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The University of the State of New York • THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT • Albany, New York 12234 • www.nysed.gov

cm 1 2

Reference Tables for Physical Setting/EARTH SCIENCE

3

Radioactive Decay Data

Specific Heats of Common Materials

Potassium-40

40

C K

5.7 × 10

N

40

Ar

9

1.3 × 10

40

Ca

Rubidium-87

87

87

U

Rb

9

Pb

4.5 × 10

Sr

4.9 × 10

10

Properties of Water

change in field value distance

Heat energy released during freezing . . . . . . . . 334 J/g

change in value time

Heat energy gained during vaporization . . . . . 2260 J/g

Percent by volume

Percent by volume

46.10 28.20 8.23 5.63 4.15 2.36 2.33 2.09

94.04 0.88 0.48 0.49 1.18 1.11 0.33 1.42

33.0

21.0

18

TROPOSPHERE

Percent by volume

19 20

66.0 1.0

1.0

22

0.07

21

78.0 0.91

17

HYDROSPHERE

Percent by mass

16

Oxygen (O) Silicon (Si) Aluminum (Al) Iron (Fe) Calcium (Ca) Sodium (Na) Magnesium (Mg) Potassium (K) Nitrogen (N) Hydrogen (H) Other

CRUST

15

Average Chemical Composition of Earth’s Crust, Hydrosphere, and Troposphere

14

Density at 3.98°C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 g/mL

13

Heat energy released during condensation . . . 2260 J/g

mass Density = volume

ELEMENT (symbol)

12

Rate of change =

Heat energy gained during melting . . . . . . . . . . 334 J/g

11

Gradient =

distance between foci length of major axis

10

Eccentricity =

9

Equations

8

206

4.18 2.11 2.00 1.01 0.84 0.79 0.45 0.38 0.13

7

Uranium-238

238

Liquid water Solid water (ice) Water vapor Dry air Basalt Granite Iron Copper Lead

3

14

6

14

(Joules/gram • °C)

5

Carbon-14

SPECIFIC HEAT

4

MATERIAL

RADIOACTIVE DISINTEGRATION HALF-LIFE (years) ISOTOPE

23

Eurypterus remipes

25

New York State Fossil

24

2010 EDITION This edition of the Earth Science Reference Tables should be used in the classroom beginning in the 2009–2010 school year. The first examination for which these tables will be used is the January 2010 Regents Examination in Physical Setting/Earth Science.


Lake Erie

Ap p

Grenville Province (Highlands)

at Pl

u ea

( Key

) ds n la p U

Tug Hill Plateau

e

International boundary

State boundary

Landscape region boundary

ds

Adirondack Mountains

Lo

an wl

The Catskills

e nc

Major geographic province boundary

Allegheny Plateau

Erie-Ontario Lowlands (Plains)

Lake Ontario

S

a t. L

wr

Interior Lowlands

Generalized Landscape Regions of New York State

Interior Lowlands

ala c h ia n

Champlain Lowlands

ew En (H gla i gh nd l P a nd ro v N 0

20 40 60 Kilometers

80

Miles 0 10 20 30 40 50

ic C t n a Atl

W S

N

e lain P l a t oas

nds ighla H n o H uds rong tan P t a h Man

Huds o nM o h a w k Lo wlands Taco n i c M ounta ins

N Lo ewa w l an rk ds

in c s)

2

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

E


Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

3

} }

limestones, shales, sandstones, and dolostones

CAMBRIAN and EARLY ORDOVICIAN sandstones and dolostones moderately to intensely metamorphosed east of the Hudson River CAMBRIAN and ORDOVICIAN (undifferentiated) quartzites, dolostones, marbles, and schists intensely metamorphosed; includes portions of the Taconic Sequence and Cortlandt Complex TACONIC SEQUENCE sandstones, shales, and slates slightly to intensely metamorphosed rocks of CAMBRIAN through MIDDLE ORDOVICIAN ages MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC gneisses, quartzites, and marbles Lines are generalized structure trends. MIDDLE PROTEROZOIC anorthositic rocks

ORDOVICIAN CAMBRIAN

CRETACEOUS and PLEISTOCENE (Epoch) weakly consolidated to unconsolidated gravels, sands, and clays LATE TRIASSIC and EARLY JURASSIC conglomerates, red sandstones, red shales, basalt, and diabase (Palisades sill) PENNSYLVANIAN and MISSISSIPPIAN conglomerates, sandstones, and shales DEVONIAN limestones, shales, sandstones, and conglomerates SILURIAN also contains salt, gypsum, and hematite. SILURIAN

GEOLOGIC PERIODS AND ERAS IN NEW YORK

modified from GEOLOGICAL SURVEY NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 1989

Generalized Bedrock Geology of New York State

ar a River ag Ni

Dominantly metamorphosed rocks

Intensely metamorphosed rocks (regional metamorphism about 1,000 m.y.a.)

