. Copaus Rd., Bldg. D. 1/8 Pompano Beach, FL 33064 305/972-3255

Modesto,

CA 95350.4732

Labs

IOtO Carver

50

40

l

TESTING THE SOIL SYSTEMS

Rd.

30

a

Cal Mar Soil Testing l30 South State SI. Westerville, OB 43081 Cooperative Exl. Publications University of Illinois Urbana,IL611101

A & L Plains Agric. Labs, Inc. PO Box 1590.302 34th SI. Lubbock, TX 79408-1590 806/763-4278

A & L West. Agricultural

60

PERCENT SAND

Watsonville, CA 95076 408/722.7606 Pike Lab Supplies RR 112,Box 92 Strong, ME 04983 207/684-5131

Cooperativc Extension Scrvice 2120 University Ave. '. Bcrkcley, CA 94720

Plant and Soil Analysis Lab. Agronomy Dcpl., Purduc t W. Lafayelle, IN 47907

Farm Clinic 923 Robinson SI., PO Box 3011 West Lafayette, IN 47906

Rcscarch-Ext. Analytical Lab. Ohio Agricultnral R & D Wooster, OH 44691

Freedom Soil Lab PO Box 1144G Freedom, CA 95019 4081724-4427

209/529-4080

Agri. Labs Inc. 204 East Plymouth Bremeu, IN 46506

Agrico-Chemical Co. PO Drawer 639 Washington Court Bouse, OB 43160

Rutgers' Soil Testing Laboratory New Brunswick, NJ 08903

Geoph}1a 2685 County Rd 254 Vickcry, OH 43464

Soil & Plant Laboratory,

Harris Laboratories, Inc. PO Box 80R37, 624 Peach St. Lincoln. NE 68501

Analytical Services Laboratory 8 Nesmith Hall, UNH Durham, Nil 031124 Brookside Rescarch Labs. 308 South Main SI. New Kno>:ville, OB 45871

Indiana Frm Bureau Central Indianapolis, IN 46204

Lab.

2435 Kentucky

Avc.

Ithaca,

Iowa Testing Laboratory Highway 17 North. Box 188 Eagle Grove, IA 50533 LaRamic Soils Scrvicc PO Box 255 Laramic. WY 82070 Mcrkle Laboratory Pcnnsylvania Stalc University Univcrsity Park, PA 16802 Missouri Western State Collcge MEY STL.,ET Downs Dr SI. Joseph, MO 64507 Na-CllUrs 421 Leader Street Marion, OH 43302 !'crry Laboratory 471 AiII'Ullllh'd.

Rutger!

Inc. PO Box 153

Santa Clara, CA 95052-0153 Soil Test. Lab.lDepl.

Agricultural Testing L:lb. Hills Building, UVM Burlington, VT 05405 802/656-3030

Cook College,

of Agron.

408/727-0330 Bradfield

& Emerson/-'

NY 14853

Soil Testing Laboratory Storrs, CT 06268

Uni\'ersity

of Connccticnt

Soil Testing Laboratory Orono. ME 04473

University

of Mainc

Soil Testing Laboratory Clemson, SC 29631

Clcmson

Soil Tcsting Laboratory Athens, GA 30602

Univcrsity

University,

, 114,4525

of Gcorgia

Soil Testing Labomtory Univcrsity of Massachusctts Amherst. MA 01002 Soil Tcsting Laboralol)' 210B Woodward Hall, URI Kingston, RI 02881 Soil Testing Laboratory East Lansing. MI .IKlln

Michigan

State University


are cations, butlabs do not report results in relation to CEC. The levels of micronutrients needed in the soil are so small that virtually any CEC will hold what is necessary.

Great care should be taken when correcting micronutrient deficiencies. There is a very fine line between too little and too much. The lab doing the testing can make recommendations, but its recommendations are only as good as the sample taken. Micronutrient tests are easily adulterated by rusty or corroded tools. Because of the high zinc content, galvanized toolsor containers should neverbe used, regardless of their condition. SUMMARY Recommendations from most labs for pounds of nutrient per acre or per thousand square feet only apply to plant needs, and can prove to be useless or even injurious to the other organisms in the soil. However, if nutrients are added with consideration of the entire soil system, then the whole solar-powered, biological crop growing machine can benefit. It is usually not necessary to fine-tune the soil. It does not respond like a high performance engine, where subtle adjustments can tweak out another two to three more horsepower. Remember, the results of a soil test are an average ofthe area being evaluated. If inputs contain the raw materials needed for natural soil system mechanisms, then the system will function correctly.

