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TAT Journal Index of Issues 1-14 CONTENTS

TAT Journal Issue 1 (Volume 1, Number 1)

New Age, Old Age and In-Between, by Joseph Kerrick Mr. Kerrick lives in Philadelphia and is the author of a book, Is There A Way Out? • • •

Forum TAT Calendar Two Poems: Libido, Sleepy Giant

TAT Journal Issue 2 (Volume 1, Number 2)

• Meditation and Alchemy, by Hans W. Nintzel • Memories of Past and Future, by Richard Rose • The Riddle of Synchronicity, by Michael Baldrige • Forum • Book Reviews A Glimpse of Nothingness by Janwillem van de Wetering and The Conquest of Illusion by J.J. van der Leeuw. •

TAT News

TAT Journal Issue 3 (Volume 1, Number 3)

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TAT Forum Measuring the Unmeasurable: TAT Interviews Professor Wilbur Franklin • The Pregnant Witch, by Richard Rose • Discovering, Uncovering and Recovering the Recurrent Dream, by David Gold • Vignette in Zen, by Dan Quigley • TAT Book Service • Book Reviews Psychic Exploration edited by Edgar D. Mitchell and John White, and The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind by Julian Jaynes. • •

TAT News and Calendar Classified

TAT Journal Issue 4 (Volume 1, Number 4)

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TAT Forum The Voices We May Hear, by Alan Fitzpatrick Tales of Love, by Richard Rose TAT Book Service Part Two: Uncovering the Recurrent Dream, by David Gold Wilbur Franklin Memorial, by Michael Baldrige TAT News and Calendar

• Book Reviews Powers of Mind by Adam Smith and Possession and Exorcism by Traugott K. Oesterreich. •


TAT Journal Issue 5 (Volume 1, Number 5)

• Forum Our two Forum essays warn that words, the philosopher's only tool, cannot take him to his goal of Truth. As Wittgenstein said: "What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence." • What's Your Fuel?, by Michael Treanor Blind desire, "procreant urge of the world," leaves no time for reflection. Is there any understanding it? •

Ira Progoff, the Intensive Journal and Me, by Michael Baldrige The Intensive Journal is a method of meditation for westerners, a roadmap of the mind. Writer Michael Baldrige tells us about Progoff, the guide, and the interior world that his Journal method helps to illuminate. • The Watchmaker, by Alan Fitzpatrick The author of "The Voices We May Hear" tells a moving and true story of a convict's struggle for dignity against both his fellow "cons" and the prison authorities. •

Recovering the Recurrent Dream, by David Gold

Our three-part series on the recurrent dream concludes with an explanation of how to use the dream to recover a sense of purpose and direction in life. You can eliminate the apathy that often grows with age and renew your youthful enthusiasm. • Critical Day for Biorhythms, by Luis Fernandez There is no satisfactory theory to explain Biorhythms, but its supporters can produce evidence to show that "it works." This review of the Biorhythms literature suggests, however, that expectation may be father to the hoped-for result. • TAT Profiles: J. Krishnamurti Beginning a new series on the teachers, masters and prophets who have helped to advance human awareness. • The Prophecy of Mother Shipton An English seeress viewed today's world during the sixteenth century. • TAT Book Service • TAT News and Calendar • Book Reviews Journey of Awakening: A Meditator's Guidebook by Ram Dass, The Esoteric Philosophy of Love and Marriage by Dion Fortune, and Pathways Through To Space by Franklin Merrell-Wolff.

TAT Journal Issue 6 (Volume 2, Number 1)

• Astrology and Energy, by Michael Whitely Real astrology is not found in the generalizations of newspaper horoscopes, but is a remarkable, symbolic explanation of the types and manifestations of human and natural energy. Few people really understand it, but those who do can use the world's oldest system of "psychoanalysis." • Reader's Forum Keep in touch with our entire readership, fellow inquirers you would otherwise not have access to, or would have to spend a lifetime searching for. •

Reflections on The Crack In the Cosmic Egg, by Jake Jaqua Joseph Chilton Pearce's popular book, now over seven years old, contains a modest proposal that mankind can create Its own reality. His ideas have yet to be grasped. • The Puzzle of Autism • The Way of the Heart, by Gordon Broussard Autism is a medically incomprehensible affliction that locks children into a strange, asocial world. Gordon Broussard's work with autistic children has led him to an intuitive method of healing that produces amazingly successful results. • Cultists and Anti-Cultists, by Raymond Lieb The Jonestown affair and a personal experience with a cult prompted this consideration of the explosive issue behind the stories: Do Americans really believe in freedom of religion and belief?

TAT News: Wholistic Health and Nutrition, by L. Fred Bissell, M.D. Dr. Bissell talks about wholistic health and American medicine, biofeedback, illness, nutrition, caffeine, fasting and stress. • TAT Profiles: Ramana Maharshi, by Damien Markakis The second installment of this series focuses on a traditional Indian guru who became universally known on the strength of his spiritual teaching, before eastern religion became fashionable in the west. • Jesus to John An ancient manuscript depicts a philosophical Jesus that we rarely encounter. • Book Reviews The Practice of Zen by Garma C.C. Chang, Underground Man by Edward Abood, and God Is My Adventure by Rom Landau. • •

TAT Book Service Classifieds

TAT Journal Issue 7 (Volume 2, Number 2)

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Reader's Forum: Cults, Pain, Gnosticism, Spiritual Suicide Doomsday, Atlantis and Genetic Research, by Mark Jaqua

Biological scientists are rapidly gaining the ability to control the course of human evolution. Have ancient civilizations also sought such power, only to be crushed by jealous Nature? • The Way of the Heart, Part II, by Gordon Broussard As Gordon Broussard succeeded In drawing autistic children out of their Isolation, he also learned more and more about his own Inner nature. In the conclusion of his book, he explains that "miracles" are reality for the fully harmonized individuals who have contacted the source of all energy. • Circle Amaze, by Keith McWilliams A story of how love and hate weave their fateful compulsion Into the small world of a boy. • The Wholistic Healing of Dr. Jonas E. Miller Dr. Miller discusses nutrition, weight control, auriculotherapy, arthritis and allergies. • •

Dream Dialogues: Dreams within Dreams Thinking Astrology: Investigating your split personality • Mysticism in Everyday Life by Beaumont S. Cornell Everyone has had flashes of Inspiration or Insight that help to solve a problem or answer a question; but few realize that these experiences are caused by the same mystical faculty that, in the most unusual men and women, produces the phenomenon known as "cosmic consciousness." •

Profile: Eileen J. Garrett, by Louis Khourey

Eileen Garrett, the greatest medium and "psychic" of this century, strove to understand her gifts, and allowed scientists to scrutinize them in countless experiments. She could see ghosts and talk to spirits, but always maintained a respectful doubt about her powers. • Book Reviews The Image of An Oracle by Ira Progoff, Discernment—A Study in Ecstasy and Evil by Morton Kelsey, and A Guide for the Perplexed by E.F. Schumacher. • •

TAT Foundation Tweedledum and Tweedledee

TAT Journal Issue 8 (Volume 2, Number 3)

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Reader's Forum The Vampire as a Psychic Archetype, by Martin Riccardo Dracula and other fictional vampires grip the popular imagination because they represent the human fascination with sex and death. Martin Riccardo describes vampire legends and beliefs from around the world. • Two Essays, by George Ellis Thoughts from a rare Individual who has used his physical confinement to seek mental freedom. •

The Psychological Mechanics of Ceremonial Magick, by Harold Harnick

The practitioners of magick in ages past may not have been so superstitious and foolish as we now like to believe. Their complex rituals were concentrative methods for leading them into the subconscious mind. • Approach to Validity, by Richard Rose What do you know for sure? Does our mastery of concepts contain any assurance of real knowledge? What Is knowledge? What Is reality? • Spirits: Entity or Archetype, by Mark Jaqua Modern theories of mental Illness may explain abnormal human behavior less adequately than do traditional beliefs in spirit possession. •

Dream Dialogues: A ritual for "divinely-inspired" dreams • "I Died at 10:52 A.M.," by Victor D. Solow A classic account of a life-after-death experience by a man who made the trip and returned. • Yoga: Hatha, Shabd, and Raja, by Richard Rose Richard Rose describes his early investigation Into the confusing varieties of yoga, and his good fortune in encountering the books of Paul Brunton as a guide. •

Thinking Astrology: Saturn: A new look at the "evil" planet • African Mysticism and Possession, by Mary Dent • Conversion to Life: The Waerland Health System, by Nancy Young Alkaline vegetables and cold water hygiene are combined in the Waerland's purifying regimen •

Profile: H.P. Blavatasky

• TAT Society: Information about Esoteric Libraries etc. • Book Reviews The Book of the Damned by Charles Fort, Secret Talks with Mr. G., The Mysteries Of Chartres Cathedral by Louis Charpentier, Sexual Energy and Yoga by Elisabeth Haich. • •

What is the TAT Foundation? Wisdom of St. John of the Cross

TAT Journal Issue 9

Black Sheep Philosophers: Gurdjieff, Orage and Ouspensky, by Gorham Munson Gurdjieff was a master psychologist who used drama and shocks to "awaken" sleeping humanity. • Defining the Truth, by Richard Rose The author's lifetime of investigation into spiritual movements has revealed a Babel of confusion among seekers. Can the Truth be so complicated? • Sexual Energy and Kundalini, by Mark Jaqua The East has a science, virtually unknown in the West, of transforming physical energy into explosive mental power. • Invitation to Nonsense, by Essa George Hannoush Spontaneous lunacy by a modern Sufi. •

The Wisdom of Franz Hartmann

Selections from Magic: White and Black. A classic work about the inner spiritual alchemy. • New Age Therapies, by Alan Fitzpatrick A penetrating look at the premises of "pop psychology." •

Vegetarianism Has Its Reasons, by Jonathon David Miller Animal protein has its problems. • Thinking Astrology, by James Wayne The paradox of predestination. • Science Studies Intuition, by Russell G. MacRobert Unexplained mental phenomena are evidence that mind is not limited to the brain. • Book Reviews The Law of Suggestion by Santanelli, Sword of Wisdom by Ithell Colquhoun, Magic: White and Black by Franz Hartmann, and Exploring the Crack in the Cosmic Egg by Joseph Chilton Pearce.

TAT Journal Issue 10

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TAT Forum The Magical World of the Australian Aborigines, by Mark Jaqua

Europeans have mistaken the Aborigines for primitives. In fact, they built a mental rather than a physical civilization to survive in a cruelly barren land. • The Cathedral of Wisdom, by Louis Khourey A journey to Chartres, where the Gothic builders wrote a mysterious book of stone and glass. •

Viktor Frankl and The Psychology of Meaning, by John Kent A thorough survey of Frankl's Logotherapy, which goes beyond behaviorism and points the way to a study of the human soul. • The Convocation [Anonymous] A dream of humanity's progress. • The Mirror, by Richard Rose "I am a mirror that madness looks upon, and sees a hope surmounting foolishness..." •

Why the Tarot Works: A Basis for Studying the Cards, by Robert Cergol A clear explanation of the basic symbolism of the Tarot cards and how to learn their meanings. • Thinking Astrology, by Michael Whitely Compare your own characteristics to the keywords for your sun sign. • Coming Face to Face, by Alan Fitzpatrick Part 1 of a series of practical advice on getting your head on straight. •

Yoga and Insomnia, by David Gold

Turn off the T.V. and stretch yourself to sleep. • Renewing Health with Herbs, by Jonathon D. Miller All about herbs to eat, drink, and rub for nutrition and healing. • Book Reviews The Psychological Society by Martin L. Gross, The Castrated Family by Harold M. Voth, M.D., The Aquarian Conspiracy: Personal and Social Transformation in the 1980's by Marilyn Ferguson, and Conscience—The Search for Truth by P.D. Ouspensky. •

Untapped Powers of Sound and Vibration, by Douglas Hardesty Science has yet to probe the amazing effects of sound on physical objects and on human emotions.

TAT Journal Issue 11

• TAT Forum • Coming Face to Face, Part 2, by Alan Fitzpatrick How to heal your own inner divisions. • Para-Science Inventions, by Douglas Hardesty Science often rejects what it cannot understand, including some amazing inventions that might have prevented our energy problems. •

The Magician of Leavenworth, by Donald Wilson

A psychiatrist's remarkable account of Hadad, the convict who could hypnotize, disappear and rise from the dead among other occult powers. • Book Reviews Analyze Handwriting Immediately by Joseph Zmuda, The New Celibacy by Gabrielle Brown, and The Secrets of Spirulina by Christopher Hills. • The Dream Intention, by Linda J. Houlahan Why dreaming is essential for your mental health. •

Planning a Sensible Program of Nutrition for the 1980's, by Robert C. Jansky The renowned biochemist and medical astrologer, tells how to give your body's cells the raw materials that they need. • Deathstyles, by Joseph Jacobs Will how you die say something about how you lived? • Thinking Astrology, by Michael Whitely Everything you need to know to chart your own horoscope. • Cosmic Consciousness, by Richard M. Bucke The evolution of a super mental faculty in the human race. • Richard M. Bucke, by Norman Reed The story of a man's spiritual illumination and the work it engendered. •

John Lennon: Written in the Stars

A revealing look at John Lennon's horoscope and the dream that died with him.

TAT Journal Issue 12

• The Truth Behind the Exorcist, by Joseph Jacobs The best-seller and hit movie were based on fact—the actual case of a Maryland boy's possession and exorcism in 1949. • The Primitive Mind of Man, by George Ellis Until we learn the limitations of our thinking in approaching reality, we will remain mental cavemen. • The Mystery of Firewalking, by Alan Fitzpatrick Theories of trickery and self-hypnosis fail to explain how firewalkers the world around can step through hot coals without being burned. Their feat defies our concept of "reality." •

The Uncanny Abilities of Idiot Savants, by Donald K. Snyder They are musical virtuosi, human calculators, mechanical geniuses—and severely retarded. • The Cave of Echoes, by H.P. Blavatsky A chilling tale by the famous encyclopedist of esoteric lore.

The Potential of Medical Astrology, by Robert C. Jansky The link between planetary movements and body chemistry. •

Acupuncture: Does It Get Your Yin-Yang Going?, by Mary Robinson Western doctors have reluctantly admitted that acupuncture works. But can they accept the "why"? • Iridology, by Jonathon David Miller The eyes are windows of the body as well as of the soul. • Thinking Astrology, by Michael Whitely Part II of How to Chart Your Own Horoscope: The Planetary Aspects. •

Right Brain / Left Brain Religion, by Gabe L. Campbell, Ph.D. Recent brain/mind research explains how religions begin with "right brain" visions and evolve "left brain" creeds. •

Understanding the Tibetan Book of the Dead, by Mark Jaqua Modern Life-after-death research is incomplete without a study of this ancient guide to the Bardo realm. • Book Reviews "I": The Story of Self by Michael J. Eastcott, Mysteries by Colin Wilson, Hypnotism and Psychic Phenomena by Simeon Edmunds, Yoga and Psychotherapy by Swami Rama, Rudolph Ballentine M.D. and Swami Ajaya (Allan Weinstock), Ph.D., and Psychology of the Observer by Richard Rose.

TAT Forum

TAT Journal Issue 13

• TAT Forum • The Illumination of Jacob Boehme, by Mark Jaqua A look at Christianity's outstanding mystic. • The Feel of Things, by Warwick Deeping Feeling may be our sixth sense. •

"Between-ness"—A New Theory of the Paranormal, by Tom MacKay Richard Rose's concept of "Between-ness" may be the key to understanding the nature of the paranormal. • The Childhood Door, by Howard E. Rawlinson A poem on rediscovering the wisdom of childhood. • The Lost Chord, by Phillip George Beith What all the world is searching. • My Platonic Sweetheart, by Mark Twain Mark Twain believed the forty-year friendship with a woman in his dreams was as real as anything in our waking world. • Book Reviews Magic, White and Black by Franz Hartmann, M.D., A New Science of Life by Rupert Sheldrake, Psychedelics Encyclopedia (Revised Edition) by Peter Stafford,

Concepts of Qabalah by William G. Gray, and The Continuing Discovery of Chiron by Erminie Lantero. • Vegetarianism as Spiritual Practice, by Tom Sperry What you eat may influence what you think. •

The Presence of Spirits in Madness, by Wilson Van Dusen A clinical psychologist compares Swedenborg's view of the spirit world with the experiences of his schizophrenic patients. • Land of Immortality, by Betty Rawlinson The nostalgic experience of a woman in modern day Egypt. • Middle Age and the Failure of Will, by Murray L. Bob What questions do we face upon turning the corner from our youth? •

Science and Feminine Psychology, by Beverly Simpson What do scientific discoveries have to say about the psychology of the sexes? •

Psychic Investigators Came to Our House, by Sharon White Taylor Lorraine and Ed Warren come to investigate strange goings-on in Sharon White Taylor's home. •

The Occult Significance of Hypnosis, (A Book Supplement) by Wilfred N. Caron The subtle hypnosis of everyday life and how to overcome it.

• Friendship A poem by Richard Rose.

TAT Journal Issue 14

• Pathfinder, by Richard Rose A guide for the perplexed. • Conservation Therapy, by Mark Jaqua The common sense of traditional sexual morality is being validated by new discoveries about body and brain chemistry, and the differences between the sexes. • Spirit-World Research, by Rev. Louis Greene Excerpts from his ground-breaking 1938 thesis, including a remarkable first-hand account of a demonic possession, reveal the late Rev. Louis Greene to have been a bold investigator of the paranormal. • Defining The Truth (Part 2), by Richard Rose As he did in his earlier essay with the same title, Richard Rose brilliantly describes the traps that Nature lays for the unwary seeker after Truth, and the counter-measures that must be employed. • Omm Sety Of Abydos, Egypt, by Deborah Rosen Dorothy Eady of London had the rare opportunity to "relive" what she felt to be a past life in ancient Egypt. A true story.

The Case Investigation Of Natuzza Evolo, by Michael J. Nanko An original study of a contemporary Italian medium, healer, bi-locator and stigmatic, by a director of the Southern California Society for Psychical Research. •

Celtic Philosophy—The Gift Of The Druids, by Gail Gray The "pre-civilized" people of ancient Britain had a profound religion/ philosophy that acknowledged the correspondences between mind and matter, and man and nature. • Rune Song, by Albert Burger A journey into the richly varied traditions, myths and poems of the Teutonic peoples. • The Resurrection Of John Davis, by Louis Khourey The amazing story of a West Virginia lawyer who recovered from serious and disabling brain injury following a transcendent experience in a graveyard. • • •

Selected Poems, by John E. Davis Chasms Of The Mind, by Richard Rose TAT Journal Past Issues

© 1978-1986 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved.

TAT Journal Issue 1 The Forum for Awareness Full Index of Issues 1 thru 14 Volume 1, Number 1 November 1977

Contents New Age, Old Age and In-Between, by Joseph Kerrick Mr. Kerrick lives in Philadelphia and is the author of a book, Is There A Way Out? Forum TAT Calendar Two Poems: Libido, Sleepy Giant The TAT Foundation is a non-profit, tax-exempt organization formed to

provide a forum for philosophical and spiritual inquiry on all levels based on the principle that cooperation and interaction with fellow inquirers can expedite one's own investigation. The TAT Foundation was set up to fund and encourage workshops, intensives, Chautauquas, study groups and related services. This magazine is one of those services. The intent of the TAT Journal is to promote the ideas of the TAT Foundation by being a readers' forum and exchange. Editor: Paul Cramer Assoc. Ed.: Louis Khourey The TAT Journal is published bi-monthly by the TAT Foundation, 1686 Marshall St., Benwood, West Virginia 26031 Š 1977 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved. Perspective Dostoyevsky's "idiot," Prince Myshkin, was a solitary idealist, his sincere and compassionate search for truth and meaning leading to tragedy in the face of society's juggernaut respecting only possessions and position. As compelling and fascinating was Myshkin, the fictional character, his life of conflict and dismay is not humanly desirable and the individual who looks beyond materialistic mass values for satisfaction should not be condemned to play the role of a tragic hero in some existentialist or absurdist drama. This TAT Journal is initiated as a means of communication between people seeking honest answers to the mystery of Life. It is directed to those who are not satisfied with the conventional wisdom which only half-answers or, yet worse, ignores the fundamental questions that very few even ask. The emphasis in these pages will be questions and proposals, not on authoritative systems or assumptions; the interchange of ideas to be promoted will, hopefully, encourage readers in the recognition that doubt is not a personality born of maladjustment, but a pearl of great price. Articles like Joseph Kerrick's "New Age, Old Age and In-Between," featured in this issue, will be presented not to foster belief in some re-upholstered cosmology nor to solicit memberships in a spanking clean Utopia to which TAT will affix its version of the Good Housekeeping Seal of Approval. Rather, we hope to provide perspectives of value to those seeking their way in the confusingly subjective forest of philosophical, psychological and esoteric research. This desire is based on the belief that the only discoveries of real worth to the individual are those made by the individual. Our Forum will be devoted to these discoveries as described by readers, and we solicit your contributions concerning such subjects as life after death, evidence of ancient cultures, health and healing, astrology, philosophical and psychological insights.

What this project can accomplish will be limited only by our curiosity and determination. Dissatisfaction with our present conditions of knowledge and being need not damn us to futility and despair. It may propel us into a genuine activity that could lead to real wisdom, the ancient ideal that some have managed to keep alive. The TAT Foundation is a membership organization and your participation is invited. Membership in TAT is $15.00 for the first year and $10.00 per year thereafter. This will entitle the member to attend the four quarterly TAT Foundation Meetings each year held at the TAT Farm in West Virginia as well as receiving half fare admission to the annual TAT Summer Chautauquas. New Age, Old Age and In-Between by Joseph Kerrick The powers and forces that rule the earth seem to have become intent, over the past several decades, on refashioning human destiny in such a way that a certain category of people can feel more at home in the world, can live out their fantasies about a less brutal, more humane rearrangement of the human condition. The general idea seems to be to take the edge off human suffering, to blunt the sword of slaughter, to move a tiny bit closer to a state which could justly be called true civilization, as opposed to our present halfbarbaric status. It would probably border on intellectual nihilism to critique such a goal, on grounds either of its ultimate desirability or attainability; and the only thing we're concerned with here, in fact, is the effect of this particular cultural notion on the individual's search for spiritual knowledge. The New Age syndrome seems to be a peculiarity of the Western psyche, with its propensity for viewing time and history as a straight line, as opposed to the traditional Eastern vision which sees human and cosmic events moving in a circle of cyclical recurrence. So it is that in Christendom, spontaneous mystical experiences or spiritual awakenings are often followed by the subject explaining his vision as heralding the imminent coming of a New Jerusalem, in which the whole world will be transformed. This phenomenon is called by the term chiliasm. There was a mass outbreak of chiliasm in the 1960's, as LSD was soaked up by thousands of immature minds, and people huddled in their communes waiting for Armageddon to be declared by the military-industrial complex, or for Kesey's merry pranksters to find a way to dose the world's water supply with the magic chemical and bring about Eden overnight. One of the fortunate things about chiliasm is that its effects tend to wear off over a period of time, as the victim observes that despite mankind's apparent tottering on the point of critical mass, the world somehow manages to keep rolling along. It takes the mind of a charismatic master manipulator, like St. Paul, to keep a group of people in breathless anticipation of an

imminent apocalypse year after year. To the surprise of many, 1970 arrived on schedule, unaccompanied by avenging angels or fireballs from heaven - or by the conquest of the world by Love. Many dealt with the disappointment by early retirement into mental institutions, by suicide, or by returning, somewhat jaded, to the mainstream of middle-class life. Those who rejected these options were faced with the apparent need to get serious about this New World thing - obviously it wasn't going to happen automatically after all; we would have to take a hand in the matter ourselves. These refugees from the debris of Woodstock Nation mostly settled into one of two courses. Some discovered that the thought of starting up a New World wasn't their own brilliant, newly-hatched idea, but went back at least a hundred years or so to a man named Marx. Overawed by the sophomoric rhetoric of socialism and communism, they dutifully set off to organize the proletariat in order to overthrow the wicked capitalists - who, it seems, were found to be the villains responsible for Original Sin. The other trend was to conceptualize the objective in terms of a New Age. This was (and mostly still is) a hodge-podge of utopian fantasies, compounded of diverse notions about improved methods of human interrelating, political and economic reform, ecological planning, and individual self-improvement. This last category is society's present pigeonhole for the whole gamut of mystical and occult teachings, esoteric religions, and the spiritual quest. The thesis I'd like to offer here is that the New Age, in whatever form it may take, will function the same as all the "old ages" in relation to spiritual Truth. Namely, it will be the stage on which the play takes place, the background scenery, the props, the vehicle of physical survival, the primordial jungle in which a few furtive man-things hide in the brush and try to pass on some precious items of knowledge to their progeny. Five hundred years ago, Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli announced the dawning of the Kingdom of Heaven upon the earth. Society, they said, could be Christianized, by which they meant that the human condition could be gradually elevated to a point of Christ-like perfection. A sect arose called the Anabaptists, made up of people interested in pursuing perfection, but who couldn't swallow the above vision. They pointed out that "the world remains the world" no matter what sort of idealistic improvements are introduced, and that any seeker who tied his star to the hope of a heavenly kingdom on earth was in fact digging his own grave. The Protestant leaders took such exception to this simple observation that they got together with the hated Church of Rome, and arranged for a mass slaughter of the Anabaptists. The situation hasn't changed much in the last five centuries, except that for the time being there's no necessity for Truth-seekers to become paranoid about state purges - unless they live in a country ruled by a heretic-hating

national Church, like the Soviet Union or China. The eternal verity here, though, is that there is something about the nature of the search for Truth which precludes its being found in any sort of rearrangement of humanity's collective lifestyle. The problem seems to be metaphysical rather than political, epistemological rather than semantic. Or to put it simply: the reason we can't systematize Truth into our lives is not just because our systems are so lousy, but because Truth can't be systematized. This is not to say that Truth cannot be approached in a systematic, or at least a determined, way; rather, it's an aspect of a phenomenon which Richard Rose has called "between-ness", and which Charles Fort labeled "Intermediateness". Fort's point of departure was an emotion-charged critique of the implicit claim to omnipotence by turn-of-the-century Science. In The Book of the Damned he gleefully laid out excerpts from the mountains of data he had collected, of events and phenomena unexplainable by scientific dogma; and in between accounts of red and black rains and strange lights in the sky, he explicated a quite remarkable philosophy. It holds that nothing can be truly said to exist, outside of the Absolute. Any creature's claim to absolute entity is nullified by a similar claim made by other creatures. All apparent being is simply the dynamic flux of the relative, eternally striving to become nonrelative, unconditioned; and the reason we perceive things as having being in themselves is simply because we, too, are caught up in the vast shadowshow of Intermediateness between chaos and equilibrium. In order to attain Being we have to cease Becoming. Phrases like this have become clichĂŠs in the New Age enlightenment industry. How much chance is there, I wonder, that here and there a few people will actually penetrate to their real meaning? There is presently a proliferation of groups, schools, and experimental communities claiming (with varying degrees of validity) to base them selves on the teachings of Gurdjieff and his chief interpreter, Ouspensky. The pinnacle of enlightenment in the Gurdjieffian system, the goal of the spiritual quest, is to become an entity called Man Number Seven. This is the prospectus offered to starry-eyed seekers anxious to get their personal evolution in gear. But applying Fort's dictum, and a little intuition, we can see the illusoriness of this objective. Even a (presumably) fully-evolved creature like Man #7 is not a finished product - even his lofty state of being has no tangible, metaphysical, existential reality. Manifesting on higher levels of being is, like human consciousness itself, simply the state of dynamic tension produced by the tug-of-war between the upward-beckoning pull of the Absolute and the sluggish inertia of purely carnal life. It might not be too inaccurate to say that the higher the level of being, the closer the person is to an intimate, permanent relationship with the Absolute. But if full permanence - total, final absorption - is ever achieved, it's the end of manifestation, the ceasing not only of human life but of all relative

existence. Contrary to Gurdjieff's allusions, a Man #7 would not be a full embodiment of the Absolute crystallized on the human level. Rather, if there is, or ever was, a Man #7, then that which makes him what he is can be likened to a candle flame, which has no substance in itself but is merely the visible excrescence of the paraffin and other material, being shot on its way to an invisible state of existence in the upper atmosphere. If Man #7, or 8, 9, or 10, were the ultimate fruit of the spiritual search, then these highly-numbered humans could presumably interrelate amongst themselves in a perfect utopia, a truly new New Age; yea, even a New Jerusalem. The real situation, however, is quite otherwise. Since the true objective must ever remain intangible to even the most enlightened of incarnate humans (or superhumans), the urge to set up an enlightened (or Liberated) society will always function as a distraction to the search. It's true, meanwhile, that a community of enlightened men would evidence certain superiorities over the common social grouping, just as the atmosphere of Athens was more conducive to humane conduct than was that of Sparta. Such an atmosphere can't be generated as an end in itself; it's simply the offshoot, a relatively unimportant side-effect, of the thing that really counts. Finally, we must ask: what might the consequences really be if the New Age, as envisioned by its present devotees, actually came into existence? There's a symbolic concept in Tibetan Buddhist lore which may help us stretch our imaginations in this regard, a place called Kuru, the Northern Continent. A description of the lifestyle of Kuru (in Rebirth - the Tibetan Game of Liberation by Mark Tatz and Jody Kent) reads like the ultimate New Age fantasy fulfilled: the people lead a communal existence, there's no private property or marriage, children are raised in common, little work is required for subsistence, the average lifespan is a thousand years. Perfection? Of society, perhaps. But we read further that: "Nonetheless, this idyllic sort of existence is said to be not conducive to the paths to liberation... No saint develops here, for (the people) never come to understand the initial postulate of the Dharma: life is basically suffering. Their faculties are dulled by their uneventful lives, and they are incapable of difficult meditations. In short, they create no bad karma, but neither do they make progress toward liberation from samsara." I think this makes the point pretty clearly: even if utopia were presently realizable, it would not change the nature of what I've called the spiritual search, or quest; ironically, it could even make it more difficult. No matter how far that search advances, even after we've found what we're looking for, we must still live out our lives caught between realities. All human endeavor is of this nature, and always will be. Every succeeding age is new, and becomes old after awhile. There's only one change worth making, and that's the transition from between-ness to the Absolute.

Or as Charles Fort put it: "A seeker of Truth. He will never find it. But the dimmest of possibilities - he may himself become Truth." Forum The TAT Forum is a reader's exchange and correspondence column. One is invited to write to this column and offer comments or pose questions concerning the articles or letters published in this magazine or let others know about your investigations, discoveries or resources that you may have come across in your own search. Dear TAT Forum, While preparing myself for my recent trip to the Soviet Union, I was reading Robert G. Kaiser's book, Russia, The People and the Power and I found the following interesting passage, p. 316. "There was once a tiger in the circus, I think her name was Alma, she was very intelligent, very well trained. But every time her trainer turned his back to her she wanted to eat him. So the trainer's wife stood outside the cage, and whenever her husband did turn his back, the wife would say, 'All right, Alma, quiet, Alma,' and the tiger knew she was being watched, so she didn't jump. But the trainer wanted to find a better solution to the problem. For a long time he thought about how to convince the tiger that she didn't want to eat him. "He thought of a brilliant idea. He realized that Alma was very comfortable sitting on her round platform in the cage. So he gave her a new platform that was much smaller - so small that she could only put three feet on it at one time. There wasn't room for all four paws, so she had to concentrate on keeping her balance. All her thoughts were directed toward staying on the platform. She no longer had time to think about eating the trainer. "It seems to me that Soviet man is exactly the same. Like the tiger, he has to balance himself on a small platform. He's always standing in lines, always trying to buy something, always worrying about idiotic little problems. He has no time to worry about the big things - about freedom, or happiness, or changing the government. The government doesn't give you a chance to think - there's no time to think. If you get a chance to do a little thinking, you have to realize that life isn't too good. "But nobody has time to think about eating the trainer." With respect to finding our self-definition and penetrating our world of illusions, we are in much the same situation as the tiger and the Soviet citizen. The exigencies of the moment keep us from apprehending the true nature of the problems facing us. The Soviet citizen is more tightly controlled

that we are for he must actively struggle with a bureaucracy for the very essentials of existence. Our prison walls are perhaps more subtly distracting, consisting of a superabundance of those same essentials. So deeply are we immured in things that, as the phrase has it, we are owned by our possessions. All of the great teachers tell us to detach ourselves from material ties so that we may concentrate on the core problem. We cannot eat the trainer, overthrow an oppressive regime, or see through the illusions of this life while we are putting most of our creative energies into the maddening cycle of material distractions. Jim Cornie. Acme, PA Calendar Where listed, the TAT Society is a group of individuals who meet informally and periodically for study and investigation. Guest lecturers often speak at these meetings. Speakers and topics are listed when possible. If there is no listing for a specific date, call the local number for information. These meetings are free and all are invited to attend. Akron-Canton TAT Society meets: Unity Church, 1075 W. Market St., Akron. Information: call 434-2498 (Akron) 477-0272 (Canton) Nov. 6: Mike Casari leads workshop on "Colors and Personality" Special Event TAT Workshop - Symposium, "Prediction, Definition, Survival" Unity Church, 1075 W. Market St., Akron Sat. and Sun., Nov. 12 and Nov. 13 Sat., 1:00 - 6:00 PM - "Values Exploration Workshop," "Mental Potentials" Sun., 1:30 - 6:30 PM - "Astrology," "Nutrition" Cincinnati Special Event TAT Workshop - Symposium Unity Church, McMillan St., Cincinnati. Information: call 513-241-3920

Dec.3 and Dec. 4 Cleveland TAT Society meets: Unitarian Church, Hilliard Rd., Rocky River. Information: call 231-3824 Nov.6, 7:30 PM Nov. 20, 7:30 PM Dec. 4, 7:30 PM Dec.18, 7:30 PM Columbus TAT Society meets: Ohio State Federal Savings And Loan, 5633 North High St., Worthington. Information: call 291-4221 Nov. 6, 7:30 PM - Dr. David Dillahunt speaks on "Shifting Paradigms" Nov. 20, 7:30 PM Dec. 4, 7:30 PM Dec. 18, 7:30 PM Pittsburgh TAT Society meets: University and City Ministry, 4401 5th Ave., Oakland. Information: call 6871983 Nov. 8, 7:30 PM - Jim Cornie will speak on "Science of the First Person" Nov. 22 Dec. 6 Dec. 20 Special Event TAT Workshop - Symposium Sat. and Sun., Nov. 19 and Nov. 20 in areas of Astrology, Nutrition and Values Exploration. Dr. Wm. Tellin, Chiropractor in Pittsburgh area, will speak on "Interferences of the Life Force." Information: call 412-687-1983 TAT Farm Quarterly TAT Foundation Meeting (TAT members only) held at the TAT Farm. Nov. 26 and Nov. 27

Information: write TAT Foundation, 1686 Marshall St.. Benwood, W.Va. 26031 Libido If for one moment I could follow what I'm hiding My feet would be flying in churned emotion, My heart would pound, A scream I would sound. I would make my way quickly to the window, Diving like Superman into shattered glass, But fall I would not Scrattles on my body All covered with thought. I would soar far and high, My own jet stream trailing Above the tops of the pines This moment would truly be mine. The roofs below and the worn-out world Would make me laugh In a way that speaks to the sun In a way that makes many turn to one. And we all would laugh. Mike Baldrige, Bellaire, Ohio Sleepy Giant Sleepy giant quiet paws at rest We left your thoughts for a new quest Lately stirring in the minds of the best We're now entering the final test Children's desires one muddled in the hay We watch the rivers decay with the day People all inside seem to stay Afraid their prayers will be answered if they pray Close behind you and yet far away The doors are all shut in each one's way Closed because they did it themselves

Fear from what's hidden and hiding from what they fear Wouldn't it be funny if it was all turned around That we went into the womb instead of the ground Or is it really that different its really the same Said the timeless man with his daily claim Sleepy giant quiet paws at best We left your thoughts for a new test Lately stirring in the minds they quest We are now entering the final rest Eric Hadidian, Columbus, Ohio Š 1977 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved.

TAT Journal Issue 2 The Forum for Awareness Full Index of Issues 1 thru 14 Volume 1 Number 2 Winter 1978

Dear Friends, Now we're in the publishing business with both feet and are happy that we've made the jump. TAT members have been discussing the idea of a journal for several years, and there is much pride and enthusiasm behind this project that will contribute to its success. If you are newly-acquainted with TAT or have simply picked up this Journal, you are warmly invited to join in the support and enjoyment of the magazine. We are calling it, "The Forum for Awareness" because TAT Journal will draw on the awareness of you, our readers, who have so much to contribute from the diversity of fields which you have investigated. Are you an astrologer, interested in nutrition and healing, or a student of comparative esoteric systems? We would like to hear from you on these subjects or on any that relate to the inquiry into the nature of man, mind and the universe. Do you have an opinion or comment on something that you've read in TAT Journal?

Let us know about it. We want to air all sides of an issue. We need your support as writers and as subscribers. In exchange for that support we promise to put together a stimulating and informative publication that we will constantly seek to improve. The pages of the TAT Journal are open, so that we can share our accumulated knowledge and wisdom. Sincerely yours, Editor: Paul Cramer "Neither do men light a candle, and put it under a bushel, but on a candlestick; and it giveth light unto all that are in the house." (Matt. 5:15) Contents Meditation and Alchemy, by Hans W. Nintzel Memories of Past and Future, by Richard Rose The Riddle of Synchronicity, by Michael Baldrige Forum Book Reviews A Glimpse of Nothingness by Janwillem van de Wetering and The Conquest of Illusion by J.J. van der Leeuw. TAT News The TAT Foundation is a non-profit, tax-exempt organization formed to provide a forum for philosophical and spiritual inquiry on all levels based on the principle that cooperation and interaction with fellow inquirers can expedite ones own investigation. The TAT Foundation was set up to fund and encourage workshops, intensives, Chautauquas, study groups and related services. This magazine is one of those services. The intent of the TAT Journal is to promote the goals of the TAT Foundation by providing a readers' forum and exchange. Editor: Paul Cramer Associate Editor: Louis Khourey Staff Writer: Michael Baldrige The TAT Journal is published quarterly by the TAT Foundation... Š 1978 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved.

Perspective "Who am I?" (That means you!) One answer is that you are the only person who can answer the question, "Who am I?" So we are presenting the kind of material in this issue of TAT Journal that may encourage you in your efforts to find out, by making it clear that the only instrument you need to carry on your research is your own mind, and the only resource you need to draw on to make continued progress is a curious intelligence. Its all too often that the authors of books, leaders of groups and even editors of magazines bestow their wisdom imbued with the implication that there is an unbridgeable gap between author or teacher and reader or student. And even if such a feeling is not intended, the neophyte may create it himself, despairing that he will ever be able to read all of the books or do all of the exercises that would admit him to the imaginary "society of experts." Certainly, there can be value in familiarity with a philosophic or symbological system such as astrology, the qabalah or esoteric Christianity. But infatuation with a set of terminology can impair one's understanding of life. The "expert's" tool may become a tyrant, and the person who seeks knowledge with a subtle, common sense may actually learn more than the author whose "learning" he so admires. Meditation and Alchemy by Hans W. Nintzel The Psalmist said: "My meditation on him will be sweet. I will be glad in the Lord" (Ps. 104-34) and "Give ear to my words oh Lord, consider my meditations" (Ps 5-1). We even find the idea of meditation in the very first book of the Bible where we read: "And Isaac went out into the field to meditate" (Gen. 24-63). In the New Testament Jesus gives advice along these lines as: "But thou, when thou prayest enter into thy closet and when thou hast shut thy door, pray to the Father which is in secret and thy Father which seeth in secret shall reward thee openly." (Matt. 6-6) This admonition was adumbrated centuries before in the Old Testament, Psalms 46-10, "Be still. And know that I AM God." The ancient Hebrew canonical text, the Zohar, refers to two kinds of prayer. Those that are words of the mouth and "the Prayer of Silence," those that are the secret meditations of the heart. The Prayer of Silence is said to be a silent, unexpressed and inexpressible type of Prayer which conceals the Mystery of Perfect Union in the Divine Essence. Further, that the Prayer of Silence is actually spoken by the Divine Voice within us. (Zohar Pt. I, fol 169a) Meditation, or Dhyana Yoga, is spoken of extensively in both the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads. In the former (VI, 9-14) we find very precise instructions on how to meditate. The idea should be clear now that meditation is a very old practice and once was, or still is, espoused by the leading world religions.

[Illustration: The Tree of Life (ten Sephiroth) from Christian D. Ginsburg, The Kabbalah.] It is the purpose of this article to show that not only is there a connection between all western tradition disciplines but that meditation should be a sine qua non in ANY spiritual pursuit, alchemy or otherwise. The American prophet, Edgar Cayce in his readings often talked of the importance of meditation. For example; "For ye must learn to meditate just as ye have learned to walk, talk." (281-41) Again, "Through meditation may the greater help be gained." (287-2) In the "Secret of the Golden Flower," Translated by Wilhelm we read: "Children take heed! If for a day you do not practice meditation, the light streams out, who knows wither. If you only meditate for a quarter of an hour, by it you can do away with ten thousand aeons and a thousand births. All methods end in quietness. This marvelous magic cannot be fathomed." In his book Raja Yoga, the great master of Yoga, Vivekenanda said: "The meditative state is the highest state of existence." One of the early German qabalists was Eleazar of Worms (1165-1238). He was the spiritual leader of a group of qabalists that were ecstatics in nature. They heavily 'were into' meditation and contemplation. Another well known qabalist was Abraham ben Samuel, better known as Abulafia. Born in Spain in 1240, Abulafia wrote extensively on the qabalah. In his writings, he laid down rules for body posture to be followed by the student as he meditated on the Sephiroth of the Tree of Life. He also prescribed a precise breathing

discipline to be followed. Such disciplines are, of course, also at the heart of every Yoga system and various others as well. Interestingly, the Sephiroth, particularly those of the middle pillar, seem to correspond nicely with the psychic centers known as cakras or chakras. The Sephira Malkuth corresponds with the Muladhara cakra and Kether with the Sahasrara. Kether, the receptacle of downpouring light and the Sahasrara cakra, the end of the journey for the rising Kundalini whence enlightenment is received. It might be argued that Yesod, being associated with the reproductive organs, is a better correspondence for the Muladhara and that Malkuth might correspond with the Kundalini. It could lead to some interesting discoveries to follow this out. The Kundalini, of course, is that energy sleeping at the base of the spine. It is likened to a serpent coiled three and one-half times. The idea of Yogic exercises is to awaken the slumbering Kundalini and cause it to ascend the spinal column or middle pillar. As it passes through the various cakras, or Sephiroth these psychic centers are awakened and add to the spiritual growth of the practitioner. Not too long ago, there lived a husband and wife who were spiritual teachers. They were, in addition, alchemists and, according to a little booklet entitled "They Made the Philosopher's Stone," they tell a marvelous account of how in fact they produced that Opus Magnum, the Stone. The Ingalese' books were many and covered diverse topics dealing with the occult arts, qabalah, alchemy and the like. In one of these, "The History and Power of the Mind" Richard Ingalese had much to say about meditation. The right kind and the wrong kind. Ordinary and "philosophical" meditation. Amongst other things he wrote: "You go into meditation for the purpose of receiving knowledge from the highest source of knowledge." There are a few who have not heard of Albertus Magnus. This noted alchemist wrote on minerals and metals and in one of his tracts "De Adhaeredo Deo" we find a most insightful exposition of what might be called the mechanics of what meditation is. He wrote: "When St. John says that God is a spirit and that he must be worshiped in Spirit, he means that the mind must be cleared of all images. 'When thou prayest, shut the doors.' That is, the doors of thy senses... keep them barred and bolted against all phantasms and images. Nothing pleases God more than a mind free from all distractions and occupations. Such a mind is, in a manner, transformed into God for it can think of nothing and understand nothing... except God, other creatures and itself it only sees in God. He who penetrates into himself, and so transcends himself, ascends truly to God. He whom I love and desire is above all that is sensible and all that is intelligible... sense and imagination cannot bring us to Him, but only the desire of a pure heart. This brings us into the darkness of the mind, whereby we can ascend to

the contemplation of even the mysteries of the Trinity. Do not think about the world or thy friends, nor about the past, present or future; but consider thyself to be outside the world and alone with God, as if thy soul were already separated from the body, and no longer have any interest in peace or war, or the state of the world. Leave the body and fix thy gaze on the uncreated Light. Let nothing come between thee and God." What Albertus Magnus is saying, of course, is that God is not corporeal and therefore cannot be communicated with via corporeal means. Yet, there IS a link to facilitate communication between man and God. This link is Mind. Through mind, man and God may interconnect, Unite. It is in this spiritual meeting ground of the mind that the manifestation of the Divine may blend with the essence of the mundane. The process for this is meditation. Basil Valentine was a Benedictine Monk and an alchemist. In his book the "Triumphal Chariot of Antimony" he speaks of correct and incorrect meditation. One of the five pre-requisites he poses for success in alchemy is contemplation. Contemplation is a higher form of meditation. Valentine discovered incredible curative powers in a mineral-metal substance known as antimony. A substance that was known to be poisonous. He used various preparations of this substance to cure both physical and spiritual disorders of his brother monks. And where did the information come from that Valentine possessed on how to treat the substance to wring from it curative powers? While the precise answer was never directly given, Valentine indicates the information did come to him from God. It is not a difficult conclusion to reach that his revelations occurred during this contemplative state he suggests. Let us look once more at the Qabalah and its connection with meditation. We find Leo Schaya, a respected writer on the subject, indicating that Chokmah, the second Sephira on the Tree of Life, has a second meaning in addition to the well known one of wisdom. This second meaning, in phonetic Hebrew, is Mahshabah, which is translated as either "thought" or more aptly, "meditation." The Tree is usually represented as a uni-planar, flat lineal figure. However, qabalistic studies reveal the Tree to be operative in four planes or the "Four Worlds" as they are called. These worlds, Atziluth, Briah, Yetzirah and Assiah, actually represent levels of consciousness. The meditations on the paths of the Tree are designed to "change" these levels of consciousness. Aleister Crowley even defined "Magick" as the ability to cause changes in consciousness, by Will. Denning and Phillips discuss this aspect in their book The Magical Philosophy, which is the third in a series of five books dealing with magic, etc. In the appendix of this volume are to be found a series of exercises called "Path Workings." These are easily discerned to be meditative practices. The end of the exercises is to integrate the various worlds or levels of consciousness.

Note that the word Yoga means to join or to unite. From "yoke." Unite what? Why these levels of consciousness. To integrate them. Alain Danielou declares Yoga to be THE method of re-integration, in his book of the same name. Concerning changes of consciousness, Paul Brunton in The Secret Path had this to say: "You cannot show my intellect that God, the Absolute, the Spirit, call it what you may, exists, but you can show this to me, by changing my consciousness (i.e., raising the level of consciousness) until it can participate in the consciousness of God within me." Carl Jung, the great Swiss psychologist and student of alchemy, was also a proponent of meditation as a means of integration of these levels of consciousness. In Ralph Metzner's Maps of Consciousness, we read: "The work of alchemy consisted in integrating and transmuting these (the four) elements, these levels of consciousness. They need to be integrated because in the normal condition of man they are in a state of conflict and confusion." This state of confusion that Metzner speaks of could well be what the ancient alchemists meant when they referred to "chaos" or "nigredo,"the blackness. Metzner further went on to identify this disorganized state of mind as being that condition Gurdjieff has in mind when he talked of the individual being besieged by "many I's." J.F.C. Fuller, a one-time disciple of the Golden Dawn and a some-time biographer of Aleister Crowley, wrote a book on Yoga. In it he wrote: "The key to deliverance is meditation which opens the lock of concentration; then the door of attainment swings open and the aspirant enters a higher dimension of consciousness--the super-conscious world." The integration process, of these various worlds, can be perhaps equated to those alchemical states known as solution and coagulation. Solve et Coagula. It must be borne in mind that there ARE two aspects to alchemy, the practical and the spiritual. Terms that apply to one aspect may well apply, in a different sense, to the other aspect. C.C. Zain points this out in his book on Spiritual Alchemy and A.E. Waite, that prolific translator of arcane texts, also makes a case for this. However, Waite may simply have vacillated from a stand on practical alchemy to one on spiritual alchemy. Paracelsus also had some thoughts on this subject and is quoted by Carl Jung in "Alchemical Studies" (Vol. XIII of his collected works) as follows: "The impure animate body must be purified through the separation of the elements." Sounds like Metzner! Paracelsus went on to say: "This is done by your meditating on it."

[Illustration: "Gurdjieff... talked of the individual being besieged by 'many I's.' "] Dave Edwards in his fine book Dare To Make Magic posed an interesting question. He said that yes, it certainly was necessary to perform magic so that one may raise his (her) level of consciousness. Then he asked, "Why should we want to raise our level of consciousness?" The foregoing, a recurrent theme of the early mystical writer, Plotinus, seems to answer the questions nicely. We need to raise our levels of consciousness (and integrate them) in order to perceive the workings of a higher order. We cannot observe the workings of the machinery of the universe whilst still stationed at Malkuth. The veils of Paroketh must be rent and the abyss crossed ere we fathom the mysteries concealed by the black veils of Binah. In other words, to become more spiritual, we need to pull away from the mundane toward the spiritual realms. As we progress through the spheres, our vision becomes less clouded and our understanding increases. The way to become attuned to vibrations of a higher order is to volitionally try and merge with them. One way of doing this is, of course, meditation. Therefore, it would be well to view meditation as a discipline quite eclectic and not posited on the east or west exclusively. It is a part of qabalah and alchemy. Charles Ponce in his book, The Kabbalah, reached a startling conclusion on a venerable old tome of alchemy, the Aesch Mezareph. He says, "(It is) an ancient alchemical treatise and it is unclear whether it is the product of Hebrew or Christian Kabbalism(!) It sets out the system of the Sephiroth in alchemical terms but was probably intended more as a meditational instrument than as a textbook of alchemy." I think the point should be made by now that the ancient qabalists and alchemists not only advocated meditation, but they practiced it. While their rationale may certainly have differed, the end result, in the main, was enlightenment. Consider what a blessing this could be as we pore over the obscure and misleading words of the ancients. If the good Lord would shed some light on these writings, why we might be able to utilize them for good purposes. Well then, we have a fine recommendation from the very writers of these works on how to overcome that dilemma. Meditate.

Resting our case that meditation should be part of the daily practice of every alchemistical student, let us see just what meditation is. And isn't. The very word may conjure up a vision of loin-clothed yogis, eyes closed, legs wrapped about the back of the neck and off in a trance. Actually this IS a possible form of meditation and it DOES have eastern roots as well as western roots. Today the eastern "Flavor" is dominant as we have a plethora of teachers, Gurus and masters of all sorts "pushing" meditation. Yet, there is an air of unattachment about it all. The Mararishi mahesh Yogi himself declares his "Transcendental Meditation" to be non-secular with no "isms" attached. A private researcher, Dr. Hugh Drummond is quoted in the March 1976 issue of Mother Jones magazine as saying, "The physiological benefits (more on the physiological benefits later) of meditation are pretty well established and appear to be independent of any particular method, ideology or cosmology." And so it is. Meditation is the language of the heart. The Prayer of Silence. The outward prayer may be forced, embellished or even fake. The inner prayer cannot. No human can hear this and make a judgment, or be fooled. It is between you and that which IS--The Creator. This idea is so beautifully expressed by a Sufi poet and mystic, Jalal Ud Din Rumi who lived from 1207 to 1273. He was the spearhead of the Sufi movement as we know it today. In his mystical writings was the following beautiful passage, which while not necessarily referring to meditation per se, captures an essence. This prose is as follows: "A voice came from God to Moses... I am not purified by their praises, 'Tis they who become pure and shining thereby. I regard not the outside and the words, I regard the inside and the state of the heart. I look at the heart if it be humble, Though the words may be the reverse of humble. Because the heart is substance and the words accidents. Accidents are only a means, substance is the final cause. A burning heart is what I want; consort with burning. Kindle in thy heart the flame of love." In more practical terms, meditation is a method of withdrawing from the outer to the inner. It is a way of stilling the mind. It is a state of activepassivity if you will. That is, while stilling the mind, one is actively "waiting," anticipating. An observed with expectancy, hushed expectancy. It is in the very real sense of the word, a communion. A meeting in the mind of the mundane and the Divine. In this place does enlightenment dawn. In this hushed stillness can we hear the voice of the One that pervades all. It is when we block out the outer distractions and noises that we hear what we yearn to hear. Our beloved. Our maker. "How" to do it is easy enough. There are actually several "types" of

meditative practices. How they differ is only in technique. One such method is that of Transcendental Meditation. Here, one is given a mantra in an initiatory ceremony. The mantra is a word or a phrase, usually in Sanskrit. The TM-er will sit quietly and allow his or her personal mantra, for such it is, to "come". It wells up from the inner being and "sounds" in the body. The "repetition" of the Mantra helps block out the distracting influences and has an influence of its own. That is, the mantra is especially selected for the practitioner by someone well-versed in this technique. Thus the mantra will have a particularly beneficial "resonant" effect on the practitioner. Almost like tuning a circuit to its natural frequency. This is one use of a mantra. Another way is not so much as an "aid" but as a preamble. The recitation of particular mantra prior to meditation (as opposed to during meditation ala TM) will set the mood as it were. Every Indian child is taught a "universal" mantra known as the "Gayatri" mantra. This mantra is supposedly the "highest" mantra there is. Interestingly, Gayatri is Devi Gayatri or a feminine aspect of Deity. Mother Gayatri. Further, She is a solar deity and would correspond to Tiphareth on the Tree of Life. At this sphere we also find the Christ consciousness. So, on a Hebrew glyph, we find the Eastern concept of a feminine God equated to the Christian concept of the aspect of God which corresponds to the Egyptian slain God Osiris and there we go! Let me add that I have personally found the practice of meditation preceded by the Gayatri mantra an efficacious method. I can recommend it from my experience with it. But by all means try your particular likes first. They will all result, one day, in what Patanjali said was the breakthrough of the duality of devotion into the unity of self and God. R. Straughn in his book Meditation Techniques of the Kabalists, Vedantins and Taoists writes: The object of meditation then, is to lead you back to your proper identity, to your proper role. That of an uninvolved seer (se-er) and Willer of events. In Jane Roberts book The Nature of Personality, this idea is dilated upon to some length. That we are the authors of the play, the director, the stage setters and the audience. Then we forget it all by playing all the roles of all the characters simultaneously. Straughn also has a provocative little item in the same book. He provides information on Dhumo Breathing, a technique espoused by Lama Govinda and mentioned in the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Basically, this technique is used to raise the body heat, amongst other things. Straughn makes the following statement in his exposition oh the Dhumo: "The ambitious student, armed with what has been given here, should try to work out the correspondences between the breathing exercises and the sublimation of the procreative agent with the literature on alchemy, for they both deal with the same subject. A fact missed by those who, believing Yoga to deal basically with asanas and meditation, fail to grasp it alchemical aspect... the sublimation of the procreative agent: Mercury."

Meditation is really a very simple practice. It is one thing that can be done in the privacy of a room, whilst alone in a forest and, for those more adept at the subject, in a crowd unbeknownst to those present. However, many are too prone to complicate that which is simple. Father Elias, a member of the Carmelite Order in Haifa Israel, described it thusly: "In the first phase of meditation, we are alone in the dark room of the universe. We may think about God, we may talk about Him but He remains a distant object in our minds. In the second phase of meditation, all of a sudden God makes His presence felt in the darkness. He begins to illuminate our souls. He makes us aware of His presence, analogous to the awareness we have of the objects around us. Love has entered a new phase. It is love between Two. We become aware that God loves US!" In Practice of the Presence, Joel Goldsmith refers to meditation as " invitation for God to speak to us." Roy Eugene Davis, in his An Easy Guide to Meditation, reinforces R. Straughn's thoughts by saying, "...we appear (in meditation) to be at the center of it all, as the witness or the observer." The practitioner of meditation will one day observe an interesting phenomenon. He will look forward to, nay yearn, for the moment of meditation. For some, it is the only time for a little "peace and quiet." Yet, it is more than that, much more. And even though, at the onset, meditation may seem a chore, it will soon become a much desired practice. The Irish mystic, George Russell, writing under the pen name of "AE", eloquently expressed this feeling in his beautiful and lyric book, The Candle of Vision. Referring to meditation he said, "The dark caverns of the brain begin to grow luminous. We are creating our own light. By heat of will and aspiration we are transmuting what is gross in the subtle aethers through which the mind works. As the dark bar of metal begins to glow, at first redly, and then at white heat, or as ice melts and is alternately fluid, vapor, gas and at last, radiant energy, so do these aethers become purified and alchemically changed into luminous essences, and they make a new vesture for the soul, and link us to a mid world, or heavenward, where they too have their own home. How quick the mind is now! How vivid is the imagination! We are lifted above the tumult of the body. The heat of the blood disappears below us. We draw nigher to ourselves. The heart longs for the hour of meditation and hurries to it; and, when it comes, we rise within ourselves as a diver under the sea arises to breathe the air, to see the light. We have invoked God and we are answered according to the promise of old." Russell was indeed a mystic but I bet he had an athanor hidden away in the closet! A different view on the subject, a "now" view, is offered by Edwin C. Steinbrecher in his book Guide Meditation. This technique is a departure from what we might call "classical" meditation. It involves the use of a Guide as found on what can be called the "astral" level. The idea is to seek out someone or something that has been through it all before and can help us along, put us in touch with the data we seek. Steinbrecher explains his technique this way: "Guide Meditation is the product of the mingling of a number of spiritual and philosophical streams; astrology, tarot, alchemy,

analytical psychology, qabalah and the Western Tradition which encompasses the Graeco-Judaeo-Christian spiritual heritage of the West. The Guide Meditation is a transformative process concerned with assimilating the disparate energies which exist in the human unconscious into the unified wholeness that is the awakened, enlightened being inherent in each of us, thus ending the illusions which cause separation, guilt and judgment." J.J. van der Leeuw said exactly the same thing, only in different terms and using a different "method" in his book, The Conquest of Illusion. It might be well at this juncture to clear up, as best we can, the misunderstanding that often arises between what is known as "concentration" and meditation. The two are totally different but the difference, while real, is subtle. In Concentration Ernest Wood writes: "Meditation is a complete flow of thought about an object which you have concentrated on." As an example, Wood postulates a flower. We concentrate on it thinking, as it were, of its color, petals, scent and letting in these related areas of thought. This is concentrating. Then the thoughts might go, "Come in little flower, into my lonely mind. And as you meditate with the flower, soon you will be worshiping the flower and saying: 'Wonderful flower, Holy flower, forgive me, forgive my contumely and my pride.' And the flower will forgive. And there will be love and ecstasy. That is meditation." Patanjali put it succinctly: "Concentration is the binding of the mind to one place. Meditation is continued effort there." And Wood again, in a different book, Mind and Memory Training, states: "Concentration ends where meditation begins. Concentration involved contraction of the field of mental vision but meditation involves its expansion. Concentration is the unwavering focusing of the attention on any object to the exclusion of any other object. One starts by thinking about an object, the narrowing down the field so that one thinks of the object until finally the whole consciousness is filled with this object." Rammurti Mishra would add: "And we become the object." (Fundamentals of Yoga) In his definitive work on the subject, Concentration and Meditation, Christmas Humphreys defined the purpose of meditation being to "dominate the lower separative self, to develop the mind's own higher faculties towards a vision of life's essential unity and to unite this dual process into one continuous spiritual unfolding." In Yoga and Western Psychology Geraldine Coster formulates a set of 'steps' for meditation. These are: (1) (2) (3) (4)

Sense of direction, or the will, the instrument of thought, or the mind, the object on which concentration is being attempted, and unobtrusive ideas or distractions.

She further, quantifies stages in the meditative process as being: (a) selection of a subject, (b) deliberation, and

(c) contemplation. She indicates that this is an awareness of the object as thought. The mind being transformed into the object. These three stages correspond nicely to what Mishra defined as: (a) Conscious Mind, (b) Sub-conscious mind, and (c) Super-conscious mind. These stages, dharana, dhyana and samadhi may also correspond to there levels of the mind, known as alpha, delta and theta levels. Let us briefly examine some of the more or less "mechanical" aspects of meditation. What type should be used? What paraphernalia, if any? As to the former, W.Y. Evans-Wentz sets out a number of aphorisms in Tibetan Yoga and Secret Doctrines that apply well. These are (Listed under 'Ten Best Things'): (1) For one of little intellect, the best-meditation is complete concentration of the mind on a single object, (2) For one of ordinary intellect, the best meditation is unbroken concentration of the mind on the two dualistic concepts, phenomena/noumena and consciousness, and (3) For one of superior intellect, the best meditation is to remain in mental quiescence, the mind devoid of all thought processes, knowing that the meditator, the object of meditation, and the act of meditating constitute an inseparable entity. This is as good a starting place as any but seems a little rigid. The really best thing is to try ANYthing. You will soon get the hang of it. Just DO it. How about posture, clothing, incense and so on? The answer here is there is really no hard and fast "correct" set of rules. Whatever turns you on! If glowing candles or incense helps to create an atmosphere conducive to meditating, do it. Fresh flowers "feel right?" Go get some fresh flowers but remember this is a daily discipline and daily fresh flowers could be a little troublesome. As for clothing, the less clothing the better. Binding garments and such are really impediments and distractions. Up tight about nudity? Wear a robe or a blanket. What KIND of incense? Some say Sandalwood is conducive towards meditation. Can't prove it by me. I just like one that smells nice! Beads? Why not. Must they be Sandalwood or must they be rudraksha? Who says so? And posture. Well now, this IS an important point. The better the posture, the better will be the results. The "Lotus" posture is best. Why? Well if you consider the body to be a mass of electrical and nervous energies, the position of the parts of the body can make for good or poor "conduction" of these energies. They can also "shunt" energy to where it is best utilized. Maybe not the best analogy but it should do.

If you cannot, for physical or other reasons sit in a Lotus posture, do a free Lotus. How about simply sitting cross-legged? Or even in a chair. Really, the asanas are good, but many of us are just not oriented or physically constructed for a full Lotus or "the Thunderer." The "God" position may be just what the doctor ordered! (i.e., sitting "normally" upright in a chair). The main thing is to keep the spine straight. The ancient Yogis postulated some reasons for various postures and "mudras" (finger positions or gestures). The idea of the Lotus position, or at least a cross-legged posture is that it is an aid to the inspiration of breath as a regulatory device. Maintaining equilibrium was to regulate the vital heat of the body while maintaining an erect spinal column regulated the nervous fluids pervading the body and bending (slightly forward) of the neck help regulate the breath's expiration. Finally, the pressing of the tongue against the roof of the mouth and focusing the gaze caused the vital forces to enter the median nerve, the Sushumna. In other words, the erect spinal column along with the latter discipline aided in raising the Kundalini. As our final "look" at meditation and the western tradition, let us now bring this spiritual discipline, for such it is, into the laboratory. Perhaps, just as alchemy can be demonstrated, we can find actual physical evidence of benefits provided by meditation. First of all we can consider a mental aspect. Dr. F.I. Regardie in his book Twelve Steps to Spiritual Enlightenment indicates that the act of concentration leads to the development of the will and an enhancement of the image-building process. That is, the ability to visualize is improved, a function of great importance to anyone treading the path of the magician. That this is so is verified by Dr. Roberto Assagioli in his book An Act of Will. We find there a series of exercises designed to strengthen the will and we discern that they are, largely, concentration and meditative type exercises. For further evidence we can cite several scientific studies that have been performed. It is true that the bulk of these did concern themselves with Transcendental type of Meditation, but meditation it is. In SCIENCE Magazine, the March, 1970 issue, a study conducted by Dr. Robert Keith Wallace of the Dept. of Physiology, School of Medicine, Center for the Health Sciences in Los Angeles was featured. The summary of this study is as follows: Oxygen consumption, heart rate, skin resistance and electroencephalograph measurements were recorded before, during and after the practice of TM by subjects. There were significant changes between the control period and the meditation period in all measurements. During meditation, oxygen consumption and heart rate decreased, skin resistance increased and the electroencephalograph showed specific changes in certain frequencies. The results seem to distinguish the state produced by TM from commonly encountered states of consciousness and suggest that TM has practical applications.

Tests at the Harvard Medical Unit of Boston Memorial Hospital showed that oxygen consumption dropped sharply and carbon dioxide elimination also decreased sharply during meditation. In the April 1974 issue of "Psychology Today" we find that while using meditators in a study of blood pressure, Herbert Benson noted that 19 of his 20 volunteers had given up the use of drugs. According to their own testimony, changes in consciousness due to marijuana, LSD and heroin had become very distasteful since their introduction to meditation. Studies by the U.S. Army, the Greens at Menninger and countless other very rigid, very scientific studies show there ARE physical, measurable benefits to be gained by meditating. Even children benefit as shown by a study in the Eastchester, N.Y. public schools, conducted by F.G. Driscoll, supt. of schools. Tests showed that students who meditated were less anxious about taking tests, improved their grades and got along better with fellow students AND parents. We are all on a beautiful spiritual quest after Truth. The truth about nature and the truth about ourselves, why we are who we are. Whence we came, whither we go. At the same time we need to be concerned about the care and feeding of the bodies that house these egos, these souls. Now if indeed meditation not only provides the meeting place for Divine communication but in fact provide mental and physical benefits, it would seem that practicing meditation should become a part of our daily curriculum. The evidence is overwhelming from all sides. Those who advocate physical enhancement through meditation prove it with their galvanic devices and electroencephalographs. Even the mental aspects of growth in will and visualization are a praxis that can be observed. And for spiritual growth? Countless millions will attest to a new serenity, a new peace of mind, to enlightenment and, at last, a merging into the vast and all pervading SOURCE. That which IS. God. Jehovah. Allah. Lord. Krishna. Brahm. The Solar Logos. Gayatri. By whatever name we use, we are enabled now to feel the fullness of the love of the Mother for the Child, to hear, to speak and be heard. Given this, shouldn't WE be meditating? Turn inward for your voyage! For all your arts, You will not find the Stone In foreign parts. --Angelus Silesius Memories of Past and Future by Richard Rose TAT founder, Richard Rose, has spent a lifetime in spiritual and philosophical research. In "Alfred D'Alibertti: A Vignette," he shares his memories of one of the men who meant the most to him along that path, a man of real stature who might otherwise go unremembered. Rose's short story, "Last Act," is a dream-like evocation of a man's thoughts before the curtain falls.

Alfred D'Alibertti: A Vignette To the average layman there is nothing more boring than the meetings with or dialogues with, a spiritual person. A type has been cast that all spiritual people are supposed to fit into. The type or stereotype is that of a hypocrite, a person that is mentally sick perhaps, and a nuisance who goes about trying to convert you by shouting positive statements which in turn seemed to be needed more by the exhorter to shore up that which constitutes his faith. Perhaps I have associated with a different breed of spiritual people. I have met a few men in my life who stood out, and yet the outstanding quality which they possessed was largely their own casual truthfulness. I could have said humility, but somehow I associate that word with hypocrisy. Many of the ministers and philosophers whom I met who described themselves as being humble were described by others as being tumid or hypocritical. Alfred D'Alibertti was a minister. I never called him, "reverend," because I thought the term itself was hypocritical unless it has been earned. Alfred understood when I called him Mr. D'Alibertti that I was trying to be an honest rebel, and he knew that I was very fond of him and his family. If there has been a man who ever truly earned the spiritual title of "reverend," it was the man who never got it from me. But we knew each other, and like any really close friends, knew that we could depend on the other when the chips were down. I met Alfred after talking to a friend of his in San Antonio, a Reverend Green, formerly of Steubenville, Ohio. I cannot remember Green's first name. Reverend Green had been interested in ESP, and had done some research with Sheldon Scott and Alfred. Green suggested that I look up Scott and D'Alibertti, when I returned to Wheeling. Alfred and his wife were seekers in the true sense of the word. They did not make compromises for the sake of pollyanna or church-politics. To them, the truth was the truth. As soon as I talked to them a short while, I knew that I had enlarged my family. We decided to invite a few tolerant people to form a small group which would be able to get together once a week and discuss philosophy, religion or any interesting esoteric direction. I have always said that a man must work spiritually on three levels. He must do something on the physical level, on the mental level, and these two levels make for or create the spiritual work. Alfred and his wife gave of their time, money and energy to help people. The esoteric research work which we did in our group constituted his mental contribution. And in true philosophic consistency, he had no spiritual dogma except helping and encouraging his fellow-man to look for the truth of things. God was the search, not some pompous announcement by some cleric who had not made the trip.