} }

}

Dominantly sedimentary origin

S AND I SL

OUND

0

20 40 60 Kilometers

80

Miles 0 10 20 30 40 50

NG LO

W S

N E


80°

60°

40°

20°

20°

40°

60°

40°

40°

India

Asia

80°

C.

100°

Equatoria

120°

80°

100°

.

140°

120°

140°

lar Current

Australia

Antarctic Circumpo

Antarctica

60°

l C.

ra lia C .

st West Au

Indian Ocean

th Sou

Equatorial Countercurrent

North Equatorial

60°

Oyash io

NOTE: Not all surface ocean currents are shown.

20°

Africa

20°

C

roshio

C.

160°

160°

a

140°

C

S

180°

120°

South Pacific Ocean

160°

140°

120°

Equatorial C. outh

Equatorial Countercurrent

Equatorial C.

a s ka C Al

Southern Ocean

North

North Pacific Ocean

North Pacific C.

C. tka a h

C.

160°

Arctic Ocean

180°

80°

G u

Florida C.

North America

100°

100°

80°

Antarctica

60°

C.

C.

r No

Africa

Europe

40°

r c ti Anta

C

Cool currents

Warm currents

Key

20°

urrent umpolar C c Circ

South Atlantic Ocean

S o ut h Equatorial

Equatorial Guin ea C Countercurrent .

Equatorial

South America

60°

North Atlantic C.

E

nl ee r tG as

North Atlantic Ocean

Nor th

am tre S lf

20°

Greenland

40°

C.

an d

80°

C.

as

Ag ulh

Kam c

East Australi

nC . we g ia

Surface Ocean Currents

C.

. ia C Falkla nd

a rn lifo

Br a z il C .

. .

Ku

rC do a br La

Per u C.

C. nd a l en B e ngu ela C.

4 re tG es W Canary C.

.

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

20°

20°

Antarctic Circle (66.5° S)

Tropic of Capricorn (23.5° S)

Equator

Tropic of Cancer (23.5° N)

Arctic Circle (66.5° N)


S

an

ou the

as t Ind

e

a Tr ria n a e n ch

Fiji Plate

st Ea

Convergent plate boundary (subduction zone)

subducting plate

overriding plate

Antarctic Plate

Nazca Plate

r

Sandwich Plate

Mantle hot spot

Bouvet Hot Spot

St. Helena Hot Spot

African Plate

Eurasian Plate

Iceland Hot Spot

Complex or uncertain plate boundary

Scotia Plate

Canary Islands Hot Spot

Mi d At la n t i cR idg e

South American Plate

an ibbe Car late P

Pe

Galapagos Hot Spot

Yellowstone Hot Spot

Cocos Plate

Easter Island Hot Spot

Pacific Plate

Hawaii Hot Spot

San Andreas Fault

Juan de Fuca Plate

Divergent plate boundary (usually broken by transform faults along mid-ocean ridges)

Tasman Hot Spot

To n g a Tr e n c h

North American Plate

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Tectonic Plates

h Aleutian Trenc

Indian-Australian Plate

M

Philippine Plate

Transform plate boundary (transform fault)

Ridg

NOTE: Not all mantle hot spots, plates, and boundaries are shown.

Relative motion at plate boundary

ia n

Eurasian Plate

Antarctic Plate

i nd tI s e we g th Rid u o

Mi d

S

Key

frican Rif st A

Ea

t

ian ab Ar late P idge

dian Ridge -In

Pa cifi cR

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

hile Tren u-C ch

5


C

Rock Cycle in Earth’s Crust r nd/o na tio ation c pa ent om em C

Relationship of Transported Particle Size to Water Velocity

Depo s and B ition uria l

100.0 Boulders 25.6

n

r Pressure t and/o Hea tamorphism e M

IGNEOUS ROCK

Sand 0.01

0.006

Silt

0.001

Clay

at

0.0001

1000 500

100 50

li

10 5

So

ic di f

1 0.5

g

MAGMA

0.2

0.1 0.05

l ti n

Pebbles

0.1

0.01

Me

1.0

0.0004 io

METAMORPHIC ROCK

n

6.4

n

lift) rosio (U p &E ing r e th Wea lting Me

PARTICLE DIAMETER (cm)