IMPORTANT POINTS TOREMEMBER: Obtain good samples-a procedures are used;

lab analysis is useless if poor sampling

Choose a lab that gives the type of information needed on a timely

basis; and Considerthe needsof the soil as well as those ofthe plants.

A LIST OF SOME SOIL TESTING LABORATORIES

A & L Agri. Labs of Memphis 411 North3rd St. Memphis,TN38105-2723 901/527-2780

Agrico-Chemical Co. PODrawer639 Washington CourtHse, OH 43160

804n43-9401

University ofVermont Agricultural Testing Lab. HillsBuilding,UVM Burlington,vr 05405 802/656-3030

A & L Great Lakes Labs, Inc. 3505 Conestoga Drive Fort Wayne, IN 46808-4414 219/483-4759

University ofNH Analytical Services Laboratory 8 Nesmith Hall,UNH Durham,NH03824

A & L Mid West Labs., Inc. 13611 "B" St. Omaha,NE68144-3693 402/334-7770

Brookside Research Labs. 308 South Main St. New Knoxville, OH 45871

A & L Eastern Agricultural Labs 7621 WhitepineRd. Richmond,VA23237-2296

A & L Plains Agric. Labs, Inc. PO Box 1590, 302 34th St. Lubbock,1J{79408-1590 806n63-4278 A & L Southern Agri.Labs., Inc. 1301 W. CopansRd., Bldg. D. #8 Pompano Beach, FL 33064 305/972-3255

Cal Mar Soil Testing 130 South State St. Westerville, OH 43081

University ofIllinois Cooperative Ext. Publications Urbana,IL61801 Cooperative Extension Service 2120 University Ave. Berkeley, CA 94720

A & L West. Agricultural Labs 1010 Carver Rd. Modesto, CA 95350-4732 209/529-4080

Farm Clinic 923 Robinson St., PO Box 30 11 West Lafayette, IN 47906

Agri. Labs Inc. 204East Plymouth Bremen,IN46506

Freedom Soil Lab POBox1144G Freedom, CA 950 19


'it~;.~~...vA~.(w:~t.v;~':;;'~...~;~~~";"",;~',;~

't!

l::~~!:':,::II_lml::'::::::::.:::':::::::::!:::::::::~.'::::::::!':..!!:i:::::j.:::::.j;..::::::.j:.:.':':,'

: ~, i! I:

I,

are cations, but labs do not report results in relation to CEC. The levels of micronutrients needed in the soil are so small that virtually any CEC will hold what is necessary,

I.t ~1

II'

:"i i:

Great care should be taken when correcting micronutrient deficiencies. There is a very fine line between too little and too much. The lab doing the testing can make recommendations, but its recommendations are only as good as the sample taken. Micronutrient tests are easily adulterated by rusty or corroded tools. Because of the high zinc content, galvanized tools or containers should never be used, regardless of their condition.

;'1:

"\ ,~:i

SUMMARY

Recommendations from most labs for pounds of nutrient per acre or per thousand square feet only apply to plant needs, and can prove to be useless or even injurious to the other organisms in the soil. However, if nutrients are added with consideration of the entire soil system,then thewhole solar-powered,biologicalcropgrowing machine can benefit.

}\

It is usually not necessary to fine-tune the soil. It does not respond like a high performance engine, where subtle adjustments can tweak out another two to three more horsepower. Remember, the results of a soil test are an average of the area being evaluated. If inputs contain the raw materials needed for natural soil system mechanisms, then the system will function correctly.

II

IMPORTANT POINTS TOREMEMBER:

~,

1"1~

Obtain good samples-a procedures are used;

lab analysis is useless if poor sampling

Choose a lab that gives the type of information needed on a timely

basis; and Considerthe needsof the soil as well as thoseof the plants.

~!:::::::::~!:.~::::!::::!::.::::.:::::::!,:::::::::::,:lllgII_1!llm,:If.J,I$.;::t::J.:iIJ A LIST OF SOME SOn. TESTING LABORATORIES

A & L Agri. Labs of Memphis 411 North 3rd St. Memphis,TN 38105-2723 901/527-2780 A & L Eastern Agricultural Labs 7621 WhitepineRd. Riclunond, VA 23237-2296 804n43-9401

Agrico-Chemical Co. PO Drawer639 WashingtonCourtHse,OH43160 University of Vermont Agricultural Testing Lab. Hills Building, UVM Burlington, VT05405

802/656-3030

'

A & L Great Lakes Labs, Inc. 3505 Conestoga Drive Fort Wayne, IN 46808-4414 219/483-4759

University ofNH Analytical Services Laboratory 8 Nesmith Hall,UNH Durham, NH03824