He also taught in the local high school, and did this because he could not survive on the receipts from his church. It was never his policy to pressure his congregation for anything. I know that all of this sounds superlative, and I will stop short because my words will not change Alfred's fact-status, which will live in the hearts of those who knew him. I would like to leave with you some of his sayings. I got them from the little tracts that he dittoed off to pass out at each Sunday meeting. Alfred considered himself to be a liberal, but he did not endorse anything that detracted from the substance or energy of people. "Let's get this clear: your Minister is quite liberal in his Theology and in his conduct. He has never condemned drinking, smoking or friendly games of cards, bingo or what have you. But he does not hesitate to tell you that intemperate smoking may enslave you and do irreparable damage to your body, that intemperate use of alcohol can, and often does make some people incurably alcoholic, and friendly games are no longer friendly when they turn into downright gambling. In the Protestant Church, gambling is a sin." "There are certain people who bark at the darkness, curse it vehemently, threaten to destroy it, but they are too indolent to light a candle. It is within their reach to turn the lights on, but they are afraid. They will even raise their children in the darkness they curse, and contribute to its blackness with money, submission and vote, but to hear them talk, they have the mouths of lions and the hearts .... of chickens." This one is dated September 7th, 1958. "With this copy we hope to have the time to fill this page with thoughtprovoking statements on religious beliefs, religious history and religious facts. We believe that religion is the most important force for good in the world, but its effectiveness can be greatly impaired by errors, delusions, credulity, superstitions, etc.... Religion is a tragic and criminal, evil when it is used to keep people in subjection through fear of "sin," the "wrath of God" and the eternal (?) flames of hell. Religion is being used today by unscrupulous men who are gradually infiltrating into every phase of society with the most sinister results. Of course there are many excellent highly educated men and women in such organizations, and occasionally they muster enough courage to complain. One thing they know: they are guilty of a lack of intellectual and moral integrity for their apathy and indifference and personal identification with organized fraud. "If religion were at least skin deep, some of it would, in one way or another get into the blood stream and be carried to the heart. Religion is more like a costume. It only covers the skin.... "Conventional Christianity is not the moral philosophy of Jesus, but a distortion of his person and his teachings. It should be called Churchianity.

Many Church members are not Christians but Churchians..." July 27th, 1958. "If God is within me so that I am a manifestation of God, how can I worship Him? I will be worshiping myself! That's it! Until I learn to worship myself humbly, sincerely and earnestly, I can never hope to worship God. Please think. "God is the source-spring of all blessings. If you knew that such a sourcespring is right in your very heart, would you worry? Wake up then to the presence of God within you. "To 99.44% of members of all religions, God is something to be placated. God is an invisible overlord, demanding and exacting obedience and tribute. People pay tribute to this cruel, harsh, powerfully wicked chieftain in many ways: In India, some people who are faithful go to such extremes as traveling a hundred miles or more by rolling! In Mexico, on Good Friday, the faithful, clad only in short shorts and a crucifix around their necks, jump into clusters of cacti, often piercing their throats or eyeballs! The Protestant faithful hold rattlesnakes, often with fatal results! I have often wondered, if I were God, what would I want people NOT to do?" July 20th, 1958. "The following is an important Bible statement. 'Neglect not the gift that is within thee.' In a Church-religion, "sin" is the breaking of a church law. In a personal religion, "sin" is the breaking of a law which is related to selfdevelopment. The harboring of thoughts that degrade in any way is 'sinful.' Negatively speaking, the neglect of moral development is equally sinful. Hence the admonition: 'Neglect not the gift that is within thee.' What gift? The gift of life. The gift of intelligence. The gift of love. The gift of conscience. What do you say of a person with a beautiful voice who neglects it? The gift of music, or of painting, or of speaking--There are so many gifts given to people which are neglected!..." Alfred had a very full crusade against childishness in religion,--and by childishness I mean the childish insistence by theologians to force the public to accept absurd beliefs. On February the 16th, 1958 he wrote: "About 400 years ago a Protestant scholar computed the age of the world to be at his time, 3963 years old. Pope Urban VIII condemned such ignorance in no uncertain terms. Being a very smart man, and with the direct help from the Holy Ghost, he declared that the whole world was created in the year 5199 B.C. With penalty for unbelievers. (Alfred is here referring to the ex cathedra infallibility of the

Pope.) 200 years later, after the penalty was worn out, theologian Lightfoot startled the world by placing the creation on Oct. 23, 4004 B.C.!" On February the 9th, 1958, he puts the following arithmetic to work: "There are 1440 minutes in a day. This means that if a person who dies goes straight to heaven and wants to see Jesus for one minute only, he will have to sit in a waiting room with 1440 other souls for 24 hours until his turn comes. This is of course on the basis of 1440 people dying each day, and not counting the million of people who died before the time of Christ. The whole thing is preposterous ... Jesus sitting' at the right hand of God on a golden throne ... are only figures of speech, and not material realities. On October 21st, 1956 he wrote on sin. "In your minister's dictionary there is no such a word as SIN. A Christian does not believe in sin... there are only right and wrong." I have skipped through quite a sheaf of weekly messages, none of which were as illuminating as his conversations in informal groups. He had a quiet way of pointing at things which people took for granted, customs or beliefs that did not deserve the attention given them. I remember once he was talking about the crucifix, and the devotional fetish that it had become. "Why don't we worship the electric chair?" he commented. "Crucifixion was a very brutal execution in which we see Christ at his worst. Are we to remember him morbidly, worshiping and kissing the instrument used to kill him?" I remember when he said this that it had not occurred to me previously, and probably had not occurred to thousands of other Christians, that the sanctification of the cross was the equivalent of universal Christian masochism or morbid fetishism. I can see that it is good to remember the brutal execution of a hero, so that by remembering we will never allow it to happen again. But when the remembering takes on the love of the process (of execution) then we are worshiping the sadistic procedure, not the hero. Alfred believed that Jesus was basically a man, and that our first appraisals of Him should be practical, and not bloated with wishful thinking about celestial things that Jesus might be. He believed that Jesus was a good man, a saint, and an historical social revolutionary. He used to point out that Mary was evidently married, because Jesus had brothers. Jesus pointed at the divinity of every man, or the divine potential, and he may have been misinterpreted. His message was that we were all men, but we could be like Jesus, and discover that we had been a part of (children of) God, all the time. Alfred did not accept Hell as it is accepted by many Christians. To him, either the Christian concept of Hell was wrong, or the Christian concept of a

benevolent God was wrong. And he knew that he must try to point out these things to people, but he also knew that he had to do it gently, he did not want to fracture the faith of those that needed faith to sustain them, but he wanted to be honest and reassuring to those who were beginning to break the chains of blind belief. He did a lot of work along esoteric lines, knowing that any path to Truth was worth the while, if it were sincere. It was through the effort of Alfred and John Copitka that I was able to find a genuine materializing medium, and witness a genuine materialization. We experimented with paranormal phenomena, and we spent several years at this type of research, meeting sometimes every Friday. But his was a mind that did not plunge blindly into anything. He was able to pick out the frauds, and did not hesitate to notify our group when fraud was detected. He was sitting with a small group once, experimenting with tabletilting. One of the sitters had encouraged the sitting and had a habit of helping the table a bit. So Alfred reached beneath the table and caught and held the man's hand causing all phenomena to cease. I often wondered how he managed to do all that he did. When I first met him he was very close to sixty years of age. Yet he was in the process of building his house. The D'Alibertti children, a son and daughter, had married and were living out of the immediate area. Alfred felt that the time had come to try to make things more comfortable for his wife. Their house had been in bad shape for years, so he decided to rebuild it. He taught school besides his ministerial duties while all this was going on, and our "psychic" group met, as I mentioned, sometimes every Friday. And he spent a lot of time in hospitals, visiting the sick. I am inclined to think that his schedule ultimately killed him. He was a short, husky man with tremendous energy and determination. He was also one of the kindest men that I have known. When he visited my house or the Copitkas, I noticed that he always picked the children up and kissed them, and talked to them with genuine concern for their positions and dispositions. One day he had a heart attack while sitting in a chair. His passing was quick and unexpected, since all of us thought that his vitality would keep him going for a long, long time. My first reaction was a desire to put up a monument to him. It seemed that forgetfulness would settle over the town too quickly, and I knew that the town owed this man a lot. But his service dealt with intangibles for the most, and intangible services and acts of friendship cannot be seen unless they are written in history or granite. Then it dawned on me, that perhaps I was doing something, or trying to do something that Alfred would not approve of. His life was a great success, because he lived to the fullest a life of service. This fact, and his knowledge of that fact, was him. And this Self would be forever immortal without my

help, and without the reminders in paper or granite. However, I will retain, to the end of my days, the belief and fear that the members of his congregation never knew the real size of the man who was their minister. Last Act This was the last act of the play. Old James Inman was a little embarrassed and yet nervous. Why, thought he, should a playwright be nervous about someone else's play? This was, after all, a rare privilege... acting about the directions of acting. This was a room. It was large... large, but the corners and far sides were dimly seen. The far side of the room could have contained many people. If there were many people there the observer would never know, because things were hazy. There were a dozen people there, grown people, and two or three children. There was an evident age gap. The children were four or five at the most, several little blond haired boys and girls. The men were no less than forty, and most of them were fifty or more. John Perry and Irving G. Grubb sat across the table from Inman and seemed obscured by cigar smoke. These were old acquaintances, but all the rest had been recent encounters for Inman. John Perry was Russian and he never fully explained how he came upon the name of Perry. He was tall and heavy. A combination of an eager man, and an irritated man. He was always impatient to get to the Truth. He never did anything about it really, but he was always quick to criticize any signs of frivolous thinking in others. Irving was also tall, and also had a fair amount of dark hair. But Irving was better built, not quite so heavy. Irving was dour and suspicious. When he talked to you, he turned his head away to a degree, and he always listened with a frown of disbelief. And when he began to talk or reply the listener always found a mind of conjecture rather than argument, and a general mood of compromise together with a patient reaching-out with questions that might bring the two points of view together rather than trying to force his own views. Grandchildren are a spark of life for old people, but when the grandchildren reach the adult stage, there is no real urge to look after, or worry about great-grandchildren. The old men gravitate to the park, to the courthouse, or to some bench along a stream and indulge one another in meaningless comments which are always backed by meanings that all of them understand and never bother to try to translate. This particular meeting of Inman, Perry and Grubb, and the rest, differed in that there was no small talk. There were no audible words. All of them had

learned to converse adroitly by direct mind. A gestalt, a mood, or an entire philosophy was communicable in a couple of seconds. There would be a short lag... and each man's response could be picked up. Inman was looking back ten years, and they all knew it. There was a group of young men and women. It took years of his teaching to convince them that they did not exist. They were gone, and now in a way he wished that they still existed. Yes, they still exist in Timelatch where he met them... exist to lesser or greater degrees, that is. They were upset when he decided to take a vacation from Timelatch for a few days. His first thought was to take a couple with him, but he could not decide which, if any, could stand to be away from people of their own age. Those were good people. Most of them real warriors. And those who were not warriors were lovers. There are only two real ways to make the trip of life, Inman always insisted. A person must fight desperately for his goals, or he must love the goal without quibble or reason. The ones who turned out to be warriors were Frantice, Martin, Masara, Messano, Duke, Curstburger, Gugenheim, and many others, forty or more. They had gone out to teach, to live at the most effective angle for betweenness, so that their magic might multiply. Some had established their own experimental centers, and were making mistakes and learning how to make more mistakes and more voltage in the ensuing determination. Each of them had their own disciples who were not always taught the exact teachings Inman had advised. Each diverged a little, each to his peculiar personality. This may have annoyed Inman five years ago; little divergences had no effect upon his mind now. Irving smiled. His unabashed message was, "You old bastard, what is so important about your session with those shadows you projected but could not hold on to. We do not see you as such an important cog. And you are a warm person, that is about all. Oh, yes, I'll agree, a man who has read a lot and learned a lot... and I might even add, you have a soft heart in you... a bit mushy... did you no good at all." Inman smiled too. What is wrong with the Truth? Inman, the end-result, is little more than, a shadow. But then man is also something else besides that which winds up at the finish. He is also the history of his action. He is a process... even if one end is grey and smells like a damp cellar. Inman looked at Grubb and Perry, and thought, "It is good to be with you. No changing you two. No hopes unhatched here. No disciples unfinished. Just old friends who have no idea that I am. They see mostly a body. If I am warm in my attitude, they warm themselves at the glow of friendship. And if I am distant or cool to them, there is no anger, but a sort of detachment as if they were not picking up my thoughts at all."

Perry looked at Inman. "Disciples hell. Is that all? What became of your family? Doesn't it bother you to sit here in this haze, knowing that your family will never know or believe that you are anything but a capital nut? Ideas be damned. I can live without ideas, philosophies or earth-shaking revelations about the final Nature of Things... if I could be with my children and my grandchildren. What is there in any form of life where there is no longer any love?" Irving looked at the floor. He was disappointed in Perry. Inman stepped inside Perry for a moment and felt the heart-rending loneliness that Perry had. But all of them knew that Perry's boys had grown up and away. Poe was dead, and left no children. And Russ, who looked so much like John, threw his father out of his house, alienating their grandchildren from John. The mother had lost her mind. And John silently hears these things which he already knew, and nods his head. There was no hope. And there was no place to go to find the meaningful hope of youth again. And that was what it would take. None of them had the energy to become ambitious again, nor the passion to prime themselves for new folly. So this grey room would have to suffice for the time being. Somebody projected the need for a drink for all of them. Inman knew his lines. The script called for him to have a heart attack and he was supposed to slump forward upon the arm of his chair, at the mention of drinking. So he slumped forward. Perry and Grubb responded properly as the script directed them to. They simply stared. Inman projected the word, "Death." Everyone in the room looked at him and did not move. They stared. They echoed the word "death" in the same tone that a child would echo the word, "school". The acting was good. Some looked sincerely blank. The three little children came over to Inman's figure, and seemed amused that his arm protruded from the arm of the chair as if it were pointing straight ahead. Inman thought, "This is not in the script, but it looks rather macabre to have children in a play, playing with a dead man's fingers." So he projected to Perry and Grubb, "One of you fellows lead the children away." No projection came in return. Something had happened to the telepathic rapport. Everyone stared at him. He got a slight glimpse of their thoughts, but they directed no message to him. Or if they did, he was not picking up any intentional projection. He knew what they were thinking as they stared. "About the only thing Inman plays good is a dead man."

Then Inman knew that something was happening. He had lost the power to project because his entire chain of quantum energy was failing. This could only mean one thing. Genuine death. They would never know the difference, and so could not revive him. He would be dead for ages before they knew he was really dead. The voltage had spun down. The body had lost energy before, but had always recuperated soon enough to feed the neural coils with quantum energy. Now he only remembered the words to project, and was not sure if they would ever be received. "I am really dying. What a way to go, acting in a damned play... the part of a dead man."

The Riddle of Synchronicity by Michael Baldrige This article by TAT Journal staff writer, Michael Baldrige, is based on reflections from his reading of Jung, Synchronicity and Human Destiny by Ira Progoff (Julian Press, 1973). Synchronicity represents an attempt at conceptualizing, or at least delineating, certain unexplainable events. In the wider sense of the term, which is how Jung abstrusely presents it, it is not easy to comprehend. Synchronistic phenomena are of such an ambiguous nature that the resulting inferences and interpretations can lead to an exhausting and befuddling interconnection of factors. This is compounded by the fact that Jung himself had an incomplete understanding, which he admitted readily. Also, synchronistic phenomena are very difficult to validate because of their subjective natures. It is the type of experience which may immediately stun or amaze us, but which is passed over rather quickly, because its form may be "merely" a spontaneous, intuitive glimpse. When, however, we make the necessary connection between the intellectual idea and our own memories, it can be seen to be a much more common experience than was previously

suspected; but the depth and intensity of the intuitive feeling thereof seems to vary quite a bit among individuals with different degrees of sensitivity. In Jung's and Progoff's attempts at defining this nebulous concept, there seems to be a tendency to avoid definitive statements, perhaps in the fear that one will latch on to one side of the issue and falsely presume that it is understood. Jung may have attempted a near impossible task. He tried to tie in Synchronicity with the world view of theoretical physics at the same time that he related it psychologically to the individual. His approach seemed to be to describe all the related data, much of which was formed intuitively (and cross-referenced historically) and to hang the different elements side by side on the wall as if in an art gallery, hoping that the reader might make the intuitive leap by a simultaneous cognition of all the elements. From the majority of the responses to his conception, it appears that he has, to a large extent, failed. In 1955 he said in a letter to Progoff, "I wonder why people so often labor under the impression that I could not possibly mean what I say." A working definition which can be related psychologically gives one a bit of a toe-hold to begin correlating and comparing the categories of events that can be labeled synchronistic phenomena. Synchronicity can then be defined as a meaningful, and usually simultaneous, correspondence between external (objective happenings) and internal events (or mental states) which is so striking as to be beyond the probability of being merely chance or the result of an observable causal chain. Such phenomena as ESP, the I Ching, Astrology, precognitive dreams, as well as the hypothesis of intangible, guiding spirits, all fall within the realm of this concept. If we apply these examples of Synchronicity to our working definition, the external-internal correlations give a further opportunity to find common denominators. With ESP phenomena, the internal would be your particular thoughts, while the external would be another person's corresponding thoughts. Concerning the I Ching, the internal might be a state of mind, while the external would be a seemingly random selection from a book of wisdom that seems to correspond and often is found to be very relevant. In Astrology, the internal factors are personality facets and inclinations which correspond externally to the particular relation and influence of the universe at our time of birth. With a precognitive dream we have images and "feeling-tones" which correspond later with an actual event in our life. With the spirit hypothesis, the internal or subjective phenomena might be questions that we have concerning our destiny, while the external correspondence can be seeming objective happenings which answer those questions in symbolic or explicit ways. This is not an inclusive listing. We could speculate indefinitely about the real processes behind these events and probably bite our tail, but the point here is just to establish a general working definition. In this regard, an example can be useful. During the course of my recent study of Synchronicity, it oddly seems that there has been a prevalence of synchronistic events in my life. This cannot

be proven, and I would hesitate to try, because if I had to describe the parallels, intuitions, erroneous "intuitions" and uncanny correspondences that occurred within my fluctuating consciousness, I'm sure that someone (my mother perhaps) would feel inclined to have me committed. The most significant of these examples, however, involved what seemed to be a precognitive dream. The primary correspondences between the dream (internal) and the events which later took place (external) were to a large extent a matter of mental states, but there were also parallels in the concrete elements of the dream, which involved a TAT symposium with a small crowd, a guitar, a walk in the snow, three men whom I spontaneously recognized from the dream, and an ominous feeling within. All of these were present in the dream and later in the actual event. The way in which the correlation between the dream and the reality occurred was purely a matter of spontaneous realization. When I saw the men in my dream in real life, the whole ominous mood of the dream descended upon me. When I found myself playing the guitar, in a certain mood, and certain comments were made to me, again there was a flash that I recognized as parallel with the dream. And lastly, when I found myself walking in the snow, in a particular state of mind, again I was momentarily amazed. In the dream I went for a walk because a poisonous gas was unleashed, and I thought if I could get plenty of oxygen I could dilute its strength. In real life I had a disagreement with a friend and I did not dwell upon it, but decided to take a walk and "air things out." While I was taking this walk another coincidence occurred. I glanced at a bumper sticker which said, "Answer to Job," and which had a picture on it which I felt somehow corresponded to my mental state. It was an advertisement for a play and, at the time, it struck me as quite odd and somehow significant. Two weeks later I read the following statement in one of the later chapters of Ira Progoff's book: "Significantly, also, the theme of Answer to Job (written by Carl Jung) is a partial application of the Synchronicity principle." I was astounded. We could easily become intellectually mired in the study of Synchronicity. If we follow the line of reasoning stated in Jung's essays on the subject, we feel as if we are juggling nine grapefruits. When we read Ira Progoff's clarifications, we are given the impression (even though it is not intended) that Jung's conception was solely the outgrowth of metaphysical history. Progoff spends a large amount of time discussing this aspect of the subject. When he does get into the psychological aspect, it is primarily with the use of Jungian terminology which seems to leave the subject still a bit too abstract. This leaves us with a number of alternatives if we wish to truly understand the phenomena. Certainly, on the experiential level, where understanding must be formed, we can observe ourselves attentively and record these events when they happen. We can experiment with ourselves and speculate

endlessly. We can also talk to reliable psychics and compare notes. I personally know of a number of people who experimented with LSD and had extremely unusual experiences which intimated that the entire "trip," including external events, was programmed in meaningful ways for their specific benefit. Looking back on their comments, I realized that they were talking about Synchronicity. In any event, it seems that direct experience of the phenomena is quite helpful, if not absolutely necessary, to approach either Jung's exposition, or Progoff's interpretations on the matter. Ira Progoff related the "Synchronicity hypotheses" to other explanations of human destiny which begin to make the implications of this idea apparent. The basic impression which these types of phenomena leave behind is that they are somehow independent of cause and effect (or common sense). Progoff traced the critique of causality. David Hume, in his Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, stated that cause and effect were not something which we actually "see;" rather, they are merely inferred from disparate, simple observations. He also implied that the belief in causality was a "habit of thought," that was "agreed upon" because it was a necessary belief for individuals in society to order their lives. Jung's idea of causality was that it was a "statistical" truth, i.e. true in most cases, and that it could not explain all events that occur within the psyche or nature. This is why he attempted to make his concept of Synchronicity a little appetizing to theoretical physics--because he felt that the present scientific knowledge of the world was lacking a comprehensive view. He did not intend to displace causality, but to complement it. Even though Jung and Progoff continually repeat this latter qualification on the scope of Synchronicity, it seems that half of the ways in which Jung explains it point to the idea that it is a pervasive principle which must be true in all cases. For instance, he describes the principle as a kind of "acausal orderedness" and he refers back to the ancient Chinese term, "Tao," as well as to Leibniz's idea of a "pre-established harmony." After digesting a number of these related statements, I was drawn to the unremarkable conclusion that things are because they are. Things are. But that is not all they are. They are interdependent and unimpeachably related. One is further drawn to a somewhat abstract picture of a universe that marches on like a rolling landscape, or a giant ant-hill, where all the inhabitants march every which way and presume that they know where they are going, but are really only riding the waves of a pattern that goes far beyond them. This is "God's Plan" or the Tao. We can shake and wiggle all we want, but only up to a point does it make any difference. If I have gravitated towards appropriate conclusions, then we can see why Jung had such a difficult time logically explaining the basis of his theory to the scientific community. This larger view of the universe is the macrocosm. The individual, according to Jung, contains within the realm of his unconscious, a microcosm--a replica

or representation of the universe. In fact, he postulates that there is a part of man, the psychoid, which is so in touch with Nature or the macrocosm that it could almost be said to be a part of it. He also uses the term "collective unconscious," which implies that there is a mind dimension which is potentially knowable by everyone, and is the same for everyone, or which is a part of everyone. Leibniz made an interesting statement concerning this idea which takes it further: "Everybody responds to all that happens in the universe, so that he who saw all could read in each one what is happening everywhere, and even what has happened and what will happen." In any event, we can see that in some way the macrocosm (the universe) manifests itself in or through the microcosm (the individual). A vision of Synchronicity or a synchronistic event would be simply a mental recognition of a particular unconscious representation (the microcosm) at the same time we are witnessing a corresponding part of the macrocosm consciously through the senses. This is not just a chance event, however, but the result of a pattern which exists "across" time. At any given moment in time all things must be in balance, and as this balance is constantly achieved a definite pattern is formed which puts all things in their places. This is in contrast to causality which is a pattern which moves through time.

[Illustration: "Things are. But that is not all they are. They are interdependent and unimpeachably related."] When we watch a series of synchronistic events occur in our lives we may be inclined to speculate. One idea which often occurs is that our lives are somehow pre-determined or at least determined by forces that go well beyond our limited scope. In the case of a precognitive dream, we might better choose the word "pre-arranged." How else could we know ahead of time what was going to happen unless it has somehow already been arranged. Progoff went as far as to say, "It is inherent in every process of nature, including the psyche, that the seed of each process contains an implicit foreknowledge of the goal towards which it is unfolding." This is naturally a debatable statement, but in many small ways we can see a foreknowledge at work. Perhaps an example of this might be appropriate. Say, for instance, we go food shopping one evening. We are walking through the aisles and for some reason on this evening we follow an impulse and buy more food than usual. We also buy many items which we normally do not buy. Later that evening, some guests arrive, and as a further coincidence the unusual items we bought turn out to be their favorite foods. These kinds

of coincidences occur all the time. They imply a kind of foreknowledge, or at least an unconscious attunement with a pattern, and are an example of Synchronicity. Other kinds of synchronistic phenomena leave a greater impact, while stirring more philosophical musings. Perhaps we are merely watching a natural wave of specifically related events roll through our lives, just an example of the natural order throughout the universe. This could be the basis of the clichĂŠ, "When it rains, it pours." We might also be watching God's Plan or the intangible Tao as it acts through our predestined psychological nature. When we recognize the elements which are to be a part of our destiny, somewhere within our unconscious a kind of essential alarm clock goes off. In either event, we are aware that we are not deciding our course entirely by ourselves. Another explanation of synchronicity which is not mentioned directly by either Jung or Progoff is the idea that synchronistic phenomena may in some cases be the result of a manipulation of sorts by beneficent or degrading invisible entities. This possibility makes sense because sometimes the phenomena which occur are of such an outlandishly coincidental character that explanations which exclude the possibility of some kind of intelligent force seem incapable of making sense. Progoff spoke of Jung's frustrations in his work which Synchronicity. Jung began to feel that there was some kind of "trickster" element in it. Progoff said, "It seemed as though one of the playful gods who tease and play practical jokes on humanity was tantalizing him. At other times it seemed to him that Synchronicity had a spirit and a will of its own and that, in a demonic way, it created hurdles out of thin air to trip him." Progoff related this idea to some of the possibly tangential directions that Jung's studies took him, as if this "trickster" were partially responsible. Progoff worked with Jung for two years and in that time became quite intimate with his ideas. His interpretative attempts do make the matter somewhat simpler. He also put Synchronicity in a scientific perspective and cleared the way for its acceptance by saying many things which needed to be said, but which were not Jung's place to say. His only critique of Jung, which seems quite valid, is that in Jung's attempts to appease the scientific community he left some muddled waters that detracted from the impact of his insights. But Jung stuck his neck out and must be respected for this. He published his ideas on Synchronicity even though he considered it only to be a work in progress. When a person makes a serious and determined effort to solve the Inscrutable Riddle of Life much confusion may arise if the approach is onesided; proud intellectuals are transformed into frivolous school children and intuitive sages sound like lunatics. But in the effort to overcome our limitations we continue to believe that true understanding is possible and we seek a way to broaden the scope of our minds by combining intellect with

intuition. Carl Jung was one such pioneer who attempted to construct a consistent world-view which took into account both the scientific, or logical, and the mystical, or intuitive, approach. In his conception of Synchronicity, this combination is put to its greatest test. Forum The TAT Forum is a reader's exchange and correspondence column. You are invited to write to this column and offer comments or pose questions concerning the articles or letters published in this magazine or let others know about your investigations, discoveries or resources that you may have come across in your own search.

TAT Journal: I am enclosing a $2.00 check for a year's subscription to your journal and wish you all kind of success with your new venture. I am interested in religion and its relation to the psychic phenomena and have reached the point in my life where I see a continuity to life from experiences and dreams which are the most enlightening teachers when they are comprehended. My philosophy at present is that truth is what each one believes it to be, and when a group follows a leader then they all believe the same way. But all others are outsiders. Pretty simple, isn't it? Sincerely, Harold B. Marsh Spokane, Washington

Forum Editor, I want to thank you for sending me a sample of your TAT Journal. However, I am sorry to tell you that I was disappointed with the magazine upon an initial, cursory reading. The format looked muddled and amateurish, and the content seemed, at a glance, quite juvenile. I do not believe in paying for something of poor quality, and so did not, at that time, believe that I should buy a subscription. But I did feel, from a high regard for the aims of the TAT Society, that I ought to give the journal a more thorough examination before I disposed of it; therein might be a pearl awaiting discovery. So I sat down with the magazine, determined to read it through. I started with Joseph Kerrick's piece, "New Age, Old Age and In-Between," and there, tangled in the verbiage of the first paragraph, I stopped. And if I hadn't believed that

Kerrick was sincere in his efforts and that he had something of worth to say-notions I derived from reading his book, Is There a Way Out?--I would have tossed the magazine aside for good. But my faith in the TAT Society and my favorable suspicions of Kerrick brought me back to the article again and again. However, it took several starts before I could hack my way completely through the rhetorical overgrowth, and a week passed before I emerged from the other side of that brier-patch. But, by persisting in the struggle, I gained a new understanding of the purpose of the TAT Journal and of the TAT Society as a whole. I write you now as an exercise of that new lesson, and to tell you of my encounter with "New Age, Old Age and InBetween." I had no easy time reading Kerrick's essay; I grappled with him the whole way. And most of the insights I won from that reading came as a result of my own determination to complete a task begun, and from my heated, and quite imaginary debates with the author; only at the end of the essay did Kerrick himself bestow any gifts upon his wearied reader. The first attempt (and nearly the last) at reading "New Age" was the most difficult. Right from the start, my cosmology was attacked by the author's assertion of mysterious "powers and forces that rule the earth," and by his implication of their ominous intentions. What powers? What forces? What intentions? I eagerly scanned the page for some definition, for some factual morsel that I might either accept as plausible or refute with my own superior concepts. I found only a "refashioning" of "intellectual nihilism" and a "rearrangement" of "ultimate desirability or attainability." I searched more carefully. I looked for some subtle, between-the-lines hint of the author's knowledge of earth's mysterious rulers. But the only ominous presence I could sense was in the author's own "brutal" and "half-barbaric" tone. I began to suspect that the man had something that he wanted to spring on me, and I became uncomfortable. I got the itchy feeling that he didn't really want to talk about cosmology at all; he seemed to have other mysterious intentions. But I didn't seek them out, here my patience broke and I could go no further with that first reading. Yet, as I have mentioned already, I returned to the article several times, though each subsequent reading was nearly as exasperating as the first. However, as I wrestled through each attempt, I slowly began to feel an exhilaration from the mental and emotional exercise. Kerrick even began to make sense to me, though cautiously, I still kept the barbarian at a machete's distance. The more effort I had to exert to push through Kerrick's jungle, the more alert I became, both to Kerrick's ideas and to my own inner processes. The more arguments I muttered at the author, the more my stuffed concepts became modified, tried and tempered. Soon, I even began to see a familiar face peering from the print. I saw myself in what I was reading. I realized that my own mood, as I fumed at Kerrick's "heretic-hating" attitude, had become somewhat less than civilized itself. It also occurred to me that I had a few egoistic machinations of my own, from which my rebuttals took their

pattern. Though these insights are valuable enough returns for any effort, I ultimately received a gem from the author as well. When I finally burst forth into the clarity of the last few paragraphs, I could plainly see what it was that Kerrick was talking about, and I accepted his thesis. I agreed with his conviction that appearances can be deceptive, that when the outward props of life--even if they are as spiritual as we can imagine--take precedence over the inner search for understanding and Being, then genuine spiritual work disappears and illusion reigns supreme. So after having attended to this long and aggravating lesson, I no longer had to settle for merely kicking the machine in frustration; I now understood that one inserts the proper coins to receive the desired product. Having thus emerged from "New Age, Old Age and In-Between," I took another look at the rest of the TAT Journal. As I flipped through its pages I mused over what I had learned from my encounter with Kerrick. It seemed to me that lessons such as this might be the essential aim of the TAT Society. I remembered that the purpose of TAT was not to impart certain knowledge or teachings to anyone, but to provide the opportunities for experiences such as mine. As my thoughts began to mount, I became more excited about a journal such as this. And with each page I turned, the magazine became increasingly attractive. Although I knew that the TAT Journal would still appear childish and ugly next to an established periodical, I also realized that this sample was just a beginning, and that all beginnings are childish and ugly. While reading through "Perspective" for the first time, I learned that the editors had foreseen the little drama I had engaged in previously, and had already established the guidelines I had initially ignored, but now support--I ate my crow supper. At last, with the closing lines of that piece, I read the words spoken directly to me: "Dissatisfaction with our present conditions of knowledge and being need not damn us to futility and despair. It may propel us into a genuine activity, that could lead to real wisdom..." Thanks for the sample of the TAT Journal. Sincerely, Michael G. Treanor Muncie, Indiana

To the Forum: I was glad to see Joe Kerrick's article (Nov. 1977) which referred to the "New Age" as a prop, or the background and scenery of a play. He stated this in relation to spiritual truth, which must necessarily be found beneath any cultural facade. In this light, the New Age (which is fading fast) can be seen for what I believe it is--mostly rhetoric and costumes, with little spiritual change taking place. It is unfortunate that all spiritual endeavors are being lumped within this context. Spirituality exists in all times, and is anything but the result of a New Age, for it stems from what we all must

face, the Everpresent, chilling realities of life. Spirituality results when, for one reason or another, we can't hide from them any longer. Marc McDonald Somerset, Pennsylvania

Using Habit Force The initial reaction to mention of the word "habit" is usually negative. Actually, habit is a neutral phenomenon inherent in the nature of our world. The habit of everyday life blends imperceptibly into the habits of natural law and the movement of electrons and planets. Indeed, if we were not surrounded with predictable processes, the world could not exist as we know it and our universe could be in nothing other than uncreate chaos. Man is a creature of habit in innumerable ways, from the manner in which he ties his shoes to the more subtle psychological habits of attitude and interpersonal reaction. Habit is paradoxical; it both aides us and hinders us. In many ways it saves us much energy and attention, and can be consciously used in an indefinite amount in this direction. Can you imagine learning anew each time to drive a car or to use a typewriter? On the other hand, becoming entrenched in habits and not being consciously aware and discriminating towards them can tend to put one to sleep or make one mechanical, a robot. You can use the human tendency toward habit by consciously discriminating what habits you wish to establish in your daily life and applying energy to do so. I believe this can be a way to vastly improve efficiency in daily life, as well as being a means to spiritual becoming. Whatever your occupation may be, you become more efficient at it when you continually refine and develop habits that apply. If you wish to become ingenious and efficient, then apply energy in numerous tasks during the day to find a better way of performing them. In time, this approach or attitude will become habitual and you will become ingenious and efficient. If you wish to become a discriminating thinker, then search out habitually the different sides and angles of the issues and questions you encounter. By constant attempt at this, in time there will be a change in your character and you will have become a discriminating thinker, to the degree of energy applied and strength of habit established. In establishing a positive habit, initially the energy and effort required will be very great compared to what is required once the habit is established. That is, it takes a great deal of effort to change your behavior and to continually and consciously act in another manner; but once you have habitually begun to act in that manner, it takes much less energy to keep the habit going.

This is one of the secrets of ascetics and yogis. It might seem incredibly painful to you or me to wear a hair shirt and live in a cave, but once the ascetic has become used to or accustomed to his situation, it requires very little pain and energy to maintain himself there. Admittedly, it would require a great deal of pain and energy to accustom himself. The yogi who can meditate for four or five hours at a sitting could not do so when he first attempted it. By a great deal of effort he formulated a habit, or trained himself, so that he is able to perform the feat now with little effort. The energy and determination are required in forming the habit, not in maintaining it. Of course, there is always the possibility of continually applying energy to increase capacity and quality in whatever area the habitprocess is applied. Although most of our apparent and superficial life can be claimed to be composed of various habit structures and processes, there does seem to be a separate or observing part of the psyche that can view, discriminate and perhaps give direction to the superficial aspect of our life. I believe this observing part of the psyche can be trained to objectively view and discriminate what changes need to be made in one's life and to provide the stimulation to make those changes. If, as some accuse, man is almost totally a creature of habit, mechanical, a robot, then the quality of the robot is the nature of its habits. If we must be robots, at least we can be alert robots, and somehow aim our robot natures in a direction we desire. Jake Jaqua Moundsville, W. Va.

A Band of Poets Desert From The Red Army, Forever All day our horses ran away with us. Suddenly the edge vanished. Stars emerged in the heavens, Halving themselves infinitely To make new night flowers. As we galloped near the river without color, Our minds let go of the reins. A few individual men Were lost permanently. We did not mourn the passing there. By dawn an absolute candle Gilded the tiny mushroom towns silver, And smeared gold behind my eyes. I could not distinguish my comrades From the one anothers of my being.

Clearly the war was over now. Though a cannon toiled in the distance And church bells thudded in their rims, All this behind us became forgotten country. For what we discovered is never lost. Tim Calhoun 1977 Copyright for the author

Face to Face with the Paradox The world is turning more and more to science for answers to its questions. Science has uncovered many secrets of nature and has brought us much in terms of technology and medicine. The astounding thing about it all, however, is that in spite of all of our progress and seeming scientific enlightenment we are still in the deepest dark about the answer to the most obvious and fundamental of all possible questions--what is the nature of our instant-to-instant experience? The actual, right-now-as-you-read-this-word experience. Is there even any remote understanding of this phenomenon? The answer is that there is no real answer at all in spite of the fact that we know very well and can explain with the utmost precision the exact mechanisms which occur as you scan these printed lines. We know what and where the eyes and brain are, and we can trace many of the precise electrical events occurring along the optical pathway from your retina to the visual areas of your brain. All of this information, however, serves only to introduce us to a very surprising paradox. So let us explain how it is you are able to see the words you are now reading. This is an accurate scientific explanation of how one of your primary senses, sight, is working. A similar type of explanation could be used in describing the working of any of the other main senses. To begin with, this printed paper is located out here some distance from your face. Light is striking the page and being reflected back into your eyeballs in a pattern of differing intensities. Darkness corresponds to the places where light is mostly absorbed, the inked areas, and light where most of the light is reflected on the uninked surfaces. In short, a reflection of the distant page is being projected onto your eyes. The lens within your eye is focusing this light image on your retina, and the retina is translating the light-dark pattern into a corresponding pattern of electrical nerve impulses. Those impulses are being transmitted along wire-like nerve fibers from the retina ultimately to the very back of the cerebral portion of your brain. This area is called the occipital lobe and it fills the back of your skull. The nerve fibers cross and interact with each other and with nerve fibers from other parts of the brain in a complex way. Basically, however, a pattern of activated nerve fibers exists in your occipital lobe corresponding to the original pattern of light reflected from this page. This explains how you are

now seeing what you are seeing--or does it? Think again! This page which you see before you is, in fact, not at all before you. It is quite clear from the foregoing explanation that it--what you are seeing right now--is somewhere in the back of your head. Look around the room. That also is not OUT THERE. It is in your head. That scene is not anywhere distant from you, it is "in" you. Where the reality lies, of which this is a projection, we do not know. If this is how the inside of your mind looks, where is your head? Look out the door and maybe you will see the inside of your skull somewhere off in the distance. Where are the windows out of which you are looking? If everything you are experiencing is not here in this pattern which makes up your right-now experience, then where is it? What exactly is outside of you and what is inside? Is someone looking at you as you read this? Where is what he is seeing? In short, where is consciousness located? Try to find it. Going back now to the usual "I am in here looking out at you" point of view, we can consider the scientific explanation in a different sort of way. I mentioned earlier that all of this leads us to a paradox. We can't explain our perceptions in terms of the observed patterns occurring in the physical brain. No matter how we look at it we end up with a paradox. The world is still not explained by saying it is all in your head even if science unwittingly seems to prove it. It does seem, however, that you--the observer of this Phenomenon--are very difficult to locate. What concluding facts can we settle on from these observations? For one thing, we can say with certainty that there is no "out there" which we "in here" are looking at. At the same time there is no "inside of my head" type of reality since if that were true everything else would have to be in here with me and there would be no outside of me to be inside of anymore! Furthermore, the body-centered self which we all assume without question to be the clearest representation of ourselves can really only be said to be another happening, another event of which there is an unlocalizable, unnamable awareness. Beyond this we can say nothing at all about the ultimate nature of this awareness--at least nothing based on the scientific and common sense observations we have just made. Looking elsewhere we can ponder the thoughts of others. What did Jung mean by the collective unconscious? Does this hint at some kind of larger mind not contained in any individual head but manifesting in all? What about the words we receive from the few men who seem to have found the answer for themselves? We are told that we have an eternal timeless essence and that everything springs from a single source outside of which there is nothing. Do our observations in the here and now suggest any connection with such ideas? It seems to me to make a great deal of sense to look carefully at these ideas, especially in light of the real uncertainty which we discover when we drop our presumptions of knowing anything for certain and face the fact of the paradox.

Rob Ayres Holliston, Mass.

The figure of Prince Muishkin in Dostoyevsky's The Idiot presents a portrait of a man caught in a dilemma. His predicament is meant to be universal in scope and timeless in its dimensions. It is the mark of a great literary work when a modern reader, upon reaching the end of this book, feels caught in the same no-exit bind which ensnares the 19th century Prince. And indeed, this is exactly the result which follows from a sensitive reading of this work. The question which the reader feels so strongly is the one which creeps hidden in every life, even the least examined: How is the man of pure heart and good intentions to live his life in the face of unreasoning injustice and the uncertain rewards for living the virtuous life? Is it possible to obtain fulfillment in life by being a good man? Dostoyevsky presents to the reader a full range of alternatives for pursuing fulfillment in life: Rogogin, the dark figure of a wealthy St. Petersburg financier, is driven to murder and madness by his dissolute quest after Nastasia Philipovna. Hypolyte, consumed by tuberculosis, longs for intellectual recognition, believing that his last great confession, a rambling comment on the nature of life and death, will bring him the academic respect he craves from his fellows. Instead of respect, he earns derision and is made the fool when he badly bungles a public suicide attempt. Likewise, Nastasia herself, unable to quench her own hidden longings, torn between a Bohemian life and a respectable marriage; falls victim to Rogogin's knife. Aglaya, the beautiful and aristocratic ingĂŠnue, seeking after a noble-hearted and intelligent husband, in the end is jilted by the Prince and is left to marry a disreputable Polish confidence man. One by one, each major character in the novel fails to achieve the fulfillment each believes is contained within the goal. And yet, the reader understands why they fail. Each character contains the seeds of self-destruction. Rogogin is consumed by overwhelming lust, Hypolyte by overbearing egotism, Nastasia by maddening indecision, and Aglaya by pride and family indulgence. Within a moralistic framework, each character sins in a way which causes each to be destroyed. Only the Prince seems to be without sin. If any character is to find his way through the maze of life, is to be rewarded and fulfilled, it is the Prince. And in fact, through most of the novel, the Prince appears not to be the idiot he is sometimes called by his friends; he is the only character who is able to succeed on the strength of his pure heart, good intentions, and honest deeds: Two beautiful women fall in love with him, he inherits a fortune, he is able to make friends of his enemies, and his placement within a respected and powerful St. Petersburg family seems assured. Yet he, too, fails and is destroyed. We are given broad hints of the Prince's ultimate failure. Early in

the novel, the Prince is stricken with a recurrence of his epilepsy just at the moment when Rogogin is about to murder him. Again, toward the end of the novel, the Prince stupidly shatters a prized oriental vase at the party held for him at the home of his future in-laws. To make matters worse, the party ends with a second recurrence of his epilepsy, embarrassing everyone concerned. The Prince is not without his faults: however, none rise to the same level of self-destruction which ruin the other major characters. The question presents itself: Why then is the Prince destroyed? The reader is forced to the conclusion that there is no good reason for Muishkin's major fault and contrive to blame his destruction on the love triangle between himself, Aglaya, and Nastasia. However, at most, the Prince simply makes a bad judgement, choosing Nastasia over Aglaya. In the end he is reconciled to marry Nastasia even though he realizes he has hurt and disappointed Aglaya. This is hardly reason for destroying an otherwise wholly admirable character. There is no good reason for Muishkin's return to the lunatic asylum in Switzerland. And this must be Dostoyevsky's answer to Muishkin's dilemma and to our own. One cannot depend on life to dispense its favors based on one's spiritual, emotional, or intellectual purity. The good man cannot expect any reward in life as a result of his virtue. This conclusion is the unfortunate answer to the hidden question of our daily lives. One may be materially secure, free from sin, and full of love for his fellow men and yet blight and ruin may strike at any moment. In the end, the grave sins of each of the doomed characters in the novel are not adequate to explain their destruction. One must conclude that they, like Muishkin, are destroyed for no good reason. If one looks again at Rogogin, there is no good reason for his murdering Nastasia: he has her in the end, free from the Prince. There is no good reason for Nastasia not to marry either the Prince or Rogogin; both are wealthy and respected. And Hypolyte probably is the great intellect he pretends to be. Dostoyevsky makes it clear to us that living without sin is not the means to salvation. How then does he suggest that we live our lives in the face of life's absurd conclusion? Unfortunately, The Idiot gives us no help. Muishkin's dilemma remains one hundred years after the novel was written, and part of its greatness and appeal lies in the fact that we are still trying to answer this question today. Charles T. Williams Columbus, Ohio. Book Reviews A Glimpse of Nothingness by Janwillem van de Wetering, Houghton-Mifflin,

1975. Janwillem van de Wetering conveys his journey as a Zen student-struggling, falling, getting back up, and moving forward--in a way that is down-to-earth, somewhat original, and downright inspirational at certain points in his latest book, A Glimpse of Nothingness. The author is a vivid example of an ordinary, everyday, nose-against-the-grindstone student of the Dharma--Zen style--who, like the majority of aspirants on this type of path, is buffeted to and fro by conflicting emotions and weaknesses which are constant reminders of his limitations. The qualities of honesty with oneself and a lack of pretentiousness seem to be ideals to which many veteran students of Zen aspire. Throughout his writings van de Wetering portrays a growing resistance to the tendency to deceive himself into believing he is something he is not. He keeps plunging forward, reporting all the while on his progress and setbacks along the way. This book is a journal composed largely of the inner-mental dialogue of a student at a Zen meditation retreat: "The meditation had started. I repeated my koan, as quietly and as slowly as possible. The thoughts came, as always, and flitted about in their undisciplined and silly ways. But I sat well and the koan gradually became the centre of my concentration." Anyone who has persevered through the grueling discipline of extended meditations on the nature of the mind, knows of the seemingly overwhelming obstacles waiting to greet and stifle one's efforts. Trying to look at the mind with the mind oftentimes leaves us feeling like the kitten spinning futilely in circles trying to catch his own elusive tail. Attempting to observe the thoughts and their labyrinthine gestalts for weeks, months, and years on end results in predictable periods of frustration and boredom, interspersed with occasional bursts of insight and clarity which are usually quick to dissolve back into the whirling vortex of complete mental identification. The author's description of falling asleep in the Zendo brought back personal memories of similar circumstances that befell me some years back while just beginning my initial tour of duty in the Buddhist "boot camp" of Karma Dzong (a Tibetan Buddhist center in Colorado): "Pain (from sitting in one place for so long) was replaced by my old enemy: sleep. I fell asleep constantly and had to rush out during the breaks to rub my face with snow." If we are to believe the writings of such individuals as Garma C.C. Chang in The Practice of Zen, then the heart of Zen lies in its emphasis on the intentional creation of tension. In van de Wetering's book the stresses of life in a Zen community are described in lucid detail: "Tensions in the Zendo are normal. In Japan I had witnessed how some of the monks, especially the young ones, could not bear the

stress. Egged on by the master and the senior monks, driven relentlessly to break their koans, they rebelled, without probably wanting to rebel. I had seen how a monk, on his way to sanzen had grabbed one of the altar's supporting poles and refused to go in." Unfortunately, the reactionary hunger to escape the necessary confrontative trauma of such a discipline commands much of our attention also: "The old teacher had been right when he spoke to me in my dream. Your personality will crumble away, until there is nothing left. Whatever had I let myself in for? I seriously thought of running away. I could have walked to the nearest store and telephoned for a taxi. I could probably have caught a plane that very night. But I shook the thought off and walked back to the (retreat) cabin." The author's insight into the often heavy-handed techniques used by the Zen teacher to shock his students out of their lethargy are expressed in a convincing manner. The confrontation starts lightly at first, but soon intensifies as the student develops a greater capacity to hold the induced tension: "A Zen master does not encourage. He may weaken, and encourage a beginner, stuck on his 1st koan and groping about in the dark and knocking his head against real or imagined obstacles. But the encouragement is for the very 1st beginning. The master prefers to discourage, to destroy the supports, to push the disciple to the point of no return where he has to make his leap; and there is never any guarantee that he may land safely." That the teacher knows the student's mind more intimately and sees it more clearly than the latter does himself, comes as a bit of a shock to the student as the mirroring process of the whole relationship evolves. Through such episodes as the following teacher-to-student confrontation, we are able to witness the mechanics of this highly pressurized educational process of exposing the myriad forms of the ego: "Are you frightened now?, I asked. Did I touch the sore spot in your faith? Do you want to stop the discussion? Are you losing your temper because I am kicking against the shelf which supports your importance? Do you think the shelf may break and that you will drop into the bottomless hole? Are you worried about losing something?" Most serious Zen students will agree that the initially painful unmasking process, as hinted at in the above paragraph, must be gone through in order to allow for greater maturity and progress. The trick seems to be in learning how to open to this confrontation process. Sometimes the teacher may

deflate our ego-vanity complex with shocking harshness--the blunt truth that we are not that which we think ourselves to be cannot escape us if we are committed to being sincere with ourselves. Once again the secret seems to be in developing the courage to see things as they really are. Van de Wetering implies that during this process the student often becomes mired in a self-justification syndrome until the realization hits that ". . .the teacher's actions are acts of kindness. He works from a point which we can't reach or grasp. He is free, and we are not. He knows what is going on." We often think we know or have found something to discover that we have been complacently coasting along with a whole set of superficial realizations. In The Practice of Zen by Garma C.C. Chang, we find the ancient Zen master Han Shan warning us repeatedly that there is no greater deception or sin than to be satisfied with a small and shallow attainment. At one stage in his meditation intensive, the author appears to momentarily cut through his mental garbage long enough to reach a point of clarity ("a glimpse of nothingness"), only to be cast back into his mechanical state of mind once again: "No self. I began to get used to the idea. The shape walking about in the melting snow of a faraway country (the author being a Dutchman doing a retreat in America) was nothing but a temporary, transparent, changing figure. An apparent identity, nothing more. A vehicle. . .a cloudy spook on his way from a nonreal beginning to just as nonreal end. Or rather, I thought I could accept it. But I knew that this apparent identity would, at the drop of a soft hat, speak up for itself, lose its temper, be jealous or greedy, or filled with fear. It would probably quake if it cut its finger; a free spirit can be made into mincemeat and it will smile right through the treatment. I meant to get that far."

[Illustration: "That the teacher knows the student's mind more intimately and sees it more clearly than the latter does himself, comes as a bit of a shock to the student as the mirroring process of the whole

relationship evolves."] Gradually the ego-identification complex begins to loosen its grip (ever so slightly), only to be reinforced at every turn by the fear-reaction mechanism which mysteriously manages to deflect every challenge to the mental supremacy of the ego. . . a frustrating cycle which somehow must be broken. One intriguing aspect of van de Wetering's life is that after a year's stay in a traditional Japanese monastery, he returned to a lay existence as a businessman. A Glimpse of Nothingness is the sequel to his first book, The Empty Mirror; the former is based on a short stay at an anonymous American Zen community founded by a "graduate" student of the author's original Zen teacher from Japan (who is now dead). The book revolves around the observations of one individual's struggle to know the root nature of the human mind, with reflections being grounded in experience throughout. There are setbacks, limitations, and rationalizations confronting the author continually curing his journey. We would be wise to take note of them as they apply to our own quest. . . for van de Wettering's efforts to first see, and then transcend these obstacles, certainly can be applied to our own individual disciplines. His strength lies in seeing them for what they are and trying to cultivate the courage to work through them. Many contemporary philosophical writings are plagued by the "think-talk syndrome" of intellectual double talk. In Zen the name of the game seems to be learning how to bring about a change of being; and, if we are to believe the testimony of the great Zen masters, such change can come about by persistent and determined effort. Janwillem van de Wetering's rough sketchings of this process could prove to be an encouraging tool for the earnest student to utilize in his search for the real self. David Diaman Moundsville, W. Va. The Conquest of Illusion, by J.J. van der Leeuw, Quest Books Most of the Western philosophers, such as Kant and Hegel, could take a lesson from the philosophy of the East (Lao Tze, Gautama) or even from Plato, in the ability to speak a simple, yet profound, language. Unfortunately, our philosophy has relied upon a talent for expounding what might have been meant in a manner that, according to van der Leeuw, is a "deluge of words, barren of action, and consequently the man in the street has come to look upon philosophy as a pretentious speculation leading nowhere, an intellectual game, subtle and clever, sometimes not even that, but always without practical value for the life of everyday." In the process of attempting to promote our progress of understanding, we may find the philosophy or psychology section of our modern libraries the

most confusing and full of illusion rather than the most enlightening. So we turn to other sources which may offer a more direct approach, and still remain within a philosophical realm--a vital philosophy of a truly psychological or "subjective" nature. Van der Leeuw expresses a distaste for the use of the words subjective and objective but states that, "...even though we may be happily oblivious of it, all facts are of a psychological nature, since we do not know a thing except in so far as it becomes awareness in our consciousness ... The moment a thing becomes knowledge it is subjective, though its validity may well be objective ... It is the confusion of the two ways in which the word subjective is used, the one pertaining to 'method,' when subjective means 'belonging to the consciousness,' and the other pertaining to 'validity,' when subjective means 'of personal value only,' which makes us dread the term subjective." This division of knowledge or truth is misleading. These terms have become so commonplace in our everyday usage of language that we may eventually find it necessary to return to the simplest of definitions. To understand subjectivity and objectivity we must define that which is trying to comprehend--us, or our interior Self. Van der Leeuw's philosophical method has its roots in psychology based on experience of consciousness rather than logical proof, and so brings us closer to understanding this interior Self. He makes appropriate use of the central reality of mystical experience or "cosmic consciousness" as a fact of the uttermost consequence in philosophy. R.M. Bucke, in his book Cosmic Consciousness, has gathered testimonies of all ages to prove the universal validity of an experience which some would discredit as "merely subjective." Van der Leeuw says that, "It is subjective in so far as we approach it through our own consciousness, it is more than subjective, since in cosmic consciousness we share a Reality of which we are but an infinitesimal part." The preceding concepts comprise only a small portion of the vast array of material covered by van der Leeuw. His most unique conceptions are found in the chapters covering the world of illusion and Reality, and the realization of the Absolute Truth. He surmounts the limitations of the intellect by pointing out the possibility of another point of view: "There is no space in the world of the Real, though there is that which I interpret in dimensions of space and time. The space illusion of my world-image also colours my thinking and feeling without my realizing that it does so; I never doubt that I am 'here' and that someone else is 'there,' at a distance of ten yards from me. Yet this is only the appearance in my world image of that which in the Absolute is not spatially distant, and consequently, when I ask a philosophical question in which the illusion of an objective space is implied, I shall naturally find these questions impossible to answer since they are wrong in themselves." We can only escape this vicious circle of wrong question, wrong answer by

first recognizing that we are asking the questions from the standpoint of illusion and that the intellect is bound to this same illusion. When we surrender both and leave our connections with the world of relativity behind, only then can we enter the world of the Real and experience Reality, "which does not answer the wrong questions, but rather sweeps them aside and gives us a realization of living truth instead, in the light of which the very questions become absurd." Cecy Rose Benwood, W. Va. TAT News The TAT Society is a group of individuals who meet informally and periodically for study, discussion and investigation. Guest lecturers often speak at these meetings, which are free and open to the public. Call the local number for information. Akron-Canton - TAT Society meets at Unity Church, 1075 W. Market Street, Akron. Call 434-2498 in Akron, 477-0272 in Canton. Cincinnati - TAT Society meets at Unity Church, McMillan Street, Cincinnati. Call 241-3920. Cleveland - TAT Society meets at Unitarian Church, Hilliard Rd., Rocky River. Call 231-3824. Columbus - TAT Society meets at Ohio State Federal Savings & Loan, 5633 N. High St., Worthington. Call 291-4221. Pittsburgh - TAT Society meets at University and City Ministry, 4401 5th Ave., Oakland. Call 687-1983. TAT Farm - Quarterly TAT Society Meeting (TAT members only) held at the TAT Farm, April 15, 16, 1978. TAT Symposia Attendance at TAT events this Fall steadily increased from week to week beginning in Akron on November 12 and 13 where a heavy snow kept all but the most determined in their homes. TAT returned to Pittsburgh on November 19 and 20 and we presented our first program to Cincinnati on December 3 and 4 where, judging from the enthusiasm of the crowd and the many compliments, our efforts were genuinely appreciated. All three weekends stressed a workshop format which is proving to be a highly stimulating method. Frank Mascara, a real expert at drawing people out and helping them to meet each other, conducted psychological workshops aimed at exploring

some of the belief-structures which order our lives. The sessions began with group interaction concerned with the idea of one's self-image and then went into a more philosophical exchange on life after death. Reginald Taylor, one of only a few American experts in cosmobiology, spoke on astrology in both Akron and Pittsburgh, demonstrating a true breadth of knowledge in his field. His presentation, amply punctuated with humor, is a welcome alternative to the superficialities promulgated at newsstands. Morgan Williams, a former minister with a deep philosophical perspective, handled an equally informative workshop in Cincinnati where he laid out a program of self-instruction for those wanting to learn. The serious psychological grounding and intuitive insight of both these men could cause many a skeptic to take a fresh look at the value of astrology. Helpful seminars on nutrition were led by Nazien Kashian in Akron, by Dr. William Tellin and Barbara Dyson in Pittsburgh and by Drs. Robert Rothan and Fred Bissel in Cincinnati. Prof. Wilbur Franklin, theoretical physicist from Kent State University, spoke to the Cincinnati group about his innovative research into psychic phenomena and introduced psychic, Elaine Fortson, who has participated in many experiments. Electrical engineer William King spoke on Kirlean photography and set up his equipment in all three cities to spend the weekends comparing auras of those present. David Gold used a direct psychological method in his workshops to stir people mentally to think more deeply about themselves. A special, unscheduled attraction in Pittsburgh was a brief question and answer session with TAT founder, Richard Rose, who draws on an entire lifetime of research and experience in various esoteric fields. TAT Meeting About forty-five people sat around three, well-stocked wood stoves at the Thanksgiving TAT meeting at the West Virginia farm. These TAT meetings are an ideal opportunity for TAT members of the different cities to exchange ideas with the larger body of TAT co-workers. The meetings are informal and mostly social, except for those who would like to become more deeply involved in the planning or business aspects of the organization. There is always room for improvement and a need for help. The first day of meetings was highlighted by an amusing sing-along led by the guitar and harmonica of Eric Hadidian from Columbus. His "Frog Prince Chorus" was led by John Rezabeck from Cleveland (bass) and Mike Treanor from Muncie (baritone). Naturally, it gravitated into obscure melodic philosophy, culminating in a seven-part harmony of, "Row, row, row your boat/ Life is but a dream." On Saturday, November 26, the TAT business meeting was held to discuss the direction of symposia and the TAT Journal. These meetings are generally monitored by Richard Rose. Reginald Taylor, Cleveland astrologer, attended and made many valuable comments. Bill King, our Kirlean expert, initiated a

discussion of all-day workshops which would go more deeply into one, particular field. We are still much in need of greater involvement by the general body of TAT members. Do you have: Something on Astrology, Dreams, ESP, UFO's or Psychokinesis? Life after Death, Wholistic Medicine or Nutrition? Esoteric Philosophy, Ancient Cultures or Mind Sciences? A Character Study or Biography of someone along esoteric lines? A Poem or Statement of a Personal Experience? We would like to here from you! Submission deadline for Spring Issue is Feb. 15, 1978, send to: TAT Journal 2096 Iuka Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 Join the TAT Foundation The TAT Foundation is a membership organization and your participation is invited. Membership in TAT is $15.00 for the first year and $10.00 per year thereafter. This will entitle the member to attend the four quarterly TAT Society meetings each year held at the TAT Farm in West Virginia. Subscribe to the TAT Journal [[Subscription and TAT membership form here.]] In the Next Issue: Probing the Enigma of Paraphysics An Interview with Professor Wilbur Franklin Consciousness Evolution? Analysis of Julian Jaynes's recent book. Š 1978 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved.

TAT Journal Issue 3 The Forum for Awareness Full Index of Issues 1 thru 14 Volume 1, Number 3 Spring 1978

TAT Society The TAT Society was formed in 1973 because a need was felt for a philosophical forum, for a meeting and working together of all manners and levels of deep spiritual study and investigation, and for a friendly dialogue between material science and mystical intuition. The latter category is especially necessary. Science disdains mysticism but it is forever and belatedly proving things previously declared as truth by an intuitive individual. Mysticism may disdain science, but it is forever attempting to tell of its findings in a scientific manner, so that it can convince rational and relative minds of its discoveries. A place for meeting was needed and groups were formed in many Eastern cities. A farm is now available in West Virginia as a general headquarters, and study center. The TAT Society holds meetings in a number of different cities for study and

discussion. Other events, such as lectures, seminars and films, are also presented from time to time. Telephone numbers for the cities listed below are of TAT members who can provide information about activities in their area. Akron, Ohio - Canton, Ohio - Cleveland, Ohio - Columbus, Ohio - Pittsburgh, Pa. - Washington, D. C. Perspective For those of us who have rejected a dogmatic expression of the meaning of life, yet still seek such a meaning through our own discovery and experience, it can be difficult to learn in what direction our "true path" lies. Should we study the psyche through the lenses ground by Freud or Jung? Should we ponder the recurring questions of Western philosophy or turn to the East for a different viewpoint? Should we immerse ourselves in an occult science like astrology or in the objective observation of physical phenomena? Or should we wait in silent meditation, indifferent to whether the truth is or is not revealed to us? Absolute certainty is more often a symptom of delusion than of real knowledge; given our all-too-human limitations of mental and perceptual faculties, how can we afford to trust completely in conclusions formed out of the shifting sands of opinion? Unfortunately, the powerful human instinct for certainty which urges us to seek meaning, may also impel us into a premature grasping for convenient answers. This tendency is illustrated in a story of Nasrudin, the wise-fool of Middle Eastern folklore (and of Sufi teaching), who lost his ring inside the house. After searching unsuccessfully for a short time he went out to the yard to look. His wife exasperatedly pointed out that he had lost the ring inside. "I know," said Nasrudin, "but it's too dark inside. Here I can see better." We must, by all means, continue to look into a variety of subjects for clues and valuable information to aid our search. But self-satisfaction is a deadly enemy of progress, and convenience is its advance guard. Every pursuit, no matter how deeply we are involved in it, should be subject to honest scrutiny according to its relation to giving us a true picture of reality. That desired focus is indeed elusive, but once convenience is abandoned as a criterion of choice, the joy to be found in the search for uncompromised truth is revealed as a polestar, and our inner self of intuition, rather than the outer self of desire, becomes the guide. Editor: Paul Cramer Associate Editor: Louis Khourey Staff Writer: Michael Baldrige Production Assistant: Kathrinan Harper

Š 1978 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved. Contents TAT Forum Measuring the Unmeasurable: TAT Interviews Professor Wilbur Franklin The Pregnant Witch, by Richard Rose Discovering, Uncovering and Recovering the Recurrent Dream, by David Gold Vignette in Zen, by Dan Quigley TAT Book Service Book Reviews Psychic Exploration edited by Edgar D. Mitchell and John White and The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind by Julian Jaynes. TAT News and Calendar Classified TAT Forum The TAT Forum is a reader's exchange and correspondence column. You are invited to write to this column and offer comments or pose questions concerning the articles or letters published in this journal. You may also share with other readers your discoveries, investigations or resources that you may have come across in your search. Please address your correspondence to the "TAT Forum." Forum: I have just finished reading your Winter TAT Journal and am pleased to see that it has already improved over the first issue. Most of the articles were enjoyable and some a bit disturbing, particularly Richard Rose's short story, "Last Act". It left me with an uncomfortable feeling but I enjoyed it. I have found that my best insights come to me when my mind is irritated. Irritated by having my day-to-day concepts shaken through confrontation. It seems to be the only way I can break out of the repetitive thinking patterns my mind falls into. An uncomfortable feeling can prevent one from dozing off. I believe this is just as true mentally.

Your Journal is becoming a good vehicle for this type of mental jostling. And I might add it's the only one I've found thus far. All the other's I've read either tried to give me a sugar coating, convince me I'm already enlightened, teach me the spontaneity of a street dog or chant me into a round-the-clock sleep. Thanks for some stimulating material. Dan Hartwell, Essex Junction, Vt. Forum: I just read the winter issue of the TAT Journal and I'd like to compliment the Journal for its refreshingly new format. I've been interested in philosophy for years and out of habit have read a lot of the new age journals and magazines that have come out. I was impressed with the TAT Journal by what I feel is a genuineness and sincerity in the articles that I read that I've not found in many of the other magazines that seem to cater to their own brand of special interest philosophy or end up promoting their own gurus, and ignoring anything else. To many people like me, journals and magazines of philosophical interest are the only way of keeping in touch with what's going on, and more importantly, contacting others who have the same interest. I hope the TAT Journal continues to maintain its open format. Good luck. George Boreman, Des Moines, Iowa Whither goest us? Forum: It is with a glimmer of hope in a void of skepticism that I greet the arrival of the TAT Society's literary efforts. For I have seen many periodicals with the same, high aspirations and selfless motives come and go, or even worse, come and stay after they have been forced to compromise their principles to make a buck. TAT professes that its goal is to provide a non-political, non-sectarian forum where seekers from all backgrounds and approaches can meet and share (or argue over) their finding. And my limited experience with the organization has proven to me that it is sincere. I attended a symposium in D.C. and a Summer Chautauqua on the farm, and while the entertainment wasn't spectacular, I did feel a warmth and sincere interest in my beliefs which led me to believe that you people were on the level. It is precisely because I believe that you believe in what you're doing that I felt a twinge of apprehension when I ran across the first edition of the TAT Journal. "Media Spirituality" is a big business, and many previously straightforward publications have gone slick, trite and down right insipid in an effort to stay alive. No doubt their motivations were pure, but let's face it, they were up against an indisputable fact: Sincere seeking doesn't sell.