( U p l if t ) n Weathering & Erosio

M e lt i n g

e ss ur H e a t a nd/or Pre m is M e ta m or p h

(U We athe plift) ring & Ero sio

E r o s i on

SEDIMENTARY ROCK

Cobbles

10.0

SEDIMENTS

STREAM VELOCITY (cm/s) This generalized graph shows the water velocity needed to maintain, but not start, movement. Variations occur due to differences in particle density and shape.

noncrystalline

Pumice

Scoria Vesicular andesite

Rhyolite

Andesite

Vesicular basalt Basalt

INTRUSIVE (Plutonic)

Granite

Diorite

Peridotite

Gabbro

Pegmatite

LOWER FELSIC (rich in Si, Al)

Dunite

Vesicular rhyolite

CRYSTAL SIZE

10 mm 1 mm less than or to 1 mm larger 10 mm

EXTRUSIVE (Volcanic)

Basaltic glass

Diabase

COLOR

DARKER

DENSITY

HIGHER

TEXTURE

Glassy

Nonvesicular Vesicular (gas pockets)

Fine

Coarse

Nonvesicular

Very coarse

MAFIC (rich in Fe, Mg)

COMPOSITION

100%

100% Potassium feldspar (pink to white)

75%

Quartz (clear to white)

75% Plagioclase feldspar (white to gray)

50%

50%

Pyroxene (green) Biotite (black)

25% Amphibole (black)

0%

6

Obsidian (usually appears black)

LIGHTER

MINERAL COMPOSITION (relative by volume)

CHARACTERISTICS

IGNEOUS ROCKS

ENVIRONMENT OF FORMATION

Scheme for Igneous Rock Identification

Olivine (green)

25%

0% Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition


Scheme for Sedimentary Rock Identification INORGANIC LAND-DERIVED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS TEXTURE

GRAIN SIZE

COMPOSITION

Pebbles, cobbles, and/or boulders embedded in sand, silt, and/or clay Clastic (fragmental)

Sand (0.006 to 0.2 cm) Silt (0.0004 to 0.006 cm) Clay (less than 0.0004 cm)

COMMENTS

Rounded fragments Mostly quartz, feldspar, and clay minerals; may contain fragments of other rocks and minerals

Angular fragments

ROCK NAME

MAP SYMBOL

Conglomerate Breccia

Fine to coarse

Sandstone

Very fine grain

Siltstone

Compact; may split easily

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shale

CHEMICALLY AND/OR ORGANICALLY FORMED SEDIMENTARY ROCKS TEXTURE

GRAIN SIZE

Crystalline

Fine to coarse crystals

COMPOSITION

COMMENTS

Halite Gypsum

Microscopic to very coarse

Bioclastic

MAP SYMBOL

Rock salt Crystals from chemical precipitates and evaporites

Rock gypsum Dolostone

Dolomite Crystalline or bioclastic

ROCK NAME

Calcite

Precipitates of biologic origin or cemented shell fragments

Carbon

Compacted plant remains

Limestone Bituminous coal

Scheme for Metamorphic Rock Identification TEXTURE

GRAIN SIZE

COMPOSITION

TYPE OF METAMORPHISM

Medium to coarse

AMPHIBOLE GARNET PYROXENE

Fine to medium

Regional (Heat and pressure increases) MICA QUARTZ FELDSPAR

MINERAL ALIGNMENT NONFOLIATED

BANDING

FOLIATED

Fine

Fine

Carbon

Regional

Fine

Various minerals

Contact (heat)