A & L Mid West Labs., Inc. 13611 "B" St. Omaha,NE68144-3693 402/334-7770

Brookside Research Labs. 308 South Main St. New Knoxville, OH 45871

A & L Plains Agric. Labs, Inc. PO Box 1590, 302 34th S1. Lubbock, TX79408-1590 806n63-4278 A & L Southern Agri.Labs., Inc. 1301 W. CopansRd., Bldg.D. #8 Pompano Beach, FL 33064 305/972-3255

Cal Mar Soil Testing 130 South State St. Westerville, OH 43081 University of Illinois Cooperative Ext. Publications Urbana, IL 6180 1 Cooperative Extension Service 2120 University Ave. Berkeley, CA 94720

A & L West. Agricultural Labs 10 10 Carver Rd. Modesto, CA 95350-4732 209/529-4080

Farm Clinic 923 RobinsonSt., POBox3011 West Lafayette, IN47906

AgrL Labs Inc. 204 East Plymouth Bremen, IN 46506

Freedom Soil Lab POBox 1144G Freedom, CA 95019


4081724-4427 Geophyta 2685 CountyRd 254 Vickery,OH43464

Pike Lab Supplies RR #2,Box 92 Strong,lvfE04983 207/684-5131

Harris Laboratories, Inc. POBox 80837, 624PeachSt. Lincoln,NE6850 I

Purdue University Plant and Soil Analysis Lab. Agronomy Dept., W. Lafayette, IN 47907

IndianaFnnBureau Central Lab. 2435 Kentucky Ave. Indianapolis, IN46204 Iowa Testing Laboratory Hwy 17North, Box 188 Eagle Grove,IA 50533 LaRamie Soils Service POBox 255 Laramie, WY82070

Pennsylvania State University Merkle Laboratory UniversityPark,PA 16802 Missouri Western State College MEYSTL.,Ef114 4525DownsDr. St. Joseph, MO 64507 Na-Churs 421 Leader Street Marion,OH43302 Perry Laboratory 471 Airport Blvd. Watsonville, CA 95076 4081722-7606

Ohio AgriculturalR&D Center Research-Ext. Analytical Lab. Wooster, OH44691 Rutgers' Soil Testing Laboratory Cook College, Rutgers Univ. New Brunswick, NJ 08903 Soil & Plant Laboratory, Inc. POBox 153 Santa Clara, CA 95052-0 153 4081727-0330 Soil Test. Lab./Dept. of Agron. Bradfield & Emerson Halls Ithaca, NY 14853

University of Connecticut Soil Testing Laboratory Stdrrs,CT 06268

University of Georgia Soil Testing Laboratory Athens, GA30602 University of Massachusetts Soil Testing Laboratory Amherst, MA 0 I002 URI Soil Testing Laboratory 210B Woodward Hall, URI Kingston, RI 02881

Michigan State University Soil Testing Laboratory East Lansing, MI 48823 North Carolina State University Soil Testing Laboratory Raleigh,NC27695 Texas A & M University Soil Testing Laboratory College Station,TX77843 Terra Analytical Services 2622 Baty Road Elida,OH45807 WDHIC Soil & Forage Center 106 North Cecil Street Bonduel, WI 54107

University of Maine Soil Testing Laboratory Orono,lvfE04473 \

Clemson University, Soil Testing Laboratory Clemson, SC 2 9631


Sources: Albrecht, W.A. 1938. Loss of organic matter and its restoration, u.s. Dept. ofAgriculture Yearbook 1938, pp347-376. Arshad,M.A. andCoen, G.M.1992. Characterizationofsoilquality: physical and chemical criteria, American Journal of Alternative Agriculture v7 #1 and 2, 1992 pp25-31, Institute for Alternative Agriculture, Greenbelt, IvID. Brady, N.C. 1974. The Nature and Properties of Soils, MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc., New York.

Chapter 8 RELATIONSHIPS

Chu, P. 1993. Personal communication, A&L Eastern Agricultural Laboratories, Richmond, VA. Ehrlich, PR and Ehrlich, A.H. 1990. The PopulationExplosion, Simon and Schuster. New York. Gershuny, G. and Smillie, J. 1986. The Soul of Soil: (2nd Ed.), Gaia Services, St. Johnsbury, VT. Jenny,H.1941. Factors of Soil Formation, McGraw-HiliBookCo.,

New

Yolk. NRAES, 1992. On Farm Composting Handbook, Northeast Regional Engineering Service #54, Cooperative Extension, Ithaca, NY. Parnes, R. Fertile Soil: A Grower's Guide to Organic & Inorganic Fertilizers, Ag Access, Davis, CA. Seyer, E. 1992. Sustaining a Vermont Way of Life: Research and Education in Sustainable Agriculture, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT. White, W.C. and Collins, D.N . (Editors) 1982. The Fertilizer Handbook, The Fertilizer Institute, Washington, DC.