I can envision the same economic scenario for you, and I would truly hate to see it happen to such a solid group of people. You'll give the Journal some frills, because after all, "We've got to give the magazine some dressing so that people will look inside." And before you know it, the perspective will be on the dressing and the stuffing will be overlooked. I may be wrong, and I honestly hope that I am. The TAT Society struck me as one organization that would sooner collapse than cheapen its beliefs. I would rather receive a note in the mail that informed me that, due to rising fuel costs etc, the TAT Journal will no longer be published, than to find cluttering up my mailbox some bland, overpriced, glossy rag which is serving up the same junk that is currently being passed around as 'spiritual news'. Good luck. Robert Arnason, Hagerstown, Md. Forum: I find TAT very informative and in accord with my way of thinking (most of the times). The TAT writings have opened up new channels of thought and perspective. I have traveled many levels of consciousness in my sixty-odd years on this planet... Most of the knowledge I have gained has been through the inner guidance and not by any outside instruction from the so-called gurus, masters, etc. who seem to follow a looped philosophy. The ones I would like to meet seem to be surrounded by lesser lights that keep the true seekers away... true seekers in this case being ones with the full awareness of reality. It seems that we are living in an age of diversion instead of reality... Again reality is not past or future reasoning, but what is in the now. Each day I become more and more aware of the futility of the human species with its infantile reasoning and actions. . . How these little people sway to the rhythm of the controllers. This is my thought for today... God knows what it will be tomorrow... anyway thanks for the TAT Journal... it gave me good vibes to know that I am a recipient of a thoughtful act. Is there anyone out there who would like to "tapespond" with me on any subject of enlightenment? I am experienced in corresponding via tape. Please excuse my sentence construction as I am a person of minimal academic education, and sometimes I think that was too much. John Cash, Lawndale, Calif. Meditating on Nintzel Forum: As in most things that pass in time, I found my opinions on what meditation is, to be the opposite of Nintzel's in some areas of his essay on

"Meditation and Alchemy" (Winter 1978). Of course I must admit that Nintzel did a great job listing many of the types of meditation that have been recorded in history. To me, meditation means "to see what is beyond all postulations. Such a simple statement draws many conclusions from the readers of such. One may even try to conclude that "God loves us" is "what is." Nintzel's slant on meditation tends to fill one's mental screen with a comforting security. I have found no security that can fill the vacancy that my observations have left me with. My evaluation of "what is" brings sorrow into my perspective of the world and our relationship with it. The "God of Love" evades my eyes. To transcend this world, logic dictates that the world must be seen as it really is, even if the worst of horrors are suspected. The world and everything else are only one way. To project qualities upon the world and ourselves that could be fantasy would be only to fool ourselves. With hope and a developed discerning capacity, a person may be able to stumble upon an answer that would fill life's void. I must admit that my own search has brought me to the present conclusions, just as I am sure that Nintzel's definitions of meditations have been a valid part of his search. I wish the best of luck to all of those who set out on the search. I hope that the Journal will become an arena of thought and that differences of opinion will grant the readers constructive insights into their own search. Don Seebach, Canton, Ohio Forum: Hans Nintzel's article on meditation in the last issue of the TAT Journal reflected the ideas of a man who has obviously been involved in esoteric research on a wide scale. His eclectic presentation on meditation and alchemy was well done; however I felt inclined to offer an observation on a certain attitude that was reflected in his presentation. Many people involved in spiritual disciplines seem to share the writer's view that we "are all on a beautiful spiritual quest after Truth". Well, unless my interpretation of the author's connotation of the word beautiful is completely distorted, I would have to extend the following counter proposition. Once we start on the spiritual search we are all on a discomforting, in fact, frightening trip leading to total annihilation of that which we identify with as our 'personality'. If, as many spiritual teachers tell us, our so-called ego or personality is false, and assuming that most of us are tenaciously attached to our egos, then I am inclined to feel that the loosening or removal of such attachments would be a psychologically unnerving and painful experience. What I'm suggesting is simply that I do not feel that certain styles of meditation (specifically Zen and most Tibetan Buddhist schools) necessarily

create a "new peace of mind". On the contrary, they provide nagging reminders of our positions as imprisoned devotees of illusion - instead of deepening our sense of joy and serenity, they act as constant "thorns-inour-sides" and reminders of our greased slide towards death and dust. I do not mean to belittle the joyful or uplifting aspects of spiritual discipline, for the yearning to obtain liberation has probably touched the deepest emotions in us all to a greater or lesser degree. And surely there is great energy and exhilaration in seeing that there is only one meaningful purpose in living - to work perseveringly towards the attainment of the fullest degree of spiritual maturity of which we are capable in our lifetime. The attitude that it is better to die than to live a life without trying to acquire truth, summarizes the sentiments of most spiritual giants. The philosophical system you choose to work (or dabble) with certainly determines the style or flavor of your effort. Dave Diaman, Moundsville, W. Va. Synchronicity Forum: I found Michael Baldrige's article on synchronicity very interesting and informative. It helped me to understand somethings about the concept that I'm rather interested in myself. Over the past few years I've experienced what I've felt are some decided, synchronistic phenomena. I don't know if they happen more frequently now or because I'm aware of the concept now - probably the latter. Something trite but interesting happened to me shortly after I read Mr. Baldrige's article. I had been passively wondering if the word "synchronicity" was in the dictionary when I had to refer to my dictionary to find the spelling of a word. Lo and behold: I just happened to open my 4000-page dictionary to the exact page "synchronicity" was on! Something I've noticed in my own experiences of synchronistic phenomena is that the content of the phenomena often isn't of a very important or meaningful nature. They often have a rather trite significance. The most overwhelming occurrence of synchronistic phenomena occurred to me about five or six months ago and I will cite it to explain what I mean. I had read in a magazine that Mr. Underwood, the originator of Underwood Deviled Ham had made his fortune by the time he was in his thirties and retired from business to live in a cabin in the woods. This struck me quite strongly for some reason, although the next day when I was thinking of it I could not remember if the man's name was Underhill or Underwood. The next few weeks I was barraged with Underhills and Underwoods. These names just kept popping up at me from nowhere. I would pass Underhill Road, a semi-truck with Underwood Mfg. on it's side would pass me on the freeway; and an obituary for a Mrs. Underhill jumped out of the newspaper

at me. Numerous incidents like this occurred and subjectively they all had a special tone or import to them. Each time my mind flashed back to whether it was Mr. Underhill or Mr. Underwood who made the deviled ham. After a couple of weeks of these phenomena I was standing in a supermarket check-out line when the following conversation took place between a store manager and a salesgirl: Manager: "Would you have Joan clear this check." Salesgirl: "OK. What's Joan's last name - Underwood?" Manager: "No, Underhill is the girl's name in the office. Underwood is the deviled ham." Ha! Rather absurd isn't it? There wasn't any type of religious import to it, but it seemed to make clear to me that there is an acasual relationship of meaning here that I was passively tuned into. Logical or cause-effect could be termed a horizontal relationship while acasual or synchronistic relationships of meaning could be termed vertical. John Jacobs, Napoleon, Ohio Forum: I found Michael Baldridge' s article, "The Riddle of Synchronicity" (Winter 1978) a refreshing departure from the usually dense verbiage written concerning Jung's ideas, especially considering the fact that the topic discussed is one of the most obscure to be found in any of Jung's volumes. I know a number of people who are put off by the difficulty posed by Jung's obscure, ponderous style. A consequence of this is that, quite a few people have some familiarity with Jung's ideas, but lack a precise conceptual understanding of the principles involved. Even though Jungian terms crop up everywhere, it is often a confusing process to try to understand the sense in which they are being used. I appreciated Mr. Baldrige's descriptive clarity and look forward to future articles on Jungian psychology. Bob Milliard, Atlanta, Georgia Forum: Since writing "The Riddle of Synchronicity" published in the last TAT Journal, I have been barraged by a massive amount of feedback from all sources (cosmic and otherwise) which has illustrated once again the limitations of language in understanding such an abstract and subjective idea as synchronicity. There is an understandable eagerness to seize upon a definition of these phenomena which will bring them from the realm of the unknown into more familiar terms and will place them in the realm of the known. For instance, synchronistic phenomena can be defined simply as "meaningful coincidences". But this does not really solve the problem. It just sedates us

with a false sense of security that we know what we are talking about. This tendency can rob the idea of its real significance which ironically, lies not in its utilitarian value as a known factor, but in the fact that it can be readily observed yet not explained. In this way, synchronicity can be likened to a "koan" for physical scientists, psychologists and individual researchers. A "koan" is a riddle or problem given by a Zen master to force the student into a predicament which will necessitate an effort to circumvent his limitations. Thus, synchronicity stands as an inspiring challenge for those who would seek to understand the true nature of life on this planet by pointing the way to one of life's mysteries. But, it is a fair statement to say that synchronicity is an obscure idea. This is due to the small numbers of individuals who have witnessed and labeled the phenomena as such, and due to the difficulty of grasping the subtleties of the mind conceptually. It becomes quite evident however, to those who have witnessed synchronistic phenomena that our world view is not complete and that, in fact, something quite peculiar (from the ordinary view) is taking place right under our noses. Michael Baldrige Building mental muscles Forum: Jake Jaqua's essay on utilizing the power of habits brings to mind an autobiographical sketch of Nikola Tesla, the man who laid the groundwork for our present electrical industry (Scientific American, June 5,1915). In writing of his childhood, Tesla gives the key to his future success: "Had I some difficult task before me which was exhausting, I would attack it again and again until it was done. So I practiced day by day from morning till night. At first it called for a vigorous mental effort directed against disposition and desire, but as years went by the conflict lessened and finally my will and wish became identical. They are so today, and in this lies the secret of whatever success I have achieved." Tesla applied "...a vigorous mental effort directed against disposition and desire..." in order to achieve. He made concentration a habit. It seems that the tiny day-to-day decisions within a person's life are what determine any long-term success or failure. The person that I am today has an effect upon the person that I will be tomorrow. To encourage future success, a person must struggle with his inclinations or desires that are contrary to his goals. Tesla made of this struggle a lifestyle. Thomas Field, McKees Rocks, Pa. Forum: Jake Jaqua's comments about using "habit-force" were quite

interesting. I think if people understood the power of habits better, they would be less prone to that widespread habitual disease called the "rut". The process of establishing better habits is truly a revolutionary idea. The hard part seems to be just getting started, so that we can then be carried to a degree by "habit-force" or momentum. Mark Hughes, Edgewood, Pa. WANT TO WRITE TO SOMEONE IN THE TAT FORUM? Send your initial correspondence in a separate, stamped and unaddressed envelope to the TAT Forum and we will mail it to the party you choose. HELP WANTED: Biorhythms Experiment Forum: I write to ask that readers of the TAT Journal be of help in a small experiment. After researching and reading what seems to be endless documentation on biorhythms - both pro and con - I would like to do a bit of "documenting" myself. I ask that readers send me their name, birth date and the dates of at least two significant events in their lives. Such events could include accidents, illnesses, quarrels, outstanding achievements, paranormal phenomena, etc. Readers may even send in such information on friends and relatives who are deceased, along with the date of death; this would prove a definitive test of biorhythm theory since some adherents claim its use for predicting the day of death. Please provide a brief description of the event besides the date (e.g., 7/16/59, car accident). If a drawing of one's biorhythm cycles on such dates is desired, send a stamped, self-addressed envelope as well. All names and dates shall be kept confidential. I estimate that at least one hundred responses are necessary to assure that the results of this experiment are meaningful, so I ask the readers' cooperation in sending such information directly to my address, listed below as soon as possible. The results will be published, along with an account of biorhythm theory and its origin, in a future issue of the TAT Journal. Luis Fernandez. Measuring the Unmeasurable: An Interview with Professor Wilbur Franklin Dr. Wilbur Franklin, Professor of Physics at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, has spoken to receptive audiences at several TAT symposia about his pioneering research of paraphysical phenomena, including work with psychics like Uri Geller, and travels to scenes of paranormal phenomena, like the Bermuda Triangle. To provide our readers with a deeper look at his work

and the motivation behind it, Dr. Franklin recently spoke with TAT Journal staff writer, Michael Baldrige, in his Kent State laboratory. Dr. Franklin is one of a handful of physicists in the United States who are seriously involved in the scientific investigation of psychic phenomena. He was a member of the original Stanford re search group that brought Uri Geller to America to study his psychokinetic powers. His continued activity in research, writing and lecturing have brought him international recognition as a spokesman for the new field of paraphysics. Besides his work in paraphysics (or teleneural physics), Dr. Franklin has done extensive research in solid state diffusion theory and liquid crystal physics, and is the author of numerous articles on those subjects. He received his M.S. from Yale University in 1961, and his Ph.D. from Syracuse University in 1964. TAT: How did you get started in the field of psychical research, and what first aroused your curiosity? That goes back to when I was twenty-one years old. I believe I was a student at Case Western Reserve in Cleveland at that time (1954). I was visiting my girl friend in upstate Vermont. She and her father were talking about someone they referred to as the "seventh son of a seventh son" who had mystic powers of healing. He was very well-known in the Burlington, Vermont area and, in fact, people from hundreds of miles away came to his place to be healed. And so I decided to visit him. When I saw him, he told me that his healing powers were just a gift. He didn't say, "from God;" he just said, "It's a gift." He was a Catholic but he said that it did not require any faith. He said that there were certain things that he could cure, and other things that were deep-seated illnesses which he could not usually help very much. There were many people in that area that seemed to have been cured by him or claimed that they had been. So I made a vow with myself at that time that, if ever in my life I had a chance (and I knew I would) to study the emanations, radiations or something that came from a healer's hand, I would do it. I kept wondering why the time had not come. For example, after I came to Akron I learned that a healer that I had heard about had left the area. Then, although I did not perceive the connection with my own interest at the time, Edgar Mitchell and Julius Stulman came to Kent State. Mitchell is a former astronaut and Stulman is a psychic businessman from New York. They spoke to thirty or forty faculty members about the possibilities for research in paraphysics and parapsychology and I was the only one to bite on the hook and go on to develop myself in this field of research. That surprised me because it seemed so obvious to me that there was something important to be investigated. Edgar Mitchell asked me to meet Uri Geller, the famous psychic, as an unbiased scientist with no previous background in this field, so that I could witness what he did and recommend whether or not experimentation would

be fruitful. So I met Uri in New York at Andrija Puharich's house. Andrija Puharich is one of the venerable and most knowledgeable people in the United States in this field. As a result of observing some remarkable psychokinesic phenomena, I became interested in the field and went on to serious research with a number of psychics. TAT: At the time when you first met Edgar Mitchell at Kent, were you at all dissatisfied with the present state of physics or with science in general? Franklin: No, I was very intrigued with physics, on my way to a fast promotion in my field and I was deeply involved in straight physics and I continued to be. Even after I became interested in paraphysics I did not let go of physics and I don't ever intend to. TAT: Were you able to develop any courses in paraphysics? Franklin: Yes, I taught paraphysics for four years for full credit in the Department of Physics. That was the first time, I believe, that any course of that nature had been taught for full credit in a science or engineering department in this country. It was here at Kent State from 1973 through 1976, but the faculty would not institute it as a permanent course and it was discontinued. I argued with them for a long time but finally agreed. They did not feel that there was a textbook with a set of mathematical equations ready to go with the experimental observations, and so they ascribed it to the experimental college. TAT: It's apparent that your personal feeling is that the validity of psychic phenomena like ESP and psychokinesis is no longer in question. Franklin: Yes, my belief structure has certainly opened up. I believe in telepathy. I believe in mind over matter and in precognition, or knowing the future before it happens, and in clairvoyance, which is a knowing of a distant place or object. TAT: Are your beliefs based more on scientific documentation or on your personal experiences with people? "If I had not seen Uri Geller bend a key right in front of me and if I had not had objects appear and disappear in my field of view, then I would find it more difficult to keep going in this field." Franklin: That's a very important question. You have to be able to distinguish the beliefs from the scientific evidence. The scientific evidence, in my opinion, is resounding for telepathy; it's certainly very strong. The scientific evidence for mind over matter (psychokinesis) is now strong, although it was not in 1975. The scientific evidence for precognition is pretty good. With the work of Helmit Schmidt and others it is probably just as

strong as for mind over matter. With respect to clairvoyance, the work of Russell Targ and Hal Puthoff with "remote viewing" is astounding. TAT: What has been the effect of personal experiences on your ideas? Franklin: Well, there are things that have happened in my own life that have stimulated my work. For example, objects in my office have disappeared and have reappeared on my desk, right beside me. This would be described by a psychologist as a hallucination, but other people who were present have verified the events; and many other people throughout the world have experienced similar happenings, such as Hal Puthoff of the Stanford Research Institute and Andrija Puharich and his group. Things of this nature often happen around Uri Geller. If I had not seen Uri Geller bend a key right in front of me and if I had not had objects appear and disappear in my field of view, then I would find it more difficult to keep going in this field. TAT: In your lectures you talk about a wide range of psychic phenomena. In which field have you done most of your research? Franklin: Most of my research is in psychokinesis, or the interaction of mind with the material world. TAT: When did you start doing experiments in psychokinesis? Franklin: Well, to do experiments you usually need some money and so I applied for research funds and obtained $5,000 from the Research Corporation and $4,000 from the Parapsychology Foundation. I was very pleased to get the money from the Research Corporation because it was the first time that they had ever funded this kind of work, and it's a very astute group. Between 1974 and 1976 we conducted a myriad of tests with human subjects in this laboratory. For example, we checked to see if people could mentally affect the radioactive half-life of cobalt sixty or the background radiation level. We got no effects from those experiments. We also tried a cloud chamber effect to see whether or not a psychic could influence the particle tracks and again did not find anything. In one of our more successful experiments we clamped a metal cantilever beam in a tripod and tested the ability of psychics to bend it by mental power alone. Three people succeeded in bending the beam - Elaine Fortson, Olga Worrall and Uri Geller. TAT: Have any of your experiments been tried at other universities?

Franklin: Yes, I chose almost every experiment that I did because it had been performed someplace else, and I wanted to check their methods and verify their results. We had a good agreement in the cantilever beam experiment that had been done by Dr. John Hastead in Burkbeck College at the University of London. He claims that six laboratories around the world have repeated experiments of that sort, including mine, and I think that mine are the most carefully controlled. In that sense, I feel that I have been able to verify what Dr. Hastead has done. So he and I do have something to say, that is, that people can bend a cantilever beam with volition alone. TAT: Can you explain the results of this experiment? Franklin: I feel that the human mind can exercise control over matter through a dimension of space that we cannot measure. All we can measure is what is happening on the physical plane. So what we do is work in "complex space," an imaginary space in which physicists are very adept. Anything done in that imaginary space can then be manifested in the physical world. TAT: Have you ever investigated healing phenomena? Franklin: Yes, based on the premise that the human body is composed of sixty to seventy percent water, a healer might affect the individual through the water in the body. Perhaps too simple an explanation, but our experiment provided some interesting results. We measured the ability of water to absorb heat after Olga Worrall had projected her healing power into a small vial of water. There was a significant increase of absorption in the infra-red (heat) spectrum in one specific frequency range after Olga held the water. TAT: What do you think are the obstacles in setting up an experiment that could yield clear and unambiguous results? Franklin: One of the biggest obstacles to success in the experiment where you are looking for a paraphysical influence is the disbelief of the scientist himself. That's a strong statement, but I think that success does, in fact, hinge on the subconscious or unconscious belief structure of the scientist coupled with the psychic, who is usually very closely tied to the scientist. The psychic wants to please the scientist and will tune in with the scientist very closely. So if the scientist presents an experiment to the psychic which he does not believe the psychic can do, then the chances for success are fairly remote. But if the scientist does in fact believe that people can do this experiment, that this psychic can do it on this particular day, that the vibes are right, and if both the scientist and the psychic agree, subconsciously and consciously, then I think the chances for success are much greater. TAT: It seems as if you are forced to deal with quite a few intangible factors. Franklin: Yes, I've even had to look outside our Western culture for an

explanation of how the mind interacts with the material world and have seen it symbolically described in the Hindu Vedas as the Dance of Shiva whereby the actions of the god of creation and destruction could take place in both the mental and physical worlds. The tenuous nature of our physical universe is a very genuine question that I've been considering since 1972 when I first got into this field. We live in a "hypnosis-type" universe, perhaps, and if an object disappears it could be that everyone is "hypnotized" so that they do not see the object. When a person is clinically hypnotized you can show him a picture of an object and tell him that it does not appear in the picture and he will not see it. Or if a scientist took measurements on a set of equipment or a strip-chart recorder, then he would not even see the evidence of the object existing. So it's possible that the world in which we live is a world totally of mind. "One of the biggest obstacles to success in the experiment where you are looking for a paraphysical influence is the disbelief of the scientist himself." TAT: How do you feel about the way the experiments have turned out? Franklin: I have not been as pleased as I could have been because I had anticipated that we could have had more results than we have obtained. We ran in the neighborhood of eighty or ninety experiments and had success in less than ten percent of those. But we do feel confident and know that our successes were not flukes. I do see many ways in which the experiments can be improved. There is always a need for more funding because this experimentation requires a lot of time and effort. We have not been able to spend the amount of time that you might think we have. This work is all extra on my part; I get no professional credit for it. My work week at the university is sixty to seventy hours and this work in paraphysics has to be fit in as a portion of that so that my other work is falling behind because about twenty per cent of my time is going to paraphysics. So besides funding, we certainly need more time for both scientists and psychics. I think that psychics should be invited to stay a week, not just one or two days. And the scientists need adequate time to analyze results and to perform controlled experiments beforehand. If we were to make all of these changes, then I think that success would improve. Another means of improvement would be in the mental development of psychics. For example, if people would take the Transcendental Meditation program and learn how to bodily levitate, then I think they would be excellent subjects for psychic experiments. TAT: What are the implications of paraphysical research for scientific research in general? Franklin: The implications for science are extremely deep. For example, we have measured Uri Geller with a force of 1100 pounds that he evidently

exerted on breaking a spoon. If a scientist had psychokinetic capabilities that were subliminal, and in doing an experiment he really wanted the results of the experiment to come out in a certain way, then maybe he would exert a psychokinetic force to achieve the desired result. It is my opinion that the strongest minds in the field of science are those who lead the way; and if other scientists agree with their findings, or are "forced to" because of the power of these people's mental capabilities, then it may be that scientific developments depend directly on the minds of the scientists involved. So the leading scientists may be among the greatest psychics!

TAT: Do you consider the laws of physics to be limited in their ability to explain the phenomena that you have witnessed? Franklin: I'm not sure whether there will be, as we go on, limitations in theoretical development. It's my feeling that the human mind is capable of explaining things even though they are extremely complicated; explaining what is quantitatively complicated is an area of interest to physicists and mathematicians. I think that we will be able to derive theories which will adequately deal with these things which we see, even though they are fantastic to us now. It's just like back in the days when it was found that magnets could move objects. Nobody could understand the invisible force of the spirits that could move an object, and it took generations before anyone could write an equation for it, and before anyone could describe it quantitatively. It will be difficult, of course, because we're probably dealing with extra dimensions and whenever you add an extra dimension you add another order of magnitude and complexity. "It is my opinion that the strongest minds in the field of science are those who lead the way; and if other scientists agree with their findings, or are 'forced to' because of the power of these people's mental capabilities, then it may be that scientific developments depend directly on the minds of the scientists involved. So the leading scientists may be among the greatest psychics!" But as far as the spiritual realm goes, if we are working at the spiritual-

physical interface, then I do not think that we will be able to fathom the things which are spiritual in nature. In other words, if the psychic phenomena that we are seeing are theologically based, then I do not think that we will be able to explain that aspect of it. I do not think that you can say that phenomena like psychokinesis or mental telepathy are all caused by Theos. I think they have a physiological basis. It is possible, however, that if Theos were trying to communicate with people on earth He could work through the vehicle of parapsychological happenings. I do think that we are at the stage where we can separate the mystical-type things like miracles that we used to ascribe to God, and say that many of those miracles were probably based on human physiology. Churches may be quite worried about that, but I don't think that it should take away anything from the Church to say that there may have been a physiological origin for many miracles. So the psychic and mental things can be humanly-based in my opinion but, when we get to theological things, then we are talking about a spiritual realm that is outside of the human area. TAT: You seem to have a strong belief in a spiritual reality. What is your religious background? Franklin: That's been very important to me. My father is a minister and my grandfather was a missionary, and I've been deeply interested in religion for many years. I'm a Presbyterian, but am very interested in the Spiritualist Church. TAT: Would you tell us something about the conference called "Frontiers in Physics" that you recently attended in Iceland? Franklin: Yes, it was a great experience. A group of forty-two scientists, humanists, psychics and industrialists were invited from Europe and America. Most of the discussion, which went on for eight days, revolved around experiments on psychokinesis with equipment like the cantilever beam. We also discussed remote viewing and theoretical constructs. While most of the talk had to do with the work of physical scientists, we also brought in the humanistic aspect and came out with a statement of the entire group which represented how we felt about the uses of psiphenomena. We made a very strong statement opposing its use for military purposes and supporting its use for humanistic and socially useful things. TAT: What do you feel was accomplished at the conference? Franklin: It was probably one of the most important conferences in the history of mankind for the collecting together of the best scientific minds in the field of paraphysics and combining results which were repeated in different laboratories to arrive at theories that could explain the results. That was the first time that I am aware of that people came together and had a substantial amount of evidence on one experiment done in different laboratories with different scientists, and had a viable theoretical approach

to explain it. And I'm talking about a mathematical theory that a physicist comes up with to explain results, not just people talking off the tops of their heads about some damn theory. TAT: Would you take us back to basics a bit and explain the distinction between paraphysics, parapsychology and paranormal or psychic phenomena? Franklin: That's a good question. What we mean by paraphysics in distinction to parapsychology is that in paraphysics we are interested in physical phenomena, such as whether telepathy is an electromagnetic wave that we could analyze as would an engineer, with one person being a broadcasting antenna and another being a receiver antenna. This might be described in mathematical terms. That is not the domain of the psychologist but of the physicist. The psychologist studies the personal aspects, such as a person eating three times a day who meditates in the morning and does some kind of mental training and who is then tested in a parapsychology laboratory where he will do an ESP card test with five cards, and then the psychologist will analyze why the person's daily pattern gave rise to the results that he obtained. He can statistically analyze the results on the basis of variables; and that's not the domain of the physicist and the engineer. So the physicist would be interested in the physical world and in the effects of the mind on matter. A psychologist does not understand matter. TAT: The parapsychologists do not deal with matter, but from what you said earlier, it sounds like the paraphysicists have no way of getting around the mind. They have to deal with it and try to understand it. Franklin: That's very true. One of the basic theories that we're working with has to do with the mind of the observer influencing the results. And this is a quantum mechanical principle which goes back to the nineteen-twenties in theoretical physics. TAT: It seems that the success you've had in paraphysical research has been achieved under difficult circumstances, due to your personal enthusiasm rather than any great public or financial support. Do you have much hope for further progress as things look now? Franklin: Well, I do think that the thrust forward is continuing, but it's quieter and more accepted as a normal thing now, rather than something to get excited about. I think that most of us are continuing deeply in our interests and our work in this area, but it's not nearly as widespread as it could be. There are just a handful of scientists working in this field. But in a way that's good, because if the technological advances in this area outstripped the applications to society, then we would be in trouble. Typically in technological development, technology will go ahead much more rapidly than the public can accept it or can deal with the problems. In this particular area it is extremely important for the public to keep up with the developments in the field, and so I'm not upset with a slow technological

development. It has come rapidly enough, and I think we will make genuine progress. The Pregnant Witch by Richard Rose There is a weakness that some people have... it is the indiscriminate urge to help other people. I went through an adolescent stage of self-sufficiency and selfishness, during which time I also saw the need for genuine friends, and managed to make perhaps two or three friends who repaid me with a lifetime of friendship. I went through about ten years of a dry spell in which I made no lasting friends. Then I overcompensated after the death of a brother. I began to see things in a different light. I developed a sympathy for the misfortunes and tragedies of others, sensing that unless I were able to feel their problems I would be unable to communicate with them with proper understanding, and unless I learned to communicate there could be no friendship. There is verbal language that communicates both sincerity and duplicity, according to the motivation of the initiator of the communication. But there is a language of the heart that has less chance for chicanery. At one time I thought the language of the heart, the intuition, was beyond being deceived. There followed another period in my life, from my late twenties until my forties, when I trusted my intuition too much. I was really projecting qualities upon people rather than discriminating and waiting before deciding that a particular encounter was sincere or not. It is possible that I was too eagerly trying to accept a substitute brother. And then I learned that people who have been sincere, and are accepted by all for their sincerity, may take a step backward and see and admire their profitable status. The next step is to maintain the external sincerity, while capitalizing on it with plans held secretly in the back of the skull. With this adroit move, they are able to present the mask called personality, while maintaining in the back of the mind their immortal, unique selfishness or even criminal direction.

I still help people, and I never know if I am properly discriminating. A person's ego may cause him to read divine destiny into any little chance to

play God. Perhaps I could have abridged all of the above and said simply, that I have found that I have the ability to make a fool of myself by way of projection and sympathy. Like the time I picked up a crying kitten on a very dark night, stuffed it into my jacket to keep it warm until I got home and found, when I got home, that it had the mange. My hair has never looked right since then, and I scratch at the slightest provocation. The neighbors learned that I was capable of bringing home all manner of flotsam and jetsam, so they guided a lot of ego-helpers in my direction. I was working on my car about eight years ago when a young neighbor came up and told me about two unfortunates. He pointed to two figures up the street about a half-block. "Rich, you take people in once in a while, or let them stay out on your farm, don't you?" "Why?" This was Bud Carpenter enquiring. "I just ran into those two guys up the street. They just got off a boxcar, and there isn't another freight out for them until morning. I talked to them and they told me that they had no money and no food. I told them that you were a pretty good guy, hah hah. . . and would maybe let them stay on your farm." It was February and cold. So, after asking him for that which he knew about them, I agreed that they could stay in the farmhouse which was between tenants. He walked up the street to tell them about my decision. I saw him talking to them, but they did not come down, and instead went into a neighbor's house. I presumed that they decided to take the train, regardless, so I was surprised when the neighbor knocked on my door and asked me if it were true that I had offered to put the couple of vagrants up for the night at the farm. He was anxious to get rid of them. He had fed them, but one of them had a strong aura that clouded up the air in his kitchen. He was so eager to get them out of his house that he had driven them the half-block in his car. I went across the street and met them, and transferred them to my car. I was surprised to find that one of them was a girl, and seemingly, a very young girl, - I would have guessed thirteen or fourteen. And she was pregnant. She blinked a bit when she talked, and I thought she was embarrassed because of her pregnancy. I am sympathetic to pregnant women, and was consequently appalled that she was considering going out on another freight train. There was another factor which disturbed me. She had been battered about the right eye. Her skin was badly bruised and purple about the eye, and the eyeball had hemorrhaged throughout the white part of her eye. I enquired about the injury and she told me that she had been side-swiped by a car while hitchhiking. I wanted her to go to a doctor before going to the farm,

but she insisted that she had been to the Wheeling hospital and that they had released her. I started for the farm with them in my old car. My nearest neighbors were a mile away, and the farmhouse was situated in a place from which no neighbors' houses were visible. So I tried to put them at ease by generating favorable conversation. I asked them about their religion. The girl had been a Catholic, and the young man, her husband, was a Protestant. He carried a Bible with him in his duffle bag. I told them that I was raised a Catholic and had, at one time, studied to be a priest. I hoped that we had found a common ground of communication, and it relieved a bit of the awkwardness which I felt at hauling two seemingly harmless youngsters out in the bleak, dark night to what must have been to them an apprehensive destination. But they were not the least uneasy. The farmhouse was cold and empty, having only a few pieces of old furniture. I took them inside to unpack. I hurried out to find some dry wood to build a fire. I had worked about an hour, making repeated trips into the house with wood. I noticed that they were whispering to each other. Then I heard her say, "Go ahead and tell him if you wish." I cannot remember everything that they told me, word for word, but I have it written down somewhere more accurately. The husband, whose name will be Fred for this account, told me an amazing story. To begin with, his wife, Agnes, had not been sideswiped by a car. He had done it with his hands and feet. They had decided to be honest with me because I had told them about studying to be a priest. They needed help and they hoped that something had rubbed off on me from the seminary that might qualify me to advise them. They were from Wisconsin. He had a map upon which he had inked their itinerary. Throughout the Winter they had been traveling in boxcars and trucks. They slept in missions, jails, barns and sheds. Once they broke into the basement of a church, found the kitchen, and cooked themselves a warm meal before they were caught. Why? They were running from the devil. And she was nine months pregnant. After I brought in enough wood to last them through the night, I sat down to hear their story. I returned on three consecutive nights to ask questions, to cross-examine, and to check answers given twice to see if there were any variation. I could not believe my ears, and thought at first that they were operating a confidence game, using sex as a bait. I went home late every evening, and sat down and made verbatim notes, mainly so that I could check them for lies. I never found a single lie beyond the first admission that the girl had lied to me about her black eye. They came from a small town in Wisconsin. The town had been taken over by a witchcraft cult. This included the chief of police and city officials. I saw a show on TV the other night which reminded me of it called "The Dark

Secret of Harvest Home." About the time of this account, a motion picture appeared with the title of "Rosemary's Baby." I am amazed at the similarities in both of these plays, with incidents in the Wisconsin account. Fred and Agnes told me a true story eight years ago, which recently appeared on the TV screen. I doubt if anyone but myself had the true and complete story because, in the first place, no one believed Fred in the past (until he came across me), and he died or was killed within a year after the farm episode. Either a tremendous amount of witchcraft is going on, along similar lines, or the literary minds of men are picking up something from the universal mind of man, or from archetypal memories of ancient Naturereligions. Whatever the real truths are behind all this, I am certain that never in the history of this country has the black smoke of base animal morality clung so closely to levels all Nature is geared to protect... infancy and childhood. We wonder about stories of entire villages being possessed, and all of the victims serving as loyal guardians of their own mental prisons. If these things are true, where are our guardians of sanity, the ministers and psychologists. I presume that the former have lost their art, and the latter are too lazy to do the research, and too proud to admit that there is anything that they do not know. To get back to Wisconsin, Agnes had lived outside of the village in a Catholic community. She met Fred and married him... and then met his people. Fred had a cousin who initiated Agnes into the cult. He did not tell her the purpose of the cult at first. He drew a picture in the palm of her hand, and then made love to her. Then this cousin and his wife made love to her. He had intercourse with his mother in front of her and others. Agnes found herself, at the age of seventeen, in a strange, new, compelling intoxication. She never bothered to explain to me how she compromised her earlier Catholic disciplines with this orgiastic way of living. Fred relayed nearly all of this account. The girl said very little, but nodded if I asked her for confirmation. Fred did not discover his cousin's liberties with his wife until she was pretty well hooked. Once the picture had been scratched in her palm, and a certain song to the devil had been learned, the cousin could telepathically command her. The husband was helplessly outmaneuvered. She would awaken in the middle of the night and hear John, the cousin, calling her name. She knew it was inside her head, but she would arise, dress and go to a street corner near the house. He would be waiting in his car. ". . .I am certain that never in the history of this country has the black smoke of base animal morality clung so closely to levels all Nature is geared to protect... infancy and childhood." She did not neglect to confess these things to Fred, who became

increasingly angry and alarmed. He went to the local police department which consisted of only one or two men. They told him that he was crazy. When he pressed the matter and demanded action, they told him that they were going to arrange a mental examination for him. He went to his minister. The minister declared that he had no authority in civil matters, and did not wish to anger the police. So Fred went home, took a ball bat and went to work on cousin John. Cousin John took a few bumps, but the police arrested Fred and beat him into submission, breaking his wrist. With the broken wrist he could not work, and his employer fired him, using the criminal charge by the police as an excuse. Cousin John was not as angry as he should have been. After all, he wanted to have access to Fred's house. He quickly forgave Fred, but at the same time confided some facts to Fred. Fred would have to either leave his wife alone, or join the cult. In the cult, he could have all the women he wished, even beyond the town limits. And Agnes would be held in high esteem by the cult because of her youth and fair appearance. The cult would, in fact, make her the queen of hell. On the other hand, if Fred did not go along with them, a curse would be put upon him. John told him that their town was a secure headquarters for the cult, and that members of the cult were spread all over the country, and their name was legion. No place in the country would be safe. The curse would, in effect, cause his arrest... he would be imprisoned and declared insane. Then he would be killed. His child would be the child of the devil, regardless of whether he agreed or not. That much had already been decided. At first Fred decided to enlist some help within the village, but he was avoided. He never knew if he was avoided because of encountering members of the cult, or if the people he talked to avoided him because he had developed a reputation for violence and for telling weird tales about his relatives. So he left town. And when he left he was broke, and Winter was coming on. He took his wife with him even though she was pregnant. However, nothing but failure pursued him. He could not find a job and housing for his wife at the same time. People fed them, however, and gave them rides. His situation seemed hopeless. I asked him if he knew its hopelessness, and then asked him where he was going to stop. "God will stop me where I am supposed to stop." "Maybe God brought you here. I don't know the purposes of your suffering, but one thing we both know for sure. You have a wife that is about ready to drop a baby... in a boxcar, if you do not get the word pretty soon." I went on to warn him about hitting her again, at least while they were on my property. Then I told him that I would get groceries in for them, but that he had to get into town and look for a job. I promised that I would see that his wife had medical attention.

He said that it was doubtful if he could go into town to look for work because he did not trust her. It seemed that as soon as he turned his back, she managed to corner some man and seduce him. He felt that he had to stay very close to her because she had no control. This type of behavior did not seem congruous with her condition and I mentioned it. I thought all pregnant women were above risking the health of their babies. It was then that he told me some amazing stories. He started by saying that she would seduce me. When I protested almost angrily, he assured me that I would not have any control over the situation. They had stopped at churches for advice, and she had seduced the minister in each case, regardless of his age. When she went into her sing-song chant, the environment seemed to aid her. He would fall into a heavy sleep and not awaken until everything was over. Other parties who might have been concerned, like ministers' wives, were kept away by some mysterious power. Once she seduced a gas station attendant having no bed but his desk. They had stopped to use the restroom. Fred came out after five minutes from the men's room. He found later that an hour or more had passed, and that some diligent Freudian exercises had transpired. When he argued with the attendant about his liberties, the attendant gave him a cold look and replied that he felt sure that the husband had really set the whole thing up to try to make a few dollars. That night Fred beat her up before they bedded down in an abandoned garage. Fred was a one-man inquisition, aided by chagrin and ego. I went out the third evening, determined to find the girl's opinion on the matter. I found that she was a high school graduate and had made exceptional grades. I asked her to draw a picture of the form which cousin John had scratched in her palm. She knew it well enough that she could draw it with her eyes closed. She offered to scratch the figure in my hand. I checked the Grimoire when I arrived home and found such a signature for a specific entity. Next, I asked her if the things that Fred said about her promiscuity were true. She looked down for several seconds, blinked and replied, "I guess so." "Don't you realize that you may be hurting the baby?" "Maybe. But I am having a lot of fun." "About this song that you sing, is this part of the seduction?" "Yes." "Does it always work?" "Yes."

"I do not believe you." Fred interrupted us, and told me flatly that all men were at her disposal. He said, "You may have good intentions, but she will get you. She sometimes does not succeed immediately in every case, but once she sets her head on you, she will never give up." I was annoyed. "Let her try." I just do not believe it." He looked over at her and said, "Go ahead, hon, go through it." She looked at me for a moment and began a simple chant. I remember the words which were the formula. I have the exact words recorded, but I will not repeat them. I would not want anyone playing this type of game. Things did happen when she chanted. First, her features changed. I mentioned earlier that she seemed like a child. Her skin was fair and without a blemish or wrinkle. Her face had the innocent look of a child. Her legs were slender, almost too thin. Had I not seen her high school diploma, I would have found it hard to believe that she was over fourteen years of age. But now she started to change. Her bright eyes grew dim, a film seemed to cover them. They turned from blue to grey, and then seemed to die. Her head reminded me of the head of a dead fish. Wrinkles formed vertically in her face, and her skin darkened. Then the most amazing thing occurred. Her face broke into segments, like a jigsaw puzzle, and came apart, so that I could see the wall behind her in the cracks. For a second, I felt a flash of fear, and a strange rush occurred like a chill throughout my nerves. I thought, "I had better get myself braced for this show." I reminded myself that I was witnessing an illusion that was somehow being projected upon me, and knew that I did not dare to indulge in belief. I waited until she had finished and had returned to normal appearance. I looked at both of them diffidently, and asked, "Is that all there is to it?" Up to this point I had harbored the idea that it was possible that Fred was setting me up for money or support for his wife and himself. It was evident now that Agnes had produced all the voltage that she could muster and if it were a scheme, it was not working on me. Fred looked puzzled. "Hon, are you sure that you did that right?" She shrugged. He looked worried almost. "Hon, go through it again. I think you left out something." So she went through her chant again, but it was anti-climactic. She added a few things that were designed to flatter me, but I was more prepared this time. I looked over at Fred who was sitting across from her. I expected that he would be disappointed with her and perhaps embarrassed that I did not

react as expected. But I was destined for a surprise. And my estimation of Fred had to take another turn. He was overjoyed. He rushed across the room and threw his hands about her. "Hon, maybe we have it licked. Maybe we have a chance." He hugged and kissed her, and paid no attention at all to me. And I found myself happy for the both of them. I suggested that she let me hypnotize her, and give her some suggestions about having a healthy baby. I did this because I remembered his telling me that her child would be the devil's child. If I were immune to her magic, then there was no reason for her not being immune to suggestions put into her head by cousin John. I did manage to put her to sleep and give her the suggestions, but it was with no great conviction on my part. She was nine months pregnant, and the baby was already formed, so that if it were going to have horns or negative mental attributes, there was little that I could do at this late date. I was happy for them when I left. They both had tears in their eyes, and I went home with a strong belief in their accounts of their plight. Fred and Agnes did not remain long at the farm. But I managed to have a talk with her alone in town while he was having a tooth pulled. I wanted to learn more about the cult. I knew that he had threatened her with knives at times, and I considered, and hoped, that she had played a game for him. I did not doubt the general account, but I still found it hard to believe that she would follow him around the country if she had as much power as she claimed. I felt that he would be the servant in the arrangement. She did not want to talk about her life, and I saw immediately that she wanted to make a good impression on me. So she told me a few things which I presume she thought I wanted to hear. She said that Fred came from a degenerate family. A sister had made it to the insane asylum. She had been so promiscuous that she had acquired a venereal disease, prior to losing her mental balance. She said that she really did not believe in witchcraft, but things did happen. She felt that her husband's sexual appetite was heightened by knowing that she was having affairs with other men. She said that at times she admitted having affairs with men along the road because he seemed to demand the confession, or need the confession to arouse himself. On this particular day, she seemed like another person. She was no child now. She was calm and matter of fact. I suggested that she leave him because of his brutality, but she made the excuse that they were in love since childhood, and that things had changed only after he went to live with his relatives. And he was the father of the baby. She hoped that he would change. I realized that l could have told her that I believed their previous stories, and I could have asked her about the illusion of the ancient woman with the

head of a fish. Instead I asked her about her feelings when she went through the chant. She looked at me blankly and replied, "I was having one orgasm after another." "Her face had the innocent look of a child... [it] broke into segments, like a jigsaw puzzle, and came apart, so that I could see the wall behind her in the cracks." I met Agnes several times after this, over a period of several years, and never once again would she admit that she was a witch. Her only aim from then on seemed to be to attract my attention, and develop in me a better picture of herself. And I knew from this meeting on, I would not be able to trust her or anything she said. To hear her now, Fred was not a man running from the devil, but a man too lazy to work. He was just too jealous to leave her alone, and she was getting tired of playing the role of sinner and penitent. But she added, lamenting that she was stuck with him until after the baby was born. Her people had warned against the marriage and she did not want to go home and admit failure. But I was not convinced except that some of the things which she said about Fred were true. On the other hand, there were too many things which I could not write off as being part of Fred's evil nature alone. They left in a few days. I had bought groceries for them, but refused to buy cigarettes for Fred. I told him that I could not afford to smoke myself, and he could afford less than me. He informed me that he could get both food and cigarettes on the road, and he ordered Agnes to pack. I made a few comments and gave my opinion of people who put their desire for cigarettes above the welfare of their children. I found out later that they did not get very far. They got a ride to a city in Pennsylvania and wound up in a mission. The baby was born but it was deformed, having no pharynx. It had to be placed in a hospital where constant care could be given it. I would like to make a note here, that neither Fred nor Agnes had ever taken any drugs. I feel certain that neither narcotics nor medicines were the cause of the deformity.

The mission was run by an old preacher who lost no time in taking Agnes up on any project that she might endorse. And Fred, in predictable form, punched her and threatened the minister. The minister had some local contacts. Fred went to jail, and from there to a Pennsylvania asylum. He escaped and went to Florida. He robbed a place and was not apprehended, but his conscience hurt him. He wrote to Agnes and told her that he was going to go back to the county in which the robbery occurred and turn himself in. In a few days he was dead. They found him hanging in his jail cell. I learned about his death in a phone call from Agnes. She brought me up to date. The baby was in a hospital near Pittsburgh, cared for by nuns. They took Fred's body back to Wisconsin. There was no grief in her voice, and no concern for the baby, but she was reluctant to tell me the nature of the baby's deformity. The purpose of the call primarily was to ask if she could come down. I remembered a few things in rapid succession. Fred had predicted that the group would have him committed to an asylum, and that he would be killed. He said that his child would be the child of the devil. I saw the baby later, and it did not look like a devil, but its neck was deformed. Otherwise, it was a serious and attractive little boy. But it did not live long, and I am sure that the devil did not claim it, but rather the father, which I will explain later. There was still one unfulfilled prediction. Fred said that Agnes would never give up on me until she owned me. I was caught up in the story, and had to see if she had any such motives. So I told her to come on down, and I was careful not to tell my wife that a witch was going to visit us. It had been only a year since she left Fred. But she had changed considerably... she was fatter, especially in the thighs, and she wore pants that were short, too short and too tight. She made no overtures in the few days that she stayed at our place. She told me that she admired me and that was about it. She talked a lot about boys, and said that she would like to get married again. She was tired of living at the mission where she worked without pay, taking care of old transients who were bedridden. I suggested that she go back home, and she agreed to if I would go up to the mission and help her get her personal belongings. My two daughters

were home from college, and Agnes had Thanksgiving dinner with us, and then caught the bus for Wisconsin. A letter came from her later telling me that she had enrolled in a university at Eau Claire. It looked as though the story of her being a witch was now the farthest thing from the truth - or so it seemed. Then I started to get letters regularly... at least three a week. They were not short letters. They informed me that she had met a lot of boys at the school, but they were all immature. The topics of interest for the students seemed childish, and she was bored stiff with student attempts to create college spirit out of a pollyannic syncretion of everything popular and inoffensive. Each letter showed her increasing boredom. She was just too mature and too street-wise to play the game of books and teachers. I knew what was coming. She was back in my house a year later just before Christmas. She called and asked if she could come for a visit. Pittsburgh is sixty miles away, and Wisconsin was more like five hundred. Perhaps she wanted to be near her baby, so I told her to come on down. And even then, I remembered Fred's prediction that she would never give up. Another peculiar thing happened. I had opened up the store in the basement of my house and I worked there part-time. Bud Carter dropped in at the store, about a week before Christmas, and met Agnes. He did not recognize her, and I did not tell him that she was the same girl that he had sent down to my house. I did tell him that she had been married, that she had a baby and that her husband had died. I asked him if he had any days off on the railroad where he worked. He wanted to know why. I explained that she had not seen the baby for over a year, and I would like to arrange for her to visit the baby, but could not make the trip in my car since it was a derelict that I could only trust about ten miles from home. He said, "Hell, we'll go Monday. I'll take the day off. I want an excuse to take a day off anyway." His car was almost as bad as mine. I told him that I would go along so that his wife would not accuse him of going with Agnes alone. We stopped on the way and Agnes bought several toys for the baby. When we arrived at the hospital, I went up to the room in which they had the baby. Bud was reluctant to go along because he had seen some of the patients, all of whom were children in hopeless, or terminal, predicaments. The boy was standing in a small crib. Two plastic tubes extended from his nose. They were clogged at times, and the boy was getting his oxygen with difficulty, since they were only an eighth of an inch in diameter. Agnes gave the boy the toys and held him for a moment. He never took his eyes off me. I sensed that this little fellow knew more than he could ever express. Then I saw his father standing on the other side of the crib. Agnes did not see him. I was overwhelmed. The thought burst upon me... Fred had come for his son. I turned around and stumbled over to the elevator, feeling like an intruder. I had no doubt that Fred was there, and while I did not feel unwelcome at the crib, it was a moment for the child to be alone with his

parents. I went down on the elevator with the same young nun who ushered us up. I asked her quietly if she believed in God. She nodded, so I asked her if she thought God approved or enjoyed the suffering of the little boy. She knew that I was unduly bitter, and did not answer me. I told Bud about seeing Fred, and he decided that he had to go up and see the baby. While he was gone, I signed a guest book in the lobby, feeling that I should be doing something. Bud came down later with Agnes and he was in a very emotional state. He said that he never realized before how fortunate he and his wife had been with their children who were all healthy. He was determined to go home, tell his wife about the trip and try to live more amicably together with her. I learned a couple of things quickly. Bud had never told his wife about the trip, mainly because they had been quarreling lately. We came back to West Virginia and Agnes went out to the farm for a few days. The night before Christmas, the telephone rang. It was the young nun from the children's home. The baby had died two days after we left. The institution did not have the mother's address. I presume they had her home still listed as the mission. The nun asked for me, wanting to know if I were the man who accompanied the mother to the home. When she had difficulty locating Agnes she went to the guest register in the lobby. I had been the only name entered in recent days, and I had given my address. From that she found my phone number. Agnes called the nun back, and arrangements were made to ship the body to Wisconsin where it was buried beside the father. Throughout all this ordeal, Agnes showed little emotion. Only for a few seconds when I went to the farm to tell her did she act distraught, but then I think she was overcome by her helplessness. She had no money, and she was faced with the responsibility of burying her baby. Once more I was inclined to forget Fred's warning about her nymphomanic persistence. I felt that Agnes had been brought to my house, so that I could take her up to see her baby for the last time, and be near enough to arrange for its funeral. She had behaved well; when everything was taken into consideration I could not complain about her conduct. I began to think that Agnes was cured of any personality aberrations that may have afflicted her in the past. Once more I received letters from Wisconsin, and now they came from her home. She sent me pictures of a younger brother and sister. She was happy to be with her family, but was at the same time restless, and unemployed. It was not long until she was back in my home for another visit. The visit came at a time when my wife was in Arizona taking care of her father who was terminally ill with cancer. Agnes arrived at a time when I needed some

help around the house. She also volunteered to work in the store, which would free me from those tasks so that I could concentrate on my contracting business. The store did not last long under her management. The profits, first, and then the liquidated stock, went into a pinball machine. Finally I closed the store. The closing gave her more time to work on the house. I came home one evening and sat on the couch, watching the television. She came in and sat beside me, but about two feet away. She looked at me with her usual expressionless stare, and said simply, "I want you." I did not answer her for a moment. I had always been expecting some prelude, some fiddling with the orchestral strings in preparation for the grand finale. She grabbed herself by the knees and slid a half-foot closer. She looked at me with a glance of eager anticipation, blinked and then added, "You are the only man that I can ever love." I debated the proper manner of handling the affair, and decided to try to be paternal. "You are a child. In fact, I thought you were a baby yourself when I first saw you." "I don't care. I want you." And with this, she made a very strange noise. She sucked air in between her teeth with a loud, long "ish." I have heard the same sound made by children when they are faced with a big sundae or dessert. "I don't care. . . issht." "I have daughters your age. I have tried to be a friend to you and your family." "I know. . . but I still. . . " "Quit that for a moment. You will have me believing that all those things Fred predicted have come true." "He was weird." "Do you mean that he meant nothing to you. He may have given his life trying to find what he thought was deliverance from evil." She frowned. "He was killed by two black faggots. The cops put him in the same cell with them, and he tried to fight them off. He was not killed by the cult." "How about the curse? It could have been instrumental. If nothing else his

belief in the cult's evil may have caused him to help the curse along." "There was no curse except in Fred's head." "But what about the condition of the baby, Fred's trip to the nut house, to jail and finally to the grave? How can you write off your husband as easily as this?" "I did not care to spend the rest of my life in boxcars." "You mean that Fred was simply paranoid. That all of those things which occurred at the farm were lies and fantasies?" "Fred came from a nutty family." Her voice became impatient. "He saw devils everywhere. He believed that Wisconsin was settled by witches. Wisconsin was a code name. It means WISdom CON SIN or wisdom through sin. He believed that there were nature-spirits. He believed a lot of things... except work. The baby died because he used to choke me when we were together. He left because he felt guilty. . . because he realized he could not support me." Agnes was throwing out things that made me think, but I was still disturbed by the difference between the Agnes of two years back, and today's Agnes. "Neither can I support you. I have a family. What kind of security could I guarantee?" "I told you that I don't care about that. I love you." "You loved Fred once too... you said that yourself. How many of the things that you told me are lies? You are sure contradicting things that you have said before." "I said some things in Fred's presence just to go along with his beliefs." "But when you and I were alone, you always told me the truth?" "Sure. " "Then for you the chant that you went through was real, because we were alone that day that Fred was getting his tooth pulled, when you told me that during the chant you experienced one orgasm after another. Now Fred was supposed to be a real common nut. But I never heard you complain that he had cheated on you. But you were totally involved in a ritual to seduce me... totally... you were not just doing something to please Fred... alone. And all of this means to me that you did not care much about the baby that you were about to have." She frowned, got up and left the room. A few days later she was back in Wisconsin, I presume. I never heard from her afterwards. The above story is true. The couple was really from Wisconsin, but all names

of persons have been changed. Discovering, Uncovering and Recovering the Recurrent Dream by David Gold The most common complaint heard among seemingly successful circles of people is the lack of any purpose or theme to life. Days are spent in endless worries and endeavors, fears and goals which amount to little more than a round of tail-chasing. Each success is short-lived, for another challenge eagerly awaits our attention and energy. Every solution to one of our problems is but a temporary respite from the continuous business of living. And throughout all this worry and hope, we do not seem to be getting anywhere. It is quite possible that our endless fears and desires are a necessary catalyst which keeps us continually stimulated, allowing us to survive and occasionally evolve, as individuals and as a race. If this be so, then no answer could provide us with a lasting peace. However, it behooves each of us to find a purpose, a theme perhaps, to hold on to, to work toward while we labor through this business of staying alive. For unless an individual maintains a thread of continuity to his effort, he will be devoured by the mundane tasks which continuously clamor for his attention, until old age or death forces him to release his grip on life. I can not offer a universal goal which each of us could grasp as a cornerstone of our lives. General themes become buried under the platitudes used to describe them, and entire generations walk around lost, murmuring clichĂŠs about love, or patriotism, or God, or whatever it is which is currently being force-fed them. It is obvious that all of us must discover for ourselves what theme we will adopt, what goal we will bend our energy to promote even as we take care of the necessities and banalities of life -- what we shall become. But how shall we choose our direction? Shall we resort to augury, deciphering Tarot cards and the I Ching for the correct path to tread? Shall we throw ourselves blindly at first one task, and then another, until we become so tired and distraught that we believe nothing can be accomplished? Or shall we pray and patiently await the guidance which faith whispers (or hopes) is forthcoming? My purpose is not to discredit the predictive arts or ridicule the sincere monk. Rather, it is to point out that the answer which we seek lies within, and that before we dedicate ourselves to any cause or goal which may be labeled "life's work," we should carefully examine all the clues which are available to us. In fact, each of us, or perhaps it should be said some part of each of us, already recognizes that for which we hunger. The question remains: how can we tap this knowledge and begin to work with what is discovered? One excellent tool with which to probe the inner secrets is the dream, and particularly the recurrent dream. I have yet to meet one person who has not experienced this phenomenon; it appears that every individual, from some

key point onward, dreams with regularity, most often at critical periods of growth and development. Before we explore ways and means of remembering and utilizing the recurrent dream, I would like to explain why this phenomenon can be instrumental in helping us choose a path in life. As previously mentioned, life appears meaningless if lived purely for the sake of experience; for without some glue to connect these experiences they do not work together to point us in a particular direction. Only when we commit ourselves to some goal, some theme of life, do our individual lives take on real meaning. The recurrent dream invariably represents some key problem or event which must be worked to fruition. Whether it is symbolic of an inner conflict, a particular weakness or susceptibility, or a lesson yet to be fully learned, the recurrent dream represents a major area of life which must be relived and completely faced. Once we recognize what aspect of our lives we have been neglecting, and how important that neglect must be to cause us to continually dream about it, we can better choose a direction in which we can direct our energy and our lives.

Effectively utilizing the recurrent dream involves three basic steps: Remembering the dream (Discovery), Interpreting the dream (Uncovering), and Acting upon the dream (Recovery). I. Remembering the Recurrent Dream Of course, the first step in working with the recurrent dream is to discover what your individual r.d. is. It appears that although many people are conscious that they do have a dream which occurs with some frequency, few individuals are conscious of the entire dream sequence. Thus, while a person may know that he dreams repeatedly about catching a foul ball at a baseball game, he may not be aware of the dreams which may precede and follow

that dream segment, or of what that segment consists in its entirety. And it is a rare person indeed who remembers the events in the waking hours which may trigger the dreams, and the relationships between these particular events so that he could deduce the message behind the dream. The recognition of the r.d. requires consistent effort which may go a long time unrewarded; this is enough to discourage many people from looking for their r.d. But the beauty of dreams is that, regardless of how deeply you work with them, you are bound to get some insight from them into your behavior. Even if you do not stick with them long enough to unravel the secret of your recurrent dream, you will learn something about yourself and become conscious of a backlog of dreams, so that when one of them repeats you may discover your r.d. Remembering dreams involves, first, the recognition on your part that you do dream. Experiments conducted in the Maimonides Dream Laboratory have substantiated what individual researchers have already discovered; if you wake anyone up, even people who swear that they have not dreamt in twenty years, at specific intervals throughout their sleeping period, they will relate a dream that they were experiencing. (An excellent account of the scientific data and a thorough discourse on all aspects of dreams can be found in Do You Dream? by Tony Crisp.) Not only do you dream, but you average five dreams in an eight hour sleep cycle. Once this fact is accepted, the dreamer can set out to remember these dreams. The next step in the dream recollection process consists of committing yourself to a definite routine for a specific period of time. Many people begin to work with their dreams, but their efforts are haphazard and sporadic. Chances are that you have been ignoring your dreams for twenty or thirty years, and it is somewhat foolish to believe that you can push a button which would trigger instantaneous dream recall. Consistent effort is an absolute prerequisite to results. If you really want to study your dreams, do it right. The following guidelines should be followed and worked into a routine: 1. Go to sleep at the same time and wake up at the same time five days a week. 2. Keep a notebook (the more permanent the book, the better) and pen by your bed and have a lamp within reach. 3. After you are in bed at night, spend five minutes or so clearing your head. Try to observe what thoughts keep arising. 4. Write down the date in the book, and the thoughts which have come to your mind during this five minute interval. Turn off the light and go to sleep. 5. As soon as you wake up (whether it is merely an interruption in your

night's sleep or the end of sleep) watch your thoughts and impressions as you lie in bed. Did you dream? 6. Write down any dreams you remember. If you can not remember any dreams, write down whatever thoughts were first in your head. If you follow this six-step procedure for two weeks, you are likely to remember some of your dreams. Analysis of your thoughts prior to retiring and as soon as you awaken will give a good idea of what was on your mind throughout the night, and eventually this will start triggering recall of your dreams. However, the tendency is to give up after a few days, or to begin slacking off on some of the steps. Perhaps you are too tired to spend the five minutes watching your thoughts before retiring, so you drop off, oblivious to those factors which have the greatest influence on your dreams. The most frequent breakdown in discipline is in writing down the dream. How many times have I awakened in the middle of the night, remembering a significant dream that just occurred, sleepily talked myself out of writing it down, ("I'll remember it till morning") and awakened later with no recollection other than that I'd missed out on remembering a significant experience. But consistent efforts will yield results, and results will yield greater determination and more consistent and ingenious efforts. Then you can work with the momentum and open up an entirely new world which you were previously ignoring. I have given a general system for remembering your dreams. It is the method I have developed through research, and trial and error, and those who are using it are remembering at least some of their dreams. No one, however, should be shackled with another man's system. After you try using the aforementioned techniques for at least two weeks, you may wish to try a few variations. Some people report better results if they vary their sleeping patterns. This provides the sleeper with an opportunity to "hit" upon a dream, that is, to wake up while a dream is in progress. Others write down the last night's dream before they retire, in order to remind themselves of their goal. Experimenting with new methods is an excellent way to remember the maximum number of dreams, but I can not overstress the importance of starting with one discipline for at least two weeks. Before I move on to interpreting the dream, I would like to pass on a couple of techniques that I have tried and which have worked for me. First, the best way to remember a dream when you wake up in the morning is to try to remember it while you don't try to remember it! Sound confusing? It really isn't. Because the technique of trying but not trying, of wanting with indifference, of holding your head just right, is the key to everything from falling asleep to performing miracles. If you observe the process of falling asleep, you will see a perfect example of this "betweenness." You can not try to fall asleep, but you can not try the opposite either, that is, to stay awake. You merely allow your head to drift into a place where sleep can happen. Healers and "miracle workers" will tell

of the same technique. They do not try to heal an invalid, nor do they not try. They simply are "between" these opposites, and things happen. Remembering dreams involves the same peculiar magic. You can not force yourself to remember your dreams, but you can just let your mind wander aimlessly. As you lie in bed in the morning, just watch your thoughts, let your head go, but keep an eye on it. This is not meant to be intentionally confusing, but you can not tell someone how to find this mental spot any more than you can explain to a basketball player how to "get hot." You just practice, and eventually it happens. To remember your dreams do not try too hard, but do not ignore effort either. With sincere effort, you will find this correct state of mind. Another key to dream recall involves following the feeling of the dream. Often you will wake up in the morning in a particular mood. Follow it. Do not try to strain or intellectualize why you feel this way. Instead, trace the feeling back to its source which may turn out to be a meaningful dream. There is another technique that I have been using for over two years but which I would not recommend until you are remembering dreams with some regularity. It consists of writing down a question before going to sleep. This is obviously similar to the previously mentioned step of recording your thoughts prior to sleep. But formulating a question crystallizes your thoughts, centers them on what is really on the mind. And with practice your dreams will give you answers. This technique will be discussed in detail in the next section dealing with dream interpretation, but I will stress here that you should not use this tool idly. Unless you ask the question seriously you will not receive an answer and, in fact, will minimize your chances of getting an answer when something is really troubling you. But if you do think or meditate upon a question, and write it down with sincerity and inquisitiveness, you have an excellent chance of remembering the answer that the dream will provide. Finally, for the real dream enthusiast, try getting up a couple of times during the night. I am not so naive as to believe that many of you will employ this method with regularity. But if you really want to remember your dreams, waking up at various intervals greatly enhances the chance of hitting on a dream. I will not preach further on this matter, but leave you with this thought: You can not honestly say that you tried and simply could not remember your dreams until you attempt this final technique. What has all this to do with the recurrent dream? The first step, of course, is to remember your dreams and see if any one of them occurs with some frequency. But if you find ways and means of remembering your dreams, even if you later give up the disciplines which helped you to recall them, the truly significant dreams will continue to come through. Once a pathway into the inner mind has been blazed, future dreams have a trail to follow out. And the one dream which will continue to come out is the recurrent dream.

Coming in TAT Journal: The Uncovering: Interpreting the Recurrent Dream The Recovery: Acting Upon the Recurrent Dream Vignette in Zen by Dan Quigley "By whom shall the knower be known?" --Brihadaranyaka Upanishad Identity is the elusive shadow that runs before us across the plain. A monk asked the Master, "What is myself?" The Master answered, "Myself." The monk: "How could yourself be myself?" The Master: "That is yourself." In the famous Buddhist dialogue, The Questions of King Milinda, Nagasena, the Buddhist philosopher, uses the allegory of the chariot for the self and then proceeds to destroy the chariot by analytical reasoning. "Show me the chariot," asks Nagasena, "is it the pole, the body, the wheels, the yoke?" To each question the King is forced to answer, "No." Finally, Nagasena declares, "I fail to find any chariot, your majesty." This same analysis can be applied to matter with great force. The self, upon examination, seems to dissolve into parts, perceptions, states, emotions and memory. All are in a perpetual flux and movement. Change, or at least the ability to absorb change, seems to be a part of the self. But the self also manifests a continuity that can be found only in memory. Since freedom was the main purpose of the Buddha and since the concepts of soul and ego stood in the way of liberation, these were denied. If a soul existed, it would be either known or unknown. If it were known it would be an object of perception; since the knower cannot be an object of perception and still be the knower, it cannot be the soul. If it were unknown, "Then what use to you is this imagined soul? Even without such a soul, the existence of the absence of knowledge is notorious as, for instance, in a log of wood or a wall. And since each successive abandonment is held to be still accompanied by qualities, I maintain that the absolute attainment of our end can only be found in the abandonment of everything." - Buddhacarita, trans. by E.B. Cowell. The idea of self must be a product of memory, at least in great part. Hume felt that memory did not so much produce personal identity as discover it, "by showing us the relation of cause and effect among our different perceptions." The acts of constant perceptions are strung together by memory and given force by the thinking element, producing a concerted whole which is given the name "ego," "soul," etc. Linked with desire and

imagination, this produces the self complete with a vector toward the future. What the Zen Master demands is the dropping of cause as linked to the self in time which is based on the doubt that the student himself must cast on his assumption of identity.

We should realize that thought is an entity and not the self, and that that which processes thought is nearer to the true self. The tendency to identify with our thoughts is, in Buddhism, "to accept a thief as our own son." To void the conceptual system is not to change reality or its antecedent, but rather to cease holding beliefs that are binding. When these beliefs are dropped and the system is then at the "still point," reality will rush in and fill the void. "If the primordial Principle thought, it would possess an attribute, consequently, instead of occupying the first rank, it would occupy only the second; instead of being ONE, it would be manifold and would be all things which it thought." "Inasmuch as that is multiple which thinketh, the principle which is not multiple will not think. " Plotinus TAT Book Service By buying in volume, we are able to save our readers a few dollars on many books that are not sold at all bookstores. We also invite our readers to write in if they have books to sell. The books listed here are all new. To order, please add fifty cents to the listed price to cover postage, and write to: TAT Book Service.... [[Page of books here]] Book Reviews

Psychic Exploration, Edited by Edgar D. Mitchell and John White. New York, G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1974, pp. 700, $17.50 Prior to Edgar Mitchell's flight to the moon on Apollo 14, he described himself as a pragmatic engineer and technocrat with a profound respect for the scientific method. During that flight in 1971, he experienced something that, in his words, contradicted his "pragmatic engineer" attitude. He described this experience in the introduction of Psychic Exploration: "It began with the breathtaking experience of seeing planet Earth floating in the vastness of space." This was followed by a "peak experience," whereby he realized, by a kind of direct "knowing," that there was an order to the universe that lies behind the apparent nature of things. There was a kind of "intelligent design that gives life purpose. Amidst the beauty of this intuitive understanding, he began to reflect upon the condition of human existence back on Earth, and he became somewhat dismayed at the pervasive human suffering and the worldwide tendency toward self-destruction. He became more and more concerned with the problem. He discussed the matter with many people and studied the situation at length. Finally, he came to a conclusion which was hardly in line with a pragmatic scientist. He felt that the most satisfactory solution to the world's major problems was a "metanoia," or an increase in awareness - new state of consciousness. Psychic Exploration represents a step in that direction. The scientific investigation of psychic phenomena is certainly one way in which the study of man's consciousness can be brought to the foreground. Mitchell states that this study of man's consciousness is referred to as "noetics" and has been his real interest for years. But to look at Psychic Exploration solely as the outgrowth of Mitchell's inspiration would give the wrong impression. It has also been the desire of many researchers of all kinds to see a union between the "objective" approach of scientific enquiry and the "subjective" approach of personal and intuitive modes of enquiry, in order to revitalize the view of science and of mankind in general. In Psychic Exploration, an anthology of writings covering some 700 pages, thirty scientists describe in thirty chapters some of the peculiarities of their particular fields of research. It is a comprehensive account of the entire spectrum of psychic research by some of the pioneering scientists now investigating psychic phenomena. The subject matter extends well beyond the range of modern science, delving into investigations which lead deep within human consciousness to explore the true relation between the mind and the physical universe. Such topics as telepathy, psychokinesis, poltergeists and out-of-the-body experiences are discussed. Also included are the names and addresses of various researchers, groups, books and journals which are valuable references and sourcebooks for the field. It is an ideal book for those who

would like to get an overview of the fascinating topic of psychic research. I am presenting the following glossary of terms, which make up the subject matter of Psychic Exploration in order to expedite the formation of a common language. In order to compare notes on a subject, it is necessary to know that we are, in fact, talking about the same subject. For instance, one person's idea of the term "soul" may mean an ectoplasmic extrusion, while to another it may refer to a feeling he gets when he listens to the music of Otis Redding. It is doubtful that this listing will fully succeed in that purpose, but it may serve to present a general picture of a broad and rapidly changing field. In Psychic Exploration, which is practically an encyclopedia of psychic research, it is mentioned that these classifications are subject to many qualifications. Therefore, the list must be seen as tentative. Many of the areas of research overlap, and many can be broken down further. At the same time, there are researchers who do not like to be associated with some of the more "outlandish" propositions. Others would like to see things like the study of UFO's, fire-walking, and other occult subjects included. So that, amidst all these potential changes, coupled with the possibility of contradictory discoveries along the way, the formation of a stable language in the psychic field may be a long way off. A Brief Look at Psychic Research Psi is a synonym for the general class of events called psychic phenomena. It is the first letter in the Greek word meaning "psyche." Parapsychology and paraphysics are two terms which overlap the three categories of psi phenomena outlined below. Their main concerns are, respectively, the study of "beyond mind" and "beyond matter." I. Extrasensory perception (ESP) is one of the three categories of psi phenomena. It is a perception which is received by an individual directly through his mind without the need of the five senses. These "mental "perceptions can involve phenomena which take place hundreds of miles away, or which may happen in the future or in the past. They are often not consciously recognized by the individual who receives them, nor are they always completely accurate representations but may, in fact, consist of vague resemblances or even symbolic representations, as in dreams. 1. Clairvoyance is a direct mental "seeing" of a physical happening which is outside the range of the five senses. 2. Clairaudience is a mental "hearing" of a sound which is outside the range of the five senses. 3. Telepathy is a direct mental reception of another's thoughts or mental states.