Quartz Fine to coarse

COMMENTS

ROCK NAME

Low-grade metamorphism of shale

Slate

Foliation surfaces shiny from microscopic mica crystals

Phyllite

Platy mica crystals visible from metamorphism of clay or feldspars

Schist

High-grade metamorphism; mineral types segregated into bands

Gneiss

Metamorphism of bituminous coal

MAP SYMBOL

Anthracite coal

Various rocks changed by heat from nearby magma/lava

Hornfels

Metamorphism of quartz sandstone

Quartzite

Regional Calcite and/or dolomite

or

Metamorphism of limestone or dolostone

Marble

contact Coarse

Various minerals

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

Pebbles may be distorted or stretched

Metaconglomerate

7


GEOLOGIC HISTORY Eon

Era

Period

PHANEROZOIC

QUATERNARY

CENOZOIC

NEOGENE

0.01

PLEISTOCENE 1.8 PLIOCENE 5.3

MIOCENE

PALEOGENE

PROTEROZOIC

M I D D L E

EOCENE PALEOCENE

L A T E

Bedrock

23.0 33.9 55.8 65.5

Humans, mastodonts, mammoths Large carnivorous mammals Abundant grazing mammals Earliest grasses Many modern groups of mammals Mass extinction of dinosaurs, ammonoids, and many land plants

LATE

MESOZOIC CRETACEOUS First sexually reproducing organisms

Earliest flowering plants Diverse bony fishes

EARLY 146

LATE

Earliest birds

MIDDLE

JURASSIC

Abundant dinosaurs and ammonoids

EARLY 200

E A R L Y

Oceanic oxygen begins to enter the atmosphere

Earliest mammals

LATE

TRIASSIC

MIDDLE EARLY 251 LATE MIDDLE

PALEOZOIC

Earliest dinosaurs Mass extinction of many land and marine organisms (including trilobites) Mammal-like reptiles

PERMIAN EARLY

4000

Oceanic oxygen produced by cyanobacteria combines with iron, forming iron oxide layers on ocean floor

CARBONIFEROUS

L A T E

ARCHEAN

P R E C A M B R I A N

3000

Sediment

HOLOCENE 0

OLIGOCENE

1000

2000

Life on Earth

Million years ago

Million years ago 0

500

Epoch

NY Rock Record

M I D D L E Earliest stromatolites Oldest microfossils

E A R L Y

Abundant reptiles 299

LATE EARLY

PENNSYLVANIAN

318

LATE MISSISSIPPIAN

MIDDLE EARLY

359 Earliest amphibians and plant seeds Extinction of many marine organisms

LATE

DEVONIAN

Earth’s first forests Earliest ammonoids and sharks Abundant fish

MIDDLE EARLY 416

Evidence of biological carbon

LATE

SILURIAN

Extensive coal-forming forests Abundant amphibians Large and numerous scale trees and seed ferns (vascular plants); earliest reptiles

EARLY 444

Earliest insects Earliest land plants and animals Abundant eurypterids

LATE Oldest known rocks

ORDOVICIAN

Invertebrates dominant Earth’s first coral reefs

MIDDLE EARLY 488 LATE

Estimated time of origin of Earth and solar system

4600

MIDDLE

CAMBRIAN

EARLY 542 580

(Index fossils not drawn to scale)

A

B

C

1300

D

E

F

G

H

I

Burgess shale fauna (diverse soft-bodied organisms) Earliest fishes Extinction of many primitive marine organisms Earliest trilobites Great diversity of life-forms with shelly parts Ediacaran fauna (first multicellular, soft-bodied marine organisms)

Abundant stromatolites

J

K

L

M

N

Cryptolithus Centroceras Tetragraptus Valcouroceras Eucalyptocrinus Coelophysis Stylonurus Dicellograptus Eurypterus Hexameroceras Manticoceras Ctenocrinus Phacops Elliptocephala

8

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition


OF NEW YORK STATE Time Distribution of Fossils

Important Geologic Events in New York

(including important fossils of New York) The center of each lettered circle indicates the approximate time of existence of a specific index fossil (e.g. Fossil A lived at the end of the Early Cambrian).

S

I H

E

BIRDS

MAMMALS VASCULAR PLANTS EURYPTERIDS

Q

N

P

M

BRACHIOPODS

GASTROPODS

Pangaea begins to break up

232 million years ago Alleghenian orogeny caused by collision of North America and Africa along transform margin, forming Pangaea

R X

Catskill delta forms Erosion of Acadian Mountains Acadian orogeny caused by collision of North America and Avalon and closing of remaining part of Iapetus Ocean

Z

V Y

U

D

T J

359 million years ago

Salt and gypsum deposited in evaporite basins

K B

119 million years ago

Intrusion of Palisades sill CORALS

CRINOIDS

G

59 million years ago

Sands and clays underlying Long Island and Staten Island deposited on margin of Atlantic Ocean