Love is an emotion; a feeling of endearment. It is a feeling, which is slightly different for everyone. Like love, all ofthe other feelings we have in our relationships with others are hard to explain. Sometimes they are good and sometimes they are not, but we must accept them, without completely understanding them. As we grow, we learn to adapt our feelings to the many different relationships that we encounter ,just as the soil relates to the different edaphic factors it encounters. All of our feelings are derived from instincts that have evolved from a basic need to survive. These instincts are like patterns that emanate throughout the biological and physical components oftheplanet. The hundreds of similarities between human relationships and those in the soil are not coincidences. The most basic and driving forces in our lives are for sustenance and to reproduce. Those same instincts control all the biological functions in the soil. Just like cations and anions, we have stronger attractions to some relationships than we do for others. Sometimes our polarity for one another is so opposite (or alike), that we instinctively know the chance of a good relationship is remote at best.


HUMUS .. .-

L

h -.--.....-...----..-..--....-----.

.--------.. H.~~l'\o1lJS' 51 1

Source.~:

L.ansing, MI

America. Inc. Madison, WI

Albrech', W.A. 1938, L.oss of Organic mailer and its resloralion. U.S. Dep.. of Agriculture Yearbook 1938, pp347-376

M~lkarov, I.B. 1986, Se'L~onalDynamk,; of Soill/umus Content. Moscow Univcrsily Stlil Science Bulletin, v41 #3: 19-26

Ar.;had, M.A. and Cocn, G.M. 1992, Characleri7.a!ion of soil quality: Physical and dlemical critcria. American Joul1lal of Alternative Agriculture \"7 #1 and 2. 1992 pp 25-31. In.~tilute for Alternalive Agricullure, Greenbell, MD

Nosko, B.S. 1987, Change in the Humus for a Typical Olel1l07.cm caused by fcrtili?Jllion. Soviel Snil Science, 1987 vl9 July/AuguSI 1167-74

Siork, N.E. and Egglelon, P. 1992, InvL'f1ebratcs as detelminants and indicalors of soil quality. American Journal of Allel11alive Agriculture v7 #1 and 2, 1992 pp 38-47. Inslitu.e for Allernalj)'e Agricullure, Greenbelt, MD

ASA# 47. 1979, Microbial - Plantlnleractions. of Agronomy. Madison, WI

Novak, B. 1984, 'n,e Role of Soil Organisms in Humus Synlhcsis and Decomposilion. Soil Biology and Conservalion of Ihe Biosphere. PI' 319-.H2

Ameril'an SocielY

Bear, F.E. 1924, Soils and Fertili7.crs. John Wiley and Stms, Inc. New York, NY

Pal1leS, R. Fcrtile Soil: A growers Guide 10 Organic & Inorganic FC/1i1i7.crs. Ag ACl'ess, Davis, CA

Brady, N.C. 1974, The Natureaod Properties of soils. MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc. New York, NY

Powlson, D.S. and Bnle.ks, P.C., ICJ87, Me'L~ul"CmL'f11 of Stlil Micl"llbiailliomass Prnvides an Early lodication Of CI"'ngl'.~in Totul Soil Organic Mallerdue loSlraw Incorporalion. St.iI BioI. Biochem. ICJ87vl9 (2): 159-IM.

Bmwn. B. and Morgan, L. 1990. The Miracle Planet. W. H. Smith Publishers, Inc. Ne\v York, NY Buchanan, M. and S.R. Glicssman 1991, How Compos. Fertili7.ation Affects Soil Nitrogen and Crop Yield. Biocycle, Dec. 1991. J.G. Pre.~ Emmaus, PA Gcrshuny. G. and Smillie, J. 1986, TIle Soul of Stlil:'3rd Edition. Ag Access. Davis, CA Hillel, D.J., 1991, OUIof the Earth: Civili7.ation and the Life of Ihc Soil. The Free Prcss. New York, NY Holland. E.A. and Coleman, D.C. 1987. Litll..- Placemenl Effects on Microbial and Organic Maller Dynamics in an Agroecosystem. Ecology v68 (2). 1987: 425-433 Huang, P.M. and M. Sdmit7.cr 1986, InteraClinns of Stlil Minerals wilh Natural Organil'.~ and Microbes. Soil Sdenl'e StlCiety of America. Inc. Madison. WI Jenny, H. 1941, Faclors of St.iI Formalioo. Co. New York, NY

McGraw - Hill Book

Luca.~. R. E. and Vil(~~h. M. L.. 1978, Soil Organic

Maller Dynamics.