4. Precognition is a mental perception of an event that takes place in the future. 5. Retrocognition is a mental perception of an event that happened in the past. II. Psychokinesis is a general term that refers to the class of events which involve the interaction of mind with matter. A common example is the bending of a spoon with "mind power" (or some energic force.) 1. Telekinesis moves objects from place to place without touching them. 2. Teleportation is similar to telekinesis. Objects are somehow moved great distances and would have had to pass through obstructions like walls in order to arrive at their destination. 3. Materialization describes a physical object suddenly appearing "out of thin air." It has somehow made a transformation from the non-material world to the material world. 4. Dematerialization occurs when a physical object suddenly disappears as if it had disintegrated. 5. Levitation takes place when physical objects or one's own body are lifted up without the use of muscular force, but by some force subject to volition. 6. Psychic surgery removes diseased tissue from a living body with no surgical instruments. 7. Psychic healing is effected through the laying on of hands to the diseased area. 8. Thoughtography produces images on film through the mental volition of a psychic. 9. Out-of-the-body-projection is an experience of being separated from one's physical body while still remaining fully conscious. 10. Apparitions of the living are visual impression's that suggest the real presence of someone who is alive, but who is known of to be some distance away. III. Survival phenomena refer to life after death and events which may be influenced by personalities who are no longer connected with their physical bodies. 1. Mediumship involves the medium serving as a channel for communications between possibly deceased "discarnate personalities" and the living.

2. Hauntings occur when there are a large number of discarnate personalities at a particular place, such as an old building. 3. Apparitions of the dead are the visual impressions of someone who is supposedly dead. 4. Poltergeists are spirits which are known for their trickery. They are known to move objects and break things, and often seem to center around the adolescent. 5. Spirit photography is simply the attempt to get pictures of "ghosts" on film. 6. Spirit possession refers to the presence of some kind of entity which lives inside of a human being, perhaps as a kind of parasite. 7. Reincarnation deals with the possibility of past lifetimes. By Michael Baldrige The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, by Julian Jaynes, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1976, Pp. 476, $12.95. How much does the practice of mysticism depend on the theoretical aspect of it? Perhaps not much, when it comes down to the nitty-gritty of serious seekers pursuing a regimen of esoteric discipline firmly centered in the Now. On the other hand, for those interested in also acquiring some understanding of just what it is they are doing, from a perspective other than the center of their own heads, a little "discursive thought" (the bane of traditional Zen teachers) is absolutely essential. Also necessary is the method of that other bogey, material science - namely, gathering information from that vast phenomenal world. All esoteric systems were originally constructed by men who used these tools - obviously, since a totally idiosyncratic system would be incommunicable and utterly useless to anyone but the idio-savant who syncretized it within the center of his private psyche. Which brings us to the point at issue: just where and when did all these systems originate in the first place? What stands at the history-shrouded source of the great transmission chain? Even in untheoretical schools, there is usually a body of conjecture, so common as to be taken for granted, about a time in the forgotten past when the human species was at a higher level of psychic development than at present. Perhaps the most vivid formulation of this was made by Ouspensky, who ardently insisted that we today would have no hope whatever of any spiritual attainment, if it were not for what these past great ones managed to pass on to us. The heights of consciousness, it seems, were the natural endowment of the supersentients who lived before the Flood, or at any rate long before recorded history. This,

goes the theory, is our fountainhead of esoteric truth. Now Julian Jaynes appears on the scene, with a startling announcement: man, he says, was not conscious at all until just about three thousand years ago - the day before yesterday, on the esoteric time-scale. Mr. Jaynes is a psychologist and a scientist, and is looked upon as a "maverick" by his colleagues in both of these spheres. He describes his life as a quest for the source of consciousness, terminology not unfamiliar to the student of spiritual disciplines; and, like that of many such students, his quest began in poetry and philosophy. But he became dissatisfied with the "imprecision" of these approaches, and thence vectored off onto the path of objective research and historical study. After years of heterodox (and unorthodox) search through many scientific fields, he believes he has finally found the "grail," which is the theory presented in his book. (The source for the preceding remarks is an interview with Jaynes in Psychology Today, November 1977 issue.) In the first chapters of the book, Jaynes offers us his definition of consciousness, and a very precise and clear definition it is. He came independently to conclusions similar (up to a point) to Ouspensky's; namely, that we are conscious much less of the time than we think we are, that in fact most of our daily activity is performed unconsciously, by means of stimulus-response, etc. This unconscious action, including mental and verbal processes, Jaynes labels "reactivity." The definition gradually unfolds to present a picture of consciousness as an artificial inner space whose contents and operations are based wholly on metaphor - specifically, metaphors of the external world and of bodily action, e.g.: "seeing" with the mind's "eye, "'pursuing" a problem, "grasping" a solution, etc. And ultimately it unfolds that consciousness itself, our very "inner space," is a metaphor, having developed from the use of language in certain ways under certain conditions. Thus we can see that Jaynes's approach is from the "bottom up," conceiving mind to have arisen from the material world, instead of descending from higher regions; and that to him, "consciousness" is strictly ego-consciousness. And in fact the chief value of the book, from an esoteric standpoint, is that it conveys a remarkable insight into the birth of the human ego, related in a format of high drama. This is a process vital to our self-understanding. As J.J. van der Leeuw expressed it in The Conquest of Illusion: "We all complete the creative Rhythm in our own evolution; we all grow from the unconscious unity of primitive man through the separateness of intellectual man to the conscious unity of spiritual man." Jaynes' The Origin is a description of the transition from the first to the second stage in this schema, told from an historical rather than a personal perspective. Except that Jaynes's primitive man is not unified. He is bicameral. There is current trend in neurology toward what is called "split-brain

research." It's been found that the right hemisphere of the brain is more sentient (emotional-subjective), while the left is more sentient (intellectualobjective). Further, the two hemispheres are connected by only two small bundles of nerve-fibres. And beyond that, it's believed that the right hemisphere is the source of much of the delusional, hallucinatory material experienced by schizophrenics. The bold hypothesis of Julian Jaynes is that prior to about 1000 B.C., there was a different relationship than at present between the two hemispheres of the human brain. As long as Cro-Magnon (i.e., Van der Leeuw's "primitives") maintained their animal-like mental state of unconscious, at-one-with-nature unity, their tribal groupings could not exceed thirty or so in number, for reasons involving primate methods of social control. So evolution, as is its wont, came up with a novel method of solving this problem and allowing the little human colonies to expand into settlements, then towns, and cities. The splendid, Edenic unity of the naked ape's mind was split in twain; his selfawareness shrank from the vague, undifferentiated identity with all that he perceived, to a little bundle of "I, the man" residing solely in the left hemisphere. Meanwhile, the sentient contact with a broader perspective crystallized in the right hemisphere. Language, bear in mind, had been developed millenia before; and so the right hemisphere communicated its essential messages along the narrow neural passageway to the left by the most efficient method possible: by means of speech, heard internally. The man, hearing this voice in his head, naturally assumed that it came from an invisible entity outside himself - in short, from a god. This impression was strengthened by the fact that visions of the presumed deity sometimes accompanied the voice. Thus were born the pantheons of the ancient world. Thus was born civilization, for now the population of a social group could expand almost indefinitely; no matter how isolated a man became from his fleshly ruler, there was always someone near at hand to tell him what to do: the voice of the god. Jaynes does a remarkable tour-de-force of the Iliad, pointing out how none of the characters think or contemplate or reason things out as we do. Rather, whenever there is a decision to be made, or a novel situation to be dealt with, or anything demanding the slightest degree of creative thought, a god pops up and tells Achilles or Hector or whoever, just exactly what they should do. And always, inevitably, they do it. They have no choice - they are not conscious. They must respond to the authoritative stimuli provided by the gods. The next part of the epochal drama unfolds as vast geological, demographic and political changes erupt in the latter part of the second millennium B.C., throwing the bicameral civilizations into disorder and eventuating in the breakdown of the bicameral mind itself. The voices of the gods were heard with decreasing frequency, and man was led kicking and screaming into the emptiness of internal space, forced into the agony of thinking for himself.

He was very reluctant to do this. In fact, he has spent the past three thousand years mourning the loss of his divine masters, trying desperately to reconjure some outside authorization for his actions, his life, his very meaning. Religion is what he invented as a tenuous umbilical to the gods who once spoke to him face-to-face. Jaynes describes the Old Testament as a step-by-step record of this process, from the bicamerality of Moses and the early prophets, through the lamentation in the Psalms for the lost voice of Yahweh, to "mind at the end of its tether" in the preacher of Ecclesiastes facing a meaningless, Godless world (the few references to Yahweh in that book being described as later interpolations by pious scribes), and finally to the iron-bound Law, the last resort of the priestly caste to keep men in line, in the utter absence of any direct word from he Deity. So: what does all this mean to those who would seek a higher state of consciousness than this lonely little god-forsaken ego? The implications are manifold, and deserve much thought and research by serious-minded people. An authoritative statement is not possible at this moment; the ideas are too new. But perhaps we can scratch the surface a little. Assuming that there is something very real behind what Julian Jaynes has discovered (without necessarily taking his theories at face value), the first question is: What is the actual nature of the esoteric systems and writings which have come down to us from the supposed "bicameral" era? Even a cursory comparison of the ancient Vedas with the later Upanishads tends to confirm Jaynes' judgment that the former are the products of unconscious bicamerality, on a level with the Iliad, while the latter are peopled with (and authored by) conscious, striving human beings, desperately seeking something beyond themselves. What, then, of the crystal-clear references in the Vedas and other "bicameral" texts to what we have been calling the higher states of consciousness, including even the Absolute itself? Can we afford to play Jaynes' game and assume that all these were "later interpolations?" Or should we venture some bold speculations ourselves can we imagine, for instance, that these spheres of higher reality were accessible to the "god" in the right hemisphere, who then transmitted his vision through the "man" of the left hemisphere onto the parchment? If so, then we can see how it was that the prior attainment of ego-consciousness was the absolute prerequisite for, was in fact the gateway to, these higher states for us, for the man. I.e., we had to expand our self-identity into the right hemisphere, to become our own god, before we could behold that which only gods may see. As long as we identified ourselves strictly as the helpless little mortal, cowering before the "external" god, we were purblind to any higher experience. The next area which demands investigation is the fact that Jaynes' theory throws a heavy shadow of doubt on the validity of much of the content, the actual details of the practices, of esoteric systems. There are seven chakras,

we are told, whose forces must be integrated in order to achieve "godconsciousness;" man's name is Legion, says Gurdjieff - he has no unity of consciousness, and must struggle for years to integrate himself; man as he is has no consciousness at all, says Ouspensky, and if he works hard and is very lucky, he may attain a tiny bit of it at the end of threescore and ten; man's mind, we are told, is bicameral, the way it is today. But the source for all these techniques is held to date away back through the ages, to that time, if Jaynes is correct, when the human mind was very different from its present constitution; in short, when it was in a much greater state of disunity. In a very fascinating chapter of The Origin, Jaynes describes how there are certain terms in the Iliad which have been interpreted by modern scholars as indicating various functions of mind, of consciousness. He then offers his own interpretation, and backs it up with very plausible-sounding evidence. There were precisely seven such "mind-words" in the old Greek, he says, and then traces how these words and their meanings transmuted and evolved through a thousand years of Grecian writing, from the Iliad to Plotinus. In the Iliad, they merely denote bodily functions, or sometimes sensations experienced upon the appearance of a god; they have nothing whatever to do with conscious thought as we know it. But over the course of this millennium, during which the Greeks gradually became conscious, these words did in fact become transformed into descriptions of consciousness (e.g. nous and psyche); and further, their meanings coalesced, to a certain extent. For Iliadic man, there were these seven passive functions; for the Greeks of the first century A.D., there was simply one active state: consciousness. In short, the question is: did our esoteric systems become outdated two thousand years ago? Are they merely the residue, passed on by inertia, of something which is now utterly unnecessary? Jaynes casually notes in passing the idea that during the thousands of years of the bicameral age, surely an exceptional individual here and there must have been sparked into consciousness. Could some such persons have been the originators of esoteric systems? Did they devote their lives to painstakingly constructing methods by which their benighted, automatonlike, god-driven contemporaries could come to a better state? Did the disciples of these men have to spend years and decades of their lives integrating their seven chakras, laboriously breaking down their bicamerality, all this - in order to attain the normal ego-consciousness which we have naturally today? The foregoing is admittedly overdramatized a bit, to make a point - which is perhaps simply that we cannot afford to waste our time, the human lifespan being what it is. The old systems certainly retain some value, even if that usefulness is mainly symbolic. Man today, at the turn of the third millennium A.D., is surely not a master of self-control, far less is he the possessor of a

unified psyche, and this not even to speak of being able to handle higher states of consciousness. However, a change of perspective is necessarily in the offing. To revert to a more personal level, I have to admit that what's happened is that Jaynes's book has restored my lost hope for the collective psychic evolution of humanity. Perhaps we are getting somewhere as a species after all. The vision is staggering: it appears that we have literally become our own ancient gods, and we have not known it. And from a godly perspective, three thousand years are but the very recent past - and the future that's almost upon us. The problem then becomes - and this holds equally true and valid in a personal quest for enlightenment as it does to an historical vector for godhood - to throw off the vestiges of bicamerality, to look for the divine authorization within, not without... to turn our backs on the gods, demons and other bogeys which haunted the nightmare that was our unconscious past, to stand alone and face the naked cosmos, even that nameless utterness which we feebly label the Absolute. Returning to the historical level, it's clear that as we pass through this cruxpoint of the ages, new forms are needed in order to effectively transmit what light we have to those who will succeed us in a very different world. Mysticism must utterly transcend itself, or it too will become a forgotten relic. That substance which we call by the name of spirituality will of course survive, since it is part of the foundation of reality; but its outward form will change dramatically, and it will doubtless have a new label. Above all, we must not be afraid to perform that simple action which often seems innately terrifying; to discard that which is no longer useful, to stop retreating ten steps in order to take the eleventh step forward, to stand on the shoulders of those who have gone before us rather than worshipping at their feet, to grasp and to use that which is our birthright: the long-ripened fruit of ongoing human evolution. By Joseph Kerrick TAT News and Calendar The Columbus TAT group started its spring activities with "The Story of Carl G. Jung," a film held at the Upper Arlington library. About ninety Jungian enthusiasts attended and heard introductory comments by Dr. Lila E. Dennis, a practicing clinical psychologist who has completed post-graduate training at the Carl Jung Institute in Zurich, Switzerland. Dr. Dennis's discussion of her personal experiences at the many places shown provided a nice complement to the film. Bill Bush of the TAT Society and Dr. Dennis have combined energies to form a Carl Jung study group in Columbus. Some fifteen people at the film indicated their interest in attending the organizational meeting in April. Call Bill at ___ for information.

Three other programs have been planned by the Columbus group this spring. On April 2, Dr. Elizabeth Bacon, a well known Columbus clairvoyant, was scheduled to speak on "Reincarnation," and on April 23 at 7:30 p.m. Joyce Cascioli is to speak on "How to Interpret Your Dreams" at 2950 N. High St. On Sunday, May 7, at a place yet to be announced, Dr. David Dillahunt will give a talk entitled, "Unconscious Mental Mechanisms." Dr. Dillahunt, a Columbus physician who has been a guest lecturer at two TAT Chautauquas, is a deep and intriguing speaker on transpersonal psychology. Call Bill Bush about these and other activities. Leigh Gerstenberger has brought a wide array of speakers to the TAT Forum in Pittsburgh, covering topics like "angelology," the awareness techniques of ARICA and a discussion of "bioenergetic analysis" by Dr. Emanuel Baum. At the end of March, twenty-five people heard August Turak speak on the "Albigen System," and on April 11 Mary Van Sycle is scheduled to speak on astrology. They will round their spring schedule with a talk by Florence Pels on graphology on April 25. In May they move into an open forum with such contrasting topics as mysticism and behavioral psychology. These talks are all very informal and conducive to stimulating discussion. For more information, contact Leigh at ___. With the coming of summer TAT activities, as usual, move to the Farm, bringing many new faces with a wide range of interests. The first summer symposium will be on June 3 and 4 and will specialize in hypnosis. It will be conducted by Richard Rose who is an amazing demonstrator of the workings of the mind. Coming in August will be another seminar at the TAT farm dealing with nutrition. For more information about these events, write to the TAT Foundation, ___. The Chautauqua building is presently being upgraded by some of the men at the Farm and other TAT volunteers. In the past six months a new roof and new gutters have been installed. The west wall has been improved so that it can be opened up and supported by posts, thus giving more room for the Chautauqua-goers. Once again, the men at the farm are to be commended for their skilled work. TAT members are reminded of the next TAT Meeting scheduled for the 1st and 2nd of July (Saturday and Sunday). In addition to the normal round of meetings, a softball game, a campfire and a Sunday morning discussion have been planned. The softball game has been set for 4:00 p.m. on Saturday, pre-empting the Ohio vs. Pennsylvania basketball game previously held at TAT meetings. Following dinner, the campfire will be lit at 9:00 p.m., providing an opportunity for relaxed conversation and - as at all previous campfires - musical entertainment of some sort from our musically inclined members. Concluding the weekend will be an informal discussion on Sunday morning at 11:00 a.m. The format will allow an opportunity for optimum audience participation. The topic is yet to be chosen, but will be one of current interest (tarot, astrology, nutrition, etc.) Camping is free for the

weekend. Food and drink are also available at nominal cost. For further information concerning the TAT meetings, contact your local TAT group or write the TAT Foundation. An Entire Weekend on Hypnosis and Self-Help Psychological Techniques Hypnosis in Healing • Habit-Breaking • Mental Problems Diagnostic Hypnosis Hypnosis as a Means of Finding New Powers of the Mind Hypnosis as a Spiritual Lever Regression, Auto-Hypnosis Hypnotic Techniques - How They are Literally Used to Build Fraudulent Empires or to Make Millions in Merchandising Conducted By Richard Rose, Author, Lecturer-Consultant with A. Fitzpatrick, Psychologist, and Frank Mascara, Lecturer on Psychic, Psychological & Other Hypnotists Begins June 3rd & 4th AT 10 A.M. For more information and reservation forms, contact you local TAT group (see inside front cover) or write: TAT Foundation ___ Classified [[Classified Rates and 2 pages of ads here.]] The Columbus TAT Society Carl Jung Study Group A group has recently been formed to study the psychology and philosophy of the eminent psychologist and psychoanalyst, Carl Gustav Jung. The purpose of the group is twofold: first, to seek a deeper intellectual and intuitional understanding of the psychology presented in the works of Carl Jung and, second, through comparing and relating these ideas to our own personal lives, to come to a truer understanding of ourselves. Call ___ for information. Public Lectures The next public lecture sponsored by the TAT Society will be on Sunday, April 23, 7:30 p.m. when Joyce Cascioli will speak on "How to Interpret Your

Dreams" at the Psychic Science Institute, 2950 N. High St. Dr. David Dillahunt will give a talk on "Unconscious Mental Mechanisms" on May 7; the location is to be announced. Admission is free, but donations are accepted to cover expenses. For more information, call ___. [[Ads]] Join: The TAT Foundation is a membership organization and your participation is invited. Membership in TAT is $15.00 for the first year and $10.00 per year thereafter. This will entitle the member to attend the four quarterly TAT Society meetings held each year at the TAT Farm in West Virginia. [[Membership and/or subscription form here.]] Do you have: Something on Astrology, Dreams, ESP, or Psychokinesis? Life after Death, Wholistic Medicine or Nutrition? Esoteric Philosophy, Ancient Cultures or Mind Sciences? A Character Study or Biography of someone along esoteric lines? A Poem or Statement of a Personal Experience? We would like to hear from you! Submission deadline for Summer Issue is June 15, 1978. Send to: TAT Journal, ___, Columbus, Ohio In the Next Issue The "Son of Sam" Syndrome: From where do the voices come? Š 1978 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved.

TAT Journal Issue 4 The Forum for Awareness Full Index of Issues 1 thru 14 Volume 1 Number 4 Summer 1978

TAT Society The TAT Society was formed in 1973 because a need was felt for a philosophical forum, for a meeting and working together of all manners and levels of deep spiritual study and investigation, and for a friendly dialogue between material science and mystical intuition. The latter category is especially necessary. Science disdains mysticism but it is forever and belatedly proving things previously declared as truth by an intuitive individual. Mysticism may disdain science, but it is forever attempting to tell of its findings in a scientific manner, so that it can convince rational and relative minds of its discoveries. A place for meeting was needed and groups were formed in many Eastern cities. A farm is now available in West Virginia as a general headquarters,

and study center. The TAT Society holds meetings in a number of different cities for study and discussion. Other events, such as lectures, seminars and films, are also presented from time to time. Telephone numbers for the cities listed below are of TAT members who can provide information about activities in their area. Akron, Ohio - Canton, Ohio - Cleveland, Ohio - Columbus, Ohio - Pittsburgh, Pa. - Washington, D. C. Perspective The editorial response to the recent Harvard commencement address by Alexander Solzhenitsyn, the exiled Russian author, illustrates well the typical human response to bold statements of opinion. Because there are so few recognizable figures today of Solzhenitsyn's obvious stature and moral integrity, he has been favorably publicized as an eloquent critic of both Eastern and Western societies and as a voice calling for a spiritual renaissance in the world. His speech was hailed for its insight into the shallowness of our materialistic culture, but was criticized for focusing that insight too sharply on government and the press. The implication is that Solzhenitsyn is capable of a profound understanding when it comes to mankind's spiritual nature but that he errs when he applies that understanding to specifics. Or does it mean that when Solzhenitsyn generalizes he is inspiring and harmless, just as he should be? A concern for men's spiritual welfare must be communicated tangibly and if a teacher is to help others he must provide guidance for day-to-day living as well as dispensing philosophical food for abstract thought. Popular opinion is not guided by a desire for truth and resembles in its sense of direction the circling of a headless chicken. Can an individual trying to guide others in a search for truth, or can the seeker himself, afford to bargain principles away in order to appear fashionable or to gain social acceptance? Perhaps compatibility is not a virtue in itself. Christ said: "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace but a sword." Matt. 10:34. It was not the sword of warfare but the sword of philosophical discrimination what the Buddhists call prajna. P.D. Ouspensky has interpreted Christ's words, in A New Model of the Universe, to mean that the truth inevitably divides men because only a few are able to receive it. They might also mean that when truth appears in this world of relation and possibility it necessarily cuts between right and wrong, between "is" and "is not," and requires men to choose their paths. We must not lack the courage to speak the truth as we see it in matters of daily life; otherwise, we risk the atrophy of our faculty of discernment and the inability to use it in the service of a spiritual goal. Acceptance and

approval of all conceivable value-systems and types of behavior is now a popular attitude and has been recently crystallizing into a new religion called "constitutionalism." All that it reflects is the vacuum existing in people's understanding of human nature, both physical and spiritual, and a widespread fear of causing any social offense. It should be distinguished from true compassion, based on a knowledge of the varieties of human nobility and weakness and the strength to express one's opinion.

[Illustration: The Temptation of St. Anthony by Martin Schoungauer 1480-1490 (sic)] Editor: Paul Cramer

Associate Editor: Louis Khourey Staff Writer: Michael Baldrige Typesetting: Cecy Rose Printing: Robert Cergol Š 1978 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved. Contents TAT Forum The Voices We May Hear, by Alan Fitzpatrick Tales of Love, by Richard Rose TAT Book Service Part Two: Uncovering the Recurrent Dream, by David Gold Wilbur Franklin Memorial, by Michael Baldrige TAT News and Calendar Book Reviews Powers of Mind by Adam Smith and Possession and Exorcism by Traugott K. Oesterreich. Classified TAT Forum The TAT Forum is a reader's exchange and correspondence column. You are invited to write to this column and offer comments or pose questions concerning the articles or letters published in this journal. You may also share with other readers your discoveries, investigations or resources that you may have come across in your search. Please address your correspondence to the "TAT Forum." Letters Forum: Richard Rose's story of the witch was fascinating although it seemed strange. I was glad to read it through even though it was kind of frightening, because I had the feeling that I was getting a rare view of some of the things that go on in life but are hardly ever mentioned in print. I hope you have some more stories coming, because Richard Rose seems to have an unusual perspective on life and a knack for story-telling. Evelyn Oberle, Columbus, Ohio

Forum: I read David Gold's article on recurring dreams with great interest, and actually, quite a bit of relief. It was reassuring to discover that I am not the only "nut" who is troubled and intrigued by a recurring dream. With your permission, I would like to set out my dream, in the hope that some of your readers can shed some light on its meaning. I get on an elevator in the basement of a building. Two college boys, happy and carefree, get on, joking and rough-housing, but they get off on the first floor, I take the elevator to the fourth floor, which turns out to be as high as it goes. The doors open, but there is no floor, only an enormous desk sloping down to the first floor. I know I must get out. I slide down the desk, always in great danger, but I arrive safely at the bottom. Any hints or interpretations which your readers could offer would be appreciated. I have had this dream at least six times in the past four years. Robert Stern, Pittsburgh, Pa. Forum: I thought David Gold was overdoing it a bit when he said that be had not met one person who has not experienced a recurring dream. At first I thought that surely I was an exception and that there were probably many others who had never experienced a recurring dream. However, just a week later I had the most phenomenal dream which showed me in no uncertain terms that I do have a recurring dream. Not only did I have one, but I had three - all in one night! Perhaps it sounds odd, but I felt as though my unconscious mind was showing me blatantly that I was not giving it the proper amount of consideration. The dream I had was of a most majestic scene in a snow-filled and mountainous fantasyland. I was sailing on a motorboat around and through icebergs and islands. I kept on going deeper and deeper into layers of ice and water. It was like going into a mirror that is reflecting another mirror which goes on to infinity. When I landed in a valley between two mountains, there was a conference being held among some famous scientists. The next thing I knew, I was sitting on a rock watching the goings-on when three dreams came before my eyes. I recognized them as three dreams which I had had before. In other words, I saw three recurring dreams in the dream itself and they flashed before my eyes as most significant elements of my entire life. I woke up with a feeling of well-being, which sure changed my mind about importance of recurring dreams. Bob Mathews, Manchester, Ohio Forum: In Wilbur Franklin's interview, he stated that the results of a psychokinetic experiment were partially dependent upon belief. If a scientist can affect the outcome of an experiment by desiring a certain outcome, then

it seems to me that it makes the notion of "science" absurd. If this is true, then I think the only science there is, is the study of the human mind. How else would you know if you were really doing a valid experiment unless you would come to know the experimenter who is affecting the experimenter? This also makes me wonder how much this "belief factor" might affect our everyday lives. Does anyone have an answer to this question? If what Dr. Franklin said is true, it sure complicates things. Ted LaRoche, Greensburg, Pa. Stopping Thoughts It is generally assumed among many spiritual groups that enlightenment, or the ultimate experience attainable by man, is something which is beyond thought. Words are said to be useless in trying to describe it and the very experience is of a realm beyond the mind - hence the inability of thoughts to comprehend it. Since enlightenment is beyond the thoughts, many spiritual groups propose different and difficult methods to stop thought, and thus enable a person to experience what is beyond thought. There are many names for what is beyond thought. The Absolute, the Godhead, Brahman and Christ Consciousness are some of the terms used. The means used in attempting to stop thought are basically of two types: the direct and the indirect. In the direct means to stop thought and thus realize enlightenment, the thoughts are either tried to be directly and forcefully stopped or an external aid such as a mantra or concentration on a candle flame or other object is used. An example of indirect means are traditional Zen koans such as "What was your face before you were born?" Other koans, perhaps more realistic than the traditional ones, could be based on the conflicts of everyday life or others such as "Who am I?", "Where did I come from?", and "Where am I going." The aim of such unanswerable questions is that the Zen student will push his mind to its very limits to logically answer his questions. If the mind is pushed hard enough, sometimes, in utter exhaustion, it will quit working of its own accord and an experience beyond mind and thought will occur. In Hindu terminology this experience is called Sahaja Nirvikalpa Samadhi. Magick would also be an indirect means to enlightenment. I've met several people who have claimed that they can stop their thoughts, yet they did not seem to be enlightened nor did most of them claim to be. This always struck me very strangely. Either these people weren't really stopping their thoughts or much of the esoteric literature and teachers were wrong. I suspected the former - that most people who claimed to be able to stop their thoughts were actually "dulling" themselves or making their minds

blank. They were entering a somnambulant state rather than actually "stopping their thoughts." I started doing some research and found that this pitfall or hang-up was mentioned in several places in Eastern spiritual literature. People can develop their concentration to such a degree that they are able to stop the normal thought flow that goes through their head. I found something else too. The real aim, more correctly, is to "kill the mind" and not just stop thoughts. (Superficially this is a temporary effect, since it seems that people after enlightenment can function perfectly well in the normal world.) When a person, through one of the various meditation practices is able to temporarily stop the flow of his thoughts, the "seeds" or latent tendencies of thought remain. This can be seen by what happens during sleep. During the deepest part of sleep our ego-self withdraws into the higher self or Absolute. (Paul Brunton mentions this phenomenon in several of his books and calls our Higher Self the Overself.) Often, just before you wake up in the morning, you are dreaming about whatever subject you were thinking of just before you went to sleep the night before. Your thoughts remained latent while you went into deep sleep and withdrew to your Higher Self. As it is, you pick up wherever you left off the night before. Also, no time passed because time is of thought. The thoughts were not destroyed but remained latent. Possibly the realm beyond thought is the same realm experienced in both deep sleep and enlightenment. In enlightenment this realm is experienced consciously, while in sleep the "experience" is unconscious. (The destroying of thoughts is also why it is said that an enlightened man has no karma. Karma is of the realm of mind and when mind and thought are destroyed, karma is also.) The simple "stilling of thoughts" can be a crux in the path of many people. Concentration exercises can develop a mechanical or simple type of concentration that is able to automatically still thoughts but also directs the person towards what the Hindus call "Yoga Nidra" or "Deep Sleep." To avoid this, meditations must remain conscious and active and not mechanical. A person may develop his concentration to a point where he is able to slow or dull the thought processes and thus believe he is nearing enlightenment, when actually he is entering a mechanical sleep-like state which can be a deceiving and subtle hurdle to further progress in meditation. Jake Jaqua, Kent, Oh. Souvenir-Crammed Samsonites I haven't been quite right since I tripped on LSD a few years ago, and, to this day, I still question my "rightness." I only sampled the hallucinogen once - so my brain's not of the texture of an overdone casserole. I don't mean that. I mean that I lost all sense of propriety. I misplaced my thinking cap over the acid revelation that there was, indeed, a solid spiritual or psychological security behind this everyday, mundane, fore-feet in the

trough, life of ignorance and frustration. And I promptly dashed around to every New Age group and Self-Realization technique within a thumb's distance. I bought books from Hare Krishnas at airports, queried Moonies on street corners, chanted "OM" with a group of Love lovers, and saved my dimes for T.M. and E.S.T. I hiked to parapsychology lectures and wholistic workshops, meditation retreats and dream seminars. I questioned Protestants and Catholics and Jews and Jesus Freaks. And everyone I talked to had what I wanted, what I thought would be so hard to achieve without the thievery of drugs: they all had a secure sense of conviction. Each of them was deadly sure of what he was doing and where he was going. For five years I tried techniques and joined movements, attempting to emulate the conviction of adepts in every cult, training and religion. But, for all my effort, I couldn't attain a profound certainty about what I was doing and where I was going. So I grabbed at a solution that promised to relieve my insecurity. I came to believe that we - you, me, the kid with the runny nose - were all ONE in this vast universe of dissimilitude, that we were all the same BEING, only we didn't realize it, etc. Yet, without proof, even this belief grew heavy. I could not lug it around indefinitely, and so I dropped it, like you might plop down your souvenir-crammed Samsonites just short of the cab stand, for a breather. For months then, maybe a year, I languished in a tepid soup of noconviction. I neglected my yoga and my reading, and eased my discomfort with Pepsis and cheeseburgers and TV by the hour. I took a full time job. Yet, try as I might, I couldn't stop meditating. While driving to work or lying awake at night, I pondered my acid trip and wondered if the profound conviction that I had experienced wasn't, after all, an hallucination. I stared at memories of that single psychedelic night and tugged at the knotty question of complete inner security. Eventually, exhausted from grappling with the enigma, I had to admit that the experience was real, at least as genuine as any other experience - the hot peppers I've eaten and the rocks I've kicked. Here was a useless tautology. But then a new idea struck me (or old ones dissolved): that Cosmic Assurance came to me naked! There were no concepts, persons, or things of which I was certain; I was just SURE, completely and utterly CONVINCED. I was SECURE. Nothing mattered. I had experienced conviction by itself, without any particulars of which to be convinced. Whatever seduced my attention took on the most penetrating significance: chocolate chip cookies, beer cans, traffic lights triple-winking red, yellow, and green, flat cigarette butts in the gutter, sweet bubble gum, fat women in laundry rooms, dew, dogs with the mange, and heart-piercing stars. I now understood how I slipped freely through the frontiers of contradiction

between cults and isms. I had rapport with everyone's conviction and knew it to be real - to the limits of our senses. Christians fight Saracens and Rednecks club Krishnites (and vice versa), all performing their holy office with an unshakable conviction. So conviction, I now know, while wonderful to have and to hold, is an untrustworthy judge of particular opinions or beliefs, and, ultimately, even fact. Lao Tzu may have been onto something when he said: "The superior man is as cautious as a wayfarer on an icy stream." Mike Treanor, Muncie, Indiana The Dream Does each of us, at least once, experience THE DREAM? It comes unbidden in profound sleep, and is as tangible as anything in the waking state. For me the dream came some years ago. It was in color, clear and precise with no symbols. This is the dream: I get a phone call from my friend Lee. She asks me to hurry over to her house as she is being visited by her dead grandfather. I knock at a wooden kitchen door with windows in the top. I enter into a large room, a rustic kitchen. Old chairs have been formed into a circle. In the chair sits Lee, her husband and an elderly man with shaggy gray hair. He has a peaceful face and a scar on the back of his neck. Behind his chair stands a woman whose shape is not as clear as his. The old man seems illuminated. I sit within the circle and I am not afraid. We all are smiling. I ask, "What is it like to be dead?" "The same as being alive," says he. "We are still working on our relationship." (As he states this the woman's form becomes clearer and she reaches down and places her hand on his head.) I am surprised. "You are still working on your relationship?" Again a smile in response. "And what is heaven like?" I ask. "Heaven is," he starts, and as he speaks the room dissolves. We are on a high mountain, a meadow bright green with grass and full of flowers. The air is pure, and the light bright with no glare. "Heaven is," he says, "FREEDOM TO WORK." "And what is hell?" "Hell is being bogged down." Nancy Young, Alexandria, Va.

Want to write to someone in the TAT Forum? Send your initial correspondence in a separate, stamped and unaddressed envelope to the TAT Forum and we will mail it to the party you choose. The Voices We May Hear by Alan Fitzpatrick I read an article in the paper the other day that reminded me, once again, of the problem that we face in understanding our own inner motivations, as well as those of our fellow man. The article was the last in a series that covered the conviction of a confessed killer in North Carolina. (1) The man had gained notoriety by taunting the jury to give him the death penalty, in the same spirit as Gary Gilmore. Only this individual claimed to be in direct communication with a voice he said called itself God. A psychiatric evaluation of the man was pending. He had no history of attempts at suicide, yet he killed himself in his cell, leaving a lengthy note for the authorities. He said that he had talked to God, and that God had decided that it would be best for him to kill himself, which he did with utter conviction and no further explanation. "A real nut," I thought. Yet having casually followed the last events of his life over the past few weeks, I could not help but be left with the impression of a deeply tormented man, compelled to the point of murder, and unable to share the secrets of his mental arena with anyone. His macabre case, lost in the back pages of newsprint, also left some nagging questions pertinent to the field of psychology, if not to us all. What really caused this man to commit murder? And what was the nature of this voice, speaking only to him as God, that carried the authority for his suicide? I've done some digging into these questions, and that which follows is the substance of my findings. When we pause and look at similar cases of strange and bizarre behavior recorded down through history and found in works by authors such as Steke (12) and Krafft-Ebing (3), one thing becomes apparent: Man has been puzzled for a long time by the extreme behavior he witnesses in his fellow men, and has tried to grasp the motives behind such actions. Thus, the confessed killer was not the only person who heard voices directing him, from God or the devil. Recently we've heard of the capture of the "Son of Sam" in New York, a man driven to uncontrollable murder by the promptings of a voice he heard. And the battle continues today between the psychiatrists to determine his motives and sanity. There are many people who believe that they hear voices and do not find eventual residence in institutions. They realize that they are having experiences that others do not share, and learn to keep quiet. I recall the experience that I had several years ago with a high school chum, Joe D., who had taken lessons from a woman he described as a teacher of white magic and automatic handwriting. Being naive and skeptical at the time, I paid little attention to Joe and we grew apart. One day upon paying him a

visit at his apartment, he motioned me over to a corner of the room after some time and said, "Alan, don't you hear them? They're always talking about me; they just won't leave me alone." I had heard nothing, and was baffled by Joe's behavior and his description of tormenting voices. Nothing further was ever said about them, and it would be years before I would come across this unusual phenomenon again. To the layman who has never lived through a period of mental derangement, the whole question of voice-hearing is usually of little interest, other than as a passing curiosity in the rare and sensational cases that reach the public eye. For most of us, this is the only realm that we pass through. Psychology, however, has had an obligation to fulfill, and as such has devised many theories and therapies to explain the hearing of voices. Behavioral psychology tends to view the hearing of voices as hallucinations that a person creates himself, as a sort of psychological game or role-playing. Hallucinations might be maintained for the stimulation and attention they provide the host. Thus, the behavioral model supports the belief that the mentally ill do not really hear voices but exhibit such deviant behavior because they cannot function smoothly as "normal" within society. Their condition is simply due to their being reinforced negatively by others for their behavior. A mentalistic view is not necessary for the behavioral approach denies that something is happening and says that a cure for such behavior is to change that person's contingencies of social reinforcement. This theory is somewhat contradictory in that it denies the mind and yet pins the blame for hallucinations on the individual who is being irresponsible by playing a deviant game. Analytical psychology, on the other hand, admits to a mind, and has spent a great deal of time trying to define it, and the things that afflict it. An entire diagnostic system (DSM-2) of cataloguing the many symptoms of mental disorder has been developed by the American Psychological Association to help in diagnosis, labeling and treatment. Yet no classification has ever been satisfactory. They are only the ordering of observed symptoms which often change, and rarely tell you anything about the person's subjective point of view. The many shades of schizophrenia, for example, may or may not include the symptom of voice-hearing. Most patients do not follow any single or well-defined course of abnormal events and, as Eysenck reports, are able to cure themselves, with total unpredictability, at about the same rate as most popular therapies. (4) What exactly is considered voice-hearing? G. Reed gives us a description in The Psychology of Anomalous Experience as follows: "The voices range from primitive noises, such as bangs and whistles, to organized, meaningful sounds such as speech and music. Most common are voices uttering short but comprehensible phrases. The voices may be identifiable in terms of age and sex, whether or not they are of the same nationality as the subject and

whether or not their owners are known to them." (5) This description, though concise, fails to communicate the terror, anguish and confusion that a person may feel when unknown voices are first heard, as in the account by M. Sechehaye in Autobiography of a Schizophrenic Girl: "He [the voice and apparition] took up his position at the further end near the closet on the right. Mocking voices sneered at me: 'Ah, ah, wretched creature, eat, eat, only eat, do eat!' They kept urging me to eat, knowing it was forbidden and that I would be severely punished by them if I acceded to their prompting." (6) Such accounts appear confusing and irrational, and indicate that the sufferer has difficulty in conveying to the onlooker the nature of what is happening to him. It is no wonder, then, that the most common interpretative explanation of voice-hearing would support the view of the objective observer. The "dissociation of consciousness" theory would apply to the Son of Sam as well as to Sybil or the child in The Exorcist. (7) Simply put, it proposes that since we are not party to the voices that an individual hears and takes for real, then the voices must be a delusion, and part of his own mind. Thus, those afflicted are in fact undergoing a dissociation or split of their normal stream of consciousness into autonomous factions or selves that pursue their own development over which the original self has little influence. Such a dissociation is considered to be a "safety valve," and as Bernard Hart explains it in The Psychology of Insanity, ". . dissociation would then always indicate the presence of a mental conflict, and would acquire significance of a defensive reaction adopted by the mind, when confronted with two incompatible systems of ideas." (8) However, as we shall see, the dissociation theory can hold little validity in light of the facts of most cases. An example of personal experience at this point will illustrate more clearly. I had the opportunity to meet Ray G., a 22 year old man, in the fall of 1976 and subsequently worked with him on a daily basis for eight months. He was serving a sentence for a larceny conviction, but had been transferred to the maximum security psychiatric ward where I worked as a psychologist, due to sexual misconduct and felonious assault against another inmate. He had pleaded insanity to the charges, and upon arrival attempted suicide. Upon his recovery I met a man whose looks betrayed a sense of acute fear and anxiety; he gave the impression of a man paralyzed with terror and surrounded by hopelessness and despair. As Ray related to me over the weeks the nature of his condition, I found one strong thread emerging. Ray was continually hearing voices speaking to him. He had numerous blackout spells, painful headaches and ulcers which he attributed to the effects of the voices, for he said that they could seize parts of his body for their own uses and control them against his will. On describing the nature of these voices, Ray noted that he had been unable to sleep at night for years, as the voices dominated his evenings with terror. He had heard the voice of his mother calling to him at night when no one was there. Sometimes, apparitions

appeared before him, with ugly faces that would berate him incessantly. When I questioned the voices directly the only reply that I received, through Ray, was that they told him he should kill me, and shouted inside of his head not to listen to anything I said. The singular message that the voices carried was a repeated imperative to Ray to kill himself. If this were not enough, Ray possessed a violent temper and homosexual aggressiveness that only manifested after a blackout spell, and of which Ray had no memory. He was not forewarned of their advent but would suddenly get painful headaches at the top of his head, followed by a ringing in his ears and dizziness, culminating in shakes, tremors, and finally a blackout spell. A new personality would emerge, entirely different from Ray, who would seek violent sexual expression. Prior to my last visit with Ray he unsuccessfully attempted suicide again, at the prompting of the voices. Brain scans and EEG's showed no evidence of brain deterioration or epileptic dysfunction. And to the psychiatric staff he remained unamenable to therapy, and a mystery until his death by suicide some months ago. In the battle for his life, the voices had apparently won. Yet I could not help feeling that Ray had been telling me something important about the voices that I had previously overlooked. The facts of his subjective experiences were similar to other cases. For one, why had he killed himself when he had told me many times that he did not want to die and was afraid of what the voices might make him do? The dissociation theory would say that the voices urging Ray to suicide were, in fact, only an aspect of Ray's own mind, working as a defense mechanism and ultimately as a benefit to his survival. Yet the outcome for Ray had been death, and it was the secondary emerging aspect of him, against his own wishes, that had bid for and succeeded in the destruction - not survival - of the entire being, theoretically destroying itself too. The evidence contradicts the theory. "When I questioned the voices directly the only reply that I received, through Ray, was that they told him he should kill me, and shouted inside of his head not to listen to anything I said. The singular message that the voices carried was a repeated imperative to Ray to kill himself." Second, Ray strongly believed the voices to be real but not a part of him, as he could clearly distinguish between his own thoughts and those of the voices. In fact, he said that the inner voices compelled their thoughts to turn in certain directions and to dwell on certain topics, thus interfering with his own. This was a key point because the dissociation theory assumes that the new voices or selves originate from a singular mind or intelligence, that is, the one observable. Yet not only could Ray distinguish his thoughts from those of the voices, but the voices communicated to him in an intelligent manner by revealing motives, will, authority and information from a source or memory which Ray had no prior exposure to. Thus it would seem that Ray, as a consistent mental intelligence, struggled against another that was

alien and strategically more powerful. Furthermore, Ray was aware at times of the onset of voices and could pinpoint their arrival in his mind, as if they were invading him from the outside. He said that they had first come after he was raped in a boys' reformatory some years before. I found a similar testimony of invasion in the case of the maid of Orlach, as documented in the works, of Kerner in 1834: "Then she sees him [the apparition] approach, always from the left side, feels as if it were a cold hand which seized the back of her neck, and in this way he enters her. She then loses the sense of her own individuality; properly called." (9) These facts, combined with the clue that I could find no research that would indicate that a person can consciously produce or simulate such bizarre and complex hallucinations experimentally, suggests to me the possibility that voices like those heard by Ray do not arise from a person's self-initiated thoughts, but in a field that encompasses the individual mind. Lang, an independent researcher of voice-hearing, reached a similar conclusion: "...[T]he complexity of the patterns of hallucinations suggests the existence of some form of organizing factor. This factor must at least operate as a physico-chemical agent - say some form of energy system. Difficulties in locating and isolating such a factor within the human organism suggest the possibility of the entrance of an external agent. The question is raised as to whether the theory of spontaneous generation of psychopathological phenomena may not be retarding the clarification of the actuality behind hallucinations. The possibility that hallucinations may be produced by the intrusion of some psychic infective agent is one that requires attention." (10) If psychoanalytic theory is inadequate, then what is the true nature of the voices? I have found that occultists, for centuries, have believed in the theory of spirit possession to explain people hearing interior voices other than their own. Christ and his disciples in their time are said to have exorcized or expelled hundreds of demons from the possessed. The theory of possession is age-old and has been periodically reaffirmed by the intuitions and lifetime research of men such as Paracelsus, Swedenborg and Percival, who used the method of studying the mind directly, rather than objectively in a laboratory. They believed that the mind exists within a psychic field that our senses cannot know, and that we dwell in a collective mental dimension inhabited by other intelligences or thought-forms that are not visible, just as certain wavelengths of color, like infrared, are imperceptible. They called these creatures entities, elementals, familiars, incubi, succubi and dispossessed spirits of the dead, and each is believed capable of inhabiting and controlling a human host by invasion of the delicate nervous system, thus flowing into a man's feelings and the matrix of his mind much like a parasite traveling the

circulatory system of the body. (11) A very good description of a possession is provided by Gerber in his investigation of the maid of Orlach: "But the transformation of personality is absolutely marvelous. It is very difficult to give a name to this state; the girl loses consciousness, her ego disappears, or rather withdraws to make way for a fresh one. Another mind has now taken possession of this organism, of these sensory organs, of these nerves and muscles, speaks with the throat, thinks with these cerebral nerves, and that in so powerful a manner that the half of the organism is, as it were, paralyzed. It is exactly as if a stronger man drove the owner from his house and looked out of the window at ease, making himself at home. For no loss of consciousness intervenes, a conscious ego uninterruptedly inhabits the body. The mind which is now in this girl knows perfectly well, even better than before, what is going on around it; but it is another occupant who dwells in the house." (12) "Psychologists have erroneously discounted voices as separate entities invading another's mind because the scientific method is only one limited mode of investigation, and exploring the mind demands an approach utilizing more acute sensitivities." It is no wonder then that psychologists have never been able to pinpoint the origin and cause of voice-hearing or any psychosis, but choose to call it spontaneous generation, or a phenomenon of sudden beginning. This is what one would see if using the objective scientific method of measuring events with the human eye. Psychologists have erroneously discounted voices as separate entities invading another's mind because the scientific method is only one limited mode of investigation, and exploring the mind demands an approach utilizing more acute sensitivities. At this point we need to stop and ask if this theory of entities appeals to common sense. Is such a theory plausible? Possession would suggest that we can be affected by unseen external forces. Let's take a look at the mind directly, to see if we possibly are susceptible to influences that we are unaware of. Consider, for instance, our motivations. What happens to us when we decide to do something? We can easily see that when we first want or need something then a picture of the object of our desire appears before the mind's eye. If I am reading a book and suddenly get hungry, I'll get an image in my mind of a peanut butter sandwich. This impression seems to arise within my mind, and I then go about finding the ways and means to fulfill this need. I say to myself that I'm hungry so I'll go to the kitchen to make my sandwich. Yet the curious thing is that if we observe carefully the functioning of the mind at such moments, we can see that I only verbalized my need and intention to act after the initial impression was received upon my mind in the form of an image; I reacted to these. And by this simple

observation we can find that all our reasoning for doing things is subject to initial thoughts and images within our minds, including even our most complex or obscure thinking. This curious aspect of the mind demonstrates something clearly: We cannot really say that we exert complete control over our minds or thoughts, if we are always reacting to initial impressions entering the mind. Do we cause, in a logical manner, these original thoughts and visions to occur in our minds that we can then consider and act upon, or do they arise spontaneously? Common sense would point out that if I am acting as observer of my mental processes then I could not be creating the percepts too. We notice that we observe and respond to our thoughts as they arise, and strike upon our consciousness. What I have proposed is evident to us all, if we just test our ability to stop and start our thinking. Rather than directly controlling our thoughts we are impressed by them automatically, much like radios receiving signals. Then we realize and react. If I pinch you without your expectation, you will jump with a start and then react. The pinch has happened before your reaction, and you move irrespective of either the previous thoughts in your mind or your will power. When this happens you realize or think about what has happened and give me your opinions about the pinch. You did not cause the pinch. Thus, much of our thinking is forced upon us by the environment. Hypnotists have known this simple fact for some time, and are able to create visions or illusions upon the minds of suggestible subjects so that they believe that the chair on which they sit is very hot, or that a fly is resting on their nose. The suggestion is so strong that they are compelled to react to situations which do not exist outside of their own minds. All of this can only mean that if we do not entirely control the thoughts arising in our minds, then the environment holds a far greater mental influence upon us than we imagine. What causes thoughts? Psychologists would say that my need for a sandwich is merely a result of hunger, and that hunger is instinct, or the way of the flesh. Then what is instinct? How would a body made of singular cells possess the capability to convey to the mind its message of desire? We are left with the possibility that things act upon us from the external, mental and physical, environment. How else would people who appear to possess rational faculties suddenly experience, a change of mood that would compel them to join the army in a moment of glory; marry or rape in a moment of passion, or kill in the moment of anger? In this light, the theory of possession or influence from an external mental dimension becomes plausible. "When questioned as to their motivations for either their uncontrollable acts or sexual perversions, many pointed to the voices they heard or to the irresistible obsessions that came from nowhere." We notice something else intriguing about the mind. Not only do we have

mental associations for hunger that arise spontaneously in patterns upon the mind, but for other desires as well. If we look carefully at ourselves over any period of time, we can see that the sexual impulse holds great influence over us. We do not need to be ingenious to recognize its powerful impact upon thoughts and actions that can cause catalytic changes in the moods and character of the personality. How many times have we found, in the middle of some daily activity, that the sexual impulse will flood out feelings and change our mood? Our previous thoughts become obscure and sexual thoughts dominate in a manner that leads to arousal and new activities diametrically opposed to those of the last moment. And we tell ourselves that we changed our minds as we travel to visit a mate unexpectedly. This ability to change the mind dramatically is what baffles us most about sex. Every alcoholic goes through a similar interior change in his struggle with booze. The effect upon him, depending upon his degree of drunkenness, results in a difference like night and day; sex can have the same Dr. JekyllMr. Hyde effect upon our personalities. We like to think that we cause or possess our sexual desires but the results often tell us that they possess us. Nearly everyone will admit some difficulty in this area such as in controlling persistent irritating reverie, fluctuating moods or excessive practices. From a common sense standpoint, if we were able to control and cause willfully our sexual lines of thinking, as psychologists would have us believe, then why would we tie up all the time and energy that we do in a pursuit that results in a moment's pleasure? The fact is that we do not control the sexual impulse and we cannot take the credit for all of the conflict and suffering that result from our actions inspired by sexual states of mind. Would hundreds of rapists have lost their heads in a moment of lust when they knew they would pay with their lives? If we observe the effect of sex on our minds we realize that it is one of the most dynamic forces acting upon us. Because of its ability to drastically change us internally, we must admit that sex, of all the desires that move the mind, is the one that we control the least. Sex is an irresistible suggestion, and when we probe for its source we must consider an external influence. The precise seasonal clocks and mating timetables in other animals would suggest that the reproductive urge is universal to all life as a force of nature. We are acted upon by it, or else it is extreme coincidence that 99.99 per cent of all humanity chooses child-rearing as an occupation or life's work. An interesting correlation of sex to possession now arises. For we can find in studies of the criminally insane, such as Psychopathia Sexualis by KrafftEbing, that people with the most bizarre criminal behavior are also those who have the most aberrant sexual perversions and, coincidentally, admit to the least control over their own states of mind. In nearly all such cases I have found one outstanding symptom that emerges: When questioned as to their motivations for either their uncontrollable acts or sexual perversions, many pointed to the voices they heard or to the irresistible obsessions that came from nowhere. In the case of the Son of Sam, Berkowitz admitted that

he killed on the commands of a spirit within him and a neighbor's dog named Sam. In testimony he openly told police that the spirit Sam was actually a six thousand year old man who spoke to him through a dog and who was living in his own mind. "Sam's a thirsty lad and he won't let me stop killing until he gets his fill of blood." Due to a court order, little information concerning Berkowitz's sexual habits has emerged, though lawyers have said publicly that Berkowitz, "told us what he did, everything about the murders. It is fascinating. He is lucid and rational in his reasons, but they would seem irrational to us. There is a lot of sex in it." (13) In the case of Peter Kurten, the "Dusseldorf Ripper," a 1931 trial for mass murder and sexual assault revealed him as driven by uncontrollable sexual rage. In the words of Donald Rumbelow, Kurten, "in the past fifteen months had carried out a series of sex murders and attacks which are almost without parallel in the annals of crime. He was a pyromaniac, a fetishist, a masochist, a sadist and a sex killer. (14) When questioned as to his motives he said that he was compelled to murder for sexual relief. Psychiatric evaluations indicated that he suffered from the hearing of voices that directed him. "I believe the link between voice-hearing, madness and possession to be sexual. We find that occultists knew this to be true long before psychology denounced their findings as superstitious." Such cases are exceptional only because they are sensational to the public. They cannot be discounted on the ground that such individuals are simply fringe lunatics and thus have nothing to offer us. In fact, I believe the opposite to be the case. Psychology has never been able to explain adequately why such people as these cannot control their wild impulses that distort their personalities and combine bizarre actions with unbridled sexual perversion. I have found that these cases reveal a valuable fact that psychologists refuse to consider. Objective psychology must have objective motives that are rational by their conceptual standards of what constitutes objective reality, or sanity. And when one person's motives appear irrational or without a direct cause and effect, he is considered insane. Psychologists use this label to mean that they do not know, but cannot admit so. I do not mean by this to denote madness as a virtue, but an obvious fact has been overlooked. In all of the cases that I have studied, from the Son of Sam to the Boston Strangler, each was found to have bizarre sexual fetishes. And each, including Ray and many people like him that I have worked with, pointed directly to the cause of their fetishes and compulsive bizarre behavior. They pointed to an intrusion of voices upon them that forced them to do what they do. Many can pinpoint a past experience of traumatic sexual nature as the catalyst for the onset of madness. Because of their subjective point of view they are in a position to tell us what they think is the source of their

problem. They appear insane or irrational because we see only their apparent objective inconsistencies from our consistent point of view. We miss an appreciation of their true mental perspective. The Son of Sam expressed no personal guilt for his actions which he nevertheless admitted committing. His rationale was that he was a helpless victim of a more powerful intelligence, an entity named Sam, which Berkowitz said lived within his mind and yet was definitely not of him. He said, without apparent intention to deceive, that, "I was doing it for Sam. Sam can do anything. I was driven to do it for Sam. Sam, not me, loves young blood" (15) I believe the link between voice-hearing, madness and possession to be sexual. We find that occultists knew this to be true long before psychology denounced their findings as superstitious. Paracelsus believed that perverted sexual practices both attracted and were the cause of possession, and that entities could render a victim insane through the traumatic opening of the mind by way of its susceptible weakness - the sexual door. He noted that, "a healthy mind is like a castle, that cannot be invaded without the will of the master, but if they [entities] are allowed to enter, they excite the passions of men and women, and create cravings in them injurious to the mind." (16) His simple cures were most profound. Paracelsus felt that neither exorcism nor holy water would help. Only abstinence from mental reverie and physical sexual release combined with prayer could free the mind from its alien inhabitants. He advocated morality and felt it to be an essential natural protective mechanism from intruding thoughts that could eventually lead to possession. It is said that the possession of the nuns at Loudun, France in the seventeenth century began with uncontrolled sexual hysteria that spread like an epidemic. Interestingly enough, many of the priests sent to Loudun to perform exorcism rites became equally possessed, as documented in the letters of the priest, Surin, concerning his condition after visiting Loudun. Oesterreich, in Possession and Exorcism, discusses this unusual phenomenon without offering any insight. In light of the works and investigations of Paracelsus, we can only wonder if the priests themselves had sexual habits, perhaps resulting from years of sublimated fetishism, that allowed them to be so easily overwhelmed with cruel vengeance. Surin, in his autobiographical account, does not reveal the source of his compelling madness from which he suffered greatly and with which he died. But why do people become possessed by entities through the opening of the sexual door? What is it about sex that is so important? Oesterreich points out that he considers the outcome of true possession to be "the complete disappearance of consciousness of the original personality in the possessed person." In the cases that I have studied this fact seems to be borne out. The outcome is irreversible and few people survive their possession and return to their former sanity. For most, such as Ray, their former sanity, wholeness of mind and will to live are robbed. And as their mental vitality diminishes, the degree of possession and sexual degeneracy proportionally

increases. The hint that we get from this is that somehow the energy generated from our sexual impulse is related to our overall vitality. Freud proposed the idea of libido in his psychoanalytic theory to mean that we possess a sexual energy related to our psychic energy, acting as a creative force and affecting our vitality. Thus we can see that increasing sexual perversion could have the effect of fragmenting the mentality of a person, opening him to possession from outside entities that would invade for the purpose of tapping the libido, sexual energy or vitality in much the same way that a mosquito would steal his blood. Is the fountainhead of our life's energy, our creative force, a commodity for consumption on a market that we do not fully appreciate? Although direct proof may be impossible, I think that an answer may be evident in the subtle patterns of nature. We can observe the fruits of our sexual impulse. We reproduce and fulfill a biological destiny in a process similar to all forms of life. Yet when we study the sexual patterns of animals other than man we find something unusual. All undomesticated animals mate and reproduce according to seasonal calendars which are dependent upon the estrus cycle or fertility of the female. Mating occurs only at these times. Man is the only animal with a sexual frequency disproportionate to the requirements of reproduction. Animals with the same gestation period as man mate only prior to pregnancy during the estrus cycle of the female and may never mate again until after the female has given birth and come again into estrus or fertility. With man, sexual frequency is not dependent upon the requirements of reproduction and mating is continuous, and may be daily for a greater part of life. Why is this so? Our sexual habits appear excessive and wasteful in relation to the rest of the animal kingdom. Was sex then given to us alone for our pleasure, or is there another more subtle meaning behind it?

We notice when observing the relationship between predator and prey in nature that all life forms take their place in a hierarchy where worms eat microbes, birds eat worms and cats eat birds. The hierarchy begins with primitive life forms and ends at the top with man, the supreme predator that eats all other life forms. And as predator we take the vitality of the flesh of our prey for our consumption and in turn generate a vitality of our own, perhaps the most subtle on the face of the earth, which is dissipated through our various activities including a sexual frequency far greater than any other animal. The laws of energy suggest that our energy is flowing somewhere. Missing from this apparent scheme of predator and prey is a visible predator of man to prey upon our vitality. In the absence of one seen we can only conclude that we are host to invisible parasites or entities that affect us from a more subtle dimension for our more subtle energy. Despite the apparent impossibility of objectively proving that possessing entities exist, the overwhelming subjective evidence of human testimony, combined with my intuitive inferences, have convinced me that what we can observe as madness, voice-hearing or schizophrenia can be caused by such psychic parasites. In almost every historical culture we can find references to demons and possession, as man has passed on his warnings and safeguards from generation to generation. By determinedly refusing to consider the idea of possession as anything but superstition, psychology may have precluded the possibility of developing a complete theory of the forms of mental illness. As William James so aptly put it: "[T]he refusal of modern 'enlightenment' to treat 'possession' as a hypothesis to be spoken of as even possible, in spite of the massive human tradition based on concrete experience in its favor, has always seemed to me a curious example of the power of fashion in things scientific. That the demon theory will have its innings again is to my mind absolutely certain." (17) My criticism of modern psychology has not been solely because of its scientific skepticism concerning the value of subjective experience and intuitive evaluation. Psychology has had an obligation to fulfill in the protection of our sanity and, for its performance in this role, an indictment is definitely in order. It may be more than peculiar that today, as attitudes towards sex have become liberal and uninhibited and the tolerance by psychology for wide varieties of sexual practices has increased, so has the rate of mental illness grown at an alarming rate. (18) This is not just the function of a growing population unless that population and the authorities within it are encouraging madness. Psychology, in its quest to be scientific and objective, has applied the same yardsticks to sanity, and decided by legislation what it should be. A few years ago, homosexuality was voted out as a mental illness by a referendum majority of the American Psychological Association, and the diagnostic manuals changed, to suit the increasing public popularity. Thus, modern psychology believes that our sanity can be simply voted upon, regardless of the actual impact that certain detrimental

experiences may have upon the mind. Masturbation, homosexuality, lesbianism and sodomy are no longer considered to be the manifestations of a diseased mind, but experiences to embrace and integrate into ourselves. By disposing of morality as "old-fashioned restraints," now extinct in a modern society with sophisticated sexual itches to scratch, psychology has developed a philosophy that advocates dissipation and debauchery, thus endangering all who follow the therapeutic approaches that advise the opening of the sexual door for the sake of experience. Through such irresponsibility (or ignorance) psychology can only encourage a courtship with possession and the creation of madness, rather than its prevention. Incidences of voice-hearing, murder, madness, sexual perversion and schizophrenia are undeniably linked. The evidence from case histories bears this out. These afflictions to the personality all seem utterly irrational when viewed from the majority's perspective of agreed upon sanity. Objective attempts by psychology to study these irrational states have failed because researchers and therapists have refused to grant credence to the victims' descriptions of phenomena such as voice-hearing and apparitions. Treatments such as insulin, shock and chemotherapy treat only physiological symptoms and may provide some temporary relief, but can in no way be considered as cures. The possession explanation for voice-hearing may be too obvious for the modern mind used to abstract formulations. It is, after all, based upon the direct testimony of those humans who have suffered from this strange ailment. Notes 1. Wheeling Intelligencer, UPI, November 8, 1977, p. 2. 2. Wilhelm Stekel, Sexual Aberrations (New York, 1930). 3. Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis (New York, 1965). 4. L. Ulmann and L. Krasner, A Psychological Approach to Abnormal Behavior (Englewood, New Jersey, 1969), p. 44. 5. G. Reed, Psychology of Anomalous Experience. 6. M. Sechehaye, Autobiography of a Schizophrenic Girl (New York, 1970), p. 67. 7. Sybil was a girl who had more than a dozen personalities. The child depicted in the novel and movie, The Exorcist, was possessed by a demon that was eventually exorcized by priests. 8. B. Hart, The Psychology of Insanity (Cambridge, 1962), p. 69. 9. Traugott K. Oesterreich, Possession and Exorcism (New York, 1974), citing J. Kerner, Geschichten Besessener Nearer Ziet (Stuttgart, 1834).

10. J. Lang, "The other side of hallucinations," American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 96, 1939, p. 429. 11. F. Hartmann, Paracelsus, Life and Prophecies (New York, 1973), pp. 85102. 12. Oesterreich, pp. 28-29. 13. Wheeling News-Register, AP, "Psychiatrists begin trying to enter the tangled mind of the Son of Sam," August 13, 1977. 14. D. Rumbelow, The Complete Jack the Ripper (New York, 1975), p. 246. 15. New York Post, "Killing was my job says accused," by P. Sullivan, August 12, 1977, p. 4. 16. Hartmann, p. 93. 17. Quoted opposite title page in Oesterreich. (18) J. Herbert Fill, M.D., "An epidemic of madness," Human Behavior, March, 1974. The Columbus TAT Society Carl Jung Study Group A group has recently been formed to study the psychology and philosophy of the eminent psychologist and psychoanalyst, Carl Gustav Jung. The purpose of the group is twofold: first, to seek a deeper intellectual and intuitional understanding of the psychology presented in the works of Carl Jung and, second, through comparing and relating these ideas to our own personal lives, to come to a truer understanding of ourselves. Call _______ for information. Public Lectures Free public lectures are given on alternate Sundays at 7:30 p.m. at Buckeye Federal Savings and Loan, 3180 East Broad Street. July 23 - Steve Horvath: "Dowsing" August 6 - William Strandwitz: "Iridology" August 20 - Jon Cook: "Your Personal Horoscope" Tales of Love by Richard Rose

A few years ago I visited Niagara Falls for the first time. I found an atmosphere of magic there that first time that I have not found since, but I have a memory of magic that keeps me going back, not to look at the gorge or river as much as to watch the different expressions on the faces of the tourists. Seemingly I am looking for the same face, or a similar one, of a person I met there. I had made the trip with my son James and daughter Ruth. They had gone into a novelty store very close to the falls. I went over to the rail, and was looking down into the turbulence where a boat, "The Maid of the Mist," was wallowing around in the heavy swells very close to the cataract. I became conscious of an old man standing near me. He looked like a lonely old man, but he was not pushing his loneliness. He had a quiet friendliness that wanted to find an open door, but his look of resignation showed that he would go away as happy as he came even if I did not speak to him. I had seen men like him before. Something like a philosopher-hobo. Generally they never get married because they are averse to watching suffering. They meet people only in happier moments, to share a handout, a glass of beer, a few secrets about making money without losing freedom... and they always hurry away before their acquaintanceship gets to the point where they might have to share suffering, or anger with their fellowwayfarer. Their lives contain reels of stories of friends found joyously and lost the next day. They keep only good memories. They know other men like books, but recall only the beautiful elements of the people that they meet. And so I thought I knew this man. I felt that I could predict the exact

reaction that I would get from him, by meeting him on his own ground. Share a few words and memories together. Do not ask names. Do not talk about aging... now is forever. Do not gripe about things... only look at the fair side of things because if you feel like griping it is griping at restlessness within. In this manner both of us would bypass all opinions (which require endless description and apologies), and go right to a common state of mind, and float like two swallows on the breezes of happenstance and hope and wait to see if we were successful in making the trick work. The trick of instant rapport with infinite lights and dimensions. "There is a lot of power there. I wonder how deep that water is at the foot of the falls," I noted. "Yeah. Looks threatening the first time you see it. . . but after that it. . . well it changes...." A few seconds of silence followed as we both stared at the spectacle. "Where you from?" "West Virginia. . . . Where's your home?" "Oh. . . I'm a hopper. Been hopping around for years. I was an orphan. Now I am a bum that poses as a writer." He gave a broad grin. "I pick up material here for stories. Lot of stories come here. Honeymooners... but not as many as used to. Lot of young people with their families. Lot of old people taking the only vacation that they had time to take, or money enough to take." "That's odd. I had the same impression. I have seen a lot of beautiful old couples here. They seem to be capping some sort of mutual ambition... or fulfilling some selfless phase of life." "Right! Right!" he whispered enthusiastically. "You know it. It's their romance. They've survived a life of struggle. . . maybe even a bit of hell together... but they generally have given up all the physical or selfish reasons for sticking it out... and they come to find a deathless relationship... friendship." "Resignation maybe?" "Love." He tightened his jaw as he said it. He meant it. "Never believed in love. I always thought people meant something else when they dropped the word." I tried to grin too. I wanted him to notice that I had made a few observations about people and their devious methods. "Oh, you know what I mean. This is the place of love. Millions of people have come here because they were in love. Young honeymooners who saw beauty in the other one's eyes. The Falls only gets the best of them. They come here all charged up with love and beautiful dreams. They will go home and pull each other's hair out the next week, but the Falls never sees it. The old

people fought and scratched for years. . . but nobody ever seen it. All we see here is two gentle old people who value each other a terrible lot." "Maybe so. Death and love magnify each other." "I've heard that before. . . . Who said that?" He grinned broadly, patiently. "Me. I don't read much except what I write. Sounds hard to buy, ya think?" "No. I feel the same way. It just seemed familiar." He pressed on earnestly. "You see, we are not talking about some biological urge. We are talking about a principle. Blake said that Eternity is in love with the production of time. People in love sense that they have touched almightiness. It's like this river rushing for the sea where it will be nothing. The big moment for it is here, right here. One big fling. One roar of joy. "These people don't know it, but they come up here to show their love to the world, to the elements. . . and maybe to God. They go out in that boat as if to say—We are greater than death. We cannot be killed. We may lose our bodies, but in this love we will be together forever. Never again alone in the universe like the old God of Adam was." "That's interesting. . . ." And it was. "Let me tell you some of these cases of love. A young bride and groom came up here in the winter. The falls were frozen solid, so a lot of people were out there on the ice. Some had built shacks for tourists. But the ice gave way and started to sink into the hole at the foot of the falls. It must have been the greatest spectacle for this region. I guess most of them made it off to the shore, but three people went down for sure. "The young couple never tried to go. Quietly they embraced, and held each other until they disappeared. Their love-challenge was answered, and they knew beyond a shadow of doubt that their love was still greater than death. "Another fellow, a man, had come out alone. He did not try to mingle with them too closely. He retreated inside himself, knelt down on the ice and prayed until he was gone." I was thinking of the poor fellow who had to die alone. "I get the idea of what you're talking about. ... but it seems that the few cases of beauty are outweighed by the millions of cases of lovelessness, of squalid human existences, of murder, crime, hate, and retaliation." "They are all part of the picture of love. These are all love stories, and love's defiance of human fear. The hunter goes out and kills for his loved ones. The soldier and the gangster do strange things to prove their stature. And let us say that the reliefer that keeps his family on welfare is a coward of sorts, but

his is still that quiet defiance of obstacles to his created love-unit or family. . . even though to us it is a damned bummy existence." "But why?" He hesitated a moment. He looked more serious as though he were remembering something way back in the past. "Ah. . . yes. I see. I said something a minute ago about Eternity being in love with the production of time. I quoted Blake and Blake was talking about the stage... so to speak... not only the stage or planet, but show-schedules, billions of opening times and closing times. . ." "The Cecil B. DeMille of the original production of The Ten Commandments." I threw that in because I thought it was appropriate. ". . . Right. In a way.... Have you ever heard the Kabbalistic twist to the creation? Not hard to relate to. Before all things got started there was only one consciousness. . . God. Anything alone that long has to conjure up some company." "So now we have to suffer. And does this make us any more than shadows in another being's reveries or conjurations?" "Maybe. I don't know. The male black widow spider makes love, knowing that he is going to be immediately nothing more than a meal for the gut of his mate. He must know it, because he usually tries to get away from her. But that is his capacity for love. Maybe the old lady spider pays a price too, to prove herself. I've heard that she has to stand by and watch the babies eating one another."