Initial opening of Atlantic Ocean North America and Africa separate

PLACODERM FISH

F

GRAPTOLITES

C

Advance and retreat of last continental ice

Dome-like uplift of Adirondack region begins

L

TRILOBITES

AMMONOIDS

DINOSAURS

NAUTILOIDS

O

Inferred Positions of Earth’s Landmasses

Erosion of Taconic Mountains; Queenston delta forms Taconian orogeny caused by closing of western part of Iapetus Ocean and collision between North America and volcanic island arc

W

458 million years ago

Widespread deposition over most of New York along edge of Iapetus Ocean

A

Rifting and initial opening of Iapetus Ocean Erosion of Grenville Mountains Grenville orogeny: metamorphism of bedrock now exposed in the Adirondacks and Hudson Highlands

O

P

Q

R

Mastodont Cooksonia Naples Tree Beluga Whale Bothriolepis Aneurophyton Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

S

Condor

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

Cystiphyllum Maclurites Eospirifer Mucrospirifer Lichenaria Pleurodictyum Platyceras ESC/BW/TN (2009)

9


Inferred Properties of Earth’s Interior

AT

TIC LAN

OCE

AN

DENSITY (g/cm3) IC

TLANT MID-A GE RID

LE NT MA

CASCADES PACIFIC OCEAN

9.9–12.2

&

N

R

REL) COICKE

RO N

STI FF ER

E

3.4–5.6

LA (P

OU TE (I

LI

NO SP HE R

CR RIG UST ID MA NT AS TH LE E

}

NO RT H

AM ER

IC A

) RE T LE HE AN SP M O IC TH ST

2.7 granitic continental crust 3.0 basaltic oceanic crust MOHO

RE ) COICKEL

12.8–13.1

IN N

(IRO ER N& N

TRENCH

EARTH’S CENTER

PRESSURE (million atmospheres)

4 3 2 1 0 7000

MEL TING POIN T

TEMPERATURE (°C)

6000 5000 4000

E UR AT R E T MP IN O TE P R IO NG ER TI T IN EL M

3000 2000 PARTIAL MELTING

1000 0 0

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 DEPTH (km)

10

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition


Earthquake P-Wave and S-Wave Travel Time

24 23 22 21 20 19 18

S

17

TRAVEL TIME (min)

16 15 14 13 12 11 10

P

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

EPICENTER DISTANCE (× 103 km)

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

11


Dewpoint (°C) Dry-Bulb Temperature (°C) – 20 –18 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C°) 0 – 20 –18 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

1 – 33 – 28 – 24 – 21 –18 –14 –12 –10 –7 –5 –3 –1 1 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 19 21 23 25 27 29

2

– 36 – 28 – 22 –18 –14 –12 –8 –6 –3 –1 1 3 6 8 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

– 29 – 22 –17 – 29 –13 – 20 – 9 –15 – 24 – 6 –11 –17 – 4 – 7 –11 –19 –1 – 4 – 7 –13 – 21 1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –14 4 1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –14 – 28 6 4 1 – 2 – 5 – 9 –16 9 6 4 1 – 2 – 5 –10 –17 11 9 7 4 1 –1 – 6 –10 –17 13 11 9 7 4 2 – 2 – 5 –10 –19 15 14 12 10 7 4 2 –2 – 5 –10 –19 17 16 14 12 10 8 5 3 –1 – 5 –10 –19 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 2 –1 – 5 –10 –18 22 20 18 17 15 13 11 9 6 3 0 –4 –9 24 22 21 19 17 16 14 11 9 7 4 1 –3 26 24 23 21 19 18 16 14 12 10 8 5 1

Relative Humidity (%) Dry-Bulb Temperature (°C) – 20 –18 –16 –14 –12 –10 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

12

Difference Between Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures (C°) 0 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

1 28 40 48 55 61 66 71 73 77 79 81 83 85 86 87 88 88 89 90 91 91 92 92 92 93 93

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

11 23 33 41 48 54 58 63 67 70 72 74 76 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 86

13 20 32 37 45 51 56 59 62 65 67 69 71 72 74 75 76 77 78 79

11 20 28 36 42 46 51 54 57 60 62 64 66 68 69 70 71 72

1 11 20 27 35 39 43 48 50 54 56 58 60 62 64 65 66

6 14 22 28 33 38 41 45 48 51 53 55 57 59 61

10 17 24 28 33 37 40 44 46 49 51 53 55

6 13 19 25 29 33 36 40 42 45 47 49

4 10 16 21 26 30 33 36 39 42 44

2 8 14 19 23 27 30 34 36 39

1 7 12 17 21 25 28 31 34

1 6 11 15 20 23 26 29

5 10 14 18 21 25

4 9 13 17 20

4 9 12 16

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition


Pressure

Temperature Fahrenheit (°F)