Michigan

Nov

S'ate

Univ.

Research

Report

32.91,

1978.

East

Sugan, D. and Mm'golis, !... 1988, Gurden nf Micrubiul delights: A Pr-dclicleGuide 10theSubvi~able World. Harcourt GraL'CJovanovich , Publishers. Bost,m, MA Senn, T.!... und Kingman, A.R. 1973, A Review of Humus and HumisAcid~. Clemson Univ. Research Scrics#145, March 1,1973. Clemson. SC Silkina, N.P. 1987, Effecls of High Nilrogen Fertili7.er Concentrations on Transformation of Soil Organic Maller. Universily of Moscnw Soil Sciell<'CBullelin ICJ87, v42 (4): 41-41i. 1"- Singh, c.P. 1987, Preparation of High Grade ComfKlst by an Enrichment Tedmique. I. Effect of Enrichment on Organic Ma'er DL'('omllelSilinn. [liological Agrkulture mKIHor1icullurc 19117,vol 5 PI' 41-4CJ Smith, G.E. 1942, SanIK'11IField: Fifty Years of Fio!ldExperimenls wilh Crol' I~nlalinns, Manurc.~ and Fe'1ili?.crs. lI,Ii\"L'I'Silyof Missouri Bulletiu #458. Columbia, MO SSSA# 19. 1987, Soil Fcrtility and Organic MaIlL'!'a.~ Crilical CornfKl/lenls of P duclion Systems. St.iI Science StlCiety of

Vccn. A. van and Kuikman. PJ. 1990. Soil s'l1Jclural a.~pcl'ISof dccomfK'Silion of organic mailer by micm-organisms. BiogL'OChemiSlry, Dec. 1990. vi 1 (3): 213-233 Villcc, C.A. 1962. Biology. W. B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia, PA Visser, S. and Parkinson, D. 1992, soil biological criteria as indicators of soil quality: Soil mimlOrganisms. American Journal of Allcrnalive Agricullure v7 #1 and 2, 1992 PI' 33-37. Inslilute for Allernalive Agriculture, Grccnbell, MD Wallace, A., Wallace, G.A. and Jong. W.C. 1990. Soil Organic Muller and Ihe Global Carbon Cycle. Journal of Planl Nutrilion 1990 vl3 (3/4): 459.456 Waksman. S.A. 193/i, Humus. William.~and Wilkins, Inc. Ballimore, MD Waksman. S.A. and Woodruff, RB., The occurrence of bacteriostalic and baclericidal substances in the soil. Soil Science v53 pp223239.


-

ec)NCfPTOF Sources: Bear, F.E. 1924, Soils and Fertilizers. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY Brady. N.C. 1974, The Nature and Properties of soils. MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc. New York, NY

(Sl" EDAPHOS

Source.~: ASA/t 47. 1979, Microbial - Plalltlnleractions. of Agronomy. Madison, WI

American Sociely

Huang, P.M. and M. Schnitzer 1986, Interactions of Soil Minerals with Natural Organics and Microbes. Soil Science Society of America, Ine. Madison, WI

Baker, R.R. and Dunn, P.E. (Editors) 1990, New Directions in Biological Conlrol. Alan R. Lis.~,Inc. New York, NY

Jenny, H. 1941, Factors of Soil Formation. CO. New York, NY

Barbosa, P. and Letourneau, D.K. (Editors) 1988. Novel AspeClsof Ins.'Ct - Planllnteraclions. John Wiley & Sons. New York, NY

McGraw - Hill Book

Ray, P.M. 1972, The Living Plant. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc. N.Y., NY

Barbosa, P., Krischik, V.A. and Jones. C.G. (Edil(Âť'S) IWI. Microbial Mediation of Plant Herbivore Inleractions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY

-

Bnldy, N.C. 1974, The Nalure and Prope'1ies Publishing Co. Inc. New York, NY

of soils.