"What about those who pay, and never get the chance to love... like the little spiders?" "Every reproducing creature loves. You're thinking about the millions of teenage soldiers who die on the battlefield and never had a girl friend. But

you do not see their drama. The locust digs for seventeen years to sing his song for six weeks, and dies. He never sees his children. Never knows if they made it or not. The soldier is very romantic. Nearly every one has a girl friend. Most of their girl friends are unreal, super-imposed dream-copies projected upon the memory of the girl next door... or the pin-up in the barracks.... But he's a lover. He is the creator of love stories that never come true because they have never happened yet. He is still a child enough that he loves his mother. When the moment of death comes for him, he calls for her and immortalizes her. He dies protecting her, or protecting one of his buddies, and immortalizes himself. And he sees it all coming and doesn't mind." "But why all the pain?" He paused, and stared at the sidewalk for a moment. "There's no pain. You are looking from the outside. The audience suffers, not the actor. The more trauma in the script, the greater the glory. The story is what's important. That's why I wanted to take a crack at writing. "You see, love is more important than empire-building. Empire building is a vanity, unless done for the love of someone else. It is love too, but it is a frenzied method of torturing yourself to death while often alienating yourself from the real people that you might love. "Eternity may have produced endless space and endless time... but life is something else. Love is the song of life. The Kabbalistic God hungers for the experience of love. He got hungry, he groaned and out came the Logos. The word. The story. The stories multiplied." I still felt that he was missing a point. "How do you account for the evident unbalanced situation... the cost seems to exceed the reward. A man has a moment of love, but he pays for it with years of suffering. Or a man goes through years of sacrifice and suffering, getting an education... if he survives the gauntlet that he has to run with the army and other dangers... and finds that he has just prepared himself to start sacrificing himself for this thing called love... for the rest of his life!" He was waiting patiently for me to finish. "Maybe we have to prove our claim to love. In a relative world-picture we would need the pain to identify the love. Better than identifying it with hate. But I think that through this ambiguousness, or polarity of thinking, we do experience a relative love. The hunger that we really have then is to eternalize that feeling. And we do not know it at the time, perhaps, but we are helping to create a cosmic picture, which might be a cosmic experience. . . eternalizing the love phenomena." I felt like saying that we might well be eternalizing man's ability to fool himself, but I knew this would throw cold water on the warm friendliness and candor of our relationship. I made some excuse and suggested that we go sit down in his car or mine. He wanted a drink. We were on the Canadian

side of the border and I did not know if they served alcohol near the falls: It turned out that he wanted a soft drink, so we picked up a couple of sodas and sat in my car. I cannot remember every detail of the conversation, but I remembered a lot of that which was said because he made an impression on me later, which somewhat intensified my memory of nearly all that was said.

I remember that when he sat down he said, "That falls is a young man's tallest tree. . . and for every woman it is the symbol of the most terrible sacrifice of masochism. . . an initiation for an eternal motherhood..." I felt that I knew what he meant. Boys start off climbing a tree to impress their girl friends. Then they climb tall buildings or take dangerous jobs to guarantee their mate's security. Some grown men actually try to overcome the falls itself. Quite a few went over the falls in barrels, and some of them died. Some died just trying to ride through the lower rapids. Looking across to the American side I saw several wrecked automobiles at the foot of the cliff at the water's edge. I wondered if the drivers had committed suicide on a dare... daring the everpresent threats of nature... for a final time. If they survived they are forever fearless, and if they died they will be free of fear. Strangely, only one woman had tried to conquer the falls in a barrel. I saw her picture in one of the souvenir-booklets describing the falls. She looked as though she suffered from an unwelcome masculinity, and I do not think that she ever expected to survive: I think she wanted to experience masochism in its most extreme form. I knew that there was some wisdom in this man, and it occurred to me that I valued his fellowship. I did not even know his name and I knew that I wanted to keep in touch with him. I could not get the idea of the falls being a proving ground for the young man in search of ultimate self-validation. That same day I had to pull my son from the wall, and once he succeeded in getting through the pipes above the wall, pretending to retrieve something that had fallen on the grass on the other side. I realized at the time, that James would not try it again because he had made his point. He had

something to brag about when he returned home. And he felt satisfied with himself. "What's your name?. . . . Mine is Rose,—Richard Rose." "Adam." No great joy to him to know my name, this I could see. I waited, thinking that my wait would bring out his full name and maybe a little personal history. He knew about my tactic. "Just Adam." And this with a look that seemed to say that we were both O.K., and did not need to get into personal gossip. I was amused by his refusal to be pressed into the simple conformity of an introduction. But I felt that I knew his reasons. "I will remember Adam... but maybe I would not remember Adam Jones or Adam Smith who I would try to relate to all the Joneses or Smiths that I ever knew... right?" "Meeting people is like ships passing at sea. It serves no purpose for one ship to turn around and follow the other ship just because they did not fire upon one another. Maybe that don't put it the way I want to. . . ." "I know... I know ...... "I prefer to be a story for you. I want you to know only the good part. . . a few nonpolitical. . . hopefully non-egotistical minutes. The writer never tells the real nature of his characters... just the good part. . . and that is the part that we are interested in. Who knows, maybe we will meet again... if so, that's good. But we have no shackles if we do not. People like to make themselves miserable sometimes... now I am not aiming at you. . . but people can't let go... and when they get tight about leaving a pleasant scene they destroy the memory of the scene. All relationships have to turn into agonies. I think that is the reason people lose track of one another when somebody dies. They have a wall of agony between themselves and the person who shipped out." "I can see that this is consistent with your idea of real love. Real love deals with people but not with capturing or holding...... "Each man is a story... maybe he can be a better story... or maybe he can just play it out better. You are a brief walk-on in my story. I am a brief walkon in your story. Our story is more vital if we play brevity to its best. "One of the greatest stories was the life of Christ. I wonder, though, if people really see how well He told His story. There is an art to allowing oneself to simply allow the story to happen. The art is chiefly not falling for lesser love-impulses. You see, Christ played the role of a man who loved supremely. Maybe if He had played His cards right He would have been King

of the Jews. Or He could certainly have gotten rich if He healed people a little under that which was the going AMA rate. But He was healing people so that people would love Him and so that He could sell out that lesser love itself. Now that sounded damned weird... but I think you pick it up. He decided to be the greatest love story. So He had to show the difference between all the different forms of human love and universal love. He died in the prime of life when He would have been able to maturely love individuals, a wife or lover, or friends. And He had that type of love too maybe. "So He gave them all up and immortalized them besides forming for all time a new, non-relative love. A love beyond the pain and the payment. He rejected the payment of His love for His mother and family which tempted Him to cling to them in a dreary life of mutual watching over, of identification with everything that afflicted Him or them. He rejected the role as king because that role always calls for more human hate than love. He had created an esoteric brotherhood, but He gave up that fellowship, knowing that maybe by bidding for the greater goal He may have interpreted His role in the drama incorrectly, and maybe had lost the impersonal love that the brotherhood represented, and which may have been his real purpose for living. . . . ''He must have had some shaky moments... but He played it out because it was placed before Him. Just imagine having to hang there and watch your family going through more pain than yourself. ... He must have been half dead by the time they got Him nailed to the cross... or in shock. So the pain at that moment was not significant. His pain would have been the surrender of His concern for those in his immediate circle that only knew about personal love. He was bound to have had a sympathy for their love. "His brotherhood had scattered. They suddenly became body-conscious. A few morbid people were now his only following. . . that is, besides the family. He also gave up his reputation... and the reputation was the catalyst that may have helped effect all those miracles. But He gave that up too, for the long shot." I was getting an inkling of his picture, or thought I was. "I always thought that later historians and devout but happy morbid minds, detracted from the figure of Christ by drawing bloody hearts and lacerated bodies. Christ became for centuries a fetish for a weird form of meditation." "Not at all. Don't get carried away by the drama. Noble actors must occasionally play the part of the creep. Why was he noble? All men are noble... they just have to take the role that allows them to learn about love. Judas had to become a classic heel... the greatest historical heel. . . then the noble Judas kills the Judas creep... and the light and attention validates the theme of the drama, because it is all reflected in the direction of the Christobjective.

[Illustration: Maid of the Mist. Illustrating an Indian legend. 窶認rom a painting.] "It was the greatest drama ever enacted. The actors had to be the greatest. They were called upon to give up the most. When young lovers die in an unconsummated love... they die for human love. Their story is good. . . but we always have the feeling that if they had lived it would have become very carnal once it had been consummated. The Romeos and Juliets gave up their physical experiences. . . in the name of selfless friendship. . . but not universal love. The manifest dream of the Romeos and Juliets is an eternal love in which those two will immortally share a bodiless love. Just those two. The hell with the rest of humanity." "Is that wrong?" I asked, meaning was it wrong to reject humanity? "No... no. I was just trying to point out lesser love stories. But these lesser love stories are greater than most of our stories. We act out our parts well, but we just do not sign up for the real good stories. "But every man and woman is a lover... and every life is a story. We like to think that we are conscious actors. . . . I say we have to be conscious of our act and then we can see it from the audience for what it is. We get too identified with a stage-play, and feel responsible for writing the play. Occasionally the creep believes that he really is a creep. He does not realize that he surrendered himself into that play before he was born. Sometimes the greatest sacrifices are made before we were born.

"Christ was aware of that. Once He was asked for the cause of a certain man's affliction. The guy asking the questions thought that the afflicted guy had some genetic defects or some curse that lasted for seven generations. And Christ replied that the man was born to be healed by Christ,—made sick so that Christ would heal him. From this it is evident to me that Christ knew that He was acting out a drama. The stage had been set a long time ago. Yet it is possible that Christ through some exceptional talent was merely able to see conditions that launched Him into this life. It could be that Christ had a power over events, but it looks more to me like He too surrendered to the terms of a contract written before He was born." Adam saw everything as aimed at love... mostly human, selfless, love. People act out selfish lives to glorify that much more—the selfless type of human personal love. The human personal love can be witnessed. Impersonal love is very hard to witness. I felt that I had suddenly been taught something by Adam. He was deliberately giving up the importance of Adam Jones the lover so that I could get a glimpse of Impersonal Love itself. To him the prostitute gives up the sweet role of loveliness to publicize and endow loveliness. The hater becomes the black paint on the back of the mirror of love... so that we will only wish to see love. The killer kills the lover and not only immortalizes the love of the lover, but immortalizes goodness as well. The man who works for forty or fifty years in the mill, or in the mine, does not do it for himself. He places his loved ones above him self... and he may drink himself to death just to hold his job for them. Then we see the man who gets drunk and loses his job, and becomes a bum. And his wife and children descend into poverty. This man has a family that has problems that require hardship in the prescription for their evolvement. Perhaps the bum is under contract for hardship for the same reasons. And so he acts it out, suffering greatly because he cannot help those that he loves any better. I knew I had a lot of questions to ask Adam, and the first one had to do with getting a line on his activities for the following day. I knew that I had to find my children and prepare to camp for the night. Then I remembered that he did not wish to be obligated to any social requirements. I could not call him up if I did not know his name. So that when I left him, I tried to be as casual as possible. I said, "Maybe I'll run into you tomorrow. If I do not, I'll sure remember the Story. He cocked his head and grinned, and shook my hand. Even handshaking to him was an unnecessary formality, but he obliged. I got out of the car to lock it up preparing to go up on the hill to the pylon where the children had headed several hours before, but as I locked the car

I saw them coming only a few feet away. So I unlocked the door again, and went back to the driver's side and started up the car. We drove back to the American side to camp along Lake Erie. We were all tired and sleep came easy, even in a camper. I have forgotten the name of the park into which we pulled, but the sunset was very beautiful. A long pier extended out into the water. It was concrete and may have been placed there to prevent erosion. We walked out on it and took a few pictures. I fell asleep and was awakened by a dream. It was morning. The heavy hues had left the sky. It was clear and cheerful, and the birds seemed in agreement. I had been dreaming of Adam. We had gone down to the pier and taken some pictures. Adam had appeared and I was overjoyed. I realized I should have gotten his picture at the falls since we had a camera. So he walked out on the pier and we snapped the shutter. All dreams have strange abilities for change. My camera was a small Kodak instamatic that held film in a sealed plastic cartridge. But in the dream it had now become a Polaroid. Ruth and James were hovering over the camera as we waited for the picture to emerge. When it came out, there was no pier, only the sky with all of its different shades of red, yellow, blue and vermillion. The picture now apparently had not fully developed. We stared in amazement as a face appeared in the picture taking up the whole horizon. It was Adam, and he was grinning. The pier now appeared slowly across the bottom of the picture. And as we watched them forming, two words appeared printed the length of the pier. They were—IN TECHNICOLOR. I had to wait a while for James and Ruth to awaken. I could hardly wait to tell them about the dream. After we had washed, we sat at the large rustic picnic table allotted to us, and had breakfast. "Had an odd dream about Adam last night." Ruth said, "Oh?" "It seems that we were down there on the lake, and we took a picture of the sunset, and it turned out to have Adam's face in it." "Adam who?" Ruth asked pedantically. "You know, the fellow I was talking about on the way over here last night." "You mean the bum." "No, he wasn't a bum. He was well dressed. He paid for his own drink. . . in fact insisted on paying for his own. But you saw him. I was shaking hands with him when you walked up to the car."

"If you say so, daddy." She gave an impatient sigh. "What do you mean by that..... 'If I say so?'" "Daddy... you were asleep when I came up to the car." I never saw Adam again. In a way I never expected to. And I realized then that if I were ever to tell this story I would have to surrender any claim of immunity to senility... to get it told.

TAT Book Service By buying in volume, we are able to save our readers a few dollars on many books that are not sold at all bookstores. We also invite our readers to write in if they have books to sell. The books listed here are all new. To order.... [[List of books here]] Part Two: Uncovering the Recurrent Dream by David Gold I'm back in high school. Final exams are tomorrow, and I'm totally unprepared for them. I haven't opened a text book or attended any of my classes. Fear and frustration well up within me. How could I have been so short-sighted and lazy and let this crisis build to such ahead? The most enjoyable part of a dream similar to the one set out above is awakening and discovering that you have indeed been dreaming. And once awake, how quickly we forget the terror and trauma of the sleeping hours! By the time the teeth are brushed, chances are that the anguish of being completely unprepared for an upcoming test will have dissipated, and been replaced by the petty hopes and fears of the day ahead. The pain of total vulnerability may disappear, but what of the hidden weaknesses which may have prompted the dream? Can we fall asleep to inner messages by merely awakening to the trivia of everyday existence? Or will we plunge fearlessly into the deeper recesses of the self, and

dynamically attempt to unravel the secret of the dream, and the motivations which lie beneath it? Often, a dream will recur with such regularity that it soon becomes more difficult to ignore its possible message than to attempt to decipher it. If you have been utilizing dream recollection techniques similar to those outlined in the first part of this article (see TAT Journal, Volume 1, Number 3, Spring, 1978), or if you are just naturally sensitive to your dreams, you probably are aware of a dream which recurs with some frequency. (The dream set forth at the beginning of this article is my recurrent dream.) Therefore, assuming that at this point you have become conscious of a recurrent dream, and that you are sufficiently impressed by its recurrence to attempt to define it, I will present a system for the interpretation of the recurrent dream.

Effective interpretation of the recurrent dream involves the utilization of the same tools which lead to success in all facets of life, from playing the horses to building a financial empire. These are Emotion, Intellect, and Intuition. A successful dream interpreter must be able to recapture the emotional drama and trauma of the dream, break down and analyze the various symbols in the dream, and become sufficiently familiar with the subject matter so as to be capable of directly experiencing the message behind the dream. The preponderance of my analysis will deal with that aspect of dream work which is most explainable - symbol-interpretation. For purposes of illustration and clarity, I will use my personal recurrent dream (R/D) as an example throughout this article. I would recommend at this time that you reread the dream at the beginning of this article. A. Feeling Behind the Dream

It is extremely important that you recognize the emotional import of your R/D. A thousand hours spent in symbol analysis will not be as revealing as a simple remembering of the gut feeling experienced upon awakening. Your emotional reactions are the heart of the dream, and should be written down upon awakening. When I awaken from my R/D, my emotional associations are best described as: Panic - Frustration - Fear - Worry - Helplessness - Self-destructiveness Within an hour or two, the emotional impact of the dream will have disappeared. By noting and expressing the emotional tenor of the dream, the dreamer captures an invaluable backdrop, against which he can place the actual symbols of the dream. Developing a sensitivity to the emotional makeup of a dream is helpful to the understanding of the hidden feelings demanding expression during the sleeping hours. But emotional recognition alone will not tell you the source of these feelings, or why this message has chosen this particular mode of expression. To grasp the true meaning of the dream, one must work with the individual dream symbols. B. Symbol-interpretation Many readers are undoubtedly aware, of the plethora of systems which exist for the interpretation of dream symbols. Each system takes one aspect of human (or sub-human, or super human) existence, and sets forth that particular quality as the dominant theme of life, and of dreams. Be it sex (Freud), universal patterns or archetypes (Jung), spiritual or psychic evolution (Cayce), or simply experiencing life (Gestalt), these schools of symbol classification generally assume that every dream of every individual is activated by one major catalyst. While each system may shed some light on the meaning and significance of dreams, no one of them can answer this extremely basic question: What did last night's dream mean? And the reason for this deficiency is obvious. No single cause, or motivation, is behind every one of your dreams. For one dream may be an expression of sexual ambivalence towards an acquaintance, while the same night may witness a dream which is actually a contact with a universal belief structure. A dream about climbing a mountain may be representative of a spiritual quest, or may express a hidden desire to climb a mountain. Freud, Jung, Cayce, or Perls would all offer varying explanations as to why you dreamt the dream you did. This is why no system of dream interpretation is really accurate, or even very helpful, beyond providing some food for thought about what your dream may have meant. Only you know, or can learn to know, what aspect

of your self is stimulating a dream. You must go within, and examine your life and being for clues, if you wish to understand the messages that you receive. Rather than relying wholly on any single system, I would recommend that you utilize your own methods of interpretation, and do so by drawing on whatever common sense tools, or ingenious techniques, that your intellect or imagination can devise. One such seemingly simple technique consists of writing down the dream. And while this step may appear to be quite obvious, I find it truly remarkable how many people attempt to analyze their dreams without first transcribing them. In addition to providing the interpreter with a more concrete entity with which to work, writing the dream brings to consciousness many aspects of the dream which one might otherwise fail to remember. It is almost as if the process of writing down the dream forces the dreamer to mentally complete the dream in much the way that an author would a story. So that one automatically probes the memory for the missing pieces which will make the dream "story" complete, and fill whatever gaps that the memory failed to recreate. This is of particular importance when working with the recurrent dream, for often one can only remember a particular segment of his R/D, while being left with the conviction that there was definitely more to it. Eventually, persistent transcription will reveal your recurrent dream to you, and reveal it in its entirety. But in addition to the recollection factor, writing down the dream triggers a fascinating phenomenon which I call "Creative Recollection." As you write, the story takes shape, so that the writer sees meaning in the dream even as he writes. The sentences begin to display a pattern, and what began as mere words suddenly take on the body of a real story being told by a deeper part of the dreamer. To illustrate this process, I will once again refer to my R/D. As that dream closes, I am left with a nebulous feeling of fear and impending disaster. But as I articulate these thoughts on paper (How could I have been so shortsighted and lazy and let this crisis build to such a head?) I begin to see the source of these feelings, that is, letting things merely happen instead of taking control and doing what I know is necessary to avoid danger or harm. The writing of the dream transforms raw feelings and emotions into concepts and patterns which can be analyzed and eventually understood. Having transcribed the dream, the next interpretation step involves the listing and deciphering of symbols. This step actually involves two separate processes: 1. Breaking the dream into segments; 2. Dealing with individual symbols within these segments. As one becomes more adept at dream recollection he finds that dreams usually consist of a number of "scenes," often seemingly unrelated. It therefore becomes necessary to divide dreams into parts and treat each scene separately, while simultaneously remaining

sensitive to the possible relationship between the various parts. Since the recurrent dream generally occurs as part of an entire dream sequence, involving companion dream scenes which are not recurrent, it becomes particularly important to recognize each individual segment. And once the general message of the R/D is understood, that message can be used as the keystone for deciphering companion dream segments. To clarify, I'll set out the last dream which accompanied my R/D: I am at a major league baseball game. I want very badly to catch a foul ball. I snag one and am ecstatic. I catch another and it turns out to be a piece of fruit, which is mushy. I re-examine my first ball, and it also turns out to be rotten fruit. This dream is evidently a separate entity from my "high school" dream, and lends itself to innumerable potential interpretations. But taken in conjunction with the R/D segment, this dream reveals quite clearly the message which the inner self is attempting to express to the dreamer. This will become evident after exploring the second step involved in intellectual symbolic interpretation. This step involves the heart of dream interpretation: Listing and interpreting the individual symbols in the dream. This can best be effectuated by listing each symbol, by dream segment, in the left margin of your dream notebook, while making sure to leave sufficient space between each symbol for future interpretation. My R/D at this stage would look like this: High School _____________ Final Exams _____________ Cutting Classes _____________ Major League Ball Game _____________ Foul Ball (Prize) _____________ Piece of Fruit _____________ Of course you, the dreamer, must decipher what these symbols mean to you. And at this stage traditional, or even offbeat dream systems, may be helpful. For while some symbols may immediately shed their disguise and reveal their true meaning to you, others are simply "stumpers" and appear to have no personal significance whatever. The first question to ask, therefore, is, "What does ________ mean to me? (substitute the symbol). To some, high school may be reminiscent of education, social hypertension, or a time of sexual awakening. To garner its personal meaning, explore your memories and emotions. What was the

outstanding memory from high school, what trauma or peak experience would cause "high school" to be a symbol figuring prominently in a dream which occurs periodically throughout your life. Even psychological techniques, such as "free association," may be helpful in discovering the secret of your R/D symbols. With some symbols, however, absolutely no associations which would apply to your life come to mind. Or, even more confusing to the interpreter, you may arrive at interpretations which simply do not make sense when they are placed together as a unit. At this point, it may be helpful to consult the works of Cayce, or Jung, or Ouspensky, or any writer who has done some thinking and research in this area. Their expertise may illuminate a symbol's meaning which your personal background would not otherwise expose to you. After thinking, reading, meditating, or whatever else it takes to bring you to an understanding of your dream symbols, you should come up with a sheet that looks like this: High School: Structured social insanity, unlimited potential, apparent control of your destiny. Final Exams: Failure equals end of growth, passage equals victory and acceptance, failure equals repetition (of same mistake?) Cutting Classes: Laziness, weakness, being a cork instead of a ship. Major League Baseball Game: Excitement, childhood unadulterated pleasure. Foul Ball (Prize): Getting something everyone wants but few obtain, fate smiling on me. Piece of Fruit: Disappointment, a lemon, tricked into lusting after something I really don't want. C. Intuition Prior to the final step of "putting it all together," the interpreter must be sure that he has called on all his faculties in order to arrive at a valid interpretation. These include the aforementioned emotional memories, intellectual symbol interpretations, and a certain intuition which can best be developed through continued practice and perseverance. First a word about intuition. It is a term which I use with some reluctance, because of controversy and misunderstandings which surround that faculty. Some write off intuitional experiences as merely being correct guessing, or coincidence. Others confuse intuition with intellect, or instinct, or deny it as a separate tool or talent. In spite of this disagreement (stemming in large part from modern psychology's reluctance to accept that which is not easily explained or measured), a phenomenon does occur, after persistent effort,

which cannot be ignored. Continued attention focused on a particular subject will enable an individual to gain instantaneous insights into that subject matter which logic or feeling alone would not have opened up to him. It is clear that even this explanation of intuition requires a bit of intuition to understand. The proposition is one that has already manifest its validity to you many times. Creativity, and even flashes of genius, come to those who diligently use all available tools to study their subject. We cannot really hope to unlock the mystery of the recurrent dream unless we continue to seek out better ways and means of understanding that phenomenon. We should be working with a definite discipline of some sort, while experimenting with new tools, so that we come to possess both the intellectual background and the freshness of mind which lend themselves to intuitional insights. Trying to explain the worth of intuitive insights is akin to having to prove the benefits of a long journey to a beautiful city prior to embarking: you have to make the trip yourself to appreciate the goal. But effort will lead to intuitive realizations, and it is important for the interpreter to be sensitive to those flashes of insight which may abridge hundreds of hours of reading and thinking, as well as to continue to work in such a manner as to stimulate your intuitive faculties and capacities. Eventually you can come to possess the emotional, intellectual, and intuitive tools which are instrumental to understanding the R/D, and learn to apply the R/D message to its companion dreams as well as your waking life. For working with any dream, including the R/D, deepens your awareness of your inner self, as well as the events which transpire during your life which trigger the dream message. D. Putting It All Together The time has finally come to apply all that has been written to my own recurrent dream, as well as its companion dream, while paying particular attention to my life and mood prior to and after the dream. In my high school dream, I noticed that preceding the dream, life brings me face to face with an aspect of my personality which I'd rather not see. Perhaps I catch myself ignoring a familiar neurosis instead of working through it, or it could be that I've fallen into a habitual behavior pattern which I cannot seem to shake. Whatever the particulars may be, this R/D appears to have its roots in some personal recurring weakness. I invariably awaken from this dream in an extremely agitated and worried state. Procrastination has finally caught up with me, and disaster is imminent - so imminent that I feel no real relief upon awakening. Some crisis is awaiting me, and I cannot flee into this seeming reality we call wakefulness to avert it.

With these "bookends" around my dream (background and mood upon awakening) I finally possess a workable perspective on my dream symbols. Putting it all together, my recurrent dream interpretation is this: The test I have been avoiding is a crisis similar to one I faced in high school. I was unprepared to meet it then, and I am unprepared to meet it now. The weakness in my self is the same, and until I see this problem through, it will continue to haunt and block me in my growth. This interpretation may not come as a revelation to the reader, but it does have quite a significance to an individual who has fought his way through to an answer to the recurrent dream mystery. An individual who is committed to understanding his deeper self, including its expression in dreams, gains more than an insight into one particular dream. For once the R/D is understood the dreamer immediately gains a greater insight into the dreams which accompany the R/D. The R/D is analogous to the plot of a story, a theme which runs as a lifeline throughout your experiences. The dreams which occur with the R/D are subplots that reflect specific incidents which have impressed themselves upon some inner consciousness. Referring now to my personal accompanying dream, the "foul ball" dream, one sees that this dream has an almost infinite number of possible interpretations. This dream evidently has something to do with a disappointment in discovering that a highly coveted prize is actually a "lemon," but beyond this no personal significance is readily apparent when the dream is examined independently. Coupled, however, with the high school R/D, its relevance to my life becomes clearer: I'm making the recurring mistake of pursuing the wrong goals. Rather than strive towards what I know is worthwhile, I am placating myself by momentarily playing a particular game which I realize will ultimately disappoint me. As a result, I'm no closer to my true goals and values. And, with specific reference to the R/D, although critical points in my development are at hand I'm unprepared for them, because I have been wasting my time and energy instead of pointing my life's direction towards what I know is worthwhile. It is possible, of course, that I am off base in my R/D interpretation. The only way to actually verify my findings is to complete the final stage of dream interpretation, and that is reflection, or meditation. Dreams are an excellent method of stimulating the mind to work toward a greater understanding of the self, and meditation or reflection is in turn invaluable to understanding the dream. By viewing your interpretation as a tentative hypothesis, to be validated or disproven by honest, critical analysis, the dream interpreter can prove to his own satisfaction whether his efforts have revealed the true dream meaning, or if it is necessary to return for further interpretational efforts. This process of reflection will be covered in detail in the last segment of this series. To briefly summarize the system of unraveling the recurrent dream:

1. Record the dream upon awakening; 2. Break the dream into segments and symbols; 3. Interpret the symbols in light of, a. intellectual, or logical possible meanings, b. intuitive insights into symbols; 4. Background (events preceding the dream); 5. Foreground (emotional impact of the dream); 6. Putting it all together, including subdreams; 7. Validation (meditation). I will close with the same thought which finished the first segment, dealing with dream recall, entailing my recognition that very few of the readers will put this system to work with any regularity. And to be realistic, no one has the time to dissect every dream with the detail that I have just described. But occasionally a dream will touch you, and stir within you the conviction that some part of you is trying to convey a very significant and meaningful message. And if the dream recurs, you may be left with a sense of urgency about deciphering that message. Those who truly hunger for selfunderstanding and definition inevitably come to the realization that life provides very few clues into its patterns and mysteries. When the recurrent dream opens the door to the workings of the inner self, it behooves us to take a long, hard look at what lies within. Coming in TAT Journal: The Recovery: Acting Upon the Recurrent Dream A Memorial to Wilbur Franklin by Michael Baldrige

On April 10, 1978, only a few days before the Spring TAT Journal arrived from the printers, Dr. Wilbur Franklin died of massive pneumonia at the age of forty-four. That issue contained an interview that I had conducted with

Dr. Franklin on December 21, 1977 at Kent State University. Ironically, his death came at a time which showed great promise for the furthering of his work. He was becoming increasingly in demand in regard to both teaching and lecturing on the paranormal and had recently received national publicity on some of his experiments. In fact, some of his colleagues have commented to me that he had appeared particularly inspired in the months preceding his death. Once again, we can only stop to reflect upon our own temporal positions. In the last few years, Dr. Franklin had emerged not only as an enthusiastic scientist but also as a good friend to many TAT people. When I left his office in December, he spoke to me in an emotional tone about how important he thought it was that the TAT Society continue its efforts to reach people and thereby raise public awareness on psychic matters. It was apparent to me than, as it was to many others who heard him talk, that he felt deeply about the pursuit of knowledge and its use for the betterment of mankind. Dr. Franklin's field of specialization was psychokinesis or the interaction of mind with matter. He was one of the first scientists in the United States to meet with Dr. Edgar Mitchell, the former astronaut, and to work with Uri Geller in 1972. From that time on, he was one of the chief instigators of psychic research in the United States. He brought many renowned psychics through the Kent, Ohio area and gave the first known course in paraphysics at a graduate level at Kent State. It seemed that he always had some scheme in mind whereby he could bring people together or do experiments and add to his knowledge. Whether it was at casual get-togethers experimenting with table-tilting or more complex laboratory tests with a strain-gauge, Franklin was responsible for bringing many people into both educational and friendly settings. He also kept up correspondence with some of the foremost scientists in the field which allowed for some valuable comparisons and discussion. He attended the Tarrytown conference in New York in 1974 which brought physicists, engineers and medical doctors together to study and discuss the phenomena that Uri Geller produced. He gave lectures at this and other conferences, like the International Parapsychology Association Conference in 1975 and the Frontiers in Physics conference in 1977. The latter, he felt, was one of the most important in the history of mankind because it emphasized the humanitarian utility of psychic phenomena. Dr. Franklin was a rare type of scientist in that he was involved in a "search." Many scientists are hard to approach, but Wilbur was open to new ideas because he valued the pursuit of knowledge more than dogma. At lectures he often spent hours talking to people, answering questions and, most importantly, listening to some of the unusual case-histories that were brought to his attention. Some scientists would have seen these unusual psychic stories as a threat to their scientific stances, but Dr. Franklin seemed to marvel at the possible grain of truth that might be present. He learned

many things that few other scientists would have had the guts to admit things which throw the validity of the scientific method into doubt. He felt that a new way of looking at things was needed. But he still had the attitude of a good scientist, feeling that nothing should be taken for granted until verified. Dr. Franklin was the first scientist to take an interest in the work of the TAT Society. He spoke at some of the earliest TAT Chautauquas and introduced Elaine Fortson, the Akron psychic, to the public. He sometimes traveled long distances to be at our symposia and was always an interesting speaker. He would often speak emotionally about the potentialities which seemed to spring up at those events by virtue of the stimulating environment for discussion. He had a fond and subtle sense of humor which made him dear to his colleagues, family and friends. I personally admired his openness and frankness. When I talked to him about the providence which caused him to meet Edgar Mitchell in 1972 he was very modest. He just kept saying to me, "Yeah, well there's nothing special about me." Looking back on it now, I think it was his very openness which indeed made him a "special" individual and a brave scientist. I am sure that I cannot capture what he meant to all those who were close to him in this short memorial. Let it suffice to say that his presence will be sadly missed by many people - among them his family, his colleagues in the psychic field, his friends in Kent, and the TAT Society. TAT News Calendar - Summer Pittsburgh The Pittsburgh TAT group has gravitated towards a discussion format. Meetings are every other Tuesday at the University and City Ministry, 4401 Fifth Avenue in Oakland. The group is publishing a local newsletter which serves as a good vehicle for exchange. For a subscription write to: K.D. Weeks, _______ In April Eleanor Edwards gave a very understandable talk on graphology. She is president of the Hypnosis Society and is writing a book on psychology. Eleanor Iskander followed two weeks later with a discussion of out-of-the-body-experiences (OOBE's). In June Dr. Lindsay Jacob gave a talk called "Rudolf Steiner and the Mind of Man." For the last twenty years Dr. Jacob, a Pittsburgh psychiatrist, has been involved in extensive research into parapsychology, dreams, the Great Pyramid and the lost continent of Atlantis. Following his talk, the TAT group held a discussion to explore his ideas more fully. Farm

The quarterly TAT meeting in April brought a host of inquisitive people down to the farm. The air was a bit cool but the sky was a perfect blue for two days of discussion and socializing which gave many TAT members the chance to roam the countryside and get acquainted. Discussions trailed late into the evenings, dealing mostly with the philosophic issues that individuals had been dealing with in their daily lives. Impromptu singing by the now infamous "Frog Prince Chorus" momentarily brought the house down with a blues version of "John Sholander, Why Did You Go To Chicago?" The June Chautauqua on hypnosis involved good deal of work and preparation by the men in the Wheeling area who keep up the farm. Once again, they are to be commended for their work which made the Chautauqua a success. The second summer Chautauqua at the farm will be two days of presentations and discussions dealing with the topics of nutrition and health. It will be held on August 5 and 6. Contact your local TAT group or write to the TAT Foundation for more information.

[Illustration: Photo of the TAT Farm Chautauqua building] Columbus This spring the TAT Society in Columbus presented four programs dealing with reincarnation, dreams and depth psychology. Elizabeth Bacon spoke on the history and theory of reincarnation in April. She also led a group meditation using different eastern chants and mantras. In the same month Joyce Cascioli covered a fascinating aspect of dream interpretation by discussing the most frequently recurring dream symbols and some of the best methods for recording your dreams. On May 7 Dr. David Dillahunt took the group into some case-histories involving the psychological technique of

hypnotic regression. This is used to uncover past traumas and events which are buried within the unconscious mind. Dr. Dillahunt suggested that these unconscious contents represent a force which disrupts our conscious selves in the form of different types of neurotic symptoms and problems. Finally, on May 21, the Columbus Marian Center gave a lecture and slide presentation on "The Latest Apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary" and the most recent cases of priests receiving the stigmatic wounds of Christ. Visions of "Our Lady" reportedly occurred over two thousand times to four girls in Garabandel, Spain between 1961 and 1965. Meanwhile, the Carl Jung Study group has continued meeting every other Monday at 7:00 p.m. Dr. Lila Dennis, a Jungian psychologist, has been giving introductory lectures and leading discussions on Jungian terminology. On June 5 George Pettit discussed Jung's views on good and evil. In upcoming months the group will concentrate on The Portable Jung, edited by Joseph Campbell. The meeting place for the remainder of the summer is still tentative, so call Bill Bush at _______ for more information. Regular TAT Society meetings, free and open to the public, are held every other Sunday at 7:30 p.m. They have recently been moved to a new location, the Buckeye Federal Savings and Loan at 3180 East Broad Street. The first two speakers this summer were oriented to the discussion of eastern religions. On June 25 Emanuel Weiss was scheduled to discuss "Early Buddhist Thought" and Daniel Quigley was set to lead a discussion on Zen philosophy on July 9. A presentation on dowsing by Steve Horvath from the Ohio Chapter of Dowsers is set for July 23, and on August 6 William Strandwitz will speak on iridology. Iridology is a method of learning about the body's state of health by reading the iris of the eye. Mr. Strandwitz is a teacher of iridology and will explain the basis and method of the art, as well as relating it to an overall program of health and well-being. Jon Cook of Springfield, Ohio is planning, "The interpretation and Discussion of Personal Horoscopes," which will be presented on August 20. Jon has been studying and working with astrology for ten years. At this upcoming TAT meeting he plans to discuss the charts of some of the people attending the talk, so those who have had their horoscopes done should bring them along if they wish an interpretation. If you want to obtain your computer horoscope before the meeting contact Bill Bush before August 5. Hypnosis Workshop

Richard Rose said that two of the underlying mechanisms at work in the process of hypnosis are "uncertainty and belief." As he swayed his shoulders behind one young lady, she gradually became faint and dizzy. He had suggested to her that she was floating in a rocking canoe. As he swayed behind her a condition of "uncertainty" was created. This left her open to the suggestion until finally the actuality of the canoe became a conviction, a belief. Eventually, she passed into a state of sleep. Throughout the weekend, the two ideas of uncertainty and belief were utilized by Rose to present an intriguing demonstration and discussion of hypnotic techniques. On Saturday, Alan Fitzpatrick laid the groundwork for the demonstration by presenting a basic, introductory overview of hypnotic techniques and the history of hypnosis, along with some personal experiences. Frank Mascara, an authority on "direct mind" systems, brought the affair to a more personal, developmental level. He had people pair off to work on dynamic, mental exercises aloud, at the same time that a hypnotic pinwheel spun and a tape recorded continuously exhorted the participants to "sleep." The idea of the exercise was to train the mind to focus on one selected piece of data out of a jumbled mass of incoming impressions, a necessary skill for becoming a good hypnotist. It was quite a spectacle to see 120 people reciting the exercise aloud, while each tried to isolate the "right" answer amidst the collage of noises and movements which filled the pavilion. Over the entire weekend, Rose gave the participants an opportunity to learn some of the inner mechanisms which are at work in the process of hypnosis. He would demonstrate the techniques first, and then explain what had happened. There was plenty of time for questions which brought out some of the deep psychological knowledge which is necessary to understand hypnosis. One of the more interesting experiments involved seven women who were put into a hypnotic state open to suggestion. They were all given the suggestion that they were women with superior intelligence and intuition, that they were, in fact, prophets. Then they were asked some questions that dealt with the future of the country. Six out of seven thought that the country was headed for a depression and the seventh woman was unable to answer. Rose concluded the program with a class in hypnotic techniques and put one woman into a regression which took her back through the fourth grade. At one point, she recounted an experience with a UFO, to the surprise of the audience. The entire program was quite an adroit display of hypnosis and psychology.

Book Reviews Powers of Mind By Adam Smith, New York, Random House, 1975, Pp. 418, $10.00 (TAT $6.00) Just another dilettantish reporter, I thought to myself, as I discriminately scanned the book for the first time. After all, Adam Smith (alias: George Goodman) was an unknown in the field of psychic studies. But, to my pleasant surprise, the author demonstrated a witty and skeptical approach; his style proved to be informative, entertaining, and welldocumented. His critical, yet open-minded analysis of the major trends in the esoteric branches of psychology, medicine, and physics cover a wide range of inside conversations on such topics as biofeedback, yoga, transcendental meditation, Zen, EST, Gurdjieff, Sufism, Carlos Castaneda (of Don Juan fame), Baba Ram Dass, Robert DeRopp (author of The Master Game), Uri Geller, Carl Jung, John Lilly, ARICA, as well as the diverse movements springing out of the home base of humanistic psychology Esalen Institute. Powers of Mind is a fine source book for obtaining a broad overview of contemporary esoteric movements that are presently influencing and

challenging the traditional mind sciences of the western world. The inevitable tension between the rational/objective paradigm and the more intuitive/ subjective approaches to psychology is explored in an intelligent and engrossing manner. The author's honest skepticism permeates the book and is clearly reflected in one particular comment on the immaturity of many individuals who decided to join different esoteric or spiritual groups: "But the Dupes were really falling for a lot of nonsense, too, by even the most charitable standards. Sweet children were leaving school and home and three drops of vinegar in the nostril and cry hum! - following the newest Oriental preacher and expecting the world to change next Tuesday." Such a public declaration of the glaring absurdities of some movements is long overdue. . . critical thinkers are hard to find these days. Smith does not hesitate to call the spiritual supermarket a big business. The packagers of the spiritual-psychological growth movements of the 1970's have kept their criticisms of competitors within private circles, or not had the courage to express them at all. A gentleman's agreement not to topple each other's overflowing tithes, perhaps? The writer's strength lies in the fact that he is not obligated to endorse any system, and he does not hesitate to quote other's critical opinions: "Don't go to Gurdjieff, Ouspensky told DeRopp. 'Gurdjieff s quite mad.'" The strongest criticism that could be mustered against the author rests in the fact that he does manifest, at times, as another reporter-dabbler in the field who wrote primarily to make a quick dollar before returning to his cozy Bardo as a financial analyst (and writer) on Wall Street. Nevertheless, Powers of Mind successfully appeals to a wide variety of readers, as shown by its being at one time on the national best-seller list. Novice, as well as professional psychologist, scientist, and general connoisseur of the psychic arts will surely discover this literary offering to be a delightful treat. by David Diaman Possession And Exorcism By Traugott K. Oesterreich, New York, Causeway Books, 1974, Pp. 400, $12.50 (TAT $6.00) The idea of possession is one of those things that many people would rather put out of their minds. It seems like a frightening possibility. We have enough problems without adding to them by bringing into our awareness the possibility of debilitating and yet invisible influences. Despite this fear, there is enough evidence to suggest that we would be better off to study the matter. Man finds his greatest vulnerability in ignorance and this is evidently true concerning the subject of possession. Just as our knowledge of physical laws allows us to protect our bodies, our knowledge of psychic laws can help

us to protect our spiritual selves. If we consider some of the evidence at hand, the idea of possession does not seem as far-fetched as one might think. Our language is full of intimations which hint at possession. For instance, who has not seen derelicts on the street who appeared to be "beside themselves?" These same derelicts are seen wandering down the street muttering inane conversations with what psychologists might call their "alter egos." And when we speak of schizophrenics, we talk of a "split personality." Where does this second personality come from? Even the court system has invented a term which it calls "temporary insanity" to give a harmless label to unusual behavior. If we study the literature of depth psychology, again there are references to psychological complexes which behave strangely and even independently, yet many of the explanations for these phenomena seem inadequate or incomplete. Traugott K. Oesterreich opens up the field for serious psychological evaluation by presenting a large volume of dramatic case histories and discussion. He begins with the chapter, "The Constant Nature of Possession Throughout the Ages," in which he attempts to show through examples that references to possession were not restricted to biblical times or any other time, but have always been with us. In the next sequence of chapters, he explores possession from a psychological viewpoint. By using anecdotes and descriptions, he attempts to show the external symptoms of possession which leads to the third chapter, "The Subjective State of the Possessed," and finally to the fourth, "The Genesis and Extinction of Possession," which deals with the possibility of a cure for possession. The latter half of the book is mostly centered on the cultural distribution of possession and its relationship to various religions. Again, the text is impregnated with examples in the form of anecdotes and quotes which depict some rather unusual notes dealing with spontaneous and voluntary possession of primitive peoples, shamans and higher civilizations. At the end of the book there is an appendix on parapsychology which correlates the symptom of possession with the manifestation of certain psychic phenomena. This may be of interest to parapsychologists, for it may serve as a complementary or alternative explanation for many unusual events. An essential value of Oesterreich's work (and also some fascinating reading) lies in the many case histories which must have been laboriously collected over a period of many years. There is ample material from which one can form his own opinions. Thus, Possession and Exorcism becomes a most valuable reference concerning the subject. In fact, William Peter Blatty, author of The Exorcist, has called it the "definitive study" on possession which, he stated, has not been nearly matched by the efforts of modern psychiatry. Oesterreich's approach is indeed comprehensive and thoughtprovoking, placing it among the select when it comes to dealing with a rarely treated subject.

by Michael Baldrige West Virginia Camping at the TAT Farm near Wheeling Enjoy a peaceful and relaxing vacation camping out on TAT's 200 wooded and hilly acres any time except Chautauqua weekends (August 5-6). The farm is open only to TAT members at $3.00/day and to TAT Journal subscribers or Chautauqua attendees at $5.00/day. It's an ideal site to find solitude in hiking or to meet others in the farm's community room. Mountain spring at campsite Public fishing lake and trout stream nearby Campers and trailers welcome but no hookups For reservations and information write: TAT Foundation, _______ Classified [[Classified rates and two display ads]] [[Display ads]] Nutrition Wholistic Health Sciences Chautauqua Diet • Megavitamin Therapy • Human Energies • Acupuncture • Kinesiology Dr. Robert Rothan Dr. William Tellin Dr. Leslie Hauserman Free Camping Over 200 Wooded Acres - Available for Hiking - Fishing Lake TAT Ranch Free Brochures - Write of Call ______ Exit 5 I-70 Write or Call ______ [[Directions]] Saturday - August 5th

Sunday - August 6th

[[TAT membership and TAT Journal subscription form.]] Do you have: Something on Astrology, Dreams, ESP, or Psychokinesis? Life after Death, Wholistic Medicine or Nutrition? Esoteric Philosophy, Ancient Cultures or Mind Sciences? A Character Study or Biography of someone along esoteric lines? A Poem or Statement of a Personal Experience? We would like to hear from you! Submission deadline for Autumn issue is September 1, 1978. Send to: TAT Journal _______ Free Subscription TAT Foundation was begun with the stated purpose of helping seekers of truth to contact each other and to provide them with a regular means of communication. You can help us realize this goal, while earning a free subscription for yourself, by getting interested friends to subscribe to the TAT Journal. If you send in two, one-year subscriptions (with $4.00) we will give you a free, new or renewal subscription for one year. If you are fortunate enough to know ten people with inquisitive, philosophical minds who wish to subscribe for one year, send in their names and addresses with the $20.00 due for ten subscriptions and you will receive a free, lifetime subscription. TAT has always been a grassroots organization and with your help we can continue to grow through personal contacts, a rare achievement in this age of mass (non)-communication. This offer will remain open until December 1, 1978. Š 1978 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved.

TAT Journal Issue 5 The Forum for Awareness Full Index of Issues 1 thru 14 Volume 1 Number 5 Autumn 1978

TAT Society The TAT Society was formed in 1973 because a need was felt for a philosophical forum, for a meeting and working together of all manners and levels of deep spiritual study and investigation, and for a friendly dialogue between material science and mystical intuition. The latter category is especially necessary. Science disdains mysticism but it is forever and belatedly proving things previously declared as truth by an intuitive individual. Mysticism may disdain science, but it is forever attempting to tell of its findings in a scientific manner, so that it can convince rational and relative minds of its discoveries. A place for meeting was needed and groups were formed in many Eastern cities. A farm is now available in West Virginia as a general headquarters, and study center.

The TAT Society holds meetings in a number of different cities for study and discussion. Other events, such as lectures, seminars and films, are also presented from time to time. Telephone numbers for the cities listed below are of TAT members who can provide information about activities in their area. Akron, Ohio - Canton, Ohio - Cleveland, Ohio - Columbus, Ohio - Pittsburgh, Pa. - Washington, D.C. Perspective Man is obviously made in order to think; it is the whole of his dignity and his merit, and his whole duty is to think as he ought. Now the order of thought is to begin with oneself, and with one's author and one's end. What do people think about? Never about that; but about dancing, playing the lute, singing, writing verse, tilting at the ring, etc., fighting, becoming king without thinking what it means to be king, and to be man. —Pascal's Pensees In the seventeenth century the Frenchman, Blaise Pascal, made his contribution to the illumination of confused humanity in terms that are manifestly clear to people today. Although a believer in the mystery of Christian salvation, Pascal's comprehension of human nature was so profound and immediate that he could explain his understanding independently of religious dogma. And his explanation seems so simple that it muffles the thunderous implication for the one who succeeds in thinking "as he ought." It sounds like a harmless dictum to assume a dull endeavor; some might interpret it as an authoritarian command to "think like me." But what of the incredible possibility that Pascal means what he says - that there truly is a proper function of the human mind that can reveal the truth about one's nature, beginning and end? In that case, he has presented us with a practical formula for searching out life's deepest mysteries, one that transcends all distinctions between religions and philosophies. Think, not idly for diversion, but to look directly into the most difficult questions that you can conceive. Perhaps your self will answer. This type of thought is not sustained solely by the syllogism, but moves on the wings of intuition. Pascal says, "We come to know truth not only by reason, but even more by our heart," and "The heart has its reasons which are unknown to reason; we are aware of it in a thousand ways." How, indeed, could we seek the answers to our most deeply-felt questions while locking our feelings in the box of irrelevancy? The thinker need not deny

feeling any more than the believer should fail to reason. The head and the heart are exalted by their alliance. Pascal's way is the Tao, the pathless Path that lacks travelers because of its proximity to us all. We send our thoughts ceaselessly out into the world to discover the infinite variety of objects, and become entangled in the complexity that we create. Career, family, entertainment, pleasure are transformed from the necessary elements of living into the stones of a mental prison. We can hope to be lucky enough to escape, and to discover the Great Simplicity that is our source, once we accept the duty of thought. Editor: Louis Khourey Managing Editor: Paul Cramer Associate Editor: Jake Jaqua Circulation Manager: Eric Hadidian Printing: Doran Fried Typesetting: Cecy Rose Staff: Michael Baldrige, David Diaman, Keith McWilliams Š 1978 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved. [Cover photograph by Jay Remarc] Contents Forum Our two Forum essays warn that words, the philosopher's only tool, cannot take him to his goal of Truth. As Wittgenstein said: "What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence." What's Your Fuel?, by Michael Treanor Blind desire, "procreant urge of the world," leaves no time for reflection. Is there any understanding it? Ira Progoff, the Intensive Journal and Me, by Michael Baldrige The Intensive Journal is a method of meditation for westerners, a roadmap of the mind. Writer Michael Baldrige tells us about Progoff, the guide, and the interior world that his Journal method helps to illuminate. The Watchmaker, by Alan Fitzpatrick The author of "The Voices We May Hear" tells a moving and true story of a convict's struggle for dignity against both his fellow "cons" and the prison authorities.

Recovering the Recurrent Dream, by David Gold Our three-part series on the recurrent dream concludes with an explanation of how to use the dream to recover a sense of purpose and direction in life. You can eliminate the apathy that often grows with age and renew your youthful enthusiasm. Critical Day for Biorhythms, by Luis Fernandez There is no satisfactory theory to explain Biorhythms, but its supporters can produce evidence to show that "it works." This review of the Biorhythms literature suggests, however, that expectation may be father to the hopedfor result. TAT Profiles: J. Krishnamurti Beginning a new series on the teachers, masters and prophets who have helped to advance human awareness. The Prophecy of Mother Shipton An English seeress viewed today's world during the sixteenth century. TAT Book Service TAT News and Calendar Book Reviews Journey Of Awakening: A Meditator's Guidebook by Ram Dass, The Esoteric Philosophy Of Love and Marriage by Dion Fortune, and Pathways Through To Space by Franklin Merrell-Wolff. Classifieds TAT Forum You are invited to write to the "Reader's Forum" and offer comments or pose questions concerning the articles or letters published in this journal. You may also share with other readers your discoveries, investigations or resources that you may have come across in your personal search. Address your correspondence to "Reader's Forum" c/o TAT Journal, _____ Letters Forum: After being left confounded by divergent theories on dream analysis it was not easy for me to begin David Gold's article on recurring dreams. However, I was surprised to find a simple guide for personal dream interpretation that stressed both intuition and subjective introspection.

I hope to see more articles such as this in the future, so that "laymen" such as myself will not be discouraged from taking a closer look at our Interior selves. John Meiser, Washington, DC We think of the Journal as a place where much knowledge can be exchanged without the vagueness of undefined terminology. We are encouraging articles such as David Gold's for future issues, because they are both educational and helpful in a practical way. Forum: A letter in the Summer issue defines heaven as "FREEDOM TO WORK" (p. 35). This is a fabulous concept. The book Conjugial Love by Emanuel Swedenborg begins in a startling way which dramatizes this concept. A series of brilliant people are asked one by one to say what they would enjoy doing eternally. In each case they were told to try out the thing in which they thought to find happiness. Predictably they lost their zest eventually and were then ready for new ideas. What each learned in his own way was that the key is free usefulness or work. With this as the core of life, all other things continue to be enjoyable. - Don Rose, Pittsburgh, PA. P.S. The title is Conjugial Love. (The "I" is not a typing error.) That's a very beautiful concept of work. Here's a partial quote from E.B. Szekely which you may find of interest. "Work is something to be greatly desired, something to be praised and lauded by us all - our life-long friend, the giver of all gifts, the creator of everything we shall ever need or desire. And surely, with such thoughts in mind, our love for work will become deep and true. Then we shall gain the power to work even better - with greater capacity and talent - even with genius; for an intense love of work usually gives birth to genius." Forum: Last month's feature article on "Possession" was quite interesting. I just finished reading R.D. Laing's The Divided Self, a book that contains many fascinating accounts of the interior life of schizophrenics viewed from an existentialist perspective. (That is to say that Laing views much of the mechanistic terminology of modern psychological jargon in a bad light when used in diagnosing patients, and tries, therefore, to understand the "world" of the patient in the patient's terms without bias or judgment.) One gets the impression from some of the accounts that minor compulsions or inferences in a person's thought-life, when acted out or believed to be real, gradually gain control over other domains of the person. By person I

mean the mental identity. When the domains of voices become confused the more central and stable "I" tries to reinstate itself with elaborate theories or actions as to why it originally collaborated with the perverse thought or voice and this, in turn, may create another domain of personness that serves as mediator between the two. A theory of possession should probably start with the idea that obscure or abnormal perceptions are projected into our head by an outside agency. Then the entity is absorbed into a person's mental life with everincreasing trauma as a result. The question that one wants to ask is what part of myself or anyone is ultimately real? The accounts of the mentally ill reveal confused locations of the observer, but this is true for the sane as well. Often a person believes he is observing his mind objectively when actually he is just looking inward from a certain reference point. This reference point in a seeker may grow and obtain stature, when in actuality the seeker, after having discovered another observer or reference point, may come to realize that his former point of view was a form of reverie or visualization. All cults or groups must be wary of establishing a mythos that hypnotizes their members into a certain mind matrix, if an endeavor in self-awareness is to succeed. Tim Calhoun, Cleveland, Ohio You have presented some rather deep psychological concepts here. Perhaps you could elaborate on them for a future forum article. Forum: I would like to respond to Robert Stern's inquiry about his recurrent dream (Forum, Summer, 1978). One interpretation seems obvious to me because it is a possibility that I have seen about myself. Floors could represent steps in evolution or self-realization, the elevator being the vehicle. Perhaps you aspire to a higher, spiritual state of being, hence the ride up to the top floor, while the less spiritual boys (the college boys laughing and rough-housing in your dream) get off at the first floor. The bottomless fourth floor with the huge desk sloping to the bottom represents your present challenge and lesson In life: You have jumped the gun and must start at the beginning in spiritual education with less of a condescending attitude towards others. It's not easy to accept the lesson that you must get off the elevator and take the dangerous slide down rather than simply returning on the elevator. Your dream will recur until you realize its message. But you may have a clue to strengthen your motivation: You arrive safely in the dream, perhaps realizing that you could be successful in your attempt. Ask your dream for a verification of this interpretation if you feel it is right. Good luck!

Karen Heller, Cambridge, Mass. Forum: Over the past several years I've taken a special interest in possession and exorcism. I found Mr. Fitzpatrick's article intriguing and, of course, controversial. Undoubtedly he has many other psychologists cursing and muttering under their breath. Does Mr. Fitzpatrick have any other published works? Most of the material on the market about possession is somewhat "trashy" to put it bluntly, but I have found a few books I would like to recommend. Malachi Martin's Hostage to the Devil is overwhelmingly frightful and awesome, but I nevertheless accept it as a valid account. Martin Ebon's work The Devil's Bride is very valuable. Oesterreich's Possession and Exorcism is still the text book on the subject and was appropriately reviewed in the same issue of TAT Journal as Mr. Fitzpatrick's article. The only other work of much value I've found on possession is The Devil and Karen Kingston by Robert Pelton. This account of exorcism is almost too fantastical to believe but it is interesting reading at least. Unfortunately, we all like to believe that possession was just a fantasy of some primitive and bygone era and has been "described away" by our modern witch doctors (psychologists). It is general opinion that it is a thing of the past. I wonder how many people know that William Peter Blatty's novel The Exorcist is based on the true story of a 13 year old boy? Tom Wolffe, Reynoldsburg, Ohio At this time, Mr. Fitzpatrick does not have any published works on possession, although he has lectured at various universities on the subject. His experience of being a counseling psychologist at the state prison was the primary source of information which showed him that possession was indeed a serious problem. Forum: I just thought I'd drop you a note to say that I enjoy your magazine. I've been an avid reader of many of the psychic magazines which are now on the market. I enjoy reading some of them also, but I have noticed a distinct difference between most of them and the TAT Journal. Whereas, other magazines seem to concentrate on easy-reading and sensational phenomena, the TAT Journal seems to be of a much better quality. In most of the articles in TAT I have had to concentrate fairly intently to read them, but I felt that it was well worth it. I now look forward to getting my TAT Journals and am anxious to see what comes next. I just hope that you can maintain the depth that I find in your articles because there are few other magazines which have such an intelligent attitude towards psychic phenomena and just plain being human. Earl McKee, New Castle, PA It is good to get the feedback. We are always interested in how our articles

are received, so that we can truly make the Journal as relevant as it can be. What humanity knows of the world's great prophets and philosophers has been communicated by words, the coin of thought. But infatuation with words and assumption of their meanings is a danger to one who seeks deep religious or philosophical experience/understanding. William Meyers' essay on Wittengstein, the twentieth century philosopher of language, proposes that our simplest statements carry a burden of heavy metaphysical implication. James Cross's Forum contribution explains how, the greater one's desire to transcend human intellectual limitation, the greater becomes the risk that one's intellectual efforts will crystallize into a prison of belief. Wittgenstein: On Metaphysics by William Meyers My usual response to people who casually ask me about the writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein is: "He showed that questions requiring metaphysical answers are nonsensical." This usually sounds fine to people because they do not realize how much their own thoughts are shaped by metaphysical ideas. To understand why metaphysics is necessarily nonsense one must investigate the nature of explanations. Consider the statement, "The Pope is dead." If someone asks for an explanation, we can define the Pope, define death, and perhaps examine the body. But suppose someone says, "The Pope's soul left his body." Here we can easily assign meaning to all the words but "soul." In trying to understand this statement we may pick up on the meaning of the word "left" and the grammatical relation of the word "soul" to it. We ask "Where did the soul go?" Our informant may elaborate, perhaps describing heaven in detail, or reincarnation if he is into that. His description seems to make sense, but we are confused as to what happens to the Pope when the soul goes wandering on its merry journey. After some questioning we learn that though the Pope is alive his body has been left behind, dead. We say, "The soul is the part of the Pope that is alive and goes to heaven when the body dies." Our friend congratulates us on our new learning, perhaps informing us that the soul joined the body at birth. Metaphysics is explanation, definition, or postulation that distracts us into thinking we have learned something. It often seems reasonable because it comes in response to reasonable-seeming questions and follows the sensible-sounding grammar of our language. For example we know what the word "create" means, so the question, "What created the universe?" seems reasonable. We know meanings for the words "life", "death", and "after" so the phrase "life after death" seems meaningful and so does the soul we invent to explain it.

I have chosen examples of religious metaphysics because most readers will be familiar with them. However, metaphysics permeates philosophy, where it hides behind such words as ontology, mind and value. Most positivist philosophy will be found to be useless (to someone who wants to Know): saying there is a "will" that makes decisions adds nothing to saying that decisions are made. The sciences, and especially psychology, also often resort to metaphysical explanations, particularly when trying to explain their foundations. The critique of metaphysical explanations is perceived to be necessary only after a long process of examining one's opinions. People are initiated into the world of metaphysical ideas at the same time that they learn to use a language. The innate gullibility of the young, combined with inexperience and the natural sense that if something is grammatically correct it is real, leads to an easy acceptance of metaphysical ideas. A child who can accept a light bulb's being lit by invisible electricity can accept human life's resulting from a soul. Most people will not consider the merit of metaphysical ideas unless they are exposed to conflicting ones. Where there is intellectual ferment or opposing cultures a percentage of the population will begin analyzing ideas, picking the ones that make the most sense to each individual. Some people will change religions, political ideologies, and philosophies of life until they find one they can feel comfortable with. A very few will gain a momentum by this process. They realize that words that have no discernable basis in fact, that merely take a step backward from the sensory world without explaining anything, are words that they can never be comfortable with. Each metaphysical word they use becomes useless. These people are ready to invent or find an analysis such as Wittgenstein's. The usefulness of such analysis lies in enabling us to root metaphysics out of places where we did not suspect its existence. Our thoughts are clarified, we see the limits of language, and turn to noetic methods. I remember the last philosophical dilemma that I took seriously. At the time I wondered whether I should continue to be active in politics. I felt that one thing that distinguished man from nature is that man can have a sense of fairness. I reasoned that even if it were true that a man deserves what he is responsible for producing he can in no way claim that he produced himself. Therefore if two men both work hard 40 hours a week and one was born intelligent and the other stupid, there is not a reason for the intelligent one to receive greater pay. He is not responsible for the intelligence that makes him productive. These questions, "Should I be politically active?" and "on what basis should men be paid for work?" do not seem to involve metaphysics when answered as follows: I want to become enlightened and have no time for politics or for deciding questions of justice. "I want to become enlightened" sounds a lot like "I want a car (raise,

happiness, intelligence)." However, enlightenment seems metaphysical and therefore not connected with such sensory experiences as work, sex, or not eating meat. But used properly it is not a metaphysical, nonsensical concept; it may not pretend to explain anything. We can simply use it as symbol for a state of mind in which the psyche functions without error. Enlightenment is a metaphysical word only when one tries to work backwards from it. In our unenlightened state we project ideas into the word and then act as if we pulled knowledge from it. l assumed for my expedient answer that making political discernments has nothing to do with enlightenment. It may be part of the path to enlightenment, however, to be able to make such judgments without error even if I cannot take the time to be politically active. The mistake that is easily made here is parallel in reasoning to deciding that since no thought in itself is enlightened one should not think at all. Though we find that metaphysics is nonsense we see that it stems from a desire to know the truth. Our minds were strengthened in working through this illusion. We are made ready to learn about things that cannot be learned by talk. Perhaps we could have learned this, too, from a slap in the face from a Zen monk. He would agree with Wittgenstein's dictum: "What we cannot speak about we must pass over in silence." Belief and Metaphysical Anxiety by James Cross Most of us attempting to follow one of the paths of liberation do not fully comprehend the immense struggle we are facing. What is our goal? What are we trying to attain? Maybe we can never know the answers to such questions until after we have reached whatever we are trying to reach. Maybe there are no answers. Comprehension is tied to words. Yet the one thing all mystics seem to agree upon is the ultimate inexpressibility of that which they want to achieve. "The eternal Tao is not the spoken Tao." "He who speaks does not know and he who knows does not speak." Usually we begin our quest with some vague yearning inside ourselves. The yearning perhaps grows out of a dissatisfaction with this life - a desire for something greater. Words do not fully express the sense of this yearning yet we often try to use them to do so . We blunder about using one set of words one time and another set another time. Sometimes we become addicted to one particular set of words. These words become beliefs and we might attempt to conquer the world for the sake of them. That these words might be only one of many ways of describing religious experience is of no concern. Once these words become beliefs, they are the "Truth" and no other way of looking at the world is permissible to us. Something happens to the believer. He or she begins with an urge for

transcendence and ends with only phrases and words. It is as if a person desired to purchase a diamond but found only bits of broken glass and contented him or herself with the glass anyway. Perhaps the diamond is not so readily found as the glass. The words "Truth" and "Absolute" are frequently sprinkled about in the literature on the paths of liberation. The goal, it is often said, is to know the "Truth," to be the "Truth," or to achieve the "Absolute." Do these words mean anything? Words of ordinary language usually refer to things. These things might be objects, such as a tree or flower, or they might be something more complex and abstract like love or thought. Even in the case of these complex and abstract words, we can ultimately refer to objects in the world to reach their meaning. Love, while not an object as is a tree or flower, can nevertheless be understood by reference to the object loved and to the variety of emotions and bodily sensations that object seems to elicit. Even the abstraction "thought" can be understood by referring to the series of words and images that pass through our mind when we think. This is not the case with the "Truth" or the "Absolute." When we speak of a "truth," we are referring to statement that says some thing that is true. "I went to the store yesterday," for example, is a truth if my body went through all the movements necessary to propel it to the store. If my body did not, the statement is not a truth. To what kind of statement does the "Truth" refer? Obviously no statement at all. If the word or expression the "Truth" were being used in the same sense as the words and expressions of ordinary language are used, all the mystics could tell us simply: "The Truth is thus and thus." Then we would no longer have to search for It. If the "Truth" and the "Absolute" cannot be understood in this ordinary sense, we could say they cannot be understood at all. That is, ultimately the "Truth" lies beyond comprehension. The "Truth" and the "Absolute" are really code words that have no reference to the world of objects and no reference to other statements. Rather they are words that attempt to point to Something outside the world of objects. They are fine words so long as we do not take them too seriously and set them up like idols to be worshiped in place of the real thing. Far too often, we make the mistake of thinking that the words "Truth" and "Absolute" can be understood in an ordinary sense. We then set out to comprehend them as we would comprehend any other word or expression and that, of course, leads us further and further from where we want to be. In the worst case, it can lead to attachment to words. This might be the most pernicious form of attachment possible. Usually when we think of attachment, we think of attachment to objects of the world. A person might be attached to money, power, or pleasure. These forms of attachment are undoubtedly inappropriate for one following a path of liberation. Yet attachment to words can be worse. Words finally refer to things of the world

so our attachment to the world might not be so readily apparent. Words, expressions, and phrases to which we become attached can be called beliefs. To the ordinary person, religion is a set of beliefs. To have religion without belief is inconceivable for most people. Yet probably this very connection in the popular mind between religion and belief is precisely what has done the most to remove the core of religious experience from religion. People have been killed for refusing to utter a series of words. Debates have raged and huge conferences have been called to clarify the exact words of a particular creed and woe to him or her who does not believe what is finally agreed upon by the majority. This is wholly mistaken. We cannot liberate ourselves by attachment to a particular set of words anymore than we can move a mountain simply by telling it to move. What leads us to have beliefs is the same thing that leads us on the path of liberation. Sometime - at some point in our lives - existence itself becomes a problem. We want to know about ultimate things. We want to transcend ourselves. This urge or desire arises from what I call metaphysical anxiety. Other people may have other names for it. All of us at some time have had anxiety about something quite tangible, maybe a test in school or a concern for a loved one. Metaphysical anxiety, however, arises from no tangible cause. Psychoanalytic thought would trace the origin of this anxiety back to the events of childhood. Whether this anxiety can be so traced back is of little concern. Most people at some point in their lives have a desire or urge to transcend themselves, to know the "answers" to life in some final way. This desire to make sense out of life is the same that has given birth to all philosophy and religion. Words and verbal expressions are what we use to alleviate this anxiety. When existence becomes a problem, we begin to say words to ourselves and to others in an effort to solve the problem. Somehow these words lessen the anxiety. If they lessen the anxiety sufficiently, the words become beliefs, that is, we become attached to them. Unfortunately words by themselves can never eliminate metaphysical anxiety entirely. Only genuine liberation can do that. Our attachment to words can thus become a final barrier preventing liberation. To the believer, what the words say may be irrelevant. In the final analysis, the words of what become our most powerful beliefs say nothing and relate to nothing in this world. The beliefs of the Christian and the Existentialist, although diametrically opposed philosophically, are identical in the function they perform - the alleviation of metaphysical anxiety through words. Beliefs and attachment to words do not exist solely in the realm of religion and philosophy. The scientist arguing for a theory when all evidence points to its erroneousness, the radical insisting the Revolution will arrive in a few years, even the psychotherapist urging us to get into contact with our real emotions - all of these to a greater or lesser extent may have invested

psychic energy into their words. Philosophy and religion have been preferred areas for people's beliefs simply because there is less chance for disappointment in them. The person who believes in God can never really have His existence disproven. Beliefs are ways of binding and locking psychic energy. Yet this bondage can never be final. The energy is always striving to break free and when it does, the metaphysical anxiety reappears in the believer. The strong urge that many believers have to convert those around them to their beliefs is really a reflection of the tenuousness of bonds restraining this energy. Liberation must be the final freeing of this energy. None of this intends to derogate the value of ideas and concepts. Ideas and concepts should be like tools. Once used, they should be put aside. When we have finished digging a hole, the shovel is put away. We do not carry it around with us wherever we go. Beliefs are usually fine ideas that we have strapped to ourselves beyond the point of any usefulness. Just as a person cannot walk comfortably with a shovel always in hand so too we will not travel lightly on the path of liberation if we have tied ourselves with beliefs. Want to write to someone in the TAT Forum? Send your initial correspondence in a separate, stamped and unaddressed envelope to the TAT Forum and we will mail it to the party you choose. What's Your Fuel by Michael Treanor

Acquire. We wake and sleep to the soothing, rhythmical clicking of a

subliminal imperative, acquire. Of course, we don't outright, daytime acknowledge our submission to this subtle directive we blame on our society, on our economy, on our heritage even, having been reproved by writers and churchmen and statesmen and teachers and Cub Scout leaders for so long, and having hated ourselves the morning after the purchase of a whitewall, 8-track, pushbutton bucket seat recliner, and having kicked ourselves for squandering our pennies on so many knickknacks from the seashore, and having raspberried the fat, happy, money-grabbing S.O.B. in the mirror so many times we can't possibly face the golden sore thumb of a fact that no matter how much we frown, how often we spit, we still do: we still want. acquire. So we call the urge by another name. We have free will to exercise, we say. Achieve. "Get up and be somebody!" my division petty officer used to inspire us in the wee hours. "There's decks to swab!" America rises and musters for role call: "Tommy. Darlene. Cubby. Annette!" A quick bowl of Wheaties and we're off. There are sheepskins to buy, corporations to merge, commissions to earn, violin lessons to take, footballs to pass, heads to turn, hearts to break. Lunch. Money to make, recognition to have, love to win, things to grab, people to fool, loneliness to flee... eeeeeeeEEE!! The whistle blows and, lickety-split, we're zipping down the tracks, hell bent for. . hell bent for... hell.... Where are we going? "Urge and urge and urge," says Walt Whitman. "Always the procreant urge of the world." Locking Freud in the closet for a moment (about as long as we'll be able to), let us raise our heads a little from this cowcatcher we're strapped to and squint our cross-eyes down the tracks to the horizon, if we can make it out. Where are we going? What is it we hope to achieve? What do we really want? Let us be as honest as we dare. We certainly don't want material goods, knowing we can't take them with us. (So we ignore them as they lay around the house or in the garage, or drip preciously from our person.) We don't want money: it's too much of an inconvenience, making it, spending it, evading taxes. We don't want love, only True Love, and that we can't find. We don't want fame, not without privacy. We don't want war: It's too risky. We don't want peace: It's too boring. What do we want? (Not yet, Sigmund.) "These are the facts, when it gets down to brass tacks." For what we want there is no consensus, only that we want, pure and simple. Urge Primeval. We want - there is no stopping it - we want. Call the drive what we will, our boilers are stoked; steam is up. Desire moves; intellect punches tickets and hollers destinations. Like so many fatsos huffing and puffing to be skinnysos, we outwit ourselves time and again. Thinking slim, we desire chocolates. Desire wins. "Ya gotta want it!" screams a nation of football coaches. And we do; we can't help ourselves. Only what we say we want and what rumbles and fumes and pushes us forward are often as alike as marbles and kitty litter.