Celsius (°C) 110

220

Water boils

100

200

90

180

80

160

70

140

60

120

50 40

100

30

80 Room temperature

20 60 10 40

Water freezes

0 20 0

–10 –20

–20

–30

–40

–40

–60

–50

Kelvin (K)

millibars

inches

(mb)

(in of Hg*)

1040.0

30.70

1036.0

30.60

380 370 360

1032.0

350

1028.0

30.50 30.40 30.30

340

1024.0

330 320 310

1020.0

30.10

1016.0

30.00

One atmosphere

300

1012.0

290

30.20

29.90 29.80

1008.0

280

29.70 1004.0

270

29.60

260

1000.0

250

996.0

29.40

992.0

29.30

240 230 988.0

220

29.50

29.20 29.10

984.0

Key to Weather Map Symbols Station Model

28

29.00 980.0

Station Model Explanation

28.90

976.0

28.80

972.0

28.70

968.0

28.60

196

1 2

+19/

27

.25

28.50 *Hg = mercury

Air Masses

Present Weather

cA continental arctic Drizzle

Rain

Smog

Hail

ThunderRain storms showers

cP continental polar cT continental tropical mT maritime tropical

Snow

Sleet

Freezing rain

Fog

Haze

Snow showers

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

mP maritime polar

Fronts

Hurricane

Cold Warm Stationary

Tornado

Occluded

13


km 140

Selected Properties of Earth’s Atmosphere

mi 100

Atmospheric Pressure

Temperature Zones

Altitude

Thermosphere 120

75

80

50

(extends to 600 km)

Mesopause

Mesosphere Stratopause

40

25

Water Vapor

Stratosphere Tropopause

Sea Level 0

Troposphere

0 –100° –90°

0° –55°

100°

0

15°

Temperature (°C)

1.0

Pressure (atm)

0

20

40

Concentration (g/m3) Tropopause Polar front jet stream

Planetary Wind and Moisture Belts in the Troposphere

DRY

Polar front

N.E.

The drawing on the right shows the locations of the belts near the time of an equinox. The locations shift somewhat with the changing latitude of the Sun’s vertical ray. In the Northern Hemisphere, the belts shift northward in the summer and southward in the winter.

WET

60° N

S.W. Winds

30° N

DRY N.E. Winds

Subtropical jet streams

WET

(Not drawn to scale) S.E. Winds

30° S

DRY N.W. Winds

60° S

WET S.E.

DRY

Polar front jet stream

Electromagnetic Spectrum X rays Gamma rays

Microwaves Ultraviolet

Infrared

Radio waves

Decreasing wavelength

Increasing wavelength Visible light Violet

14

Blue

Green Yellow Orange

Red

(Not drawn to scale)

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition


Characteristics of Stars (Name in italics refers to star represented by a .) (Stages indicate the general sequence of star development.) 1,000,000

Deneb

Luminosity

(Rate at which a star emits energy relative to the Sun)

100,000

Massive Stars

Betelgeuse

SUPERGIANTS

Rigel

(Intermediate stage)

Spica 10,000

GIANTS

Polaris

1,000

(Intermediate stage)

Aldebaran 100

MA IN

10

(E a

Pollux

SE

Sirius

rly QU s ta E N ge C )

Alpha Centauri

E

1

Sun

0.1

40 Eridani B 0.01

Barnard’s Star

WHITE DWARFS (Late stage)

0.001

Procyon B 0.0001 30,000

20,000

10,000 8,000

Small Stars

Proxima Centauri

6,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

Surface Temperature (K) Blue

Blue White

White

Yellow

Orange

Red

Color

Solar System Data Celestial Object

SUN

Mean Distance from Sun (million km)

Period of Revolution (d=days) (y=years)

Period of Rotation at Equator

Eccentricity of Orbit

Equatorial Diameter (km)

Mass (Earth = 1)

Density (g/cm3)