MacMillan

Brown, B. and Morgan, L. 1990, TI.e Miracle Planel. W. H. Smith Publishers, Inc. New York, NY Brown, H. C(x.k, R. and Gabel, M. 1976, Environm<.'fIlal Design Seience Primer. Earth Metabolic Design. New Haven, cr aiel, I. (Editor) 1987, Innovalive Approachc.~ 10 Plant Disease Conlrol. John Wiley & Sons, Ine. New York, NY Davidson, R.H. and Lyon, W.F. 1987,InsectPeslsofFann, Garden and Orchard: Eighth Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY

Heinridls, E.A. (Editor) 1988, Planl Siress-Insecl Interactions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New Yqrk, NY Hillel, D.1., 1991, Out of the Earth: Civilization and the Life of the Soil. The Free Press. New York, NY Lcius, K. 1967, Influence of wild flowers of parasitism of lent caterpillar and codling moth. Can. Entomo!. 99: 444-446 Parnes, R. Fertile Soil: A growers Guide 10 OrglK.ic & Inorganic Fertilizers. Ag Access, Davis, CA Price, P.W., Lcwinsohn, T.M., Fernandes, G.W. and Benson, W.W. (Editors) 1991, Plant- Animal Inleractions. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. NY Senn, T.L. 1987, Scawc<.'<1 and Plant Growlh. No publisher noted. Department of Honiculture, Clemson Universily.

Clemson, SC

Seyer, E. 1992, Suslaining a Vermont Way of Life: Research and education in Sustainable Agriculture. University of Vennont. Burlington, VT Smith, C.M. 1989, Plant Resistance 10 Insects, A fundamental Approach. John Wiley & Son, Inc. New York, NY Talbot, M. 1992 Personal Communicalion.

Dorchester, MA

Walters, C.Jr. 1991, Weeds: Control Without Poisons. AcresUSA. Kansas City, MO

Ehrlidl, P.R. and Ehrlich, A.H. 1981, Extinction: The Cau.~esand Consequences of the Dissappearance of Sp''Cies. Random House, Inc. New York, NY

Waksman, S.A. 1936, Humus. WillillRls IIlIdWilkins, 111<'.Baltimore, MD

Fogg, A. 1991, Personal communication. Wild Hill Orchard. Ely, VT

Ziv, O. IInd Ziller, T.A. 1991, Effecls of Bicarbonale alld Coating Malerials 011Cu<.-urbitFoliar Diseascs. Proceedings of Ihe 53rd Annual Pest Managemenl Conference, Nov. 11-14, 1991. Dept. of Plant Palhology, Cornell Univ. Ithica, NY

Fowler, C. and Mooney, P. 1990, Shallering: Food, Politics, and the loss of Genelic Diversity. TIle University of Arizona Press. Tucson, AR Grainge, M. and Ahmed. S. 1988, Handlxx.k of Plants with Pest Conlmll'mpc'1ics. J(~IIIWiley & Soos. New York, NY


INFORMATION

ON COMPOSTING

COMPOSTING & PRESERVING OM

/(J!f

.~ 10ÂŁ

II is import ani 10undcrstand tlUIIpmficiency in wmposting is like leaming 10 lie onc's shoes; confusion and hick o[ confidence will

Sources:

cxist thJji*;i1 fcw lim<:sil is done. TIlink small 01firsl. If one can develop~ technique I,i heal up a bushel of waSle, il can used on a thnusllnd cubic yards.

Albrechl, W.A. 1938, Loss of Organic mailer and ils restoration. U.S. Dept. of Agricullure Yearbook 1938, 1'1'347.376 BioCycie Staff (edilors) 1989. TIle Biocycle Guide 10 Yard Wasle Composting. JG Press. Inc. Emmaus. PA

This chapler provides only an overview of composl ing. II/IIay nol contain some of Ihe delails needed 10eom(><~~t org:lflic wasles on a (argCl' scale. To invesligate the subj~'C1in more detail, a list of IIppropriale books is provided: YARD WASTE MANAGEMENT:

BioCycie Siaff (edilors) 19<)0.TIle Biocycle Guide 10 Collecling. Processing and Marketing Recyclables: Including theSp<.'CialRe(><)l1 on Muteriuls Recovery Fueilities. JG Press. Inc. Emmaus. PA

A PLANNING GUIDE

BioCyc1e Staff (editors) 19<)1,TIle A.1 and Science of Composling. JG Press. Inc. Emmaus. PA

FOR NEW YORK STATE. Prepared byT. Richard. N. Dickson and S. Rowland. Dept. of Agricullure und Biological Engineering. Comell Universily. Ithacu, NY 14853.5701. 163 PI'.