Are we on the right track? Is the sense of dynamic motion itself all we need to assure ourselves of reaching the proper destination? Can we, crayons in hand, afford to bury ourselves, in train schedules, checking off wishful stops while ignoring or downplaying the passing, telltale scenery? Can we, without first acquiring some directional control of desire - procreant urge of the world - truly hope to choose our own course? Can we truly achieve? Do we care? or do we, relaxing in our Pullman, merely ignore all this hooting and bellowing and snuggle up to another chocolate? Ira Progoff, the Intensive Journal and Me by Michael Baldrige

When I look back upon the Intensive Journal Workshop, which I attended in New York City, there is an element of confusion in my mind because of the many rich experiences which were compacted into only six days. Psychologically, I was at a low point and I found the mayhem of New York City in August to be a wonderful complement to my depression. Now that I'm back in familiar surroundings, where the activity is calmer, I am left with a morass of impressions. I remember hundreds of mad taxicabs weaving down the boulevards of Manhattan. I was tucked away in a tiny cubicle on the fifth floor of the YMCA on 47th Street and I momentarily contemplated how it felt to be one of the Eight Million. It was not so bad until I tried to stick my head out the window to get some fresh air and found that there was none. The elevators had an elusive way of never being there. You can't get a room at 9:46 but you can get one at 10:01. "They" wanted $3.25 for a hamburger and you had to wait forty-five minutes to get it. There were porno shops and garbage scattered everywhere. The taxi driver said that I was cheap and the homosexuals had a billboard that said, "Revenge." Everywhere I went it seemed like I had to wait in line until I would reach the critical point between irritation and apathy. I went into a bookstore and saw a book that proclaimed, "What is Wrong with us?" and I had to buy it. Whatever Became of Sin? was the title. I made my way to a small delicatessen where there were only three or four

unpretentious New Yorkers propped up on stools. A bum came in wearing a long trench coat. They wouldn't serve him until he flashed a wad of bills, explaining that he had been up all night at the hospital and had attended a funeral the next day so he hadn't had a chance to shave. The next day I passed him sleeping out on the sidewalk. The man behind the counter was having a change of heart. He explained to his buddy how he had always been a happy-go-lucky guy. He was content to do his duty and he gave me my tuna fish sandwich. The contrast between his simplistic attitude and my burgeoning despair sent a feeling of irony through me. His attempt at being cheerful was warm; it was also phony and mildly pathetic, but it was evidently good enough for me as it catalyzed an odd sensation. As I sat there eating my sandwich I felt something floating up inside of myself and it seemed to say, "These are my people;" I felt a wave of sadness rush through me and experienced an affinity for the human race.

I had felt these emotional upheavals often during the past two weeks and I could not figure out what was happening to me. My business was falling behind, I felt out of touch with my family and friends, and it seemed that every time I tried to set myself on the "right" course I only came upon confusion. I found out later that I was a prime candidate for the Intensive Journal Workshop. Bohdan Hodiak, the religion editor for the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette whom I had met at a TAT Chautauqua, wrote an article about the Workshops entitled, "Journal, Self-Help Way of Riding Out Problems of Change." In that article he presented some quotes by depth psychologist Ira Progoff, who developed the Intensive Journal over the last fifteen years. "If people don't have a means of moving through a change they will become confused and troubled and disturbed. They will have symptoms and if they go to a psychologist or psychotherapist they may be considered to have psychological problems. But Ira Progoff, the author of eleven books and the founder of Dialogue House, has developed an alternative concept to the analytical approach in psychology. He first became known as an interpreter of C.G. Jung, with whom he studied, and later as the author of a series of books in which he developed the ideas of Holistic Depth Psychology, including The Death and Rebirth of Psychology and The Symbolic and the Real. He has also studied with the well-known Zen Master, D.T. Suzuki.

"What the Journal does is capture the process of our lives. We all have selfdirecting and self-healing capacities. The problem is to get hold of them and sometimes it's like trying to capture smoke." For ten years he was the Director of the Institute of Research in Depth Psychology at the Drew University Graduate School where he developed the conviction that the "cutting apart" methods used in diagnosis of psychological conditions direct too much attention to the by-products of an inner growth process rather than working with the dynamics of that process. Further investigation into the elusive Tao or growth principle in life led to his development of the Intensive Journal method for evoking in the psyche an awareness of that growth process that generates its own creative energy, its own greater possibilities of evolution. Between 1966 when he created the Intensive Journal method and 1975 when he published At a Journal Workshop, his definitive text on the use of the method, Dr. Progoff conducted hundreds of workshops in all parts of the country, testing and refining his method with all age levels and social and economic groups. Dialogue House, located at 80 East 11th Street, New York, New York, now conducts the National Intensive Journal Program, holding weekend Journal Workshops throughout the country. Inquiries are welcome and At a Journal Workshop can be ordered in paperback at $5.95 per copy. During the Workshop we were called upon to write in our Journals and describe how we felt at different stages of the process. I will describe that process later, but on the third day of the Intensive I wrote: "If there is anything I desire now, it is death. I want to die, but not physically. I want all the remorse, all the hope, all the prayers, and the evil within me - I want it to dissolve. I do not want to return. There is no place for me." I showed it to Dr. Progoff and he said, "That's what the Journal process is all about." He said that when a person is in the process of growth his old self or personality must die, in a sense, before he can move on to his new self or the next stage of development. His comments triggered a series of reflections which shed a little light on my situation and on the way of the Intensive Journal. I saw how my attempts at dealing with my life had consistently met with frustration. In some subtle way I had been working against myself. I remembered something I had read by Carl Jung which intimated that many times people will develop a neurosis when a deeper part of them is looking for a way to change from an old way of existing to a more internally satisfying way. This may sound like a jumble of words to many, but their real problems are problems of transition, which are problems of growth." When I first read this it did not strike me as being relevant to my condition, but after I went through the Workshop process it seemed to explain what was happening to me. What it implies is basic to the Intensive Journal approach. First, there is a deeper part of us which has a

knowledge of its own. As Progoff has said, "Man does indeed know intuitively more than he rationally understands." Second, we do have an inherent direction towards growth which underlies our movement through life. This deeper knowing will steer us towards situations that will teach us the lessons that we need, however painful they may be. Progoff illustrates how our lives can move in ways that are actually opposed to our conscious desires: "When you're in a great darkness or feeling very depressed, or a lot of anxiety, there are methods of working (the Intensive Journal) that will allow our life to tell us what it's seeking to achieve; beyond that blockage, beyond that stuck point." That, in a nutshell, is precisely what the Intensive Journal does. It enables us to enter the depths of ourselves where we can observe the organic continuity of our lives, and return to the surface with the knowledge of where we are headed. This principle is based on an abstract and paradoxical idea, illustrated in Taoism by the circular nature of all growth. It carries an intimation of predestination or teleology as well. But the concepts behind the Journal are not important. What is important is that the Intensive Journal leads us to observe an inner process directly in the depths of our own minds. The Journal... generates energy and helps us to answer some of our questions in life, not by analyzing, but by simply putting us into contact with the underlying movement of our lives. A Gathering of Travelers The first segment of the Workshop began on a Friday night on the second floor of the Carnegie International Center, across the street from the United Nations. When I arrived to register for this "Life Context Workshop" I received my Intensive Journal notebook for use both at the Workshop and when doing the Journal work at home alone. It was a standard notebook with twenty-one dividers representing the different kinds of entries that are part of the "Journal Feedback" process. On its cover was the Dialogue House symbol which, to me, was a representation of "numinosity" or even of the "beings of light" which have been sensed by many people, including myself, at deeper levels of awareness. As I waited for the workshop to begin I took note of the crowd. Over twothirds of the participants were women and there were very few couples. All age groups were represented, but most were between twenty-five and fifty. Before most of the participants had arrived there was very little chit-chat. All of the apparently intent women around me were organizing their Journals in the spirit of refined businesswomen who did not have time to waste. By the time everyone had arrived there were 240 exuberant people packed into the banquet hall and about a hundred simultaneous conversations. People were talking about "getting their act together," other growth systems like EST,

Sufism, Gestalt and Zen, "Is this your first workshop?", life in the ministry or monastery, the Journal method, Carl Jung, "Where you from?" and so on. Soon Ira Progoff briskly strolled in carrying a briefcase and a small tape recorder. I had read a few of his books before the workshop and had felt an affinity for his direction, so I was naturally very curious about him. I also had my doubts. Was he one of those "over-intellectual" philosophers, or perhaps a pompous psychologist? I did not really expect that he would be, and my first impression confirmed that feeling. He struck me as a man who was quite in touch with himself in a real way. Just as I was checking him out, he was checking out everyone there. His head hung down a bit as he smiled to himself and made his way to the stage. He looked like he was ready to get down to business. His demeanor, as he sat solidly in his chair at the front of the room, struck me as a combination of Red Skelton's and that of a guru who tends to forget about his body, who sits self-contained, in one place, seeing no need to move about. At times he would press his hands together as he seemed to reach deep within himself, to be in touch with his inner being, and he tried to speak from that place.

His delivery, on the other hand, was purely Ira Progoff, a psychologist who has a practical methodology for self-growth and a sense of caring for others. He talked about how important he felt the summer Workshops had been because, for the first time, they were presented in the full sequence lasting six days which have the effect of what he called a "progressive deepening." This Workshop in New York City, the home of Progoff's Dialogue House, was the last of a tour which had included Chicago, Denver, San Francisco and Los

Angeles, as well as shorter Workshops in other cities. Some of the Dialogue House staff members, who seemed to be friendly people, passed out sets of purple dividers for the people who had not received the most recent addition to the Intensive Journal called "Process Meditation." Dr. Progoff said that after this series of Workshops he would be going into seclusion to work out a book on this form of meditation. After a discussion of some of the operating principles, and a few laughs, we began our work in the Journal. The first of twenty-one sections was entitled the "Period Log." In At a Journal Workshop, Progoff's manual for using the Journal method, he leads us into this section: "Let us begin by closing our eyes, relaxing, and quietly, inwardly, feeling the movement of our lives. We let ourselves feel the implications of the question, `Where am I now in my life?' We let the answer to this shape itself only in general terms behind our conscious minds. We do not direct ourselves into thinking about it deliberately, but we let ourselves inwardly feel the movement of our life as it has been taking shape in this present period." As we did this inward looking, we simply described the inner and outer events which have taken place in the most recent period of our lives. In this simple exercise, which forces us to become aware, we are stirring our minds for the first bit of "feedback" which begins a process that gradually leads to the uncovering of the deeper contents of life. Many of these contents are dormant, in an unconscious state within us, and writing in the Journal becomes a tool for focusing our attention on our much neglected inner experience. As memories are aroused within us and we look at them and describe them in our Journals, we remember still more of our experience. Finally, we are able to place our full attention on these thoughts, feelings and images which hold the meaning of our lives, and work with them in dynamic ways. This is the "Journal feedback" process. The Way of the Journal Writing in our Journals is the basic external activity of the Intensive Journal from beginning to end, but it is not literary writing or even progressive writing. The writing is simply a reflection of the movement within us, as if our minds and feelings were hooked up to a strip-chart recorder which registered our highs and lows in an objective way. When we go back over our Journal writing, it usually has meaning for us because it was written while we were observing ourselves directly. Rereading our Journal entries also has the benefit of "feeding" those experiences back into our conscious personality. Again, that is the "Journal feedback" process. There is a principle at work which is self-integrating and promotes a tendency for the individual to move toward a state of equilibrium or "wholeness." As we become aware of our storehouse of memories, feelings and images (feeding them back into our computer), this is something which happens to us automatically, just from the process of getting in touch with ourselves. In the language of depth psychology, it is called "integration." Along with it,

there may be a healing power and a generation of energy, as well as a deepening of our perspective. Perhaps there are spirits that guide our lives, but maybe they are just "psychological" spirits, created from the substance of our minds. Dr. Progoff has called the Journal method a non-analytical tool for growth. Some may call it therapeutic and others see it as a spiritual discipline. During the workshop, he frequently advised us not to make judgments and not to analyze the thoughts that come to us. We just record them in a neutral way, let them speak for themselves, and continue with the work. To my mind, this is really one of the keynotes of the Intensive Journal. When we analyze our experience, we tend to move in circles, and are merely just reprocessing the data that is already familiar to us. In other words, it often becomes a "head-trip" where we work on a level that is divorced from the gut level of our real feelings and from our own realistic capacities. The process of analyzing tends to run into dead ends. As Progoff has said, it does not generate energy. The Journal, on the other hand, generates energy and helps us to answer some of our questions in life, not by analyzing, but by simply putting us into contact with the underlying movement of our lives. Progoff said, "We don't get resolutions of questions by figuring them out. It all comes indirectly." This doesn't mean that we are helpless. It just means that we need another manner of approach. The Journal process is very difficult to talk about because it is such a different thing for different people. It is obviously more meaningful to do it than to talk about it, because it is research into the subjective sphere of our lives. As I sat in my chair and wrote in my notebook about my inner experience, there were two hundred other people in the room doing the same thing. Except for questions aimed at Dr. Progoff and his leading statements, our attention was not turned toward each other, but toward our own "solitary work." No one can say exactly what happened at the Workshop except as it concerned himself. As I looked around the room on the third or fourth day of the Workshop, I became acutely aware that there were two hundred unique individuals who were in the midst of a most meaningful kind of work. As the days of the workshop progressed, I sensed that people were becoming more alive and alert. Many seemed relieved by virtue of having seen and accepted their internal condition. Besides the Journal writing, we paused after each exercise in the Journal to have some people read what they had written. This was very conducive to the formation of a group "atmosphere," which is one of the values of being at a workshop as opposed to doing the Journal work by oneself. That atmosphere is a feeling of mutual, yet silent, support, which tends to

develop spontaneously as the Workshop progresses and each individual gains a deeper contact with himself. Without this reinforcement many individuals might find it very difficult to undertake such a challenging and dangerous task as opening up their minds to the sometimes frightening contents that well up, from the "unconscious." The Intensive Journal itself is a structured way of approaching selfknowledge. It is structured in a particular way for a particular reason. Progoff recognized the fact that our lives are continually in motion; therefore, the structure must not be hard and fast, but must be able to reflect this movement. He compared the process with trying to capture smoke. In At a Journal Workshop he said, "It must be clear to us at this point in our workshop that there is no single correct way to draw the material of our lives together. But we follow the guidelines of a basic general format, and we improvise experimentally with the contents of our mind." Our relationships with people, and especially our family, are not subject to the laws of time and space, but we have a direct access to another person's life through the "underground stream." He based his structure on the "study of creative lives" which he conducted when he was Director of the Institute for Research in Depth Psychology at the Graduate School of Drew University. He wanted to know, for instance, how "creative" people keep from stagnating. Out of this, and his experiments in therapeutic practice and his personal use of a psychological workbook, the Intensive Journal was developed over the last twenty years by trial and error. There are now twenty-one sections in the Journal notebooks. Each of the sections represents a separate aspect of life, or a certain meditative way of approach wherein we record certain kinds of internal data in specific ways. Here are the sections as they are so divided in the Intensive Journal: Period Log Daily Log Dialogue Dimension Dialogue with Persons Dialogue with Works Dialogue with Society Dialogue with Events Dialogue with the Body

Depth Dimension Dream Log Dream Enlargements Twilight Imagery Log Imagery Extensions Inner Wisdom Dialogue Process Meditation Meditation Log Connections Mantra Crystals Peaks, Depths, and Explorations Testament Life-Time Dimension Life History Log Steppingstones Intersections Now: The Open Moment

The Well of the Mind In the first segment of Workshops, the Life-Context Workshop, we worked mostly with the Period Log and the Life-Time Dimension. We reflected upon and wrote about our lives as a whole. Starting with the Period Log, dealing with our most recent period of living, we moved into the section called Steppingstones. The Steppingstones of a person's life are the meaningful points or turning points. We were advised by Dr. Progoff to limit ourselves to twelve Steppingstones so that we would naturally choose the most significant. My Steppingstones included: being born in Baltimore; various times that our family moved; traumas that I experienced in grade school; our family breaking up when I was in junior high school; leaving home after high school; breaking up with a high school girl friend; taking a trip to Alaska;

joining the counterculture and becoming disillusioned; living in Boston; and meeting a particular person who had an effect on my spiritual direction. After we had a feel for our Steppingstones, we were instructed to take one of those items and write about it in depth. As we wrote down those facts and feelings which we could remember, gradually the whole structure of that time in our lives would become visible until you would almost "be there," watching your life rerun itself, complete with at least some vivid details and emotional feelings from the past. The Steppingstone that I explored was a hitchhiking trip that I took to Alaska. I felt that it was a meaningful point in my life because it caused me to develop a new sense of appreciation. We suffered many deprivations and I found a new value in such simple things as a comfortable bed, a friendly face, a piece of fruit, or a good meal. As I wrote in my Journal, I even remembered my state of mind, which was quite different from the way I look at myself today. I wrote: "I remember thinking I was a real hippie, looking out at the world with nervous angry eyes. We stood all night by the ramp, hoping for a ride across the bridge into Canada. Just when we were feeling most desolate at two a.m., a carload of six or seven screaming people drove by with their arms waving wildly out the window and they called us 'faggots.'" The Journal process causes us to remember many things which we normally would not. For instance, these experiences which I have recorded took place almost ten years ago and since that time I have moved almost to the other end of the spectrum from being a counterculture martyr. I had almost forgotten that I was even like that during one phase of my life. As I reflected upon the period and observed my life as a whole, I gained a comforting sense of history and direction. Just as previous times of my life were stages of growth, so too is my present predicament. No matter how bad it seems at the time, it is not the end of the world; it is merely the low (or high) ebb of the cycle which may repeat itself indefinitely. With this knowledge, we need not react to situations, but instead should gain contact with our deeper selves. Thus we see where the events of our lives are leading us and we are able to act accordingly. If we look for phenomenal happenings, and get frustrated because we are not experiencing any, we are working against ourselves. We are denying ourselves the actuality of this moment which is what we want to get in touch with. Writing down the Steppingstones, or turning points of our life history, teaches us the use of a valuable tool which can be applied to anything that we desire to understand. To be able to see history has the effect of putting things into their proper perspective or context. If we could see the history of our friends, we might find a new compassion for them. We realize that, given the same conditions of upbringing, genetic possibilities, and environmental influence, we would react in the same way as they.

Dr. Progoff said that the "Life-Contest" workshop is an important beginning for doing the Journal work. He mentioned that some of the experiences which may result from the process can be as "dangerous" as LSD. In some cases a large amount of energy can be unleashed, and when we unlock the door to the "unconscious" it has a tendency to have its own momentum which can lead to some nightmarish visions. There are many painful memories which lie buried within us. By putting ourselves first into the context of our lives, we will not be overwhelmed by some of the things that can well up inside of us. When we are in the midst of a very intense experience we might be inclined to overreact. When we can take a step back from it and gain an overview of life, we then are better able to handle it. Some of the most intriguing segments of the Journal work were the "Dialogue" sections, particularly "Dialogue with Persons" and the "Inner Wisdom dialogue." In "Dialogue with Persons" we were instructed to make a listing of people who are, or have been, meaningful to us. We chose one of these persons who has an "inner meaning" for us and we prepared ourselves for our "imaginary" Dialogue with him. We did this by closing our eyes and trying to feel the "Steppingstones" of his life. Then, we wrote out his Steppingstones, in the first person, as though we were talking about ourselves. As we wrote about this person in our life, gradually more and more of the details of this person's personality seemed to come to life within us. Perhaps we could almost feel his presence within us. Then, we simply began a Dialogue with him in our Journal notebooks. As I spontaneously wrote this conversation in my Journal, I definitely had the feeling that there were two distinct people talking. This was quite amazing to me. My friend was "saying" things that I never would have expected. It was a bit too personal to mention here, but he had some very pertinent criticisms for me and I for him. Our conversation started very casually and developed into an argument. As we continued, we gradually let down the defenses and eventually got to the root of our disagreement. This conversation went on for some time, until finally we came to a still point and there was no longer any need for words. As I stopped writing, and closed my eyes, I saw and felt two resonating glows of light which were side by side somewhere in the depths of my mind. During the coffee break I talked to a woman in the lobby who had been doing the Journal method for a number of years. I think she said she was a nun, but she didn't wear a habit. She told me that nearly every time she got into a good Dialogue with someone and they reached a state of rapport, they would appear in her consciousness as two glows of light. I talked with another woman who said that she had a deep and involving Dialogue with her eldest son which tore her apart emotionally. Less than an hour later, her son called her at her motel. Many people told me that after they have these Dialogues, and they speak again with the real person, it is as though the other person knew about their Dialogue and they reach a new understanding with them.

With everyone involved in the same process which uncovered the universal fact of suffering, there was an unspoken atmosphere which allowed some people to vent their long suppressed tears without intrusion. These Dialogues can be another valuable tool, regardless of whether you believe in the psychic contact or not. The process is basically the same in each of the Dialogue sections. You come into contact with the person or event that you want to "Dialogue with" by describing in your Journal the things that you see in your mind's eye which relate to that person. You write the Steppingstones of the person or event and eventually they come to life. I had many speculations about what was really taking place in these Dialogues. I'm sure many psychiatrists would frown on the technique, assuming that it creates only illusions which are born out of wishful thinking, but it evidently does more than that. While one woman read her "Dialogue with her fear," I had the impression that she was actually talking with some kind of being. She was moved to the point of tears as this being spoke through her and gave her the desperately wanted advice that she needed. I would not go as far as to say that these beings exist or do not exist, but I am convinced that there is something more than imagination at work. Perhaps there are spirits that guide our lives, but maybe they are just "psychological" spirits, created from the substance of our minds. Basically, in all of these Dialogues as well as the other exercises in the Journal, we are tapping our minds for their deepest held secrets. Ira Progoff uses the image of "the Well and the Cathedral," which is the title of a book he wrote. We go down into the well of our minds to bring the raw material of our lives to the surface where we separate the gold from the dross. Through the bottom of the well we come to the "underground stream" where we are all connected universally. This idea of a universal connection explains the fact that we can have an "imaginary" conversation with someone that contains a real aspect to it. This is because, at a deeper level, our relationships with people, and especially our family, are not subject to the laws of time and space, but we have a direct access to another person's life through the "underground stream." One of the quotes which I heard at the workshop depicts this possibility: "You can end a life, but you can't end a relationship." Many people, after the death of a loved one, have reported that they still felt a sense of contact with the person. Journey to the Source The second segment of Workshops was entitled the "Depth-Feedback" Workshop. I noticed right away that there seemed to be less joking around. There were fewer people there, and I had the impression that many of them had been through the process before. Dr. Progoff also spent less time in discussion and we spent more time working in our Journals.

We began working in the "depth dimension," which deals with dreams and the nebulous subliminal impressions that can generally be observed only very faintly within our minds. This latter category is called "Twilight Imagery." It may be one of the favorite exercises for many people doing the Journal work, because it is like an adventure into an unpredictable realm. Twilight Imagery is images or feelings which we might see in the "Twilight" state between waking and sleep. In the case of a Workshop, however, it is just a matter of turning our full attention inwards, allowing ourselves to be relaxed, and letting them come. At times it seems as if you are creating them, but it is important to let go, and let them be spontaneous. In this way, they will be reflections of the quality of our being. Many times, while I tried to distinguish the images at this subtle level of my mind, I could sense a motion, or see a faint impression, but I just could not bring it into focus. I had to settle for a vague impression, but whatever it was that we observed (even if it was only blackness and frustration), we were instructed to write it down. Dr. Progoff advised us to "start where you're at" which I thought was necessary advice. In other words, at any given moment in time, something is happening within us, and whatever it is, even if it is rather negative, it is our starting point for drawing ourselves into focus. If we look for phenomenal happenings, and get frustrated because we are not experiencing any, we are working against ourselves. We are denying ourselves the actuality of this moment which is what we want to get in touch with. It becomes a kind of self-judgment which is only self-defeating. But, if we become aware that we are making this self-judgment, then we can go on, because then we have recognized our actual internal condition which has the effect of drawing us deeper. The Workshop is a tool and not a dogma, whereby people can come into contact with their own lives and begin to sort out their own problems without feeling that they must live up to someone else's standards. One of my most interesting experiences at the Workshop happened to me after a prolonged period of "twilight imaging." This was on the fifth day of the Workshop which was the last segment entitled the "Feedback Meditation" Workshop. We were doing one of the exercises in the Process Meditation section of the Journal called "Mantra Crystals." We were instructed by Progoff to create our own seven syllable mantra. He defined mantra loosely as "anything that acts as an aid to meditation" or a "crystal from the past." We were not to take our mantra from a holy text or from TM. It was important that we develop it ourselves, out of our own history. He said that one person used the mantra ,"Tinker to Evers to Chance" which is an old and famous baseball double-play combination. It was not important what the words meant, but merely that it felt ''right" to us. While I was trying to find the right mantra to use (I was a little skeptical about using a mantra to

begin with), I reflected upon a "peak" experience I once had while working on a roof. I tried to put myself back into the "feel" of that experience and what followed were seven rather meaningless symbols, which felt somewhat "eastern" to me, but that seemed to represent the energy of that experience in at least an adequate way. It was: RAY-OM-NOM-RAY-KON-RAFTEE. I didn't know what good it would do, but I started repeating it over and over. My attention continually drifted from the mantra, and instead of a meditation I saw some very vivid "twilight imagery." "I see a fat Chinese girl reading a map. . . I see roses and white robes dancing. . . Jacqueline Kennedy saying "thank you..." None of it made sense, but it just kept coming. "I walked into a dark, dusty book store - all the books were old. I looked in a mirror and I saw my brother instead of myself." As I continued, the mantra spontaneously changed to something else without my consent: "I am light, the love of life." Then I saw "hundreds of bottles of exquisite wine in exotic shapes and colors on a shelf in an oldfashioned bar." All the while these images kept coming, I was getting more and more disoriented, and I felt more and more alone. There was almost a sinister, paranoid element to some of them which reminded me of childhood fears. After about a half hour or more, there was another sequence of images which were just more of the same, but which led to an emotional release that seemed to be a culmination of my recent anxieties. "There was this real cute dancer on the subway and when I stepped on her toe, she beamed into a bright smile. I saw a picture of Christ; He looked life a goofball. There was the Wicked Witch of the West hovering in the air. Some woman tossed something aside in a rather arrogant and nonchalant way." Just after this series of images, I saw my mother smiling. She was looking right at me and I knew she was doing well. It was different than the other images. I had the feeling, whether real or imaginary, that she was really present, and she was caring for me. For the next ten or fifteen minutes I had my hands over my face and I was weeping very deeply. I managed to keep it fairly well concealed and I continued with the "twilighting," but this sorrow (or relief) just kept welling up within me in an organic way until finally it ended of its own accord. When it stopped, I felt as if I had been through something which had washed the anxieties and fears out of me. At this time, I do not see the necessity to analyze the value of such an experience, although I think it may hold an important insight into my development. After it was over, I felt serene and ready to move on. Although this was a very intense experience for me, it was not an atypical experience at a Workshop. It seemed that an atmosphere formed which gradually and imperceptibly grew towards a more serious intent and also friendlier, more open feelings. Some people had their eyes closed in deep meditation. Others wrote furiously in their Journals. Still others had pensive looks on their faces and some people were crying. With everyone involved in the same process which uncovered the universal fact of suffering, there was an unspoken atmosphere which allowed some people to vent their long suppressed tears without intrusion.

As I was not familiar or comfortable with New York City, I tended to hang close with the people who attended the Workshop and the Dialogue House staff. To me, they were the sanest people around. While I wrote in my Journal, an image came to me that reflected, in a sense, how I felt about the people at the Workshop. "We are all in a movie about a passenger plane that is destined to crash. Death becomes the great equalizer whereby we focus on the uniqueness of each life. Each person on board becomes transparent and you can see their history unfolding with all its struggles and frailties. As I look back through the rows of the airplane, each person is clearly distinguishable, and I see some kind of 'aura' around each person's face."

Down Another Road The meaning of the Intensive Journal Workshop can only be experienced by the individual who works through it, in a way that will be uniquely related to his past life, desires, hopes and willingness to face his deepest self. TAT Journal reporter Katherine Harper recorded her impressions following a Workshop that she attended last spring in Kirkbridge, Pennsylvania. "I was not adept at turning inward and it showed on the pages of intellectual ruminations of a past I'd already "figured out." I was not alone in finding it grueling. Some read aloud their entries, expressing a sense of psychological blocking and limitations. Most seemed to feel the need to be less emotional or less intellectual about it. As the day wore on people compensated for the intensity with added cushions on their seats, sitting on the floor, shoes off, etc. Dinner was a welcome reprieve. The evening session was more reflective; people volunteered their reactions spontaneously. One woman said that she could not get past the idea that she was writing for someone else to read. She wanted to feel special enough to write just for herself. Some people expressed their struggles in exploring their Steppingstones. I was feeling a strange anxiety at being driven along with no time to think about what I was writing. I sensed that my idea of my 'Now' situation was not as clear as I had thought. It had been a long day but many people

stayed up late that night with their Journals." " ... The structure of a Workshop enables a person to realize more quickly and fully a capacity for the 'creative intuition' of which the philosopher, Henri Bergson, spoke, by means of which we can contact the vital force of our lives. I have seen in my own experience that it is very difficult to place oneself in a situation requiring discipline and to maintain the degree of attention necessary to achieve results. So we realize the need for 'authorities' to place us there. And then we want to escape - or something in us wants to escape." "The difficulty I experienced with 'going inward,' with seeing other people struggle, made me look at that irresistible tendency to resist the effort, forget the motivation. The Journal Workshop structure is a way of 'helping' to put one into the situation of understanding oneself. It provides an atmosphere with fewer external opportunities for rationalizing and procrastinating. For some people, that could mean the difference between going within and not doing so. But while there may be 'something' in us that wants to escape, the inward process that the Intensive Journal method seeks to reveal to us suggests the possibility that there may also be something in us that does not want to escape. Perhaps, then, the integrative experience is a matter of that something being heard and looked into." The Cathedral of the Heart One of the last sections of the Journal was called "Testament." In this section we recorded in a general way, as Dr. Progoff said, "how the reality of life seems to us." More specifically, we "record those statements of belief that we have worked out, that have a more lasting meaning for us." Our Testament is "the book of spiritual wisdom that is us - our own personal scripture." This seemed to be a most fitting end for the Workshop because it gave the opportunity to bring many of our experiences into focus as a formula for living. Now that we had been into and through our minds in a most direct way, which is real psychological research, we had our own views about what the nature of that reality is. Since these views come from our own direct experience, and not from someone else's book of wisdom, they have meaning for us and we can work with them in the future. This represents one of the essential values that the Workshop has; it is a tool and not a dogma, whereby people can come into contact with their own lives and begin to sort out their own problems without feeling that they must live up to someone else's standards. In this process of becoming aware, we come into contact with the underlying movement of our lives and many things become self-evident without the effort of analysis.

The Journal process works on our problems by an indirect method. There is no section of the Journal called "decision making" where you would logically list the pros and cons of a situation, decide what you want and pick one or the other. This approach has certain limitations. Although it may help us to get a picture of certain options that are available, we are still oversimplifying the factors and maybe also being unrealistic about our own capacities and limitations. To know these factors it is necessary to get in touch with oneself. The conscious mind has a tendency to be one-sided, but at a deeper level we can see the interplay of opposites in any given situation which move regardless of our conscious control. With this knowledge, we are less prone to make hasty decisions, because we know that we are merely looking at one side of the picture. However, in this process of becoming aware, we come into contact with the underlying movement of our lives and many things become self-evident without the effort of analysis. Dr. Progoff suggested that when we come to a decision during the Journal process it is best to give it the test of time. He said that many times we gain intimations of our next stage of growth on a subliminal level but at the level of everyday experience we are not ready for it or the kinds of activities that might go with it. His suggestion was that we loosen our hold on our conscious desires and let them form themselves out of the continuity of our lives as a whole. When a decision is clear enough, it will fit into our lives in a natural way. Again, however, we still must enter into the depths of ourselves to be in touch with this natural movement. Decisions may then be formed which are more realistic and also more integral to our real aims in life. Progoff has talked about the "elusiveness of the growth principle." He said, "The psychological cycles of growth move so slowly and circuitously that even when something very important is germinating underneath, people are often misled into believing that no growth is taking place at all." As I sat in my room at the YMCA reading this, I reflected upon my experience at the delicatessen where I became emotionally concerned with people I had never met before. Progoff went on: "The growth of a human being consists of so many subjective experiences, hidden and private to the person, that the markings of change are difficult to discern." I had felt quite hopeless and at an end point in regard to the direction of my life when I had said earlier, "I want to die, but not physically." I continued reading. "Especially misleading is the fact that the active germination of a growth process often takes place at the low, seemingly negative, phase of a psychological cycle." Gradually, as I worked with my life throughout the Workshop, I realized that I was in the midst of a cycle that was in fact repeating itself. With this feeling came a new hope for the future, because I could see that there were ways of working with the situation and gaining valuable insights. When Progoff studied with Carl Jung, Jung told him something which relates to this process of growth and decay. I have loosely paraphrased it: "If you someday find yourself on the top of a mountain and you are looking at the next higher mountain, and you want to get to the top of it, you can't get

there without getting down off the mountain you are on, and going down through the valley again, and suffering all the pains of the process, and struggling again to get up that next mountain." Ira Progoff respects the integrity of the individual. In this same vein, he would never consider himself a Jungian, although I'm sure he has a respect for Jung. He would prefer to be looked upon as a Progoffian. He made a couple of jokes about Jung, one of which began: "Now if Jung would have been using his Intensive Journal when he was going through his separation with Freud, then. . ." I forgot the punch line but remember an eruption of Progoff s boyish laughter. Dr. Progoff strikes many people as a humble person or even shy. I thought he was honest. He has said that it is not absolutely necessary to attend a Workshop to understand and work with the Intensive Journal method. This stands in contrast to movements like TM that insist you can't teach yourself. Bohdan Hodiak talked to Progoff about the use of the technique: "Progoff calls the Journal simply an instrument which by itself is almost irrelevant, the way a pencil is irrelevant. What the Journal does is capture the process of our lives. We all have, he said, self-directing and self-healing capacities. The problem is to get hold of them and sometimes it's like trying to capture smoke." Throughout the Workshop, Dr. Progoff was available for questions. He spoke with dozens of people and interjected meaningful comments throughout the Workshop. His sense of humor and candor seemed to set a "therapeutic" tone to the entire session. The final segment of the Intensive was held at Dialogue House on East 11th Street, near Greenwich Village. This was the last Workshop of a tour which had been stretched out over a period of months. After most of the participants had left, Dr. Progoff consulted with many people individually. By this time he was quite tired. I waited around to the very end to tape an interview with him, but when I saw how tired he was I changed my plan. I asked him a few questions and he gave me some tired answers, but I knew what he meant just by the tone of his voice. "Journal generates energy by getting one's life on the track, and that's what makes the difference." I decided I had enough material for the article and I turned off the tape recorder. He just laughed and said, "Ya mean, we did it?" I wanted to tell him about this funny image which I had seen during the Depth Feedback Workshop, but it didn't seem like the right time for it. On the fourth day, he read a poem describing a tree stump which served as an altar glowing in the dark and Progoff was crosses. [sic] I assumed it was out in the woods. As it stood out in the night, I could see the tree stump altar glowing in the dark and Progoff was standing in front of it. Then I saw myself standing next to him and about a half dozen quiet people surrounding the stump as if it were a campfire. This stump was the center point of a circle and gradually a "multitude of beings" crept up around it. It started to

take off in a spinning motion. We were like a clustering mass of bees stretching out into the vastness of space. We were a swirling mass around a nucleus and we had clung to this stump like filings to a magnet. Progoff is the captain of the ship and he looked like a humorous cartoon character. He had one hand on the helm and the other hand on his forehead, scouting out the frontier. He wheels the ship around and we go cavorting through the darkness as a tiny molecule in a vast open space. "Again and again in the Journal Workshops we are shown that the sincere examination of the individual human life is one of man's fundamental religious acts."

The Watch-Maker by Alan Fitzpatrick A true story of brutality, sensitivity and the struggle between truth and lies behind a prison's walls. I met him on a hot July afternoon, in prison. I did not know at the time of the profound effect that he was to have upon me. I had just begun working as a psychologist in the maximum security prison, which was currently home for over seven hundred men, convicted felons of the state. Of this population, a fifth resided permanently behind the Walls. They were the lifers doing time for murder, without hope of pardon or parole. Their crimes were the most heinous and, prior to the 'sixties, these men would have lived and died on Death Row. Some were rapists who had murdered their victims. Some had killed their spouses. Revenge, jealousy, anger, passion and madness were their motives. And of these, Frank was one. A lot of rumors had preceded him. In a penitentiary rumor is lifeblood, an unceasing medium of exchange in a closed society. It can swiftly kill a man who is a snitch or a punk. Rumor, too, can protect. In Frank's case it did neither. I was warned by the staff that he was a dangerous killer, a homicidal maniac. The institutional psychiatrist, after one interview, reported Frank to be insane, by all standards. "Paranoid schizophrenic" was the diagnosis.

Frank had thrown a chair at the interviewer when asked if he loved his mother. A guard who had been on the force for several years mentioned that Frank was a loner, with few friends. And other cons told me he was a damn good fighter, and a good watchmaker. From what I heard, this fellow was a bit of a mystery. The prison staff had told me many things when I took the job: "Don't trust a con. Always be on your guard. Take rumors seriously, it could save your life in a pinch." I was working with convicts, one of the most difficult types of individuals for psychologists to deal with, especially those cons who were considered the hard core recidivists. They just refused to come around to the normal way of thinking. And because of this, most professionals prefer not to work in penitentiaries. Cons, as I was to discover, think differently than people on the street, and they refuse to play by the accepted rules. They are sharp-witted, quick to guess a game or a pretense, and quicker to catch you in one of their own. They consciously make themselves hard to get to know. It is my belief that cons are master psychologists. They know the mind and how it works far better than their professional counterparts. And they don't have the pose of intellectualism and authority to uphold. I had heard of him, and I had to meet Frank as a part of my counseling job. But with a caseload of over ninety men, I knew that it would not be soon. I was surprised one afternoon to see him at my door as, coincidentally, I had his file on my desk and had been leafing through it. With a knock, he entered and said, "Hello, I'm Frank, Frank Clark, the watchmaker." He was an imposing figure; massive in build, he stood six feet or more, weighed at least 200 pounds, was slightly balding, and in his thirties. Yet this was offset by an almost boyish looking face. A pudgy nose and a sheepish smile highlighted his features. What caught my attention was his eyes. They were

dark brown, steel hard, and riveted to mine. I was amazed. Few cons had looked me straight in the eye in my office, the territory of the State. Most were nervous, perhaps out of some fear, perhaps because they were occupied with a scheme that their idle conversation concealed at the moment. Yet I can't help but think that most avoided eye contact because of the unconscious realization that, even in a prison, eyes are still windows of the mind that will tell their story, the truth. And truth, in prison, can easily jeopardize one's survival and sanity. Frank looked at me straight. It could have been a "stare off" for hours. But I knew that he had no intent to intimidate. His eyes told his story. There was gentleness, a sensitivity. And there was rage, anger. Years of incarceration had left their mark in suffering. The scars and heavy lines on his surrounding face testified to that. Yet the sensitivity had persevered, in spite. I cautioned myself. Was I projecting, and snowing myself about this character? First impressions can be either intuitively accurate or totally deceiving. Could a con serving life be sensitive? I realized that I knew nothing at all about the man facing me. Frank spoke in a polite and soft manner. He called me not "sir," but "son." As his counselor, he requested something from me. Taking a dollar bill from his pocket, Frank unfolded it and asked me if I could make thirty-five copies in the nearby copy machine for an art project. He carefully watched my response to the dollar bill as if it were a knife, for in a prison, money is contraband. I could call a guard and have Frank written up for a disciplinary infraction. Not that I think it mattered to him, though. I looked at Frank for a long moment. "Why such an absurd request?" I thought. He was sizing me up to see what I was made of, to see if he could begin to trust me. "Frank," I said, "I can't copy that dollar bill. You know it's against prison rules." He smiled for a moment, eye to eye. Then without a word he put the bill in his pocket and stood up, next to me, and removed his T-shirt. "I know karate," he said. I grimaced. "Watch," he said, and slid a telephone book over to the edge of my desk. With a thundering boom, Frank hit it with all of his might. The flimsy partitioned walls of my office shook and rattled, but nothing happened to that telephone book. Two guards suddenly appeared at my doorway, clubs in hand, fearing the worst. My supervisor and secretary stood behind them, with disbelieving looks. Frank calmly put his shirt back on, and said goodbye. The show was over. We had met and checked each other out. And I found that I liked the guy. In the months to come, I got to know Frank better. We became friends and it puzzled me. Inmates in prison rarely have time for friendship with the staff. They simply can't afford to be sincere with you. Every man knows that the staff can be a valuable access to them, a means to an end. Take them outside the Walls, and it would be a different story. But inside, they are doing time, they are in prison. Consequently they skill themselves and take their best shots with you, and if it doesn't work, they move on. For instance,

a man might sit in my office and talk with me about the weather every day of the month. When I ask him about himself, he'll portray only the particular injustice of his case, the despair of his situation to improve in school, his new found interest in religion, and his burning desire to make good, to get another chance. He will do all of this in an imitation of friendship, as a preliminary for one important question to come one day. It will be carefully thought out, a progressive strategy, with intent to deceive. But on that day he will reveal himself and ask what he really wants. Could I write the governor for him? Would I talk to the Parole Board in his favor? Could I get that out-of-state detainer lifted for him? Would I run in some drugs for him? None of these things could I do for a man by law, and he would know it from the beginning. When I would gently tell him so the charade would be over; the pretense done, he would get up and walk out, and would rarely come back to talk again. I understood the game. And I couldn't condemn any man for playing it. Sometimes I think that condemning a man to prison is a worse crime than the one he committed. Prison life is hell and, if I were the condemned man, I knew that I too might try all the angles to accomplish one thing - to get out. Frank was different than these men. I patiently waited over the months, for his shot. This man had spent ten years already behind the walls. He knew the games through and through, I thought. Thus, he should have a supergame prepared for the green counselor. What would it be? When would it come? Would Frank, as so many others, begin with a string of insignificant favors? A stick of gum could easily lead to blackmail. The game that I expected never came. That's what puzzled me about Frank. He didn't want anything from me, except my company in conversation from time to time. No phone calls, no lawyers, no petitions to the governor. Not even a roadmap for escape. Frank was just content to be friends. I recognized that in this place, this prison of confinement and suffering, I had found a true friend. I took the time to look into Frank's case on my own, without his knowing. Who was he, and how had he come to end up in the pen? What I found startled me. Frank was doing some heavy time. In fact, he was serving three life sentences for three counts of murder in one of the counties down state. Frank had received the death penalty three times, just prior to its abolishment some ten years ago. Much of his prison file was missing. No case history, no trial testimony or record. Pieces of torn paper around the binder rings indicated that at one time his file had been much bulkier. The Records Office had only one document in his file - a copy of the death sentences signed by the judge. When Frank had arrived at the Walls, he was put on Death Row to begin the wait for execution. With the abolishment of the death penalty, Frank's sentences were commuted to life without mercy, no pardon or parole. He was sentenced to die now, not in the Chair, but behind the Walls, of old age. In a sense, he had a much tougher sentence since such a life in prison could

only be prolonging an agony of despair and hopelessness. This sentence for men such as Frank was exacting and terrible. A man waited and waited. He gradually forgot about the outside world. He adjusted to the bleak surroundings of concrete walls, steel bars, and filthy floors. And those outside forgot about him. His relatives paid fewer and fewer visits. Even the family of the victim and the judges and lawyers involved in his case passed away, moved and forgot his name. Most terrible of all to him, he witnessed the release of others, the coming and going of new inmates doing their time. Even the guards and the staff changed, but he remained. No matter how bad another man's record might be inside, they still had hope, and one day they would walk out the front gate with another chance. To the condemned, like Frank, no hope existed. There would be no walk to the front gate. Permanent escape was a pauper's grave, at the Tom's Run Prison Cemetery, a quarter mile from the prison. The days, the hours, the sleepless nights seemed like an eternity. It was the waiting that bothered such men, and it was the waiting that bothered Frank. One day I asked him about his crime. His file gave no details, and no one in the prison wished to fill me in. Had he committed three murders? Frank corrected me. He included two other murders for which he wasn't convicted. I was astounded by his reply. Up until that time, I had never found a man who openly admitted his guilt. As far as the typical con was concerned, over seven hundred men were wrongly incarcerated. The guilt lay in the courts, the police, their lawyers, the judges. They were framed, wrongly identified by witnesses, convicted on scanty evidence by kangaroo courts, and rushed through by crooked, state-appointed attorneys. They upheld their innocence and often it made me sick. I don't doubt that innocent men have been wrongly convicted. Often justice is only a mask of hypocrisy to hide the injustice of the law. It was their manner that offended me. They protested too loudly, too arrogantly, and I knew that they were lying. Maybe they had come to believe it themselves. The truth, I felt, lay in their actions and not their words. And I saw many such "innocent" men return from parole or release with only a few weeks or days on the street. They came back to the prison with a new crime under their belts and new time to do. They weren't kidding anybody about their taste for prison. Some came back to be with lovers. To them, the prison meant home, and the game of "innocence" would begin all over again.

Frank made no pretense of innocence. He was guilty. I looked for pride, a subtle boasting, but found none. He spent a great deal of time detailing his story and showing me newspaper clippings from the trial that he had saved in a scrap book. And as I listened, I searched for the truth and the lies, the telltale inconsistencies and contradictions that, cons fail to realize, trip them up. They all know that they can con, that they are masters of disguise with an acute ability to weave words and logic to distort the truth for their own ends. And with such abilities they often relax and forget the details and con themselves. It's the details, the small things that slip them up. All you need to do is listen and ask enough questions. Frank first got into trouble with the law at eighteen. It began one night when a friend of his had burglarized a nearby home, and had pulled his pickup truck with the stolen property in it in front of Frank's house for the night. Frank knew nothing of the burglary. In the morning his friend left. Later in the day, the local police arrived to question Frank and the family about the nearby burglary. They found a stolen hot plate in the ditch in front of Frank's house. It was enough to convict him. He went to prison on a one-to-ten year sentence for burglary, a rather harsh sentence for someone without prior record. The first year was hard for Frank. He tried to go straight inside, to avoid the fights, to do good to get out. He got an education about people. The experience hardened him, but he made it out after the first year, on parole. And he completed his parole. Frank got a job and got married. Soon he raised a sum of money to go into the restaurant and bar business. Some of the money he saved, some he borrowed, some he won at gambling. In his mind he knew what he wanted.

One night at his bar two policemen arrived with a proposition. Frank was to pay off now to stay in business. Their racket was protection for a percentage of the take. In return Frank could freely gamble on the premises, and thus increase the take. Frank said no, and told them to go to hell. They left, but returned the next night, breaking both of Frank's hands while he straddled the pool table. He barely survived the severe beating. The request for payoff came again, this time from the police chief, and again Frank refused. Next morning he found his restaurant burned to the ground. So Frank collected his wits and a gun, and went to work. When it was all over, the police chief and two deputies were dead. Two other racketeers involved in the deal were stuffed down a well, dead. And when Frank was finally caught and arrested, he went without a fight, leaving his young bride to fend for herself. His trial was quick. The evidence was overwhelming. The prosecutor and judge were both personal friends of the police chief, and probably aware of the racket, as is the case in most small towns. Frank was a cop killer, a homicidal psychopath, and he received his due sentence from the jury, by law. He was quickly sent to the Walls for execution. Frank's time behind the Walls was rough in comparison to his earlier prison experience. Frank was twenty-two and tough. When he was released from Death Row into the prison population, he knew what to expect. He was now prey for the hardened cons, the perverts, the sickies, the dope peddlers. It's not only the prison walls that create the vile atmosphere found inside. Part is due to the type of men found within. They contribute to the mental atmosphere. Ideally, penitentiaries were created for the criminal to do penance in a sort of solitary fashion, so that he could think about his crime and retribution. Today prisons are ruthless jungles. Young kids are put into the same pot with hardened sex offenders, with the criminally insane. Rule is by the sword, and not by the guards. Everyone who enters as an inmate either fights or dies. It is that simple. And death for those who cannot fight may be quite slow. The meek, the young who cannot fight, and who are scared out of their wits by the odds that confront them, face a grim future. For they are fodder to be consumed, to be bought and sold as sexual slaves, turned into punks or prostitutes for homosexual "daddies." The guards look the other way. All reason and etiquette disappear as only brute force prevails. If a man concedes, he falls. And his fall is irreversible into living hell. He sacrifices his sanity. So if he lets a comment pass, such as a homosexual insinuation spoken in the presence of others, he will surely find a lineup at his cell door that night before lockup, with a knife probably at his throat. Thus, his earlier lack of vocal conviction spoke for him, as a weakness to be exploited. On the other hand, if he truly wishes to continue to live with his sanity, he must immediately hurt the man who insinuated, kill him if possible, crush him if he can, no matter what the odds. This and only this action speaks, and protects him. There are a few alternatives to fighting, for men in prison. They can break. Some just scream raving mad, froth at the mouth, howl like rabid dogs until carted off in strait jackets to the nut wards. "Prison psychosis," they call it.

Others are more subtle. They appear to temporarily adjust, until one day they lose their minds over a pack of cigarettes, a misinterpreted word, or an intimidation of fear, and they leap upon another in frenzied viciousness and cut him to pieces with homemade knives before jumping off a tier, or slashing their throats. The surest break which few take is escape. Some string the rope over the walls and make beelines to loved ones on the outside for a few moments of freedom and peace of mind before being caught and returned. Others silently string the rope around their necks for a more permanent escape from terror. To these ends Frank had no inclination. Frank was a fighter. He accepted the invitation of survival, and being angry to begin with Frank fought with a cold and cruel determination. He smashed a few heads and saw blood flow, some of it his own. For this Frank was put into isolation in the maximum security lockup, nicknamed "the Alamo," a prison within a prison. Here, a man did his time 24-hours a day in a small cell, under the gun of a guard. Finally here, Frank had a chance to think, and write. His nature seemed to demand some expression for the trial he was experiencing, his personal agony. He wrote poetry and had his lyrics published. My home is one of heartache A place of steel and stone, A barren cell, a home in hell And here I must atone. For all my crime I pay with time, Where lights glare night and day, And though I rage and pace my cage I still must stay and pay. Finally he was released from the Alamo. Frank had fought and won his right to be. Inmates respected him. He was dangerous all right, and not somebody to fool with or cross. To the staff, Frank was a hardened con. His record of institutional violence showed him to be unamenable to rehabilitation. But then the staff were playing by a Pollyannic set of rules, reserved only for people on the street. They had no idea of the demands of survival within the cellblocks. They accepted any sign of violence as a character weakness rather than a strength. Upon joining the prison population, Frank was dealt a stunning blow. His wife, Sandra Lynn, discouraged by the long years of separation and no hope, married another man. It broke Frank's heart, and left him truly alone. His emptiness was great. Frank had lost everything but his pride. The months for me at my job wore on. I too saw men come and go, both through orientation and parole or release. Prison life, though, remained the same, and so did Frank. Often I would venture into the cellblocks alone to visit men, in their "houses," on their home ground. How else, I figured, was I ever to get to know a man and communicate with him? Invariably my visits would end up at Frank's cell. Frank had taken up watchmaking and repair

through correspondence courses and books from the prison library. He was self-taught, and his six foot by eight foot cell was a clutter of parts cabinets and equipment that he had bought with his savings. Frank was good at it, and had attracted a large clientele from both the guards and the inmates. And it was at these times, in his cell while he was working, that we talked about everything from war to politics and psychology. Sweat would pour off his wrinkled forehead in great beads as he struggled with his stubby squat fingers to place the mechanism within the shell of a watch. He was in the wrong profession, I thought. Much better suited to ditch digging, or construction. When Frank would leave, his cell door would be open. He was the only man in the prison who could do this. For in prison, cell robbing is big business, and even personal hasp locks are cut off the door for the contents inside. Frank never had any problem. He never lost a watch. His cousin, though, was a different story.

Frank told me about it one day. His cousin, Wallace, who was serving a 1020 year sentence for rape, came to him for help. Wallace was always getting robbed whenever he left his cell for supper. He was an easy mark. To Frank this was clearly a sign of weakness on his cousin's part. He was not a fighter, not fully a man. Frank's word was good, as well as his threat, and was backed up by his actions. But Wallace was different. Frank confided the problem with Wallace to me. "My cousin is a coward, he's yellow through and through." Yet Frank couldn't refuse his cousin's plea for help. He was still blood and Frank believed in that code. So with this in mind, Frank went up the tiers to the cell door of the alleged thief, his cousin following close behind. Frank knocked on the door and soon a petulant looking kid of twenty-five or so responded. Frank introduced himself and told the boy that his cousin had been robbed. He pointed to the television set in the corner of the cell and, in a soft-spoken manner, told the youth that it was his cousins property and would have to be returned with everything else. The boy's bravado was at stake, and he reacted with curses and taunts. Apparently he didn't know of

Frank. Frank looked at him hard for a moment and then said, "Son, I've been here for many years, and I can see that you haven't. Nothing personal, but I'm afraid that you have a lot to learn." Frank grabbed the kid by the neck with one arm, and picked him straight up off his feet. The kid kicked Frank several times in the groin, but Frank never felt it. He was angered and nothing could stop him. Frank's burly hands slipped around the boy's throat and tightened automatically, bringing the boy to his knees, and then prone on the floor. A crowd of inmates gathered. Suddenly, a friend of Frank's named Robert leaped onto Frank's hunched back and whispered in his ear. "Don't kill him, Frank, he's only a kid." Something in Frank responded. He loosened his grip and moved his thumbs upwards to the boy's eyes, and pressed in for a moment. Then in one movement he picked the kid up and sent him flying for the wall in the back of the cell. Wallace gathered his property. In the cell next door, the other accomplice crouched in a corner, shaking like a leaf. Wallace's belongings lay in a neat pile by the door. The incident was over and, as Frank recalled, Wallace had no more trouble with cell robbers. The guards had a strange story to tell about Frank, one that he hadn't mentioned to me. The prison had had a riot in 1973 and inmates took over the entire prison for a week, until state troopers assaulted it and regained control. Several inmates were killed, and scores injured on both sides. With the recapture it was found that all the inmate deaths had resulted from other inmates. This was not unusual in a prison, and it still happens today in the many pens across America. Ten minutes after the initial takeover, the executions had begun. Rats or informers were beheaded for snitching, never to speak again. Drug and gambling debts were paid up permanently, homosexual jealousies were resolved with knives, and the intense racial hatred that had been brewing for weeks was quenched with the flow of blood. The blacks' stranglehold control of the institutional rackets was loosened. In a prison, justice is swift and exacting, unlike the courts on the outside. Initially, several guards were trapped within the cellblocks, their escape routes blocked by the rioters. One guard named Wilson was sitting in a guard's office next to Frank's cell when it all began. Wilson was generally liked by most inmates for being fair but in a riot, when passions flow and blood is let, the instinct to butcher guards, the symbol of authority, is irresistible. The mob came down, and Frank grabbed Wilson and threw him in the back of his own cell. A spokesman for the mob, a lifer nicknamed Spaceman, demanded the guard from Frank, so they could cut him to pieces. In prison, the lifers are usually the executioners, for they are free within the system to kill and do as they like. They are particularly absolved from murder, as they already have a life sentence and can't get any more time added. The State won't execute them, so they have nothing to lose. Frank was also a lifer. He pulled out a long homemade knife that he had hidden in his cell, and invited anyone from the mob, or all of them, who were man enough to kill the guard to step inside his cell. No one accepted

his offer, and the guard's life was saved, due to Frank. A commendation by the chief of the guards was put into Frank's file, and a petition for a mercy sentence, a chance at parole, was sent to the Governor. No response ever came back. In my final months at the penitentiary, a new trial by fire ensued for Frank, this time with the Warden. Frank's watchmaking and repair business was successful, in fact, too successful. He had turned it into a profitable business, and was adding to his inmate bank account in a legal manner. One day the Warden called Frank to his office with a proposal. I wasn't able to attend, as it was none of my business, so I got the details second hand from Frank. "The Warden is a crook," Frank said, "a bigger crook than most of the men inside these walls." This was a serious allegation, I thought, and I was skeptical. I had heard it before, from other men, and I attributed it to the common resentful attitude that most incarcerated men have for their captor. I told Frank so, but he insisted it was the truth. The Warden had demanded a percentage from Frank's business to be paid to the Inmate Benefit Fund, and in return Frank would be allowed to continue to operate. To Frank, the situation was a reminder. He told the Warden to go to hell, and called him a crook to his face. That afternoon after Frank left my office, two guards appeared at his cell and asked him to step out. They had orders from the Warden to search his cell for weapons. As Frank stood nearby, they dumped all the contents of the drawers of his cabinets into one pile, mixing the intricate springs, screws, hands, and jewels together into a heap. No weapons were found. The search was continued daily for a week. Frank sent word to the Warden: he could have the business, but Frank wasn't going to pay. I protested to my supervisor, and I found him to be indignant that I would support an inmate in violation of the Warden's new rules. I wondered if I were wrong. Maybe Frank had pushed his limits too far. No further action was taken and Frank remained firm. He forfeited his business. My time had come to leave. Something had told me, an intuition perhaps, that I had done or learned all that I could. It was time to move on. Unlike others on the staff, this wasn't my career. I didn't tell the men in my caseload until the last day, for fear of biasing our relationship with last minute vain requests. This was also for my own protection. I knew that I had made enemies as well as friends. And some might have wanted to act upon threats at the last moment. I had seen it happen before to others, and I wanted to avoid it. What was on my mind the last day more than anything else was Frank. I hadn't told him. I got up from my desk, and opened my office door to get a drink of water. Frank was standing there. "I heard you're leaving," he said, "although I've kinda sensed it for some time." As if anticipating my silent question of "How?" he continued. "I could see it in your face. You're too sensitive," he said. "There's no room for sensitivity in here. A man in your position is forced to take a side regardless, and you cannot share the other for long. When you work for the State you enforce the State's rules. And to

do that, you have to ignore the human side of things in here. I don't mean just the inmates' side of the issue. I mean the suffering, the ignorance, and the pain. It's on all sides. Just look at some of these guards here. They are to be pitied more than the men they guard. Look what years of guarding one side of the issue has done to them." I couldn't disagree with Frank. I knew he was right. "So I knew that you'd finally have to leave one day. And I'm glad for you. When you first came; you were really green, from a sheltered life; good parents, a middle class family, a college education, you've always had everything in life you wanted. But you weren't a fighter, you were easily duped. You were a psychologist who didn't know the first thing at all about psychology." I flinched. Somewhere inside I felt hit, and I didn't especially like to hear it. "But I've seen you change," he said. "You've had your eyes opened, and now it's time to go." I looked at Frank for a long time, saying nothing. We got up and walked to the prison yard. Inmates were strolling in the sun, some talking in small groups. One man was feeding bread to the pigeons. I turned to Frank. "Why, Frank? Why in God's name are you here, anyway? I just can't figure it out." His eyes met mine, and emotion flooded us both simultaneously. Frank replied. "Don't you see? All this, the prison, my life, this is my fate. I've known it, and fought it, and finally come to accept it. You know every man's born with a lot of possibilities. He can grow up to be a judge, a banker, a soldier or a con. He storms into life with a lot of hopes and dreams, just like I did years ago. He thinks he's going to conquer the world, in his own little way. Yet something happens. It's as if, at a certain point, a decision made by the good Lord for him. From then on in, he just follows his course. He thinks he's doing it all, but it's all done for him. He's just acting his part. When he looks back upon it, once it's done, he knows. That's life." I looked at Frank again. "No, that's not good enough," I thought. That's not a good enough answer. If this is destiny, and it is so, it still could have been changed. We never know anything for sure. The gnawing question that I had kept to myself for so long surfaced. "Through all the misery, Frank, through everything, why didn't you escape? You could have done it at any time. You had nothing to lose, and could have gained everything." Frank was slow to reply. "You still don't understand. My father was here and his father before him. I didn't see it at first, though, because I was bitter and angry. I wanted another chance. I wanted everything that every man wants - freedom, a woman's love, kids, a farm, the whole bit - but you see, that chance never came. Sure I killed them people. I did what I had to do at the time. Ten years have passed and now I'm a different person. I can see that murder isn't such a terrible thing, when it's meant to be. It's all a part of life. Some of us are meant to be killed; some of us play the part of the killer. Society thinks it's such a terrible thing to murder, but if every man really looked inside himself, he'd find he's a killer too, and a rapist, a coward, and a thief. Even if he only ponders it for a moment in his life, it's still there. I

didn't have too much choice in the matter. It presented itself to me, and I acted. Now I'm playing out the remainder of the show. Somebody's got to be in prison, to be the con. All of it, for good or bad, doesn't matter. It's the good Lord's way and I can't change it. Nobody can." Tears came to my eyes. Sensing my reaction, Frank interrupted. "So don't feel sorry for me. I may be a murderer, but I'm no martyr. It's my destiny to be here." We shook hands and parted. Frank crossed the prison yard, towards the cellblock and home. I watched for a moment and felt a loss. Our paths had crossed, and he had left a mark upon me I would never forget. I left the prison for good that Friday afternoon through the front gate. Fate had one final twist to take. The following Monday morning the state police arrested the Warden in his office, the culmination of an investigation into misuse and embezzlement of the Inmate's Benefit Fund. My only doubt about Frank was resolved. He had been right all along. Part Three: Recovering the Recurrent Dream by David Gold Your recurrent dreams may carry a profound message about the way to find your most deeply hidden and felt desire in life. For the purposes of this final segment of my article on the recurrent dream, I will assume that you have exercised the patience and perseverance necessary to have wound your way through the two preceding articles (TAT Journal, Volume 1, Number 3 and Number 4), and that you now have command of a rather complete system for remembering and interpreting the recurrent dream. Some of you may have gone a step further and put this system into action, glimpsing a recurrent dream and receiving a hint as to its possible meaning. If you have, indeed, labored to this stage and have experienced some results, then it is time to explore the implications of this newly-discovered evidence of your mental life.