27 d

1,392,000

333,000.00

1.4

57.9

88 d

59 d

0.206

4,879

0.06

5.4

VENUS

108.2

224.7 d

243 d

0.007

12,104

0.82

5.2

EARTH

149.6

365.26 d

23 h 56 min 4 s

0.017

12,756

1.00

5.5

MARS

227.9

687 d

24 h 37 min 23 s

0.093

6,794

0.11

3.9

JUPITER

778.4

11.9 y

9 h 50 min 30 s

0.048

142,984

317.83

1.3

SATURN

1,426.7

29.5 y

10 h 14 min

0.054

120,536

95.16

0.7

URANUS

2,871.0

84.0 y

17 h 14 min

0.047

51,118

14.54

1.3

NEPTUNE

4,498.3

164.8 y

16 h

0.009

49,528

17.15

1.8

149.6

27.3 d

27.3 d

0.055

3,476

0.01

3.3

MERCURY

EARTH’S MOON

(0.386 from Earth)

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition

15


Either

Metallic luster

HARDNESS

FRACTURE

LUSTER

CLEAVAGE

Properties of Common Minerals DISTINGUISHING CHARACTERISTICS

USE(S)

COMPOSITION*

MINERAL NAME

1–2



silver to gray

black streak, greasy feel

pencil lead, lubricants

C

Graphite

2.5



metallic silver

gray-black streak, cubic cleavage, density = 7.6 g/cm3

ore of lead, batteries

PbS

Galena

5.5 – 6.5



black to silver

black streak, magnetic

ore of iron, steel

Fe3O4

Magnetite

6.5



brassy yellow

green-black streak, (fool’s gold)

ore of sulfur

FeS2

Pyrite

5.5 – 6.5 or 1



metallic silver or earthy red

red-brown streak

ore of iron, jewelry

Fe2O3

Hematite

white to green

greasy feel

ceramics, paper

Mg3Si4O10(OH)2

Talc

yellow to amber

white-yellow streak

sulfuric acid

S

Sulfur

1

 

2

Nonmetallic luster

COMMON COLORS

2



white to pink or gray

easily scratched by fingernail

plaster of paris, drywall

CaSO4•2H2O

Selenite gypsum

2 – 2.5



colorless to yellow

flexible in thin sheets

paint, roofing

KAl3Si3O10(OH)2

Muscovite mica

2.5



colorless to white

cubic cleavage, salty taste

food additive, melts ice

NaCl

Halite

2.5 – 3



black to dark brown

flexible in thin sheets

construction materials

K(Mg,Fe)3 AlSi3O10(OH)2

Biotite mica

3



colorless or variable

bubbles with acid, rhombohedral cleavage

cement, lime

CaCO3

Calcite

3.5



colorless or variable

bubbles with acid when powdered

building stones

CaMg(CO3)2

Dolomite

4



colorless or variable

cleaves in 4 directions

hydrofluoric acid

CaF2

Fluorite

5–6



black to dark green

cleaves in 2 directions at 90°

mineral collections, jewelry

(Ca,Na) (Mg,Fe,Al) (Si,Al)2O6

Pyroxene (commonly augite)

5.5



black to dark green

cleaves at 56° and 124°

6



white to pink

cleaves in 2 directions at 90°

ceramics, glass

KAlSi3O8

Potassium feldspar (commonly orthoclase)

6



white to gray

cleaves in 2 directions, striations visible

ceramics, glass

(Na,Ca)AlSi3O8

Plagioclase feldspar

mineral collections, CaNa(Mg,Fe)4 (Al,Fe,Ti)3 jewelry Si6O22(O,OH)2

Amphibole (commonly hornblende)

6.5



green to gray or brown

commonly light green and granular

furnace bricks, jewelry

(Fe,Mg)2SiO4

Olivine

7



colorless or variable

glassy luster, may form hexagonal crystals

glass, jewelry, electronics

SiO2

Quartz

6.5 – 7.5



dark red to green

often seen as red glassy grains in NYS metamorphic rocks

jewelry (NYS gem), abrasives

Fe3Al2Si3O12

Garnet

*Chemical symbols:

Al = aluminum C = carbon Ca = calcium

Cl = chlorine F = fluorine Fe = iron

H = hydrogen K = potassium Mg = magnesium

Na = sodium O = oxygen Pb = lead

S = sulfur Si = silicon Ti = titanium

 = dominant form of breakage

16

Physical Setting/Earth Science Reference Tables — 2010 Edition


Earth Science Reference Tables - 2010 Edition