Buchanan. M. and S.R. Gliessman 1991, How Compost Fertilization Affeels Soil Nilrogen and Crop Yield. Biocycle, Dec. 1991. J.G. Press Emmaus. PA

THE BlOCYCLE GUIDE TO YARD WASTE COMPOSTING 1989. TIle JG Press. Inc. Emmaus. PA 18098. 1971'1'

Golueke. C.G. 1972 Com(><Jsting:A Siudy of Ihe Process and its P.-inciplc.~. Rodale Books. Inc. Emmuus, PA

COMPOSTING: A STUDY OF HIE PIWCESS AND ITS PRINCIPLES. C. G. Golueke. 1972. Rodale Books, Inc. Emmaus PA 18049 TilE BlOCYCLE aUmE COMPOSTING. 2701'1'

Holland. E.A. and Coleman, D.C. 1987. Lillcr Placemenl Effecls on Microbial and Organic Maller Dynamics in an Agroccosyslem. Ecology v68 (2). 1987: 425-433

TO TIlE ART ANI> SCIENCE OF

1991 TIle JG Press, Inc. Emmllus, PA 18098.

LET IT ROT: THE GARDENERS GUIDE TO COMPOSTING.

'

\ '

S. Campbell. 1975. Garden Way Publishing. Storey communicalions. Inc. Pownal. VT 05261. 152 PI'.

Makarov. I.B. 1<)86.Seasonal Dynamics of Soil Humus Contenl. . Moscow Universily Soil Science Bulletin. v41 #3: 19-26

THE RODALE BOOK OF COMPOSTING. D. Martin and G. Gershuny 1992 Rodale Prc.~. Emmaus. PA 18049.

Nosko. B.S. 1987, Change in Ihe Humus for a Typical ChClTlozem caused by fertilization. Soviet Soil Science. 1987 vl9 July/Augusl 1'67-74

HOME COMPOSTING: A TRAINING GUIDE. N. Dickson. T. Richard. B. Kozlowski and R. Kline. 1990. NRAES. Riley Robb Hall. Comel! University. Ithaca. NY 14853 ON-FARM COMPOSTING HANDBOOK. Nonheast Regional Agricultural EngineeringScrvice 1992. NRAES. Riley Robb Hall. Cornell University. Ithaca. NY 14853. 1861'1' .

Lucas. R.E. und Vilosh. M.L. 1<)78,Soil Orgunic MallcrDynalllics. Michigan Siale Univ. Research Re(><)l132.91. Nov 1978. East Lansing, MI

Novak, B. 1984. TIle Role of Soil Organisms in Humus Synthesis 1"1

and Decomposition. Soil Biologyand Conservationof the Bio-

1' sphere. PI' 319-332 " NRAES. 1<)<)2.On Falm Com(><JslingHandbook.

j.w.I_.EJ)A~ffOS FCI1ilizers. Ag Access. Davis. CA Pan'. J.F.. Papendick. R.I.. H"mick. S.U. IInd Meye.'. R.E. 1<)<)2. Soil Quality: Auribulcs and relationship 10alternative and sustainable agriculture. American Joumal of Alternalive Agriculture v7 #1 and2. 1992 pp5.10.1nstitulefor AlternaliveAgriculture. Greenbelt. MD Richards. T.. Dickson. N. and Rowland. S. 1992 Yard Waste Management: A planning Guide for New York Slate. Del'l. of Agriculture and Geological Engineering. C<JmeliUniversity. tlhaca. NY Seyer. E. 1992. Sustaining a Vermont Way of Life: Research and education in Sustainable Agriculture. University of VCrtTlont. Burlington. VT Silkina. N. P. 1987. Effects of High Nilrogen FCI1i1izerConcentrations on Transformation of Soil Organic MaUer. University of Mosoow Soil Science Bulletin 1987. v42 (4): 41.46. Singh. C.P. 1987. Preparation of High GradIJ Com(><,stby an Enrichment Teclmique. I. Effect of Enrichmenl on Organic MatIJr Decomposilion. Biological Agriculture and Horticullure 1987. vol 5 PI' 41-49 Smith. G.E. 1942. SanboOl Field: Fifty Yenrs ofField Experiments with Crop Rotations. Manures and Fenilizers. Universily of Missouri Bulletin #458. Columbia, MO SSSA# 19. 1987. Soil FCI1i1ilyand Organic MaUer as Critical Com(><ments of Production Systems. Soil Seience Society of America. Inc. Madislm. WI Veen. A. van and Kuikman. P.J. 1990. Soil structural aspects of decorh(><,sitionof organic mailer by micro.organisms. Biogeochemistry. Dee. 1990. vII (3): 213-233 Villec. C.A. 1962. Biology. W. B. Saunders Company. Philadelphia. PA '

N0I1hea.~1Re-

t gional Engin~~ring Service #54. C<KJpe,'ativeExlension. IIhica. NY 1 Pames. R. Fertile Soil: A growers Guidc to Organic & Inorganic