Mere awareness of a recurrent dream, or even some cognizance of its message, will not of itself change your existence, or bring you to greater understanding of what your purpose may be in this life. In order to take full advantage of your dream data, it is my conviction that you must relate the R/D to your present state of being, and apply the dream message so as to find a way to become the person that you wish to be. Many readers may have been content to stop reading and working after going through the first recurrent dream article dealing with R/D recollection. These individuals may have been satisfied to merely experience their recurrent dreams, and linger in the pleasure of reliving their drama and mystery. Others may have pushed onward to the next step and tried to interpret the message that the R/D conveyed. Intrigued by this unsolved puzzle, this second group has studied and thought and meditated upon their recurrent dreams, hoping to extract from them the hidden motivations which prompted their repeating messages. But how many will take the final step and, having discovered their message, go forward and apply this instruction to actually work towards changing the direction of their lives? Or, if already pursuing a fulfilling course, how many will use the R/D to clarify both their life's goals and the manner of attaining those goals? If you are one of those unique people who is attempting to use the discovered dream information to gain a greater understanding of what you should be doing with your life, then I would hope that you follow through to the final step of working with the recurrent dream: The possible recovery of a lost direction in life. Retraversing the Road to Conviction I am not suggesting that everyone should quit their jobs, divorce their spouses and invest all their savings in pork belly futures as a result of a message from a recurrent dream. Neither am I intimating that everyone is lost, groping in the dark and clutching at the faintest glimmer of a direction

which may give meaning to their lives. However, many people lack any continuity of direction in their lives, and move from one experience to another in search of something which will be the glue to hold the entire collage together. And the most frustrating aspect of such an existence for these people is that they possess the subliminal realization that it has not always been this way. The recurrent dream is a message, a persistent communication which demands to be heard. If a dream merely occurs, it is most likely telling you something about an isolated aspect of your life. If a dream recurs, it is telling you about your entire existence. All of us were, at one time, children, and experienced the thrill and sense of importance which life once offered us. Basking in the innocence of youth, it was possible to feel the satisfaction of accomplishment and the expectation of fulfillment which seemed to lie ahead as we set out to do that which we believed was important. Why was it that way? And why is it that way no longer? What has changed, what are we doing differently, or failing to do at all? Can the recurrent dream help answer these questions? It is my conviction that it can. The recurrent dream is a message, a persistent communication which demands to be heard. If a dream merely occurs, it is most likely telling you something about an isolated aspect of your life. If a dream recurs, it is telling you about your entire existence. In many cases it can serve as a reminder of what you once were, of what once was of importance to you and of what still is important in your life. Properly analyzed and understood, and then placed against the backdrop of your personal past and present, it can reveal the key to what you may well be again. But is it a Dream? It is, therefore, my belief that the R/D can serve as a bridge between the sense of purpose of the past and the seeming banality of the present. But before anyone takes a major step in their lives as a result of a recurrent dream, that person must be completely sure that it was indeed a dream. For not every recurrent night-time image is, in actuality, an R/D; the image may very well be only a gastric reaction to spicy foods, or some other nocturnal form of repeating communication which is promoted by something other than the philosophic prodding of your inner self. For that reason I will briefly explore these other possibilities, and provide a few hints as to how one should weed these imposters out from the recurrent dream. The first possibility is that your "dream" is nothing more than a reflex

reaction to some internal or external environmental stimulus. By internal, I am referring to the "chili dog syndrome," while external stimuli would include such factors as tangled bed sheets or violent thunderstorms. ... The recurrent dream can serve as a bridge between the sense of purpose of the past and the seeming banality of the present. The experience of a former college roommate provides an excellent example of the former. As often as once a week, he would awaken and relate the details of a nightmare which always ended with him drowning in a rising pool of water. Eventually I made the connection between the dream and his social habits; the dream was always preceded by a night of intense beer drinking. The dream was nothing more than his body signaling him that it desired to urinate, and the timing of the dream (directly before awakening) and his physical condition (full bladder) bore out this theory. For an extremely lucid discussion of dreams brought on as a result of reaction to external stimuli, I would refer the reader to P.D. Ouspensky's A New Model of the Universe. In his chapter on dreams, Ouspensky relates a recurring ream dealing with his inability to avoid sinking into a bog of mud. He resisted the temptation to interpret the dream allegorically, and came to realize that it was prompted by his being tangled in his bed sheets. You too must resist the temptation to be a philosopher after every recurrent dream. Otherwise you could waste weeks trying to interpret a mysterious dream which is actually telling you to cut out the peanut butter prior to retiring. You must also become as sensitive as possible to your internal and external environment before sleeping and upon awakening, so that you can correlate these factors and the dream in order to rule out those mundane factors as possible influencers of your dreams. Practice will ultimately provide the discrimination which is necessary to determine whether we are really dealing with an R/D or an imposter. Environmental stimuli are not the only factors which can lead to dreamlike experiences that are not actually interpretable dreams. Your "dream" may be, in fact, an even more intense interaction with your environment: the "out-of-body experience." I do not wish to deal extensively with the subject of out-of-body experiences (OOBE's), or astral travel as they are sometimes called. The idea of traveling independently of the body raises such controversy about the nature of man that its exploration is best left to books and treatises. But I do believe that anyone who consistently works with his dreams will experience this phenomenon and should be capable of distinguishing out-of-body experiences from the R/D. OOBE's generally leave the dreamer (traveler) with the conviction, upon awakening, that he has actually experienced that which he seemingly dreamed. He is more disoriented when he awakens, less sure of the

delineation between sleep and "reality." During the experience itself, the sleeper will experience a greater consciousness of himself and the surrounding events than in an ordinary dream, and may be aware that he is "dreaming." This is, of course, an extremely sketchy description of how to recognize the OOBE, and I would strongly recommend that those interested in pursuing this subject pick up a copy of Robert Monroe's Journeys Out of the Body. This book is a lucid and scientifically validated account of one man's experiments with astral travel. The reader should be aware, however, that out-of-body experiences do occur, that these phenomena are distinguishable from normal dreams, and that any attempts to interpret as symbols the images that one encounters in an OOBE can only lead to confusion. The final category of non-dreaming nocturnal occurrences that I will discuss is "psychic phenomena." This includes experiences such as precognitive dreams, post-cognitive dreams (contact with prior life strands) and psychic contact with other dreamers. Again, I regret that I must open up this area, when I lack the time and space necessary to truly explore these captivating subjects. But I am familiar with two women who experienced recurrent psychic contacts during sleep, and those working with recurrent dreams should be able to recognize psychic "dream" phenomena. These are usually peeks through a crack of that shell which we perceive to be reality, rather than some type of philosophical message. Thus, if you repeatedly dream of a dead friend or relative, do not immediately attempt to psychoanalyze what the symbolism of the recurrent encounter may be. If you possess most of your faculties during the experience and if you awake with the conviction that your friend was there, he may very well have been. It is likewise advisable to resist the interpretation of recurrent dreams of disaster. First, be sure that you are not recalling a prior life or foretelling a major catastrophe. I cannot offer a universal formula for distinguishing psychic from "normal" dreams, but persistent work with dreams will enable you to get a better feel for what you are experiencing, and help you to pluck the true R/D from the garden of nocturnal experiences.

I do not mean to imply that these three types of recurrent, dreamlike phenomena are worthless. I have personally experienced all three, and have learned about my body from environmental dreams, thrilled at my astral encounters and been deeply impressed by a number of night-time, psychic experiences. But we are dealing here with the investigation of a particular type of recurrent experience, and the interpretation of the philosophic import which that dream may carry. It is, therefore, essential that we be sure that we are dealing with the right phenomena. Recurring Messages Despite my evident verbosity, it would be impossible for me to explore every possible recurrent dream, and apply each dream's possible ramifications to every person's life. And I am surely not so naive or vain as to believe that I know what is best for everyone. But my research has revealed certain patterns which reflect both the occurrences of R/D's and their general messages to the dreamer. Four basic types of recurrent dreams continually arise, and each one points out a different direction which the dreamer may wish to follow. These include "chase" dreams, "naked" dreams, "falling" dreams, and "the old switcheroo." The inner self rebels and demands that the dreamer re-examine the priorities of his life, before any more of his life's blood is wasted in vain pursuits. The Great Chase I was a bit surprised by the letters that I received following the publication of my first article on recurrent dreams, particularly those which took exception to my edict that nearly everyone has experienced the recurrent

dream. It is, therefore, with a bit more caution that I propose that nearly everyone who remembers their dreams has experienced the "chase" dream. Be the pursuer a policeman, monster, would-be killer or ex-wife, the chase dream leaves the dreamer physically drained and mentally disquieted upon awakening. The obvious interpretation of this sort of dream is that the dreamer is fleeing from some pursuing danger, and the equally obvious recommendation would be for the dreamer to examine the particularities of his life to discover what he may, or should be, fleeing from during his waking life. But if the chase dream occurs frequently and with a striking similarity between the dreams, the focus should not be on any one, single facet of the dreamer's life, but rather on the state of existence in which the dreamer currently finds himself. In other words, if a dream occurs once, the dreamer narrows his scope to those aspects of his current life which are most likely to have prompted the dream. But if a dream occurs throughout life, the dreamer must widen his vision accordingly and examine the distinguishing features of his entire life for clues to the R/D puzzle. And this can most effectively be accomplished by keeping in mind the theme to which I alluded at the outset of this segment: the recurrent dream can be viewed as the link between the conviction of the past and the apathy of the present. If you repeatedly dream of being chased, and the chaser and the situations surrounding the chase are nearly identical, such that the dreamer almost consciously realizes that he has been through this dream before, then you are dealing with a recurrent dream. (This dreaming dĂŠjĂ vu, incidentally, is an excellent indicator that you have found a recurring dream.) The question to ask when addressing this dream is, "What part of my past is doing the chasing? What aspect of my past, that I seemingly left behind, is being brought to surface by this R/D?" ... we should not idealize the past any more than we should ignore it, nor should we abandon the responsibilities and insights with which maturity has endowed us. When we are young, we do not make much of an effort to hide our personalities, or mask our true intentions. Life is straightforward, and our approach to it is likewise direct and sincere. But as we grow older, each of us drops features of our personalities which no longer meet with acceptance: the bully hides his aggressiveness so that he does not frighten away those with whom he must cooperate, the overly sensitive individual conceals his delicacy so that he does not appear to be too easy a prey for those with whom he must compete. We forget that we have merely ceased to openly project these discarded images, and that they may have been a very real part of our identities. We attempt to go through life pretending that we are not what we once were,

and eventually come to believe that this partial, remaining personality is actually who we are. But the dreamer does not forget. He remembers. Those abandoned aspects of our personality demand expression, and continue to chase us until we reincorporate them into our lives. When the "chaser" in the R/D is recognized, we can recognize the repressed "self" as well. And once recognized, we can begin to weave these traits back into the conscious fabric of our identities. It would be naive to believe that this interpretation would apply to every person's "chase" dream. The variables which cause a dream are legion, and no single interpretation will adequately solve everyone's R/D puzzle. But if the "chase" dream recurs during your sleep, you would do well to examine your personal history to see what part of your past is currently being ignored, and to take an honest look at the personality which you have now become. The Old Switcheroo Let us examine another common R/D theme, and the advice which it may be offering concerning your lost past. Many of my colleagues, particularly those who are highly geared towards success and accomplishment, have related to me recurrent dreams of particular psychological significance. The dreamer is striving towards a goal which is eluding or resisting him; next, the dreamer seemingly achieves the object of his desires, and at the precise instant of attainment, the coveted goal transforms into an undesired, or even repulsive object. The replacement - or "switcheroo" - dream can assume any number of forms. A personal example was set out in the last issue of TAT Journal: I am at a baseball game, basking in the childlike hope of catching a foul ball. I finally snag one and am very happy. I catch another, am astounded by my good fortune, but upon closer examination I see that the baseball is, in reality, a piece of fruit, and a rotten one at that. I take a closer look at the first baseball, and it is a rotten piece of fruit as well. Variations of this dream span a wide range of subject matter. Friends have related switcheroos which dealt with power (a petty bureaucrat is elected president, only to discover that a king exists who actually runs the country), sex (a man finally seduces the girl of his dreams, and finds out that she is the boy of someone else's dreams), and money (a gold mine is discovered, but when the gold is taken to market it turns into clay.) Freudian dream analysts may see primarily sexual conflict when clients recollect dreams of this nature, but my own belief is that many possible interpretations exist for the dream's symbology. If you experience just one dream of this type, I suggest that you examine what goal you are currently pursuing, and ask yourself if it is truly a worthwhile endeavor. The obvious import of the switcheroo dream is that you are undertaking a quest which

you subconsciously know will not be worth the effort expended. Be it business, love, politics or religion, even if you attain your desired goal, you know that you will be frustrated.

But if the dream recurs during seemingly unrelated periods of your life, its message is more far-reaching than merely suggesting that you take it easy at work or cut down on your sexual intrigues. A dream which recurs has a general message; it applies to your life as a whole. It is thus your entire life's work that is awry, and your very goals of life that are being scrutinized by this R/D. n youth, little conflict exists over what to do with our lives. Everyone simply does what he is supposed to do. In one sense we had much less freedom to choose, because everyone was forced to go to school, listen to their parents and follow some sort of religious training. From another perspective, however, we enjoyed much more freedom because simple desires were easily attainable. We did not lust after anything too complex, and generally what we did desire was within our reach. As we age, these freedoms actually switch. We now have a nearly unlimited range of desires to choose from, but much less freedom to actually possess the object of our desires. Pleasure is much more complex, so that an adult may very well never re-experience the same ecstasy which he enjoyed upon entering the gates of a baseball game, despite spending enormous amounts of money, time and energy pursuing that which is supposed to bring him pleasure in maturity. The inner self rebels and demands that the dreamer re-examine the priorities of his life, before any more of his life's blood is wasted in vain pursuits. If you heed the call of the R/D, look back into your past and try to remember what used to be important. There may yet be a way to pursue those goals, and these objects will not vanish or switch upon attainment.

Down, Down, Down "Falling" dreams rank with "chase" dreams as the most frequently remembered dreams. They are widely remembered and recognized because falling dreams are often not really dreams. They are excellent examples of nocturnal experiences that will confuse the interpreter unless he has learned to discriminate the R/D from the previously mentioned imposters. Thus, changes in the sleeper's environment can stimulate a falling dream, and something as simple as a piece of paper slowly floating to the floor, or an outstretched hand sliding off the bed can lead to a falling dream impressing itself upon the sleeper's consciousness. And those who are conscious of out-of-body experiences often awaken upon re-entry of their bodies with the awareness of having fallen from a great height. Psychic experiences during sleep may actually involve "falling" through different planes or dimensions. The first step to take before tackling a falling R/D is to eliminate the other possibilities for its occurrence. No infallible methods can be expounded, but an awareness of the physical environment, as well as a sensitivity to the quality of the nocturnal experience, will enable you to determine whether you have a dream which is intellectually interpretable. Once you are convinced that the falling dream is indeed an R/D, you can begin the process of interpretation and application, utilizing the same factors that have previously been expounded with respect to other common R/D's. The falling R/D does, however, provide an interesting variation on the previous pattern of R/D interpretation. While other recurrent dreams may point the way to picking up the conviction of the past by pointing out aspects of your life or your personality that you unknowingly left behind, falling dreams often symbolize the reversion to habits or weaknesses which we should have left behind. Falling dreams are more often associated with a backsliding rather than a growth, usually symbolizing an end to a struggle prior to the achievement of the goal. It is, therefore, important to recognize that we should not idealize the past any more that we should ignore it, nor should we abandon the responsibilities and insights with which maturity has endowed us. True inner development comes with age, and the conviction of the past must be tempered by the reality of everyday experiences. When an R/D points you in the direction of the past, you must take the ball from there and work to understand which aspects of your past are worth incorporating into your present state of being. And if your dream is of falling, or a similar type which associates the past with unpleasantness or defeat, then you, as the dreamer, must be willing to see what aspect of the past must be avoided. The Naked City The final category of dreams that I will explore includes the R/D which

originally stimulated my interest in this field, that is, the dream which I described in detail in the prior installment of this article. The "high school" dream involved the realization that my final exams are approaching and I have not prepared for them. I am completely vulnerable to impending disaster and it is too late to begin doing what I should have been doing all along. Another common variation of this R/D is the "naked" dream. This is another dream situation that I believe to be almost universal in its symbology. Generally, the dreamer finds himself completely naked in a public place such as school or work, and there is no place to hide the nakedness or shame. I group these dreams because both are characterized by a sense of frustration and neglectfulness, and convince the dreamer that he is truly "naked" in relation to an upcoming crisis. If the dream happens just once the dreamer is alerted to an upcoming test which he may not be ready to face. But if this situation characterizes your R/D, the message is that you are unprepared to face the rigors of life itself. The secret to discovering where you must look to remedy your weakness lies in where the dreamer is when he is naked or unprepared. Most of us come face to face with a crisis that we are not yet prepared to meet, and the memory of that failure may mark us for life. When a similar crisis is encountered later, the tendency is to revert to the old behavior pattern and to skirt the crisis instead of working through it. The occurrence of this R/D reminds the dreamer that he is facing another battle with the monster and that he still appears to be unprepared to slay it, just as he was when it was first encountered in high school, in his job, in family life or wherever the dreamer is when he finds himself attempting to hide his "nakedness." When the R/D occurs, note the place of the dream and try to recall what crisis was met (and evaded) during that period of your life. Once that archetypal crisis is grasped it can be viewed against the present situation, providing the dreamer with his first real opportunity to "dress" himself and work through his problem to fruition. The Return The recurrent dream will not magically change your life or lead you to riches, fame and the admiration of your peers. What it may do, when coupled with your insight, is open the door to a past which has been forgotten. If you add perseverance then the R/D may take you a step further and provide you with a peek of what you once were, and what you may be again, whether that be an improvement or a giant step backward. Too often we imagine that we have already evolved into someone wonderful, and believe that no further introspective digging is necessary. We forget that the price we pay for overlooking who we used to be is a cutting of our roots. If you are totally satisfied with your present state of being, there is no need to work with your

dreams or with any other manifestation of your identity, for that matter. But if you hunger for a taste of the conviction, innocence and sense of purpose of youth, listen to your dreams, and your recurrent dreams in particular. They may point the way to who you may be once again. Critical Day for Biorhythms by Luis Fernandez

With the publication of a book entitled, Is This Your Day? in 1964, a new method for the prediction of human behavior was made available. This method - called Biorhythms - was credited with enabling one to predict the days of greatest physical, emotional and intellectual well-being. But even more important, it was hailed as useful in forewarning of those days in which precautions should be taken so that potential accidents might be avoided. Since then, Biorhythms have increased in popularity considerably. Magazines such as "Fate" and "Psychology Today" carry ads which offer charts, dials, graphs, and calculators for the computation of Biorhythms; and all of them guarantee amazing accuracy and results. Articles periodically appear, documenting research which attempts to prove the theory behind Biorhythms. Corporations continue to join the ranks of those which have experimented with Biorhythms, some going so far as implementing safety programs based on the theory. Hospitals in Germany and Switzerland schedule surgery according to a patient's Biorhythms. . . taxi cab companies in Japan have dramatically reduced accident rates through the application of the theory. Yet, despite the evidence and testimony used to establish the theory's validity, no scientific basis has been found to prove it, and what information has been put forth to substantiate Biorhythms has been found to be questionable. Because of this, the American scientific community continues to disregard the theory; many scientists fear to "dignify the theory by formally investigating it." (1) Biorhythms are based on the theory that human behavior is influenced by three basic rhythms or cycles of energy: the physical, which has a period of twenty-three days and regulates an individual's vitality and stamina; the emotional, which has a period of twenty-eight days and regulates creativity and sensitivity; and the intellectual, which has a period of thirty-three days and regulates the memory and decision-making process. The cycles begin at birth, working independently of each other, but having a cumulative influence on man's behavior. Each cycle is divided into halves. The first half is when energy is readily available and can be channeled into successful

ventures. The second half is a "recharging" period, during which it is advisable to refrain from strenuous efforts. Because of the different lengths of each cycle, all types of combinations can occur; for example, one may be overflowing with physical energy while intellectually and emotionally drained.

Chart: A Biorhythm chart of the first 30 days of life. The solid line corresponds to the 23 day physical cycle, the longer slashed lines to the 28 day emotional cycle, and the shorter slashed lines to the 33 day intellectual cycle. To make the theory more comprehensible, sin curves are used to represent each cycle (see figure 1). The days the cycle is above the axis are high energy days... the days the cycle is below the axis are low energy days. The height of the curves is insignificant. The dates that bear the most watching, however, are the first day and the half point of each cycle (in figure 1, the day each curve intersects the axis). These are termed critical days, because it is at this time that one switches from "discharging to recharging." Thus, according to the theory, our energies are unstable and make us prone to erratic behavior. Days on which two curves cross the axis are termed "double criticals". . three curves crossing the axis on the same day make for a "triple critical" day. It is these critical days - and especially the double and triple critical days - which have been correlated with accidents. It must be emphasized that these days do not predict the occurrence of accidents, but reflect instability which would predispose one to their happening. As part of their proof for the reliability of Biorhythms, most books provide examples of celebrities who had significant events occur on critical days. Perhaps the most used example is that of Marilyn Monroe, who died from an overdose of barbiturates in 1962 (see figure 2). On the day of her death, both Monroe's emotional and intellectual cycles were critical, while her

physical cycle had begun a down-swing two days earlier. Another example frequently used is that of Muhammad Ali's loss in a boxing bout with Ken Norton in 1973. Both Ali's physical and emotional cycles were critical on that day, although his intellectual cycle was high (see figure 3). A few interesting facts come to light because of the varying lengths of the cycles. After 21,252 days (23 x 28 x 33), for example, the cycles will correspond to create a triple critical day, and begin a repeat of the pattern which began on the day of one's birth. This span of time, equaling approximately 58 years, 2 months, and 7 days, is called a Biorhythm life span. Within this span, there occur 4006 single critical days, 312 double critical days, and 8 triple critical days. The triple critical days are not distributed evenly, interestingly enough. The first one after the day of birth does not occur until around the ninth month of the nineteenth year. Another interesting fact concerns the emotional cycle. Emotional criticals will always occur on the same day of the week as that on which one was born. Thus, if one were born on a Tuesday, every other Tuesday thereafter would be an emotionally critical day. This is due to the length of the cycle (i.e., critical days would occur every fourteen days since the entire cycle is twenty-eight days long).

Chart: This chart illustrates the position of Marilyn Monroe's Biorhythm cycles on the day of her death. An interpretation of this chart could be that Monroe's emotional and intellectual state were responsible for her decision to commit suicide at a time when her physical resistance was low. Besides use for the prevention of potential accidents, proponents claim success to using Biorhythms for the prediction of the day of a baby's birth, as well as the baby's gender. Charting the mother's Biorhythms from the approximate date of conception, the birth is predicted for the physical or

emotional critical day nearest the end of her gestation period (280 days). Prediction of the baby's gender again uses the date of conception. If the mother's physical cycle is high at the time of conception, the baby will most probably be male. A female will result if the mother's emotional cycle is high. This is attributed to the theory that "changes in the alkaline or acid content of the blood influence the sex of a child: if a woman's blood is more alkaline, she is more likely to have boys. Biorhythms researchers claim that the high point in the physical cycle is said to favor a condition of alkalinity in the blood, the high point in the emotional rhythm to favor acidity. (2) No medical proof has been established for this theory. Finally, as is the case with most methods used in attempts to control human destiny, Biorhythms have been used for gauging compatibility with the opposite sex. Many books contain compatibility charts, but definitive studies in this area have yet to be implemented. The origins of Biorhythms can be traced back to Wilhelm Fliess, a prominent nose and throat specialist in Berlin during the 1890's. A colleague of Freud in fact, we may never have heard of Fliess were it not for Freud - Fliess came to the conclusion that there were two cycles inherent in man which determined the occurrence of illnesses, growth stages, and even the date of death. He also laid great stress on the bisexuality of all human beings. Thus, he related a 23 day cycle to the male component, and a 28 day cycle to the female component in all humanity. He did not stop there, however, and extended his periodic theory to both the plant and animal kingdoms. To prove his theories, Fliess published many books and articles filled with evidence, culminating in a 584 page volume entitled, The Rhythm of Life: Foundations of an Exact Biology. Upon close inspection of his evidence, however, it has been found that Fliess juggled with numbers to suit his ends. Quoting Freud, Fliess "was an expert mathematician, and by multiplying 23 and 28 by the difference between them and adding or subtracting the results, or by even more complicated arithmetic, he would always arrive at the number he wanted." (3) Fliess predicted that Freud would die at the age of 51 (23 + 28), and in the book mentioned above, included an appendix filled with complicated arithmetic for proof of his ideas. Included are "multiples of 23, multiples of 28, multiples of 23 (squared), multiples of 28 (squared), multiples of 644 (which is 23 x 28). In boldface are certain important constants such as 12,167 (23 x 23 squared), 24,334 (2 x 23 x 23 squared), 36,501 (3 x 23 x 23 squared). . ." (4) Fliess, being the "astute" mathematician that he was, should have realized that the same results can be arrived at by using any two positive integers that have no common denominator (17 and 22, for example).

Chart: On March 31, 1973, Muhammad Ali lost a boxing bout against Ken Norton. Although intellectually high, a double critical in his physical and emotional cycles may have been responsible for the loss. In line with this, Fliess came to the conclusion that the rhythms were "intimately connected with the mucous lining of the nose. Fliess thought he had found a relation between nasal irritations and all kinds of neurotic symptoms and sexual irregularities. He diagnosed these ills by inspecting the nose and treated them by applying cocaine to 'genital spots' on the nose's interior. He reported cases in which miscarriages were produced by anesthetizing the nose, and he said that he could control painful menstruation by treating the nose." (5) Fliess even operated on Freud's nose twice. Freud was at first enthralled with Fliess's work, and went as far as using the periodic theories in some of his early writings. But his enthusiasm for the theories was not strong enough, and his psychoanalytic orientation gradually created a rift between the two men. About the time their friendship was terminated in the early 1900's, a man by the name of Hermann Swoboda began publishing information concerning the 23 and 28 day cycles, and claimed the theories a result of his own research. Swoboda, it turned out, was one of Freud's patients. Fliess accused Freud of leaking information on the periodic theories, and went so far as to publish his accusations of plagiarism. Fliess's concern was warranted; most books today credit Swoboda with originating the theories. It is largely through Swoboda that we know about the theory of Biorhythms today. Besides continuing the research begun by Fliess - culminating in a 576 page volume The Year of Seven - he devised a slide rule, for the calculation of one's critical days, freeing one from the cumbersome mathematics involved. Unfortunately, as is the case with Fliess 's writings, all of Swoboda's works are in German and have never been translated.

Chart: The preceding two graphs are illustrations of Capt. M. Scott Carpenter's Biorhythm cycles on May 24, 1962, the day he overshot his landing target after a three-orbit space flight. The first graph appears in Thommen's Is This Your Day?, page 71. The second graph is the correct one, computed with both Thommen's methods of calculation and my own. According to Thommen, "The biorhythm chart shows him near the critical point in his sensitivity cycle, low in his physical cycle, and high only in the intellectual cycle." The discrepancy is obvious. The third cycle (33 day intellectual) was discovered in the 1920's by Alfred Teltscher, an engineer and instructor at a high school at Innsbruck, Austria. Teltscher supposedly came upon the rhythm while studying test performances of some of his high school students. The results of his work, however, have never been documented or published; even George Thommen, author of Is This Your Day?, admits that his "knowledge of Teltscher's work is based on secondhand reports and on articles that discussed his findings." (6) No other research to this day has come up with similar findings. No biological or mathematical basis has been found for any of the three rhythms. Even the 28 day cycle, which one would assume to correlate with

the female menstrual cycle should "not be confused with the menstrual cycle, although the two are related in evolutionary origin," (7) according to Fliess. Thommen provides some speculation as to the physical causes of the three rhythms, but none of it has been verified.

Chart: The above two illustrations are graphs of Carl Jung's Biorhythm cycles on June 6, 1961, the day of his death. The first graph appears on page 158 of Thommen's Is This Your Day?... the second graph is a result of both Thommen's and my own calculations. Note the two day discrepancy between the two graphs. Many Biorhythm enthusiasts are quick to downplay the two day difference, noting that the theory would still hold as approximately correct. With this attitude, many of the experiments which have verified the validity of Biorhythms would have to be called into question. The theory would not have much practical use if it does not go beyond approximations. Perhaps the best material for argument against the validity of Biorhythms is contained in the very books which promote the theory. The origins of the theory, for example, are always misrepresented, especially when dealing with the absurd extremes Fliess would go to to prove his periodic theories. In most books, credit for the discovery of the 23 and 28 day cycles is

granted to Swoboda, when the ideas were clearly Fliess's brainchild. This is especially true in Thommen's book. We learn later on in the same book, however, that Thommen and Swoboda exchanged correspondence until the time of Swoboda's death. (8) Quotes are taken out of context and used for support of the theory in many of the books. For example, Thommen quotes George Riebold - who as a gynecologist continued Fliess's research on a sounder basis - as saying, "Some truth lurks in the idea that life follows a periodic rhythm... and that the periods of 23 days and 28 days which Fliess discovered are of frequent occurrence." (9) He did not use the remainder of the sentence which continues, "but the claim made by Fliess, who in his vanity puts himself on a par with Kepler" (10) (and in The Origins of Psychoanalysis, a collection of letters from Freud to Fliess, the editors paraphrase the rest) "is rejected as belonging to the realm of the psychopathological." (11) That there was more to the quote than Thommen wished to include is believable since the editors of The Origins of Psychoanalysis had nothing to lose so far as Fliess's periodic theories were concerned. Thommen, on the other hand, has a vested interest in the success of the Biorhythm theory. He "is the president of a firm that supplies calculators and charting kits with which to plot one's own cycles." (12) Thommen also includes some questionable resources in the bibliography of his book, including a book entitled, Biological Rhythms in Human and Animal Physiology, by Gay Gaer Luce. Use of this book as a resource is questionable because Luce saw fit to devote only two paragraphs to Fliess's discoveries, titled the section "Mythology", and then proceeded to say: "Fliess' blatantly unsophisticated understanding of simple mathematics is evident in his formula, which is transparent junk. Yet, every year it is offered to the public in new books on 'biorhythms' that promise a reader the ability to chart his own cycles of physical or emotional vulnerability and strength in advance." (13) Chart your own Biorhythms To compute one's Biorhythms for any given day, it is necessary to calculate the number of days one has been alive up to that day. The following method can be used. 1. Multiply your age by 365 (the number of days in a year.) 2. Add to this number one day for each leap year in your past (leap years have occurred in the following years: 1904, '08, '12, '16, '20, '24, '28, '32, '36, '40, '44, '48, '52, '56, '60, '64, '68, '72, '76). If you were born in a leap year before February 29, count that year also. 3. Finally, add to your total one day for your last birthday, and the number of days which have occurred since.* The final number is the

total number of days you've been alive. 4. To check your physical cycle, divide the number of days you've been alive by 23. Your remainder represents the number of days that have transpired in your physical cycle (a 0 or 12 would be critical days ; a 6 would be a high point; an 18 would be a low point). To check your emotional cycle, divide by 28 (0 and 14 would be critical; 7 high; 21 low). To check your intellectual cycle, divide by 33 (0 and 17 would be critical; 8 high; 25 low). If using a calculator, the remainder which results upon dividing by the number of days in the three cycles will be expressed in decimal form, and must be converted into integers. This can be done by multiplying the decimal by the number of days in the cycle being computed. For example, if you divide 9708 days by 23, the decimal result would be 422.0869. To change the remainder into integer form, you would multiply 23 x .0869. The result will be 1.9987, which when rounded off to the nearest whole number would be 2. Thus, you would be 2 days into your physical cycle. Thirty days hath September, April, June, and November. Many of the graphs of celebrities' critical days which are presented as evidence for the validity of Biorhythms can be found to be plotted wrongly. This is true even when, for example, Thommen's own tables for the computation of Biorhythms are used (incidentally, Thommen's tables are the easiest to use of any published so far). Two examples of such errors are shown in figures 4 and 6; the correct graphs are shown in figures 5 and 7. Most of the experimentation cited to prove the validity of Biorhythms has been done outside of the United States. In a book by Albert Thumann, Biorhythms and Industrial Safety, one such study is documented. This experiment was performed by Hans Schwing, a student at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Zurich. Using the data from 700 accident cases, he found that the percentage of accidents occurring on critical days was three times greater than one would expect out of chance. The cases were chosen at random, however, so individual human error was not always at fault. In the January 1978 issue of "Archives of General Psychiatry", a study done by four Baltimore doctors is cited. The data used was from 205 carefully investigated highway accidents in which the drivers were clearly at fault. The experimenters found that on both the critical days and low energy days of the drivers, the frequency of accidents occurring was not significantly different from what would be expected on chance basis alone. In this same article, four other experiments were summarized, one of the most ambitious scrutinizing more than 13,000 industrial accidents. Another experiment evaluated over 8,000 pilot-involved aircraft accident cases. Both ruled out Biorhythms as a causal factor.

Yet, in spite of the shaky foundations of the Biorhythm theory, it has been used quite successfully, most especially in Japan. In his book, Thommen includes a letter from Yujiro Shirai (a leading exponent of the Japan Biorhythm Association at the time) reviewing the use of the theory in that country. Not only is the theory used by insurance, transportation, and manufacturing companies - one transportation company which operates 385 buses and 300 taxis reported a reduction of from 35 to 40 percent in accident claims - but it is now offered in many defensive driving courses taught all over Japan. Many of the companies offer incentives to workers and drivers who successfully complete a "critical" day without an accident, such incentives ranging from a box of caramels to a small paper crane (a symbol of luck and happiness). Use of the theory in the United States has been limited, and mostly experimental, by such companies as Exxon, Allegheny Airlines, AT & T, and United Airlines. Results from such experimentation have been mostly negative or sketchy at best, many of the companies refusing to divulge any information regarding any experimentation. So what of the successes? It is interesting to note that the first books on Biorhythms were printed in the early 1960's (Biorhythms by Hans J. Wernli in 1961, and Is This Your Day? by George S. Thommen in 1964), yet the theory did not catch on until the next decade, nearly ten years later. At first glance, one might attribute this to the time it takes any new idea to gain wide acceptance. It would be more correct to say, however, that the span of time which expired between the introduction of the theory and its acceptance by a segment of the population is due to the dramatic change in the mood of our society as a whole during the last fifteen years. According to some, we have become more open-minded and free-thinking. . .in the midst of a "new age." If the wide acceptance of the Biorhythm theory is a reflection of such a shift in mood, it would seem more accurate to say - in view of facts behind the Biorhythm theory - that we have become more gullible and simple-minded in our approach to both life and a philosophy. . .ready to clutch at panaceas in whatever form they present themselves. Like the hypochondriac who immediately recovers from an illness when a placebo is administered, Biorhythms will serve their purpose for a while, at least until another of life's intangibles suddenly confronts us. We can rest "assured", however, that someone else will be on hand with another "cure". In view of the false information and claims put forth in favor of the Biorhythm theory, the skepticism with which it has been met to the United States scientific community is justified. To merit formal investigation, any theory of scientific interest should include a solid foundation as a basis for its consideration. It is just this that the Biorhythm theory is lacking. Add to this the sensational reports, exaggerated correlations, reports on the effect on one's sex life, and the obvious manner with which authors manipulate facts to the advantage of the theory, and it is clear why Biorhythm theory will remain on the back pages of the "National Enquirer" and the "Midnight Globe".

Bibliography Books Bonaparte, Marie, Anna Freud, Ernst Kris, The Origins of Psychoanalysis, New York, Basic Books, 1954. Gittelson, Bernard Biorhythm, A Personal Science, New York, Warner Books, 1977 - Jones, Ernest, Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, Volume 1, New York, H. Wolfe, 1953 Luce, Gay Gaer, Biological Rhythms in Human and Animal Physiology. New York, Dover, 1971 Smith, Robert E., The Complete Book of Biorhythm Life Cycles, New York, Aardvark, 1976 Thommen, George S., Is This Your Day?, New York, Crown Publishers, 1976 Thumann, Albert, Biorhythms and Industrial Safety, Atlanta, Fairmont Press, 1977 Periodicals "Biorhythm: Imitation of Science," Chemistry, April, 1978, pp. 5-7 "Biorhythms, A Key to Your Ups and Downs," Readers Digest, September, 1977, pp. 63-7 "Biorhythms and Highway Crashes," Archives of General Psychiatry, January, 1978, pp. 41-4 Blount, Roy Jr., "Biorhythm and the Big Game," Esquire, March 14, 1978, pp. 28-9 Gardner, Martin, "Mathematical Games," Scientific American, July, 1966, pp. 108-111 "New Fact on Biorhythms," Science Digest, May, 1976, pp. 70-5 "Those Biorhythm Blues," Time, February 27, 1978, pp. 50-1 Footnotes 1. "Those Biorhythm Blues," Time, February 27, 1978, p. 51 2. Robert E. Smith, The Complete Book of Biorhythm Life Cycles (New York, 1976), p.45 3. Ernest Jones, Life and Work of Sigmund Freud (New York, 1953), 1, p.

291 4. Martin Gardner, "Mathematical Games," Scientific American, July, 1966, p. 109 5. Ibid., p. 108. 6. George Thommen, Is This Your Day?, (New York, 1976), p. 18 7. Garner, p. 108. 8. Thommen, p. 6. 9. Ibid, p. 13. 10. Marie Bonaparte, Anna Freud, and Ernst Kris, The Origins of Psychoanalysis, (New York, 1954), p. 8 11. Bonaparte, Freud, and Kris, loc. cit. 12. Gardner, "Mathematical Games," p. 112 13. Gay Gaer Luce, Biological Rhythms in Human and Animal Physiology, (New York, 1971), p. 8

TAT Profile: J. Krishnamurti TAT Profiles are a guide to the life and thought of individuals, past and present, who have contributed to the advancement of human awareness. For those major figures with whore many are familiar, the goal will be to extract the core of their philosophies and present it in a clear and concise manner, along with recommendations for deeper study. Lesser known figures will be dealt with more subjectively, evaluations will accompany the basic

information and the reader will, hopefully, benefit from our reviewer's study and experience in deciding whether or not that persons system is worthy of his time and attention. Future installments in this series will feature such teachers, masters and prophets as Madame Blavatsky, G.I. Gurdjieff, Edgar Cayce and P.D. Ouspensky. J. Krishnamurti inevitably startles those who listen to tapes of his lectures and question-and-answer sessions. Even after reading some of his innumerable books and learning his approach to mental clarity and spiritual knowledge is unflinchingly iconoclastic, one is still shocked into a selfappraising in awareness upon hearing a tone of sharp derision in the voice of a universally acknowledged spiritual teacher whose words often belie a profound compassion for suffering humanity. Krishnamurti is a paradox: critical and kind, a guide who leads by disorienting people from their accustomed markings, he is an authority by the sheer force of his teaching, though he rejects all claims to authority by lineage or otherwise. The Life of Krishnamurti According to the Theosophical Society an incarnation of a higher deity appears on the earth when needed to bring a message of spiritual truth to mankind. Buddha and Christ are considered to be manifestations of these incarnations. Helena Blavatsky, co-founder of the Theosophical Society, announced in 1875 that the reason for the Society's existence was to prepare humanity for the coming of the new "World Teacher" as the time was ripe. One of the higher deities known collectively as "Masters" would take possession of a human form which had been properly prepared for the event. Thus, a `vehicle" was needed. In 1895 in a town near Madras, India, the eighth child of a Brahmin family was born and named Krishnamurti in honor of Krishna, the Hindu deity, also an eighth child. A local astrologer predicted the child would grow up to be a great and wonderful man. It did not seem this prophecy would come to pass as the boy was considered dim-witted and lazy by his school instructors. The only qualities that stood out about him aside from his apparent stupidity were his generous nature and a marked clairvoyant ability. When Krishnamurti was fourteen he was "discovered" by Charles W. Leadbeater, who along with Annie Besant had taken over the Theosophical Society after the death of Blavatsky. The Theosophists had a branch of their organization at Adyar, India, and as Krishnamurti's father worked for the Society it was inevitable that the boy would come in contact with them. Leadbeater, observing the boy playing along a beach with his younger brother, Nityananda, claimed he had the most astounding aura (the energy field around the human body), he had ever seen, and that this boy was to be the vehicle for the "World Teacher." Krishnamurti, along with his brother who had a lesser aura, were literally taken from their father and their spiritual training begun.

During the following years, "Krishna" and "Nitya" were steeped in the occult and esoteric philosophies. Vegetarians from birth, they were instructed in physical conditioning, yoga, meditation, languages and their coming roles when the World Teacher arrived. Intercontinental travel was very much a part of their young lives as they were whisked back and forth between India, England, France and California. Krishna supposedly received direct instruction from the Masters themselves on an astral plane, and the teachings he was given were presented to the Society in the form of booklets and lectures, the lectures being particularly uncomfortable for the boy as he was shy and not an effective speaker. From early childhood on, Krishna had been extremely close to his brother Nitya, and the bond between them grew tighter as they were subjected together to strange environments and people. Nitya, who had a worldly, sharp mind, protected Krishna who was often bewildered by the happenings around him. In 1922 Krishnamurti had the experience referred to as cosmic consciousness or samadhi, at which time he claimed that "the fountain of Truth has been revealed to me and the darkness dispersed." Simultaneously with this began a series of physical symptoms which Krishnamurti called "the process." This was looked upon by Leadbeater and Besant as the awakening of kundalini, an energy force in the spine which can yield spiritual results. Krishna suffered pain in his head and neck during this period, and was given to seeing visions, lights and other phenomena. Though some suffering was expected during the awakening of kundalini, Krishna's apparent agony was a puzzle to those around him. Krishnamurti was considered the head of the main esoteric branch of the Theosophical Society known as the Order of the Star. His work with them continued until 1925 when his brother Nitya suddenly sickened and died. This was a tremendous shock to Krishna as Nitya was to play a part in the Master's plan, and his death left what he had been taught in the past, as well as the entire future open to question. Shortly thereafter a change was noticed in Krishna's lectures. His speaking had now grown dynamic and electrifying and many believed the World Teacher had come at last. However, over the next few years Krishnamurti began shocking the Theosophists by declaring that the Masters were only "incidents" and questioning his own position as World Teacher until in 1929 he officially disbanded the Order of the Star claiming he had no disciples and that "truth is a pathless land." In 1931, while in the state of samadhi again, Krishnamurti's memory of the past left him and a permanent state of ecstatic consciousness seemed to set in. It was after this that Krishnamurti struck out on his own to "set men absolutely, unconditionally free."

The following years of his life were spent lecturing and teaching at various places around the world. The "process" that began in 1922 has always been with him and he still suffers physically though he gives no explanation for this. He has acquired a world-wide following over the years, though he himself claims to have no disciples. At eighty-three years old his life has been one of considerable accomplishment. As one of his prime concerns is education of the young, several educational centers have been established by him at different points on the globe. He still continues to give talks every year in California, England, India and Switzerland. He has appeared in interviews on television, and many books, records and tapes have been published bearing his teachings. As Krishnamurti's life story is very complex and involved, only the basic fabric has been presented here. An excellent biography of his life, from which this account has been taken, is found in Krishnamurti: The Years of Awakening, by Mary Lutyens. Krishnamurti's Philosophy Perhaps the most striking thing about Krishnamurti's life is that he was trained to be the World Teacher, disavowed the position, then became a world teacher. His teaching itself is paradoxical since he maintains he is not an authority yet his style of speech demonstrates clearly that he feels he knows something. Questions about enlightenment or the state of absoluteness or oneness with God sometimes crop up in his public talks. Krishnamurti has developed a neat ability to maneuver out of discussing the subject if it pertains to him. That he is enlightened seems to be taken for granted by most people, his enlightenment having occurred after the death of his brother Nitya. However, if the whole thrust of his message is to get man to that state of unconditioned, psychological freedom that is synonymous with enlightenment, he gives no more concrete steps toward this other than to find truth within yourself. Any more instruction than this is sketchy at best. For someone who has had as thorough a training in esoteric and occult knowledge as Krishnamurti, one would expect something more definite in working toward self-realization. He himself says it takes a tremendous amount of energy to find the Truth, and he talks about the arduousness of it, yet he offers no method of energy building or short-cuts to the arduousness, if there are any. He avoids the esoteric or occult almost entirely in his lectures, when in fact his early training probably had much to do with his enlightenment. He illustrates his opinion of the occult in Truth and Actuality: "There are now all over America, and in Europe, various groups trying to awaken their little energy called Kundalini. You have heard about all this, haven't you? And there are groups practicing it. I saw one group on television where a man was teaching them how to awaken Kundalini, that energy, doing all kinds of tricks with all kinds of words and gestures - which all becomes so utterly meaningless and absurd. And there

is apparently such an awakening, which I won't go into, because it is much too complex and probably it is not necessary or relevant." His lectures before he dissolved the Order of the Star were more esoteric and colorful than they have been since (see The Years of Awakening). His present approach is more psychological or sociological. Perhaps a reason for this is the concept of the esoteric school itself. It is said that Nature has a way of tracking down those blatant dabblers in Her mysteries and destroying them. Having made the trip to the Absolute, Krishnamurti surely knows what is most effective in getting there, considering his background. Yet to try and actively teach this on a large scale would undoubtedly meet with criticism and opposition if the approach were more esoteric than psychological. The approach he has used, while low-key in the esoteric sense, has permitted so much of his teaching to be disseminated that it is safe to say that Krishnamurti has his place in history. Those who study his works might find a stepping-stone to something more substantial if they are shrewd enough. And, with the publishing of his biography at his request, which contains more esotericism than you'll ever find in his other books, one might well wonder if Krishnamurti isn't giving more hints at a spiritual direction under the guise of public demand for his biography (which would help his school fund) or, using himself to exemplify his teachings about conditioning and its consequences. Either way, the esoteric elements in his biography stand out clearly. As he is getting on in years, and his position is more or less secure, Krishnamurti does offer occasional bits of the occult in Truth and Actuality: "And in this process of meditation there are all kinds of powers that come into being: one becomes clairvoyant, the body becomes extraordinarily sensitive. Now clairvoyance, healing, thought transference and so on, become totally unimportant; all the occult powers become so totally irrelevant, and when you pursue those you are pursuing something that will ultimately lead to illusion." The basic teachings as they stand are more accessible to people without any occult knowledge. Trying to break Krishnamurti's teaching into categories is inadequate because there is no clear-cut definition to most of them, and they all interrelate. He has a knack for saying the same thing in one hundred different ways; therefore his books are all essentially the same, the only change being in style and form. If one book does not strike home, another may. The Role of the Teacher - In keeping with his life, Krishnamurti claims the teacher can only point out the way and nothing more. He thoroughly denounces all gurus, saints and saviours. Thought, Fear and Conditioning - These three constitute the core subjects of Krishnamurti's talks which he consistently hammers his audience with. He asks, "Can the mind be perfectly still without any movement of thought whatsoever?" It is thought, he claims, which creates the thinker, the "I."

Thought is both mechanical and conditioned, and as a result we as humans are mechanical and conditioned. It is our conditioning especially which keeps us wrapped up in fears and illusions. The task he presents us with is seeing through our conditionings, and trying to find out if thought can come about only when it is needed. It is our concepts, value judgments, conditionings, in a word, our thoughts, which keep us from seeing that which is truth and Truth. Inner Revolution - In dealing with his audience in a sociological way, Krishnamurti points out the futility of all external revolutions, political upheavals or movements. The only revolution is an inner revolution which is instantaneous and transforms the entire being of the person who undergoes it. This simplifies down to trying to change yourself instead of the world. Intelligence, Order and Energy - These might be considered the second "big three." Intelligence is not thought. Intelligence is that moment of understanding that comes between thoughts. It can be likened to intuitive perception. A person may have a high native ability to do mathematics, write well, or memorize book knowledge, but these are mechanical functions. Intelligence is not mechanical. It is a flash of insight, the seeing of what is. With intelligence comes choiceless awareness. Only a chaotic mind has to struggle with choice. When there is no choice there is order. When there is order there is abundant energy as energy-wasting conflict over choice has ceased. Time and Space - Time does not exist apart from space nor space from time. It is the gulf between the observer and that which is observed. When there is seeing without the observer or the center, time and space cease to exist as there is no reference or "l." Thought functions in the realm of time and space. When there is no thought, there is no observer, therefore no time or space. Beauty - Beauty is the seeing of what is. Out of this comes order, discipline and virtue, which are beauty. Silence - There can be no silence as long as there is a seeker. Silence is the difference between an active mind and a preoccupied mind. The preoccupied mind is always mulling over things, concerned with comparison, choice and its attendant wastage of energy. An active mind is silent, aware, choiceless. God, the Sacred, Religion and Meditation - God and the Sacred are synonymous, being that state which is beyond time and measure. For that state to come into being the mind must be perfectly still. Religion is that seeking to find out what Truth and reality are, and if there is a state of mind that is timeless. Meditation, according to Krishnamurti, is not the popular tranquilizer that most people call to mind, but trying to see if there is an end to knowledge, therefore freedom from the known. Truth and Reality - Reality and truth are two separate things. Thought

operates in the domain of reality. Our reality can be a projection of thought. Reality can be conditioned. Thought processes are the limitation of reality; therefore you cannot go through reality to come to truth. Reality is contained within truth. Truth is not conditioned or dependent on things. Truth is not [sic] Truth and Reality - Reality and truth are two separate things. Thought operates in the domain of reality. Our reality can be a projection of thought. Reality can be conditioned. Thought processes are the limitation of reality; therefore you cannot go through reality to come to truth. Reality is contained within truth. Truth is not conditioned or dependent on things. Truth is a living thing. A whole, sane man, says Krishnamurti, is truth, that which is. A synthesis of Krishnamurti's views comes down to: can we see through our conditionings and in so doing quiet the mind to the point that there is a seeing of what is, directly, without interpretation? This is the same as the Zen view of stopping the mind to reach Satori. As Robert Powell has said, " is Krishnamurti's great merit to have more strongly emphasized than anyone the essential requirement of passivity: the awareness must be completely without any form of evaluation to be of value; otherwise it becomes merely another technique of introspection or self-analysis." Bibliography Krishnamurti, J., The Awakening of Intelligence, New York, Avon Books, 1973 Krishnamurti, J., Krishnamurti's Notebook, New York, Harper and Row, 1976 Krishnamurti, J., Truth and Actuality, San Francisco, Harper and Row, 1978, pp. 88, 155 Lutyens, Mary, Krishnamurti: The Years of Awakening, New York, Avon Books, 1975 Powell, Robert, Zen and Reality, New York, Penguin Books Ltd., 1961, p. 13 Other recommended reading by J. Krishnamurti: Commentaries on Living I, II, III; The Impossible Question; Think on These Things; The Only Revolution; The Flight of the Eagle; You Are the World. For records, tapes, books: Krishnamurti Foundation of America P.O. Box 216 Ojai, California 93023 Mother Shipton was an English prophetess born in 1486 in Yorkshire. While

regarded by some as "the devil's child," she had a great enough popularity as a psychic to avoid the rack and pyre. She died in 1561. Her remarkable prophecy of the course of twentieth century civilization was submitted to TAT Journal by Richard I. Robb of Wizards Bookshelf, Box 6600, San Diego, California, a dealer in Hermetic philosophy and antiquities. Mother Shipton's Prophecy In the air men shall be seen In white, in black, in green. Fire and water shall more wonders do. England shall at last admit a Jew, The Jew that was held in scorn Shall of a Christian be born, and born. When pictures look alive with movements free, When ships, like fishes, swim beneath the sea, When men, outstripping birds can soar the sky, Then half the world, deep-drenched in blood Shall die. Women will dress like men and trousers wear, And cut off all their locks of hair. They will ride astride with brazen brow, And love shall die and marriage cease, And nations wane, and babes decrease, And wives shall fondle cats and dogs, And men shall live much as hogs, Just for food and lust. Iron in the water shall float, as easily as a wooden boat. Through hills shall man ride, And no horse be at his side. Carriages without horses shall go, And accidents fill the world with woe. Around the world thought shall fly, in the twinkling of an eye. Under water men shall walk, Shall ride, shall sleep, shall talk. TAT Book Service By buying in volume, we are able to save our readers a few dollars on many books that are not sold at all bookstores. We also invite our readers to write in if they have books to sell. The books listed here are all new. To order, please add 75 cents to the listed price to cover postage, and write to: TAT Book Service, _____

[[2-page List here]] TAT News and Calendar Nutrition Symposium An on and off day of rain accompanied the opening of the Nutrition Symposium on Saturday, August 5th. A crowd of about one hundred people showed up for the weekend's events in spite of the predicted inclement weather. A brief introductory hour led by Frank Mascara kicked off the day's events as each Symposium attendee introduced himself in a get-acquainted session. Craig Smucker opened the program with a talk on "Blood-Sugars and Diet," stressing the importance of eliminating refined sugars from the diet and starting the day with a good high protein breakfast. A slide show accompanied the talk. After a short break for lunch TAT Founder Richard Rose initiated a discussion on mental healing in which various members of the audience recounted their experiences with healing groups and techniques employed by these groups to facilitate healing. The talk eventually centered around the uses of hypnosis in healing, and after an avowal of interest from the audience Rose promised to hold a demonstration on the subject later that evening. An amazing display on the subject of kinesiology conducted by Dr. Leslie Hauserman, a Cleveland chiropractor, followed Rose's talk. "Applied kinesiology," Dr. Hauserman explained, ''is the 'five finger approach' to acupuncture as opposed to needles. Eighty percent of acupuncture does not involve needles. Muscle testing is the basis of the whole science using pulse points on the body to test the various muscles." Employing volunteers from the audience, Dr. Hauserman went on to show how the language of the body computer is shown in the tension of the muscles. As various muscles are related to specific organs and diseases, an unhealthy or weak condition in the organ shows up as a corresponding weakness in the muscle. Short-circuiting the various "alarm" points on the body with pressure from the fingers reveals this muscle weakness. Several individuals from the audience were quickly diagnosed by Dr. Hauserman using this method. An analysis of the chemistry of body energy was offered by Robert Ayres in his talk entitled, "Biological and Chemical Processes in Nutrition." Basically addressing himself to the question of the connection between living and nonliving matter, Mr. Ayres reported on the two basic body processes involved in energy: catabolism, or the breaking down of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and the energies and wastes produced; and anabolism, the synthesis,

construction and energy absorption processes. A fascinating film on cancer cells showed the operation of the individual body cells in combat with this dread disease and their functions in the body system. After dinner break, William King gave "Kirlian Evidences of Health," along with a convincing slide show demonstrating the effects of mood and health changes reflected in the human aura. King recounted the history of Kirlian photography, the method used to render the aura visible, and assembled a Kirlian unit at the farm house so Chautauqua-goers might view their own auras and judge for themselves. The promised hypnosis session with Richard Rose took place after the panel discussion, and once again, as at the last Chautauqua, Rose demonstrated the healing properties of suggestion as several individuals volunteered to be freed from cigarettes or other unwanted habits. Sunday's program began with a lecture by Luis Fernandez on the study of biorhythms. Fernandez gave a graphic explanation of the cycles charting the different energy levels and how "critical" and "up" days are determined. After covering the history and development of biorhythms, Fernandez cited instances where they have been used to determine compatibility or employed in industrial safety studies. The deaths of public figures are often used as "proof" of the accuracy of biorhythms when such events fall on charted critical days. Fernandez, while admitting the seeming significance of these studies, stated his personal belief that there is no scientific basis for biorhythms. Following lunch, dental practitioner Dr. Robert Rothan of the Total Health Center in Cincinnati covered the subject of nutrition in general in front of a very responsive and attentive audience. Being basically concerned with wholistic health, Dr. Rothan stressed the mental and spiritual aspects of living as well as the physical. On a physical level Dr. Rothan felt that preventive medicine is the best kind of treatment. This begins with proper foods, eliminating sugar and white flours. The calcium and magnesium balance, Dr. Rothan felt, is very critical as many diseases and discomforts may be caused by the incorrect amount of either of these substances. The last speaker on the schedule was Dr. William Tellin, a chiropractor from West Mifflin, Pennsylvania and a lecturer at previous TAT Chautauquas. As he discussed "Restriction of the Life Flow," and the treatment of it through chiropractic, Dr. Tellin advised that health begins with maintaining a healthy body, not treating symptoms. Sleep, raw natural foods, exercise, a sound nervous system and a positive mental attitude all contribute to overall body health. "The body must be weak before it can become sick," said Dr. Tellin. "Germs can't affect a healthy body." Dr. Tellin concluded his talk with a demonstration of one of the latest chiropractic devices: The derma-thermograph, an infra-red gun that records

changes in temperature along the spine. Columbus The Columbus TAT Society has been active since the publication of the last journal, sponsoring eight events. June 25: Emmanuel Weiss gave a presentation on "Early Buddhist Thought." Mr. Weiss stressed the Four Noble Truths and related them to the philosophy and practice of Buddhism. July 9: Dan Quigley gave an introduction to principles of Zen philosophy, discussed his many years of studying, searching and experiencing, and then concluded with a question and answer session. July 23: Stefan Horvath spoke on the theory and application of dowsing, which encompasses finding lost articles, lost people, and answers to questions of all kinds, in addition to the well-known divining for water. Mr. Horvath also talked about Rosicrucianism, which he has been associated with since 1941. August 6: William Strandwitz lectured on iridology, the study of the irises of the eye. Iridology Is based on the theory that the irises reflect or map the various organs in the body and reveal the condition of the organs. Mr. Strandwitz practices iridology in association with a Columbus physician. August 20: Jon Cook, an astrologer from Springfield, Ohio, interpreted and answered questions about personal horoscopes. Mr. Cook practices karmic astrology and is strongly influenced by the writings of Edgar Cayce. September 10: William Wittmann talked about the ancient Chinese tool of foot reflexology, which he uses in his wholistic health practice to diagnose and remedy problems. Mr. Wittmann teaches foot reflexology as a method for people to use in becoming self-sufficient in maintaining a high level of health and well-being. September 24: Greg Huddle will talk about and demonstrate some of the capabilities of pyramid energy. October 8: Vadja Tyler, Sufi initiate, will describe fundamentals of Sufi philosophy and demonstrate devotional walks and dances used in certain Sufi meditation practices. Fall Schedule of Events The Columbus TAT Society

Free public lectures are given on alternate Sundays at 7:30 p.m. at Buckeye Federal Savings and Loan, 3180 East Broad Street, just west of James Road. November 5 - Carol Jaramillo: Numerology. Lecture and workshop. November 19 - Houston Film Series of Dr. Carl Jung. Interviews by Richard Evans covering differences with Freud, basic concepts, personality development, functions of personality, unconscious motivation, ego and self, theory of personality, individuation, and mandala. NOTE: This meeting will be held in the theatre of the Upper Arlington Public Library, 2800 Tremont Road, at 1:30 p.m. December 3 - Howard Wilson: Biorhythms. Personal biorhythm workshop, and relation of biorhythms to accident prevention. December 17 - TAT Christmas party. Informal conversation; refreshments, plus a look at next year. Carl Jung Study Group Meetings are at 7:00 p.m. on the first Monday of every month at the Carriage Hill Party House in Upper Arlington. More intensive study groups for those who wish to meet more often are planned for this year. For information, call Sandy Heilman at _____ The Pittsburgh TAT Society Meetings are held at the University and City Ministries, Fifth and Bellefield Avenues, at 7:30 p.m. on the second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. For more information, call _____ November 14 - Roland "Buzz" Mick: "The Four Bodies of Man." A discussion of vibrations between the physical, emotional, intellectual and spiritual potentials that exist within us. November 28 - Thanksgiving. No meeting. December 12 - Jane Cleary: Lecture on Vedanta. January 8 - Lecture on EST. Book Reviews Journey Of Awakening: A Meditator's Guidebook, by Ram Dass, Bantam Books, 1978. Here is a presentation of various practical areas of work for meditation students who are not so far advanced that they feel themselves beyond the need for advice about such fundamentally important matters as groups,

teachers, retreats, methods, distractions, handling energy, meditation with and without form, thought prison, and a discussion of what to expect when they do begin to concentrate on living a more one-pointed, less illusory existence. Ram Dass has been criticized by many people active in spiritual circles as being on a bit of a I'm-a-teacher-ego-trip during the last five years. Regardless of these justified criticisms, he still fills an important role in communicating to American students a wide variety of experience that he has collected during his extensive exposure to meditation techniques and spiritual teachers throughout the world. The last 150 pages of this book contain a directory for the U.S. and Canada of groups that teach some form of meditation and that have retreat facilities available. No endorsements are given. The listings of various centers are mentioned along with brief descriptions of some. There were interesting sections in this publication that I have not seen discussed as effectively elsewhere, such as how to deal with the inevitable periods of disorientation that occur as the meditation process slowly begins to break the ego down, and how to facilitate and accommodate the awakening of the kundalini force without having a nervous breakdown or equivalent "psychic burnout" (circuit overload of physiological and psychological mechanisms due to an inability to assimilate the increased psychic tension that is a by-product of some meditation processes). Also discussed is how to methodically plough through the stages of practice where boredom, discouragement, and a negative, cynical attitude threaten to assault and dismantle one's center of spiritual strength and commitment. Dogged persistence, along with an acceptance of that deeper part within that tells you to push forward, are discussed as antidotes. This book possesses a certain commercial appeal, but does not sacrifice too much on the quality end of the scale. The raja-yoga slant of Ram Dass colors some of the ideas presented, but is effectively balanced by reference to other philosophical schools that emphasize a formless, direct enquiry method devoid of devotional overtones. The author and his contributing cohorts, most of whom were affiliated with a Hindu teacher by the name of Neem Karoli Baba, have succeeded in sharing a relevant part of their ongoing meditational experience with the general public. by David Diaman The Esoteric Philosophy Of Love and Marriage, by Dion Fortune, Weiser Books, New York, $3.95 This is not a book about marriage, per se, but a subtle treatise on human interaction and sexuality. To Fortune, all human interaction involves the exchange of polarity. Every communication or relationship has active and passive aspects and so, in the general sense of the term, it has a sexual nature. The first chapters of the book expound on the sexual or polar nature of all interchange, while in the following chapters she explains what the

manifestations are in the various areas of psychic bonds, rapports, magic, karma, reincarnation and especially the use of sexual energy. A good deal of this small book deals with sexual energy which, Fortune maintains, can be used for other purposes than the reproductive act. She holds that if sexual outlet can be restrained on the physical level the resultant excess sexual energy can be sublimated and used on a mental or spiritual level. The trick to this process is in concentration and attention. Wherever the attention goes, that is where energy is directed. If the attention is on a mental level - reading a book, meditation or doing a mathematics problem - then the energy will be transmuted to that level. If the mental concentration is persistent enough there will be a proportionate improvement in mental capacity. Likewise, if the attention is persistently on the genitals, then the result will manifest on the physical level as hormones, sperm, and colloquially, "horniness". So the trick in the directing of sexual energy is where and how steadily the attention is focused. Fortune also repeatedly asserts that there is real danger in this attempt to sublimate sexual energy. If it is not handled correctly, a "short circuit" or "grounding out" can occur, as witnessed in the lives of many religious teachers. Rasputin is an example, par excellence, of a great amount of sexual energy chaotically handled. If the sexual energy is not actively transmuted to the mental level, then it is likely to escape on the physical level and a sensual outbreak will occur. Also, as it can be seen deductively, a large sexual potency is a large mental or occult potency. To quote Fortune's allegory: "It is by concentration of thought that these powers are held to their work, just as the automobile is steered by the driver's hands. If attention waver, the direction of the power will waver with it. To use a big occult potency is like driving a high-powered car at a high speed, all depends on the control; unless you have the nerve for it, you are safer on your feet." Another intriguing subject touched upon in this condensed booklet is psychic bonds. Fortune asserts that the psychic bond is an emotional tie between two people which is the result of the exchange of an ethereal substance of some nature. This ethereal substance, or perhaps energy, is exchanged when two people strongly react to each other. The reaction must be on behalf of both parties; one person reacting to another is not enough. This emotional tie is a subtle but substantial thing and may last from only moments, to years or even incarnations. A good example of a strong bond of this type is that of a special friendship. Most of us have a friend or two with whom we have a distinctive type of rapport. Even if we haven't seen this friend for years, upon seeing him again there will be instantly a mutual and joyous chord struck. There is an immediate rapport and exchange of energy. Psychic bonds can not only exist between friends, but the same sort of bond exists between foes as well. The cause of the psychic bond is strong reaction. If the strong reaction between two people is of the negative type, a bond of equal strength will be formed here too. The only condition under

which no bond (of some strength) will exist between two people is indifference. If the two parties are indifferent to each other, no bond will be formed and likewise, indifference is the only means by which an old bond is "killed" or dissipated. If a psychic bond is to die, it must die the death of indifference. Indifference means "no reaction" and reaction is the essence of the psychic bond. Fortune's treatment of karma also fascinated me. Supposedly much personal deficiency or evil committed during life is "paid off" in a purgatory-like state by a process of subjective realization. If a person positively realizes the nature of some of the uncomely things he has done, or attitudes he has taken, he will suffer the pains of purification that often come with the achievement of a truer perspective. It is painful to discover that you have erred in some way, but equally it carries a mental cleansing. You may not be able to undo the ill you have done, but at the same time, through this realization, you have accomplished a progressive change in the psyche and a truer perspective of life. I take it that this is what Fortune asserts happens in the after-death state but in an intensive form. Dion Fortune was a prodigious writer, author of at least 16 books, and dynamically active in the occult movement of the first part of this century. The Esoteric Philosophy of Love and Marriage is a very different book from others of Fortune's I am familiar with. In most of her books she vacillates between the baneful and the sublime, and this has puzzled me. This book is thoroughly and concisely sublime and as such separates it from her other books. I am perplexed to explain this unless she was doing someone's writing besides her own. She occasionally alludes to a teacher, and this is what I speculate to be the case. In some of her books she fluctuates between using her own words and that of another. The Esoteric Philosophy of Love and Marriage is an incident of the latter case and as a unique book you'd be hard-put to equal it on your esoteric bookshelf. by Jake Jaqua Pathways Through To Space, by Franklin Merrell-Wolff, Warner Books, 1973. This book, subtitled, "A Personal Record of Transformation in Consciousness," is the story of a contemporary western philosopher who achieved the enlightened state of Absolute awareness at the age of 49 (without the aid of a physical guru). The major influences on Merrell-Wolff were the writings of Shankara, the 8th century A.D. founder of the Advaita Vedantin school of Indian philosophy, which has been characterized by many as the pinnacle of Hindu philosophical thought. To complement the eastern influence of the latter, he also employed Immanual Kant's philosophical critiques as a vehicle to lead up to the point where a "third organ of cognition" became a real possibility. This journal reflects the maturing into real consciousness of a truly unique,

western jnani-yogi. Although his efforts at spiritual poetics lack balance and precision of style, their genuineness overshadows all limitations. Combining razor-sharp intellectual discernment with a heightened sense of intuition, Merrell-Wolff demonstrates the highest possibilities of the direct enquiry school of spiritual discipline. If reincarnation is to be believed, then his connection with the Shankara-inspired school of Indian philosophy is a foregone conclusion. Also his insights into the esoteric Buddhist doctrines of Shunyata and the Dharmakaya (i.e., the Void) exceed anything ever written by a western philosopher-practitioner. Constant struggle to reconcile "Transcendent Being" with the physical universe obsessed the author as he attempted to convey his realization that the real "Self or pure Apperceptive consciousness" sustains the whole universe (the latter being but an outward projection of the mind). According to Merrell-Wolff, there is but one 'I' or subject—the pure Subject or the Self; this idea represents the core theme of the book. Having spent a life in semi-solitude during his years of maturing, MerrellWolff saw the necessity of grouping all his energy and reducing exterior distractions to a minimum, as prerequisites to being able to dive into the deepest levels of direct enquiry. His struggle to evolve the "current" of spiritual force that began to manifest in him as his insight deepened is one of the most practical and engrossing tales that I have ever read. His intellect soars, but unlike many philosophers, his intuition is never left behind. He declares psychic war on the forces of illusion, and makes the vow to become a realized One in this life. His hunger and emergent warrior mentality is movingly displayed in this excerpt from his poem entitled, "Sangsara": "Thee, I challenge to mortal combat, To a war that knows no quarter, Thou vampire, draining the life of this Great Orphan. In that battle may there be no truce, No end, until the Day of Victory Absolute. Thou reduced shalt be, to a dream utterly forgotten. Then man, once more Free, Shall, journey to his Destiny." Of all the western philosophers who have striven to integrate Hindu or Buddhist philosophical attitudes into their style of inner work, Merrell-Wolff and Paul Brunton seem to stand out as exceptional examples of the dynamic possibilities that exist for one willing to combine the best of the higher eastern methods of esotericism with the demanding intellectual discernment characteristic of many western philosophical schools (of which Kant is lauded by the author as being a standout). The reflective discussions and mystical compositions of the writer reflect the ongoing struggle to resist the hypnotic effect of the relative world (which Merrell-Wolff refers to as the field of subject-object consciousness). He recognizes four major obstacles to transcendence:

1. egoism, 2. somnambulistic consciousness, 3. sensual desire, and 4. false predication. With the idea of false predication the author centers on the notion of the world, the body, and the out-going or externalized mind as being a projected and illusory dream. Those acquainted with Paul Brunton's elaborately detailed analysis of the doctrine of mentalism, in The Hidden Teaching Beyond Yoga, will find strong similarities of approach to Merrell-Wolff's ideas and to what has classically been expounded by Advaita Vedantin nondualism. The roots of the latter Indian philosophical tradition seem to have been transplanted, in fact, onto occidental soil through the efforts of these mystical-philosophers. The lineage can be clearly traced from Shankara (8th century A.D.) down through the ages to Ramana Maharshi (20th century), to Brunton, and independently through Merrell-Wolff. The author had sound academic training as a mathematician and philosopher, which lent to the development of an adroit discernment faculty. This acquired excellence in the philosophy of logic provided him with a discriminative tool which later proved to be of major importance in his efforts to communicate with those still bound to, but anxious to transcend, the realm of ignorance and make believe. This power of real discriminative wisdom (referred to as prajna in Buddhist schools, and as jnani in Indian philosophy) was exemplified by "rigorously distinguishing between the Self and not-Self" in a meditative process designed to allow for "careful differentiation between the properties true of the object of consciousness and the qualities true of the Subject." The approach of the Jnana-yoga school of Indian philosophy has always been fundamentally psychological rather than religious (of the head rather than the heart); and Wolff's adaptations lend an intriguing interpretation that could prove invaluable to modern students of esoteric systems who find catalytic meaning in such direct enquiry methods. by David Diaman Pgh TAT Society presents a forum on awareness Health and Nutrition in the Four Bodies of Man Weekend Seminar Focusing on: Factors Influencing Spiritual and Mental Health, Fasting as a Technique for Gaining Inner Awareness,

Bioenergetic Analysis, Applied Kinesiology, Nutrition and more. with Dr. Dr. Dr. Pa. Dr.