Visser. S. and Parkinson. D. 1992. soil biological crileria as indicators of soil quality: Soil micmorganisms. American JOUOlIII of Altemulive Ag,.;culture v7 #1 and 2. 19<)2PI' .13-37. Instilule for

C

"cOM-POSTING&PRESERVINGOM-~

Alternative Agriculture. Greenbelt. MD-

~7

Wllllilce. A.. Wall lice. a.A. IIlIdJ"ng, W.e. (l)9(). SoilOrglink MaUer and the Global Carbon Cycle. Joumlll of Planl NUlrilion 1990vl3 (3/4): 459-456 Waksman. S.A. 1936. Humus. Williams and Wilkins. Inc. Balti. more. MD Waksman. S.A. and Woodruff. H.B.. TIle occurrence of baclerio'stalic and baclerieidul subslances in Ihesoil. Soil Science v5.11'1'223. 239. White. W.C. and Collins. D_N- lI?dil"'''\

II/R? '0... I> ab....


Op..6~N \c. l136- EDAPHOS Sources: AAFCO, 1990, Official Publication 1990. Association of Amcricml Feed Control Officials. Atlanta, GA AAPFCO, 1990,Offidal Publication #43. Associatiun of American Plant Food Control Officials. West Lafayellc,IN Albrecht, W.A. 1938, Loss of Organic mailer Md its restoralion. U.S. Dcpt. of Agriculture YClII'book1')38, pp347-376 Bear, F.E. 1924, Soils and FCt1i1izcrs. Juhn Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY Brady, N.C. 1974, The Nature and Properties of soils. MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc. New York, NY BuchMI\I1, M. and S.R. Gliessml\l1 1991, How Compost Fertilizalion Affects Soil Nitrogen and Crop Yield. Biocyclc, Dec. 1<}91. J.G. Press Emmaus, PA Chu, P. 1993, Personal communication. A&L Eastcl11Agricultural Labratories. Richmond, VA Lucas, R.E. and Vilosh, M.L. 1<}78,Soil OrgMicMallCT Dynamics. Michigl\l1 Slate Univ. Research Report 32.91, Nov 1<}78. East Loosing, MI Nosko, B.S. 1987, Change in thc Humus for a Typical Chel11uzem caused by fertilization. Soviet Soil Science, 1987 v19 Juiy/Augusl p67-74 Novak, B. 1<}84,TIle Role of Soil Organisms in Humus Synthesis und Dccomposition. Soil Biulogy and CO/lSel'vatiun of the Biu. sphcre. pp 319-332 NRAES, 1992, On Farm Composting Handbook. Northeast Re. gional Engineering Se,'Vice#54, Cooperativc ExtCtlsion. IIhica, NY Parnes, R. Fertile Soil: A groWCt':; Guide to Organic Fertilizcrs. Ag Access, Davis, CA

& Inorganic

T.L. 1987, Seaweed and Planl Growth. No publisher noted. Isenn, Department of Horticulture, Clemson University. Clemson, SC

Silkina, N.P. 1987, EffL'Ctsof High Nilrogcn Fel1ilizer Cuncenlrations on TransforlYlation of Soil Organic Maller. University uf Moscow Soil Sciencc Bulletin 1987, v42 (4): 41.46. Singh, C.P, 1987, Preparalion of High Grade Composl by an Enrichment Technique.!. Effect of Enrichment un Organic Maler Decomposition. Biological Agriculture and Horticulturc 1987, vol 5 pp 41.49 Smith, G.E. 1<)42,Sallbol1l Field: Fifly Years ufField Experimenls wilh Crop Rolations, Munures und Fertilize,,:;. Ullivel,:;i!y of Missouri Bullelin #458. Columbia, MO SSSA# 19. 1987, Soil Fcrtility und Orgunic Maller us Criticul Components of Production Systems. Soil Sciencc Society of America, Inc. Mudison. WI Villee. C.A. 1962, Biology. W. B. Suunders Cumpuny. Philudel. phia, PA Wallace, A., Wullucc, G.A. und Jung. W.C. 1<}90, Soil Organic Maller und Ihc Globul Curbon Cyclc. Joumul of Ph.llt Nutrilioll 1<}90v 13 (3/4): 459.45/\ Wukslllan, S.A. 1936, Humus. William~ and Wilkins, Illc. Baltimorc, MD Whitc, W.C. alld Collins, D.N. (Edi"'rs) J<}H2,TIlc FCl1ilizcr Handbook. TIlc FC'1ilizcr Instilutc. Washinglon. DC


03 Edaphos Illus, diags,charts and bibliogrophy