Emanuel Baum, Ph.D., Pgh., Pa. Fred Bissel, M.D., Ravenna, Oh. Leslie Hauserman, D.C., Cleveland, Oh. Dr. Lindsay Jacob, M.D., Pgh., Wm. C. Wetmore, D.C., C.C.N., Pgh.

November 18 and 19, 1978 Parkway Center Inn, Pittsburgh, PA Weekend Price for Entire Seminar: $25 (reservations must be received in advance of event) Overnight Lodging, Double or Single: $19.95 Overnight guests have use of Indoor Heated Pool, Health Club, Pavilion Restaurant, Game Room, shopping and Discotheque. Phone or Write for reservations or more information. Day: _____ Evenings: _____ TAT Foundation, P.O. Box _____, Pittsburgh, Pa. Attendance will be limited. Please make your reservations soon. Classifieds [[2 pages classified and other ads]] [[TAT Membership and subscription page]] Š 1978 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved.

TAT Journal Issue 6 The Forum for Awareness Full Index of Issues 1 thru 14 Volume 2 Number 1 Winter 1979

TAT Society The TAT Society was formed in 1973 because a need was felt for a philosophical forum, for a meeting and working together of all manners and levels of deep spiritual study and investigation, and for a friendly dialogue between material science and mystical intuition. The latter category is especially necessary. Science disdains mysticism but it is forever and belatedly proving things previously declared as truth by an intuitive individual. Mysticism may disdain science, but it is forever attempting to tell of its findings in a scientific manner, so that it can convince rational and relative minds of its discoveries. A place for meeting was needed and groups were formed in many Eastern cities. A farm is now available in West Virginia as a general headquarters, and study center.

The TAT Society holds meetings in a number of different cities for study and discussion. Other events, such as lectures, seminars and films, are also presented from time to time. Telephone numbers for the cities listed below are of TAT members who can provide information about activities in their area. Akron, Ohio - Canton, Ohio - Cleveland, Ohio - Columbus, Ohio - Pittsburgh, Pa. - Los Angeles, Ca. Perspective The manager of a newsstand, upon being presented with a copy of our last issue for sale, quickly reviewed it with his experienced eye and placed it on his shelf for the "self-help" category. His rapid evaluation of our "awareness" theme and articles dealing with depth psychology, dreams and biorhythms was, in a sense, extremely accurate. "Self-help" is a readily recognizable movement today, reflecting an effort by people to develop some control over their bodies and minds while living in an increasingly controlled, technological society. What is not so apparent is the goal that prompts a person's desire to help himself; and what fragments the self-help movement is the myriad of directions that people choose to follow with their newlydeveloped control, or imagined control. Fritz Perls, the late guru of Gestalt therapy, a popular self-help movement, constantly insisted that the consideration of philosophical questions was "garbage" that would interfere with one's progress towards psychological health; the natural, healthy man and woman respond freely to the "pleasure principle." There is, of course, a certain philosophy implicit in Perls' position: in order to accept it, you must make a (philosophical) decision to reject philosophical decisions. But common sense, more than logical analysis, displays the limitation and error in the Gestalt approach. Humans think and question as a natural function, and it seems more fruitful to cultivate and refine that function than to deny it. If we do wish to help ourselves, we should be willing to periodically evaluate our motives and success. What do I really want? Love, health, power, knowledge, wealth? Are my efforts showing any result? Is what I want, what is really good for me? Self-help is laudable because effort is preferable to sloth as a way of life, but certain activities, like yoga, can be approached either as a recreational past-time or as a tool for understanding the relationship between the mind and the body. Both reasons are legitimate, but while the former is its own end, the latter can point to discovery and yet deeper effort. Proper care and study of the body through exercise, health and nutrition allow one greater control over his or her emotions. Control of the emotions gives freer rein to the rational mind for its role of analyst and decisionmaker. And a clear, active mind could lead, if one so desired, into a

consideration of the most profound questions that men can ask and to a direct study of the mind itself. If our efforts are not to be wasted in idleness or, worse yet, narcissistically projected into a glorified self-image, then they must be integrated into this ascending spiral of human endeavor. Self-help is then pursued in the realization that our original motives may have to change and our chosen direction may be wrong. But we pursue it, nonetheless, because of our hope of what we might become. Editor: Louis Khourey Managing Editor: Paul Cramer Associate Editor: Jake Jaqua Circulation Manager: Eric Hadidian Printing: Doran Fried Typesetting: Cecy Rose Staff: Michael Baldrige, David Diaman, Keith McWilliams Š 1979 TAT Foundation. All rights reserved. [Cover photograph by Jack Holmes] Contents Astrology and Energy, by Michael Whitely Real astrology is not found in the generalizations of newspaper horoscopes, but is a remarkable, symbolic explanation of the types and manifestations of human and natural energy. Few people really understand it, but those who do can use the world's oldest system of "psychoanalysis." Reader's Forum Keep in touch with our entire readership, fellow inquirers you would otherwise not have access to, or would have to spend a lifetime searching for. Reflections on The Crack In the Cosmic Egg, by Jake Jaqua Joseph Chilton Pearce's popular book, now over seven years old, contains a modest proposal that mankind can create Its own reality. His ideas have yet to be grasped. The Puzzle of Autism (researched by Keith McWilliams) The Way of the Heart, by Gordon Broussard Autism is a medically incomprehensible affliction that locks children into a strange, asocial world. Gordon Broussard's work with autistic children has led him to an intuitive method of healing that produces amazingly successful

results. Cultists and Anti-Cultists, by Raymond Lieb The Jonestown affair and a personal experience with a cult prompted this consideration of the explosive issue behind the stories: Do Americans really believe in freedom of religion and belief? TAT News: Wholistic Health and Nutrition, by L. Fred Bissell, M.D. Dr. Bissell talks about wholistic health and American medicine, biofeedback, illness, nutrition, caffeine, fasting and stress. TAT Profiles: Ramana Maharshi, by Damien Markakis The second installment of this series focuses on a traditional Indian guru who became universally known on the strength of his spiritual teaching, before eastern religion became fashionable in the west. Jesus to John An ancient manuscript depicts a philosophical Jesus that we rarely encounter. Book Reviews The Practice of Zen by Garma C.C. Chang, Underground Man by Edward Abood, and God Is My Adventure by Rom Landau. TAT Book Service Classifieds Astrology works by showing how human types reflect universal patterns of energy. Astrology and Energy by Michael Whitely A Brief History No one can determine exactly where or how astrology came to be. At best, fragments of history point in the direction of its most likely course of development. The roots of astrology extend back into the earliest phases of human history. Archeological research indicates that as far back as 15,000 B.C. Mesolithic man, the inventor of the bow and arrow and sharp cutting tools, was aware of the moon's phases and recorded these in bone. The Babylonian empire of 2350 B.C. is credited with the earliest beginnings of astrology. Situated in the southwest portion of Asia, temple priests of this

kingdom had been carefully observing and recording changes in the night skies. They discovered, besides the sun and the moon, the existence of five other visible planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Christopher McIntosh gives an account of their method in his work, The Astrologers and Their Creed: "These priests lived highly secluded lives in monasteries usually adjacent to the (observation) towers. Every day they noted the movements of the heavenly spheres and noted down any corresponding earthly phenomenon from floods to rebellions. Very early on they had come to the conclusion that the Laws which governed the movements of the Stars and Planets also governed events on Earth." (1) From the early findings of these Babylonian priests a complex system has evolved. In its first form each planet was considered a God, a directing force in itself. This notion was later discarded for a system whereby each planet emanated or exemplified various properties as noted by the priests. The exact method of arriving at each planet's properties can only be guessed at in hindsight since no accurate records are available.

Aries The Babylonians are also credited with the development of the Signs of the Zodiac. The original Zodiac was named with the twelve constellations or star patterns in the sky. The year was divided in twelve segments following the lunar cycles and each segment or month related to a particular part of the sky picture. There are two basic theories, concerning the development of the Zodiac offered by McIntosh: "The most popular theory pictures a Babylonian shepherd gazing up at the night sky, and, seeing in the Stars the shapes of animals and man - here a Ram, there a Bull, and so on. From these shapes it is supposed developed the signs of 'the Zodiac.' While this is the popular theory the author considers it doubtful and in keeping with the universal nature of the Zodiac he suggests a quite different line of development. "The twelve signs of the Zodiac and their attributes developed from the existing mythology of the culture and the shapes of the various star groups were

adjusted to fit them." While there is no record this explanation of its development does indicate that the essential ideas of the Zodiac may have been in existence long before this historical period. (2) Although the origins of astrology appear rooted in southwest Asia, some form or variety developed in many major cultures simultaneously. Within the span of a few hundred years the basics of astrology spread throughout India, Tibet and Egypt, each adding to the original. It is also interesting to note that the development of astrology in Central and South America was apparently a separate phenomenon, not connected with the Babylonian origins. The civilizations of the Mayans and the Aztecs developed sophisticated systems of astronomy and astrology which are preserved in their art work and temples. The role of astrology in these cultures was cut short following the invasion by the Portuguese and the Spanish. While war spelled the end of early astrology in Central America, it also served as the catalyst for its world-wide spread. It was the Persian invasion which brought it to Egypt and the conquests of Alexander the Great which paved the way for its entry into the Greek world. At approximately 300 B.C. astrology was far from the system we know it as today. The planets and their meaning were established, as was the Zodiac, but both came clothed in the language of the Greek mythology, with Apollo through Zeus reigning as planetary powers. The Greeks produced the first Horoscope (horo-hour, scopos-to view) based on the exact birth time. From this they established the Zodiac sign on the eastern horizon at the time of birth known as the Ascendant. Due to the rotation of the Earth this sign on the horizon would change every two hours of clock time. The twelve two-hour divisions eventually resulted in the segments of the Birth Chart known as the Houses. The addition of the Houses to the Planets and the Signs form the fundamentals of astrology. Tradition has it that three Chaldean Magi/Astrologers predicted the birth of Christ and traveled to the appointed place. Fact or fiction, this event of 1 A.D. marked a basic change in the use of astrology. Up to that time the main use was for what is known now as Mundane or Political astrology. As many of the astrologer/astronomers of the era were funded by the royal courts, their area of interest was the welfare of the rulers, the state of the kingdom, and other events of local importance. The concept of casting a natal chart for a common individual was foreign to this period of history and would only gain support 300 years later.

Taurus The next 1500 years of history reveal that the popularity of astrology rose and fell with a wave of regularity. For example, the first major textbook on astrology was published in 140 A.D. by Greek astrologer/ astronomer Ptolemy of Alexandria. It was significant as a summation of the information to date and it helped astrology to reach greater numbers of people on a wider scale. By 410 A.D. astrological thought had found many supporters in the Catholic Church, but this trend was soon reversed by a full scale anti-astrology campaign waged by St. Augustine. In his De Civitate Dei he argued against it effectively. The weight of his argument, combined with the drop in literacy during the Middle Ages, contributed towards another decline for astrology in Europe and the West. Coincidental with its decline during the dark ages it was gaining support worldwide. Indian and Arabian astrology flourished, with each culture adding new calculations and techniques. For centuries astrology remained a subcurrent in the capitals of Europe while holding its own in the East and Southern Mediterranean. The 12th and 13th centuries saw a reconciliation between astrology and the Church through the efforts of scholars such as Thomas Aquinas. This period also saw the return of astrology to the universities of Europe, many of which had a chair or department of astrology. At this time one of the main points of opposition between the Church and astrology was the "Free Will" question, which implied that the "Stars" controlled the destiny of men. Man's condition as a free agent, as a conscious maker of decisions who could be held responsible for his actions, was upheld by the Church. The astrological premise of Planetary relationships affecting the actions and affairs of men was fundamentally unacceptable to the Church until Aquinas proposed a compromise.

McIntosh relates the new line of thought behind the question: "Aquinas got around the question of free will by the device of asserting that, although the Stars had an influence on human affairs, the Will was still sovereign. The Stars, he held, govern the bodily appetites and desires, which condition most human affairs since few can resist them. Thus the Astrologer is capable of correct predictions about the mass of humanity. His predictions cannot include those few men who are able to rise above their appetites by the exercise of their Will." (3) While this temporarily solved the problem, the same question has surfaced repeatedly throughout history and is still hotly debated today. The beginning of the 19th century in the United States saw a great surge of interest in Esoteric and Occult philosophy. The founding of Theosophical Society and the various Rosicrucian Orders added to the "new" interest in astrology and related topics in the States. During the early 1900's the first astrology school, the First Temple and College of Astrology, was founded in Los Angeles. Astrological magazines, such as, "Destiny" and "American Astrology" and organizations such as the The American Federation of Astrologers became popular. Within a few years astrological columns became daily features of the major newspapers. The business of merchandising astrology to the public had become profitable.

Gemini The 1930's brought a new slant to the search for an understanding of Man's inner Nature in Depth Psychology. This school as a new method of astrological interpretation was pioneered by Mark Edmund Jones and Dane Rudhyar, two of the better known astrologers of the period. Depth Psychology attempted to find the roots of human behavior by examining the deepest layers of the mind. It combined techniques of astrology with Freudian concepts of personal development and growth. This combination of psychologically-oriented astrology continued through the 1950's and helped lay the groundwork for the astrological explosion of the 1960's. Astrology in the midst of the 1960's Psychedelic Era was in its popular glory.

The signs of the Zodiac were found everywhere. The business world was quick to capitalize on the phenomenal interest in astrology and produced Zodiac T-shirts, posters, bumper stickers, jewelry, etc., etc. The sales of astrological books skyrocketed and astrological themes were found in all of the Arts. Phrases such as, "I'm an Aries" and "What's your Sun sign" were the popular language of the day. There was a challenge to society from the counter-culture, the Vietnam War, and the drug generation, and many of the traditional values and beliefs that serve as the glue holding the details of living together were lost in the struggle. To fill an empty space many of this generation turned to mindaltering drugs, to Jesus, back-to-nature, to the East, and to astrology in an attempt to find a new direction. The 'sixties were an open door to social, psychic, and psychological experimentation of all kinds. The astrology of the period reflected this attitude by blending pieces of Eastern and Occult concepts such as Karma and Reincarnation with modern psychology and traditional astrology, to produce dozens of separate astrological approaches and philosophies. Names such as Uranian Astrology, Cosmo-biology, Unitology, Astro-dynamics, and many others, became more common as astrology mutated to fit the needs of the 'sixties. Symbolic Building Blocks The basic system of Astrology as practiced in the United States today involves three primary parts: I. The Planets (Chart 1) They represent Active energies or basic principles at work on all levels of Nature: Mineral, Vegetable, Animal, Human, the Solar System, and Universe. II. The Signs (Chart 2) These are forms or Patterns through which the energy of the Planets is expressed. The Sun Sign is the Solar energy expressing itself through the Zodiac. III. The Houses (Chart 3) The Houses of Astrology refer to areas of activity or experience.








In Nature




Energy, Vitality

Ego/ extroversion



Instinctual Reactions

Receptivity, Personality


Rational Mind, Curiosity




Personal Magnetism

Attraction, Affections



Personal Drive










Obstacles to overcome




Sensitivity, Inspiration



Awakens to Change



Destruction of Barriers to Growth








Key to Sun Sign*



I am, therefore I am



I have, therefore, I am



I think, therefore I am



I feel, therefore, I am



I create, therefore, I am



I select, therefore, I am



We are, therefore, I am



I desire, therefore, I am


Philosophical Mind

I seek, therefore, I am



I build, therefore, I am



I envision, therefore, I am


I believe, therefore, I am


* Taken from Alan Oken, As Above, So Below (Bantam Books, 1973) The word Zodiac is from the ancient Greek work Zodiakos, meaning a circle of animals.

CHART 3 - THE HOUSES Traditional




Personality, appearance




Possessions, Possessions Supporters, Modifications assets of Self fans of the I

Throat, neck


Short trips, Lower mind routines

Functional activity

Arms, hands, lungs, nerves


Home environment, parent

Basic resource

Breasts, stomach mucus membrane


Creativity, Personal entertainmentcreativity


Siblings, neighbors

Remote parents



Physical Body


ManifestationBrain, head

Tentative, Back, unpremeditativespine, attempts heart


Service, health

Self acting for others


Voluntary limitations

Solar plexus, intestines, spleen


Partners, marriage



Polarity contact

Bladder, kidneys



Others' Possessions Manifestation money, New people Sex organs of other of polarity regeneration Ideas, religion, long journeys Professional

Higher Mind

Foreigners, Theoretical Thighs, In-laws activity liver, blood Concerned







Friends, hopes, social demeanor


parent, boss


bones, skin

Group creativity



Lower leg circulation

Others Confinement, acting for limitations self

Secret enemies

Involuntary limitations

Feet, lymph glands

If the planets are the what of astrology, and the signs the how, the houses are considered the Where. Where in the person's life, in which area of earthly existence, does the energy indicated by the planet-sign configurations manifest itself with the greatest intensity? The combination of these three factors in the diagram form results in the Natal or Birth Chart: The main tool for analyzing Astrological information.

Cancer The Natal Chart is erected for the moment of birth (at the first breath in the West and the moment of conception in the East), because that point defines the uniqueness of the event in time and space. Within the framework of time and space the motions of the Planets, as seen from Earth is repetitive and cyclical. The orbits, speeds, and other individual characteristics of their positions have been charted in an Ephemeris, a book of planetary positions. At a specific time and at a particular location your birth occurred. The Birth Chart is a diagram, an actual map showing the relationship of the Planets for that moment, from that location. In that sense it is unique. Through a study of the Chart, examining how the types of energy (Planets) are modified (by Sign) and where in life they are expressed (House), the astrologer translates the planetary relationships into specific information. In

this way he relates the two, the Universal to the Particular, the Macrocosm to the Microcosm. To illustrate this process we can refer to Mars (see Chart 1), representative of Personal Drive, the energy to obtain desired objects, aggression, etc. This function or quality of being is found in all organisms, plants, animals, even single cells, as a spur to survive and fulfill its needs. A Birth Chart containing Mars, modified through Pisces, and expressed in the Tenth House could indicate that the assertive drive (Mars) is expressed in an indiscriminate and unfocused manner (Pisces), towards a striving for success in public or professional life (Tenth House). While this is an isolated example it serves to illustrate the process of arriving at exact and specific information from the Chart. A person with this emphasized in their chart would incorporate this tendency as part of their basic psychological equipment. The other facets of the Chart would then be mapped out and digested resulting in a picture of the inner person and the outer person revealed, the parts functioning as a whole. The Natal Chart emerges as an "Energy Portrait," showing the potentials inherent in the person, as well as how they may unfold over time. Astrology and Energy Astrology can be seen as a study in Energy, of the continuously changing balance of energy in the Universe, Solar System and Man. Physics research into the nature of energy and the structure of matter has indicated that the "Physical Universe," down to the smallest sub-atomic particle, may function less like a machine and more like a "Field of Energy." Let's take a moment to discuss the concept of energy, what it means, and how we are using it. From physics, energy is defined as the capacity to do work or perform activity. It was classified into two categories, kinetic energy in motion and potential energy at rest. We then acknowledge different types of human energy to accomplish various kinds or levels of activity, such as physical pep and vitality, emotional force and inspiration, and dynamic energy needed to solve problems and think. Each has its own quality. It can be useful to examine the chain of energy in the solar system and take a look at our position on this chain.

Leo Our Sun as a Star is considered as the source of Matter and Energy in the Solar System. The radiations of energy from the Sun manifest as light, heat, and many other frequencies of energy, i.e. gamma, alpha, and x-rays. The mineral world is composed of energy in the molecular form of matter, which can react and rearrange itself to produce other forms of energy. A piece of coal can be burned and chemical compounds such as nitroglycerin and calcium carbonate combine to produce the energy released by dynamite. When the structure of an atom (a field of energy?), is disturbed tremendous energy is released. Continuing the process another step, the vegetable world consumes the mineral energy through sunlight and photosynthesis. The plants are consumed by animals and used to build and maintain the body or they decay and return to the Earth. This quick sketch serves to display the various forms of energy which change form and shape to eventually become part of us as our bodies. Our bodies are composed of food, which is composed of earth, water, air/gases, and higher frequency energies, which are derived from the Sun. This example relates energy changing as Matter, and shows the Play of Nature, constantly changing forms and shapes of energy, which we are part of and take part in.

Virgo Astrology exposes a set of energies at work in Nature. In Man they take on a physical, emotional, mental, and evolutionary meaning, the details of which are revealed in the Astrological Chart. Stephen Arroyo, in Astrology, Psychology and the Four Elements, clarifies the role of the Planets: "The Planets generally symbolize basic forces or active centers ,in our Solar System which manifest as fundamental psychological functions, needs, urges, and motivators. They represent the major active principles which form character and motivate all types of selfexpression simultaneously on all levels, Mental, Emotional, Physical." (4)

Scorpio In astrological terms the Sun is the source of Energy, Life, and Vitality. In Man it is the Individuality, the self among the many facets that combine to make the total person. For most this is an unknown quantity and the object of their own search for identity and purpose. Landis Green in the Astrologer's Manual: "The Sun shows the deeper motivations and needs of the individual. It represents the protagonist in the drama of existence, the vital force that

provides each individual with a feeling of conscious purpose and selfexpression. As such the Sun denotes the deeper character and convictions that affect his main experiences and obligations." (5) The Moon is the opposite of the Sun. Whereas the Sun is the source from which our energies flow, the Moon embodies the receptive and changeable aspect of our being. The lunar function conveys our personality, that aspect of ourselves that responds to the constantly changing stimulus from our environment. These responses are a storehouse of social conditioning, genetic and racial memory, instinctual urges, etc. Mercury is the communicator, the rational mind, the type of mentality in Man. As the faculty of active intelligence this function can isolate and offset the instinctive nature through the use of logic and reason. It corresponds to our Need to Know, the drive of Curiosity that compels us to explore and seek. Exactly how this faculty operates in us as individuals is determined by the Zodiac sign it came through at birth as revealed in the Natal Chart.

Libra Venus denotes the principle of Attraction and Unification. In Man this is seen as Personal Magnetism or Attractiveness. In nature this factor corresponds to the pleasing colorations and designs that are so necessary to draw the bee to the flower, the man to the red apple, and the woman to the man. On an individual level, Venus attracts Man to that which he may need to grow physically or spiritually. Psychologically it represents our affections or things we are fond or. Mars is the energy of personal Drive, the active force of the Ego expressing itself. In Nature Mars is the sexual urge and the urge to aggression. Depending upon the placement in the Chart, Mars relates to courage and stamina, the urge to win, to step out of the crowd. The shadow side of this impulse is the wild expression of the most base desires and instinctual aggression.

Sagittarius Jupiter has been called the "Wisdom of Life"; it is the planet associated with positive expansion and growth. Through this planet the self can expand in two directions, either toward the animal desires to explore the five senses or the higher mental expansion into abstract and philosophical realms. In Nature all objects and forms result from energy given structure. It is the Saturn principle which insists on the development of a solid structure in order that growth may occur. Saturn is the teacher who insists that you learn the lessons of discipline and self-control before passing. Psychologically Saturn reveals the need for the fulfillment of obligations and responsibilities, so that personal growth may occur. The House and Sign position of Saturn in the Chart can detail the particular obstacles which must be overcome. The planets up to Saturn refer to active faculties at work in everyone. The last three planets, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, are considered higher octave planets because they refer to faculties that are only partially active in most of us. The slower orbits of these outermost planets cause them to linger in each Sign for dozens of years, 84, 164, 242 years respectively. Their influence is felt for the most part as psychological trends existing on a mass scale. In Nature Uranus is the faculty that awakens to change. As the higher octave of Mercury, Uranus denotes the awakening of the intuition and "sixth sense" mental abilities. On a general level it adds inventiveness, new approaches, and original ways of expression. The area of life where these features are manifest can be seen from the House position of Uranus in the Chart. Neptune is the higher octave of Venus and works through emotional sensitivity. In its purest sense Neptune can lead the way to prophetic visions, inspiration, or the realization of Universal Truths. The same impulse gone astray can result in clouds of confusion, illusion, and deception in the mind. For most, Neptune serves to add an element of emotional sensitivity to the area of the chart in which it is found.

Pluto is considered the higher octave of Mars. Whereas Mars is aggression and desire, Pluto is the energy that is needed to destroy completely. . . in order to clear the way so that new birth can occur. In nature Pluto is the transformer of life, the agent of renewal and transformation. This principle in action is related to the leaves dying in the fall to prepare for the new growth in the spring. For the evolving person Pluto is the function which can provide the energy necessary to break down the blocks preventing growth. Alan Oken describes the Pluto effect in As Above, So Below: "Pluto serves in a dual capacity as an eliminator and a renewer. In this respect it works surreptitiously, as its nature is subversive and its domain lies underground, but there is a good reason for its modus operandi. It reveals ideologies, neuroses, and activities which have long remained hidden or suppressed in the subconscious of a person or a nation. It draws these clandestine situations out of the darkness so that they can serve their purpose in the universal Plan. The unlocked energy may annihilate or become annihilated, but the important thing is that it is released and can be transmuted into other forms by the creative processes."

Capricorn The various functions outlined above can be seen to be active throughout Nature and Man. Through studying the Astrological Chart a distinct and individual pattern emerges. The Natal chart offers the possibility of studying our own internal dynamics, conflicts, and strengths with the aid of a larger frame of reference. A general description of the Planets can only indicate the type of activity involved; to pinpoint how we will experience these processes we must examine the Zodiac of Signs in detail. Zodiac as Energy One of the aspects of astrology that totally fascinated me was the implication of an order or structure behind the apparent randomness of experience. I wondered if the people I had met and the experiences I

encountered were conforming to some kind of unwritten, unknown pattern. I had recognized various characteristics shared by a number of people and while this was conceded by others, no one I had come across had a very satisfying answer for why this should be so, much less an accurate system of human type and personality. The Zodiac offers an interesting system of basic personality types by identifying the varieties of experience and the elementary divisions of Nature. Through the symbology of the Zodiac and Planets, astrology can work as a systematic language to provide insights into the basics of human nature and personality. The Elements Earth, Air, Fire and Water are the building blocks of the external world of Nature and of our inner nature. These same four are recognized as primary forces in almost all cultures and mythologies. Claudius Galen, an early Greek pioneer in medicine, related the elements to the four humours or temperaments, sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric, and melancholic. The Greek philosophy of the period related the elements to four faculties in Man: Fire/moral, Water/aesthetic or soul, Air/intellectual, and Earth/physical. Medieval alchemist/physician Paracelsus classified various nature "spirits" or entities as belonging to the four elemental categories. They are found in legend and myth the world over as Undines or the Water element, Sylphs with Air, Gnomes with Earth, and Salamanders with Fire. (6) An understanding of our significant elemental energies is the key to astrological insight leading to self-knowledge. As the physical world is spun from combinations of elements, so Man's inner nature is a reflection of the balance or imbalance of elemental energies manifesting for most as their Suh-sign element. In a very personal way, the Sun-sign position is a powerful if not dominant force for each of us. Our internal sun is our own source of vital energy and the essential type we are as individuals. The astrological symbol for the Sun is a circle with a dot in the center. This symbol at once conveys the essence of the Sun's activity as a radiating source of energy. The circle represents the Source of energy, the universe as a whole, the Absolute. The dot is an aperture, an opening from which the energy from the source becomes manifest in forms. The signs of the Zodiac are basic types of this energy, as variations of the elemental qualities in Nature.

Aquarius The Fire element in astrology refers to animation, vitality, and activity, as well as experiences which are intense and individual. The Fire energy is excitable and radiant, and people who personify this energy are enthusiastic, glowing, and capable of the highest of spirits. The energy of Fire and the Fire signs, Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius, are geared for activity, a positive expression as an individual. The fire-dominated signs are individuals who establish their identity or Ego through self-expression. In occult terminology, Fire is the element of Spirit and the highest aspirations. Astrologically, Air represents the intellect or thought, especially in its use to interact and communicate. This element is associated with the breath and the energy of Prana. In the western occult tradition the Air realm is the world of Ideas, and Airy people are immersed in a world of concepts and mental activity. As a type of consciousness or sensing, these people experience life as something to be thought about, analysed and understood. This is not to say that the Air types don't have an urge to act, as all four elemental energies are in each of us, but that their actions are the result of thoughts and concepts. The Airy signs are Gemini, Libra and Aquarius. The Water element incorporates the principles of universality, sensitivity, and the emotional plane of being. The Water signs - Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces - are in touch with and sense the world through their feelings. These are receptive and impressionable people. Like their element, Waterinfluenced people have a mode of sensing that is fluidic, ebbing and flowing, sensitive to the nuances and subtle changes in their emotional environment. The occult meaning for this element refers to the Soul and the deepest yearnings. The Earth element provides the substance of stability, the mundane, the practical. It serves to crystallize the energy manifested and results in disciplined and constructive activity. Earth types are in tune with the physical senses and the reality of "here and now." The Earth signs, Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn, easily relate to giving form to material projects and

accomplishing that which is before them. The realms of endless concepts or cascading feelings are foreign to the strong Earth types. The mode of sensing is through the physical senses and the occult term is Matter, energy crystallized into forms. Astrology is considered as a branch of the occult and while that term applies to a wide variety of activity there is a connection. The various occult studies and schools of thought have in common the search for and appreciation of real natural laws and relationships. Any body of knowledge is occult for the uninformed, and the premises around which astrology is established are no exception. One of these Laws is the Law of Three. The Law of Three, as stated by esoteric philosopher P.D. Ouspensky states: "Everything in the world, all manifestations of energy, all kinds of actions, whether in the world or in human activity... are always manifestations of three forces which exist in Nature. These forces are called Passive, Active, and Neutralizing. The three forces work together, but one of them predominates in each combination. When three forces meet together things happen." (7) The three can be seen as related phases of the same energy.

Pisces The author gives an example of the three at work internally when we try to do a certain thing. Suppose, as an example, that you wanted to diet to lose excess weight, to look and feel better. Your desire to diet is one force, the resistance put up by your appetites to eat is an opposing force. A third influence is needed for action to result. This threefold aspect of energy is noted in the Indian Vedic writings as the three Gunas - Rajas, Tamas and Satva. In astrology the three kinds of force are known as the Qualities - Cardinal, Fixed and Mutable. The Cardinal (Aries, Cancer, Libra, Capricorn) quality is a centrifugal force, generating and emitting energy. It is typified in the energy generated as the desire to create and express the self. The result of the Fire element working

in a Cardinal way is the sign Aries, the sign of the individual ego in action, personifying independence, enthusiasm and personal drive. When the Air element is functioning in a Cardinal manner we have the sign Libra, energy generated to find a point of equilibrium or harmony. Cardinal Air is active, circulating and Libra is an attempt to find balance through interaction. The Water element, working in a Cardinal way produces Cancer, the sign of emotional unfoldment. As Cardinal Water, Cancer generates activity in response to strong emotional needs and yearnings as opposed to the action for actions sake. Capricorn as Cardinal Earth generates energy and activity directed to concrete tasks and accomplishments. In Capricorn energy finds the discipline needed to build a solid foundation. The Fixed quality of energy (Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Aquarius) manifests as a centripetal force, radiating in. This quality acts to organize, concentrate, and stabilize activity or energies. Taurus as Fixed Earth is fairly self-descriptive. The image this combination evokes is solid, conserving, earthy. Central to Taurus is a yearning for security through possessing material and solid values. With Fixed Earth there is an instinctual understanding of the function of Earth as energy built into forms. The Fixed Fire sign is Leo, the sign of creative self-expression. The energy of Leo is concentrated and turned in on itself such that strong Leo types see all aspects of their environment as potential means for their own selffulfillment. In Leo the element of Fire is intensified and like the actual element this sign can inspire, entertain, and give life to its surroundings. The Leo Fire can become overly self-centered and consume everything in its range, in its desire to keep the flames of its ego burning. The Water element when functioning in the Fixed mode results in Scorpio. Water is the energy of emotion and feeling and Fixed quality adds the extra intensity that typifies the Scorpio type. In Scorpio, the capacity to focus emotional energy results in a potential for power as well as the need for great self-control. The sign of Aquarius is Fixed Air as an expression of a mental type. Air as an element tends to circulate and this sign stabilizes that quality and adds the concentration needed for thinking to reach its full potential. Aquarius is the sign related to the intuition, as the higher mental faculties. The Mutable quality acts to distribute or transfer energy as opposed to generating or concentrating it. This is a quality of adaptation and transition, the flexibility necessary to pass from level to level, or allow the possibility of change.

The Sun sign Gemini personifies the element of air at its airiest. This sign is constantly involved in some type of motion or reaction. Mentally, Gemini lives in the realm of sensations as mental stimuli, a constant correlation of new experience. This sign is always adding new data to its logical, rational worldview. The adaptable quality of air is highlighted in this sign's mentality and constant interaction with the environment. Mutable Earth is almost a contradiction in terms, but the changeable and practical qualities combine in the Sun sign of Virgo to give us an image of a practical and analytical individual. Virgo is concerned with arriving at realistic and practical results as a result of a critical and discriminating attitude. The combination of the Fire element and the Mutable quality yields the sign of Sagittarius. The Mutable signs have a certain restlessness as their function is unbalance or transition. For this sign the result is a constant search. Alan Oken summed up the Sagittarius restlessness with the phrase, "I seek, therefore, I am." The Fire element adds an expansive quality to this sign and can instill a drive for the broadest perspective to view life. Pisces is the sign culminating in Mutable Water as constantly changing feeling and emotion. If Cancer is flowing Water and Scorpio is intense Water, then Pisces is the Sea, vast and deep. Those strongly influenced by this sign are not the thinkers of the Zodiac, but use an intuitive and empathetic approach to life. In this sign the Mutable restlessness can surface as an urge to explore the emotions or the depths of Being in a search for understanding. There are almost limitless possibilities for the use of astrology. Because of the universal scope of the principles and symbols, it can be applied to just about anything which had a beginning in Time and Space. The planetary orbits and cycles are the hands of the Astrological clock and make it possible to project an Astrological Chart for past or future situations. The Signs of the Zodiac are the spokes of the wheel of Nature, each having a time, a place, and a purpose in the scheme of things. The system of astrology is an invention. It is a response to our need to find order in our lives and to obtain meaning from our experiences. It is an attempt to arrive at a clearer understanding of some of the forces at work in our lives and in the world. It is possible that the changing moods and events which make up our daily lives can be seen from a clearer and broader perspective. Astrology as Energy, as an attempt to organize experience and find order in Chaos, can serve as a tool for the expansion of our perspective and help us to arrive at a more exact definition of ourselves and our place in the world. Notes 1. Christopher McIntosh, Astrologers and Their Creed, Fredrick Praeger,

New York 1969, p. 4 2. McIntosh, p. 7 3. McIntosh, p. 62 4. Stephen Arroyo, Astrology, Psychology, and the Four Elements, CRCS Pub. Davis, Calif. 1975, p. 76 5. Landis Green, The Astrologer's Manual, ARCO Pub. 1975, New York, p. 130-1 6. Alan Oken, As Above, So Below, Bantam Books, New York, NY 1973, p. 324-5 7. P.D. Ouspensky, The Fourth Way, Random House, New York, NY 1959 Readers Forum TAT Journal believes that by helping others you can help yourself. Our Reader's Forum is the best place to "meet" other inquirers and searchers like yourself. TAT wants to help put you in touch with friends you would otherwise not have access to. Contact other TAT Journal readers with your thoughts and ideas, and share your discoveries. Send your letters, comments or articles to TAT Journal, Reader's Forum, P.O. Box ______. If you wish to contact someone in the Reader's Forum personally, send your initial correspondence to us in a separate, stamped and unaddressed envelope and we will mail it to the party you choose. Death Watch Much evidence indicates there are specific principles which can be applied successfully towards achieving a goal. The fact that these principles are of general use in the spiritual as well as the economic and social worlds is a fact many "spiritual seekers" attempt to deny. These people would have the spiritual neophyte believe that Spiritual Truths are to be found by discarding common sense, rational thinking, and everyday responsibilities and cares that "hold one to the physical plane" (like money). A sincere neophyte is able to wade through such malarkey due to the fact that he sets protective forces in motion the moment he makes his commitment to Truth or God or whatever. This law of commitment is a fact of life that many people have recognized, at least in retrospect, as being at work in their lives. Of course there are some principles, such as Karma, (you reap what you sow), the Golden Rule, and others that most people accept as fact without much problem. But most people are satisfied with falling within the status quo. People with a goal that calls for abandonment of former ways, or a total life commitment to discovering Truth, soon learn that knowing and using forces that have formerly used them becomes vital to success.

The very basic principle of being aware of one's own death is the most important idea that a person can incorporate into his life philosophy. The fact that every major philosopher from Socrates to Heidegger to Gurdjieff stresses the importance of this knowledge is no accident. Socrates defined philosophy as the study of death. The most common theme in Castaneda's Don Juan books is the theme of using the knowledge of one's own death to make this lifetime significant beyond the ordinary. Why is it important to be aware of one's own death? This is an excellent question to ask oneself before, for example, putting off an important project until after next summer's vacation, or, putting off next summer's vacation until the completion of an important project. A man aware of his death knows that his time is limited. If he has committed himself to a search for Truth, and he knows that his death is an ultimate fact, then he will put aside many interests that will prove tangential to his goal. Then, once he has achieved his goal, he may return to other interests. Most young people do not think about their own deaths. When asked about death, their opinions are often flippant and thoughtless. There is no question that Nature steers the young away from such thoughts until her goal of reproduction has been achieved. If young people actually realized how much time they actually had on this earth, there would be fewer families on the planet. Death is kept from the sight of the American society in general. The cosmetics industry is quite pleased that an eighty year old lady worries more about her make-up and wardrobe than the fact that she may wear both to her grave tomorrow. Any person that knows his every act might be his last soon loses a great deal of pettiness and gains a great deal of energy and purpose. Many people discern the plots and gimmicks of Madison Avenue and do think about death. Many times a death of a loved one is the catalyst. For these people, another rationalization is provided - Reincarnation. Anyone believing in Reincarnation can always offer himself and others consolation by the reassurance of returning again, and again, and again, ad infinitum. To a dynamic seeker, this idea offers not a series of increasingly blissful lifetimes but an eternal prison sentence. Much more can be written on this all-important principle but it is more important for the individual to meditate on death at, for lack of a better word, his "leisure." B.W., Elyria, Ohio Stacked Deck

I like to think of myself as an amateur philosopher of sorts and find it very rewarding to develop my own philosophy from observing life. I try to develop my ''first hand philosophy'' solely from my own observations and believe that this type of philosophy is much more practical than anything that can be learned in books. One conclusion that I've come to about life is that it is no playpen full of "God's delights.'' Most people would like to believe this world is a very nice place; many even waste their lives trying to pretend this. However, to anyone who tries to see things objectively, it is apparent that this world is not a nice place! We are born into this world in blood and pain, and most leave this world in the violence of accidents, sickness, or senility. Few die peacefully in their sleep. Between the violence of birth and the violence of death is more violence the violence and restrictions of public law, the violence of ever difficult personal relationships, and the violence of economic necessity. One has to struggle through life just to make ends meet and keep self and family in food, clothing and house. Many people seem to hold their hopes somewhere in the future. They know that things are not all so ''great" now, but believe we are headed towards a "golden age'' in which all strife will cease. I cannot believe this either. The "game" does not seem to be set up this way. This is what is meant when it is said that this is a relative world. For every solution we come up with, another problem takes its place. I read in the newspaper recently that a newly devised electronic brake system was installed on some semi-trucks - only to be discovered that a particular CB frequency caused the brakes to be applied. The microwave oven was a marvelous invention, but then it is discovered that it causes heart pacemakers to dysfunction. In the fall of '78 we had abnormally warm temperatures, and thus rejoiced at our expected low heating bills. But then we discover that the heating oil price has been raised because an excess amount of gasoline has been used with people driving their cars more than usual in the warm weather! Damned if you do, and damned if you don't! A short time back, I asked a 90-year-old man "just where did he think it was all heading?'' He thought for a moment and then replied, "I don't know, but I'll tell you one thing - it's not getting any easier!" I've come to believe that this game of life is "fixed" and things won't get any better - ever. There will be no utopia or "heaven on earth." Such things are only air-castles of pretenders. Whatever the strange purpose of this life is, it is not for us to have an easy time of it or for us to be "happy". To paraphrase a Russian proverb, "Even God himself cannot beat the ace of diamonds with the two of hearts." George Jordan, Erie, Pa.

Paracelsian Psychological Theory of Elementaries Psychologists have argued for a hundred years as to just what is the nature of neurosis, compulsion and obsession. But still, after a hundred years of psychological theory, it is a well-known fact and embarrassment that the rate of recovery of treated patients is no higher than that of those that spontaneously recover. Even though a patient may know the nature of his neurosis, he is often unable to overcome or resist it. He is frequently a helpless observer of his own predicament. In overcoming a neurosis I believe the subjective attitude, or personal "relationship" to the neurosis is of utmost importance. In modern psychological theory the neurosis is part of the person - it is the person insofar as the person is regarded as a particular personality or character. In the theory of the 16th century magus, Paracelsus, the neurosis or mental problem is an entity in itself, it is an actual, created, mental being which victimizes the neurotic sufferer for his freedom and vital energy. This theory, I believe, explains much that modern theory is unable to cope with. Modern psychologists will agree that a neurotic pattern has a seeming life of its own even after it has been fully recognized by the patient. In Tibet there is a process by which a visible being is created by meditation, exercises and mental energy. By repeated visualization and concentration on the form of a man, woman or beast, an actual phantom creature can be created which can be seen by other people. Madame Alexandra David-Neel relates this in her book Magic and Mastery in Tibet. She herself created a phantom monk which other people saw and inquired about. Initially this phantom is under the control of its creator but eventually gains in independence and may become a pest or obsession to its creator. Madame David-Neel's phantom eventually became troublesome to her and when she attempted to be rid of it, it took six months of arduous meditation to dissolve. The creation of a complex, neurosis, or the Paracelsian elementary is much the same process as the creation of the Tibetan tulpa or phantom being. Years of dwelling on fear, anger, hate, despair or other specific mental and emotional attitudes will create an actual mental creature whose essence is this very attitude. The creature will depend on a continued dwelling on the particular emotion which created it for its continued sustenance from the vital energy spent on that emotion. Man is obviously a creator externally with his technology and engineering, but he is also a creator on the inner invisible realms. As Manly Hall states in his booklet on Paracelsus: ". . when God created Adam, he breathed into him the divine power. Man is therefore a creator, not merely in terms of the perpetuation of the species, but especially in terms of the imagination. . . The invisible progeny of man include thoughtforms and emotion-forms. These are like infants, especially in their

beginnings, for they depend upon their creator for their nutrition and survival. Later, however, if the forces which generate them continue to operate, these thought-forms and emotion-forms gain strength, finally attaining a kind of independence which is their immortality. Having thus become stronger than their creator, these thought- or emotion-forms will turn upon the one who fashioned them, often causing in him a terrible habit and destroying his health and happiness." Within our modern materialistic belief-system, it seems quite an extreme thing to suggest that we are often victim of mental entities with a life and level of intelligence their own. Modern psychologists refuse to admit any invisible but objective influences on the human psyche, yet it seems narrowminded to believe we are affected drastically by nothing our extremely limited senses cannot directly perceive. In this amazingly complex and infinitely diverse universe, there are undoubtedly influences and dimensions which we cannot perceive with our eyes or instruments. The most important part of man is his psyche, and this is invisible and of another dimension. To me, man seems to be half animal, half angel. Modern psychology is animal psychology and deals with the material-animalistic nature of man. True depth psychology must deal with the "angelic" or invisible and creative realms of the mental and psychic. The elementary is not a "natural'' creation per se, but lives on the vampirization of the life forces of another creature. Elementaries are mancreated entities. For instance, a particular mental state, say fear, if continually dwelled upon will create a gestalt which, continually fed from the repetition on fear, will be animated into a separate being with survival interest. If the person is prone to fear, then every time he becomes fearful, a tremendous amount of energy is released into this mental state. In time he no longer decides to be fearful, but is "seized" by fear. The created mental being or gestalt has obtained enough strength and independence that it can stimulate or obsess the person into the fear state - and thus obtain the vital energy which is expended in this state. Something "comes over" the person and he is no longer totally in the driver's seat. He does not wish to be fearful, but something strongly stimulates him to be so. This applies not only to fear, but to anger, compulsion, despair or any other repetitive and strong emotional state. To quote Manly Hall again: ''The psychic formations are nourished by the constant repetition of the attitude which formed them." We all know people who grow uncontrollably angry or are chronically depressed or fearful. We undoubtedly can find some habitual and uncontrollable mood in ourselves. To become the creator and victim of an elementary (popular psychology would call it a neurotic complex), a person must have a tendency toward extremes in emotion or thought. Moderation does not provide sufficient energy for the formation of a specific elementary. A particular habitual and extreme emotion is required.

The will of a person is crucially important in the formation of an elementary or psychic parasite. Initially the person must will to become angry, morose, or whatever. Once the elementary gains the strength and independence to stimulate the person toward its particular life-giving emotion, the person must acquiesce to the urge and identify with the emotion if the elementary is to "succeed" and gain the vital energy and strength it seeks. The elementary cannot gain energy and strength unless the person willfully expresses or acquiesces to the emotion which forms and nourishes the elementary. Once the psychic tick gains enough strength it can only be destroyed or dissolved by refusal to acquiesce to the entity's stimulation. This can be very difficult if the elementary and its compulsive stimulation have been an accepted part of the psyche for many years. I believe the most effective way of dealing with compulsive emotions and mental states is not to aggressively resist them, but to conserve energy and to consistently and objectively observe them and refuse to acquiesce, identify or react. Al Penford, Dayton, Ohio Dream Experiment I wanted to experiment with dream telepathy and asked my mother (who lives ten miles or so away from me) to think of a simple message to send to me each night before she went to bed. I wanted to see if I would pick up anything in my dreams as a result of this. I wrote down my dreams for the week and then we got together to see if there were any successful results. In the first vivid dream I had that week, I was sure I had gotten it as "Niagara Falls," the symbol, or picture of cliffs kept coming into the dream. I was wrong. I kept getting water in dreams during the rest of the week. I had a few more guesses during the week but no luck. In desperation, I asked my mother what or how she was doing it, was she using props, concentrating on any one thing, etc. I suggested she send the message to me, not just absorb herself in the subject. The next day I wrote down this dream: I was at a picnic in the park. I was taking a picture of my brother, now a little boy of 3 or 4. I was ordering him to step up closer, then back again; I was really irritated because I could not focus the camera on him the way I wanted. Then my mother came up and showed me a little yellow plastic switch on the camera and told me to switch it over and the camera would automatically focus. I then took a great picture of my brother, a close-up with sharp features and color. This was the last dream of the week and when I read this to my mother she got excited and showed me the picture she had been trying to send to me. It was a printed check with a sunset, mountains in the background, and a lake. The whole picture was in a hazy yellow and she said she had concentrated on sending the color yellow to me the night before.

Considering that the picture was more complicated than I expected she would pick, I did pick up on the picture, the cliffs as mountains, the lake below and the color yellow (the plastic switch on the camera). We are trying it some more; hopefully practice will make perfect in these experiments. Kathy Harper, Columbus, Ohio Want to write someone in the TAT Forum? Send your initial correspondence in a separate, stamped and unaddressed envelope to the TAT Forum and we will mail it to the party you choose. The Apple My little boy sat under a tree in the setting sun Amongst the fallen Autumn apples in his red suit And I wondered: is he just an apple too? That is: all the myriad apples fall, One or two penetrate the ground and germinate a new sapling, and Of the thousands of young trees thus produced One or two rises to maturity and bears fruit unto continuance. But the tree that is man, Beyond the circle of reproduction, Produces also Jesus' fruit, Breaking through the circle to Beyond... Or does it? Or does it not blossom merely into a greater circle? Is not this too capped by the final Crown, Enclosing all transcendences within the Greatest Circle? In which case, all is the White Light, Shining from the heart of the littlest apple on barren soil Just as from the eyes of my son and The soul of the Buddha. All this: Now, as it's ever been and shall be. Nothing more is needed: It is, I am, We are all That Which Is. Later, in a different space, an alternate vision rose; Strange how it began in the seeming-same root. This is the Whole Thing, here now, in me, it is me. I knew what I needed to hear, Jumped up and grabbed Kabir, and Yes, yes, it grokked - and frighteningly added more. The voice from out of Kether Speaking through the pen of the long-dead sage: All must ripen whilst you live, whilst you live, Whilst you live,

Else death is but an empty dream. Oh Lord, is this my only chance? Suddenly eternity melted away, The quiet, sun-flecked sea of grass and decaying apples, Waiting calmly for consummation in this cycle, Or the next, Or the next a thousand times removed; And my heart was stirred by hastening images. It now became urgent to ask: Am I on the right path? It seemed so, perhaps; reassurance. But Kabir ripples the waters once more, admonishing: The true path is rarely found. All the rest is forgotten apples, Their once-promising seeds blown to the winds Or feeding insects Or dissolved to dust. And still yet: Brahma Himself is the tree, the seed, and the germ... Is the wind which scatters it and The worm which devours it and The entropy which grinds it into dust. In what ground shall I plant my soul? In the peace of Everything Is? Or the catalyzing discontent which shouts: Awaken now, or wither and be gone? Or does the upward-spiraling shoot, Fertilized by fear-of-ending, Sprout from the crystal sphere Of placid endless circles? The bitten apple, Whole and perfect. Joseph Kerrick, Philadelphia, Pa. Schedule of Events The Columbus TAT Society Free public lectures are given on alternate Sundays at 7:30 p.m. at Buckeye Federal Savings and Loan, 3180 East Broad Street, just west of James Road. Feb. 11 - John Gronna: Holistic Health, Internal Purification Feb. 25 - John Gronna: Alternative Healing & Drugless Therapy

Mar. 11 - Austin Macelroy: Rolfing Mar. 25 - Phil Franta: Speaks on Carlos Castaneda Apr. 8 - David Diaman: Analysis of Classical Meditation Techniques in Buddhism & Hinduism The Pittsburgh TAT Society Meetings are held at the University and City Ministries, Fifth and Bellefield Avenues, at 7:30 p.m. on the second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. For more information, call _____ Feb. 13 - Dr. Trevor Melia of the Dept. of Speech Communications, U. of Pitt., "The Rhetoric of Brainwashing." Feb. 27 - Open Forum Mar. 13 - David Diaman: Meditative Disciplines in Hindu Buddhist Philosophies Mar. 27 - Open Forum Megavitamin Warfare In recent years we have seen the rate of death and suffering due to heart disease and hardening arteries soar. Consequently, Americans' concern for their health and well-being has increased almost as rapidly. Many are linking this dilemma with the food we eat, naming the over-processed food that is forced upon us as the culprit. I think it can truthfully be said that, to a certain extent, we are what we eat. When I think of this business of health and nutrition, it always reminds me of the commercial for a particular brand of yogurt which is advertised on television. In this commercial a mountain village is shown where it is not uncommon for a person to exceed one hundred years of age. An atmosphere of simplicity is experienced. There is no machinery or electricity. All the labor, which is mostly gardening, is manual. They show one of these centenarians walking from the garden, where he has been raking and hoeing, and they tell you that he eats yogurt every day. This insinuates that all a person has to do to live a hundred years is to eat yogurt every day. When I see this commercial, I think of the article I read in a magazine which explores different lifestyles according to a geographical location. I can't remember the name of the publication, but the article was concerned with a particular tribe or village of mountain people who had an average age in the nineties. In one part of the article one of these people was asked what one thing he does every day to which he might attribute his long life. His reply was that he worked up a sweat every day.

The eating of yogurt was also mentioned. They do not have cows in the mountains, but goats can be seen wandering around, so I assume it is goat's milk yogurt that is spoken of. Since goat's milk is naturally homogenized, I doubt that they use low fat skim milk to make their yogurt. They do not have sugar, so I doubt also that their yogurt is loaded with sugar-rich preserves, which destroys all the helpful bacteria found in yogurt. To go back to the previous paragraph though, I feel an important statement is present here, which is, "Health can be directly linked to a person's lifestyle." The food we eat is an important part of this lifestyle, but it is not the only factor. Daily exercise is equally important, as is a mental attitude free from the onslaughts produced by a society immersed in a hurry-up-livefor-today lifestyle. Many things have changed since the days of old, and it is hard to pinpoint those for the better from those for the worse. We have seen the elimination of much suffering due to disease, only to be inflicted with new diseases for which medicine has not yet found a cure. Harsh working conditions have been done away with, leaving us with an easier lifestyle and more leisure time. Instead of a physical benefit, this seems to have been a detriment to our health, making us soft and more susceptible to disease. Having more time for contemplation, again we have fallen prey to adversaries. Instead of living by a proven moral, and using our free moments from the strife for meditation, we have become deluged with the endless possibilities of altered lifestyles with endless variations of distractions and dissipations. Our healers and guardians of the mind have not seen fit to investigate the roots of physical and mental illnesses properly, largely due to the fact that there is not a solid scientific method of exploring a realm not easily measured in the physical. Overcome by the odds against them, they seem to have given up, retiring into a position of no longer healing, but merely eliminating symptoms. Consequently, our healers have become weak. Without the strength for assured self-gained knowledge and unwaning authority, they have become worse examples of health than the layman. Their weakness inhibits their speaking against any popular issue, no matter how unhealthy it may be. Their defense is that there is no scientific evidence which proves this activity or that activity to be unhealthy. Falling prey to their own dictates, they find themselves running to each other's clinic for help, only to find their colleagues in as bad a shape or worse. We are suffering a grave misfortune so that our system of health and healing can claim to be scientific. No longer being able to rely upon our professional counterparts, we are going to have to discover a system of

health or a lifestyle which is conducive to health. So we turn to those who have labeled themselves as wholistic healers or nutritionists and find equal contradiction and confusion. The wholistic medicine man is usually found to be nothing more than the peddler of some personal fetish disguised in the form of a particular megavitamin. It may be apple cider vinegar or chelated magnesium or vitamin C or God only knows but if you take only two multi-mega-units a day and if you can get all of your friends to do the same we can save the world, or least save the vitamin industry from bankruptcy. The nutritionist, or health food nut, not being able to find Jesus or Krishna or Allah, has settled upon food as his savior. Only food of a very pure state of organicity. The enchanter, chanting incantations about how certain types of food when placed within the house of the soul set up certain unhealthy cosmic vibrations, and like man it's really a bad trip. He has sold his soul to fanaticism, no longer eating to live and remain strong, but eating healthier and healthier foods that he may live longer and longer in order that he might consume ever healthier foods. Food or vitamins or whatever has become the god and religion of the nutritionists and wholistic medicine man, and as far as I can tell has not had a noticeable effect upon their well being. We cannot afford to spend our lives involved in megavitamin warfare only to find out that megavitamins cause cancer. The average man does not have the time to school himself on all the aspects of medicine and his anatomy. Equally, he does not have the time to investigate all the areas of nutrition on the market. A method must be found by which a man can gain a working knowledge of health without spending his life at it, by which time it will be too late. I would like to propose a system of common-sense and intuition. Both of these faculties can be cultivated into a usable function. A basic understanding of the body and the food we eat will be necessary to direct our intuition properly. The intuition will begin to take force when the desire for health and sanity outweighs all other desires. Fasting will sharpen the language between the body and the mind as well as periodically cleansing the system. The elimination of meat from the diet every single day at every meal, to perhaps three or four days a week has been known to sharpen the intuition. Common sense merely states that we become aware of exactly what it is that we are eating and exactly how we are living our lives: The reading of labels instead of listening to the dictates of the commercial or advertisement. By observing those around us who are afflicted and noting their lifestyle as compared to those who are not afflicted.

A few years ago vitamin C became a very popular antidote to the cold or flu viruses. What we were not told was that in certain cases vitamin C will eliminate a head cold by lowering it into the chest. Quite a magical feat! Large quantities of vitamin C will also cause stomach cramps and diarrhea. In the days of old, when drugs weren't sold, and colds were to be prevented, dosages of cod liver oil were taken. This is very concentrated in vitamin A. Research has shown that in the presence of a cold, if 10,000 units of vitamin A were taken daily, broken into three dosages, it eased the symptoms. I do not think a cure has been found yet. Dr. Yudkin and some of his chaps at the University of London have found that consuming four ounces of sugar daily will increase your chance of contracting heart disease five times over the chance you would have if you consumed only half as much sugar! The amount of sugar in some foods is phenomenal. The reading of labels will not give you the exact amount, but it can give you a rough idea. The ingredients must be listed with the ingredient of highest weight first and second highest second and so forth. Beware if sugar is at the top of the list. If only the fittest are to survive, then living smart to keep fit will put you ahead of the game. Bert Orban, Stow, Ohio Biorhythm Correction In my article "Critical Day for Biorhythms" in the last issue of the TAT Journal (Autumn, 1978, Vol. 1, No. 5), an error was made in the caption for Figure 1. The first sentence read, "A Biorhythm chart of the first 30 days of life"... It should have read. . ."of the first 46 days of life." Each vertical line represented a span of one day. Luis Fernandez A Taste of the Design On the very day that Laura Mae's leg came out of the cast she was hit again. I had a wounded three legged dog. I did not see the reason for all of it; the trips to the vet, her pain, the expense, the repetition. That night after her hind quarter had been shattered again I walked her up the road and bumped into a taste of the design. It was a damp, foggy late winter night. I led my dog past the field next door, and waited wincing as she tried to "go." We gave up after ten minutes. Laura sidled up to me to be carried home. I picked her up and headed for our driveway. As I passed a clump of silver birches at the driveway's edge, I

saw trees as living beings with legs planted in the ground. I thought of Laura Mae's leg and said, "Well, at least they don't feel it when they are cut or chopped down." And the trees answered immediately "Oh yes we do." I stopped on the walk halfway to the house still tenderly holding my feathery dog. I took a deep breath, conscious of inhaling life force. I lifted my face, or was it the heart, and said without words, "Please heal Laura Mae's leg and her spirit, and the legs and spirits of all living things everywhere." For a moment I was in tune. There followed a dialogue with someone, somewhere, perhaps the stillest part of myself that went like this: "You who would not wish immortality for yourself - do you then wish it for all that is alive?" "No" "What then?" "An end to the senseless suffering." "Do you know it is senseless?!" "No" "Then wait." Nancy Young, Alexandria, Va. Reader Writer Use this convenient self-mailer to put down your ideas, feelings or comments while they are still fresh in your mind and meet others of like interest in our next Reader's Forum. Your name and city/state will be published along with your letter unless you request otherwise. Is humanity ready for the idea that the "real world" can be altered by changes in thought and belief? Reflections on The Crack in the Cosmic Egg by Jake Jaqua If readers of The Crack in the Cosmic Egg take the book to heart, the results can be world-shattering. The ideas set forth are not new, but Joseph Chilton Pearce brings the insights of philosophers and psychologists together in a concise and highly intelligible way in stating that our world is an agreedupon mental creation. The world would be different, or become different, if we all agreed it were different. Paradoxically though, this agreement is

subconscious and can only be affected consciously through great difficulty and personal adroitness. Like many great and innovative synthesizers of knowledge, Joseph Chilton Pearce went through a period of intense personal suffering which generated dynamic mental struggle and searching. In his case it was the ghastly specter of cancer. His wife's grandmother died of cancer, then it was a favorite aunt; his wife's mother was barely saved from the disease by the mutilation of the knife. Her father was the next to succumb and it appeared to all that Pearce's wife would follow. It was almost a fiat, then it happened. A tumor was diagnosed which was wildly stimulated by the growth hormones of pregnancy. Pearce's world was tumbling to the ground. She submitted herself to the "priests of the scalpel," but to no avail; her death sentence had been passed. Something was amiss here. Must his wife die? It almost seemed that she was proscribed by some force from living much longer, and that she must perform her duty to "the way things are" and die, as she was expected to. Was there an unalterable physical cause of the cancer, or was it somehow confused with belief and thus "creation" of his wife's imminent death? Pearce set foot with desperate intention into a "reprogramming" of his wife's mentality. He went on five and six-day fasts. During the day he constantly read her literature on healing, and while she slept, he endlessly repeated suggestions of hope and strength. Then a miracle occurred. In a mere three weeks she had, to all appearances, gotten well. They tramped to the "temple" of medicine and amongst much hysterics on the doctors' behalf, it was agreed that she had miraculously and completely recovered. But then the fatal blow was struck, and they were warned of the "inevitable reoccurrence." A year later, and after the birth of a child with cerebral palsy, the cancer returned and the death of his wife occurred - or was perhaps created. Few people understood his fury when the medical center suggested that he begin bringing his just-pubescent daughter for regular check-ups. Pearce had come to the conclusion or intuition that these things were somehow created or caused by the indoctrinating influence of expectation and belief. His daughter was being "set-up" for her own encounter with cancer. His intuitions were validated years later by a realization which revealed to him the means by which belief and expectation become selffulfilling and actually create the nature of our reality.

Joseph Chilton Pearce is a man who has probed the deeper aspects of the human thinking process. Pearce has taught in various capacities in college, high school and junior high school for over fifteen years and has received degrees from the College of William and Mary, Indiana University and Geneva Theological College. He is presently devoting his time to writing and occasionally lecturing. He is the author of three books, The Crack in the Cosmic Egg, Exploring the Crack in the Cosmic Egg, and Magical Child, and is currently working on another book on what he labels the ''primary process'' in the psyche. In Exploring the Crack in the Cosmic Egg, Pearce examines a wide variety of areas including telekinesis, the death concept, guilt, fear, the functions of the right and left hemispheres of the brain, and Castaneda's writings. He claims that through the overdevelopment of the logical and cultural mode of thinking we have split ourselves off from an organic "primary process" thinking, thus destroying our sense of unity and participation in nature. This culturally determined thinking has "turned our Eden into our hell" and destroyed the very roots of modern man's psyche. We have identity crises and feel a lack of authenticity because we have split ourselves from our proper organic role. Pearce maintains that the only means to regain our feeling of authenticity and wholeness is to reintegrate primary processes, which are ''the intricate 'thinking' systems operating below the limen of awareness''. In Magical Child, Pearce describes the progressive nature of childhood development and brings to light how our present child-rearing practices are not appropriate for this biologically-determined maturation. Children have several stages of mental development and if the child is not allowed to naturally go through these stages, then the child will be literally ''stymied" at a level. A common example of this would be "force-feeding'' abstract learning such as mathematics to a six or seven-year-old in hopes of developing his intellect. His intellect will be developed, but it will be at the sacrifice of the fantasy and feeling part of his nature which is biologically meant to be developed at this age. Pearce devoted the first two-thirds of Magical Child to child-rearing practices and theory and in the last third of the book places childhood maturation within the philosophy of his previous two

books. He also relates some personal experiences and experiments in the realms of dreams, hypnagogic imagery, and "rapport group" sittings that are thoroughly intriguing.

Pearce's philosophy is a result of his own personal struggles and this can be ascertained from the tone of his book. He is never overly abstruse and ceremoniously intellectual like many pretenders of insight. He writes in "his own voice," and you are aware that a man is writing and not an isolated, computerish exponent of dry abstraction. His book has a heart. His research was the result of a heart-felt motivation and bears the stable character of his honestly-felt desire to discover the nature of reality formation. It is paradoxical that the culmination of his search verified the very manner in which he searched. Pearce's philosophy is unique, yet it contains seeds provided by many great thinkers. This seems to be the process of all great and world-changing theories. Many thinkers tangentially touch on the culminating theory, but one man gathers all in, and is the channel for the grand synthesis. Pearce proved to be such in this case. His sources of inspiration span from anthropology to physics and include such innovators as physicists Leonard Feinberg and David Bohm, psychologist Jerome Bruner and linguist Susanne Langer. Our "cosmic egg" is formulated and altered by scientists such as these, and Pearce has discovered the very ontology by which this occurs. Inside Our Cosmic Egg Pearce's "cosmic egg" is our individual or group "world-view" - the picture or

mental representation we constantly maintain in our minds of what the world is "really" like. It contains values, opinions, likes, dislikes, what we regard as important and unimportant and, germane to this discussion, what is possible and impossible. We are never directly in contact with what is "out there" in the physical world. The only nearly direct contact we have with the "out there" is a limited amount of raw sensation we are able to receive through our imperfect senses. This raw data is then interpreted or formed into a concept or idea by the personal consciousness. We get such and such sensory stimulation and interpret it as "apple," or such and such sensory data and interpret "she is angry." The only "things" we are directly in contact with are our concepts of things. Our view of the world is a second-hand view and a homemade affair. We make a personal representation of the world and view our own representation. The world is a mental picture-show we hold up for ourselves and for our children to emulate. Each of our world views is progressively formulated from childhood. As an infant, raw sensation is the basic focus of attention. An infant notices colors, movements, noises, smells and tactile sensations but has yet formed no concepts from these. He gradually forms basic concepts from the emulation and instruction of his parents. He learns "mamma," "dadda," "doggy," and "cat." He learns to react to particular groupings of sensation as a "thing" or concept. This group of noises and colors is "mamma" and that is "dadda." His conceptual categories have not quite narrowed down, though, because sometimes a cow is "doggy" and Aunt Betty is "mamma." This narrowing down of concepts exponentially progresses through early life in reference to subtler and subtler sensations and concepts. After time and maturation, the child begins to react to his own concepts, and not just simple sensation. This is when he begins to "think" per se, and this is when his conceptual structure of reality begins to be formulated. The child comes to know that when mother contorts her face in a particular manner she is angry. This "anger" (and the consequences) is a concept in the child's mind. To interpret a particular facial expression requires a thinking process; the information is not contained in the raw sensation. This simple type of concept is even present in animals, but in humans these concepts become more complex in an ongoing process throughout maturation until a gestaltlike world-view of inter-related ideas is created. Constantly new things and relationships are perceived which are not in the present reality-view and must be incorporated or ignored. This process is our individual "creation of the world. " The world-view is our present mental schema of the world and consists of all our accepted beliefs and "facts" about the world. These world-views differ between cultures and, in smaller ways, between subcultures, families and individuals. Junior may have his whims granted in one family but not in

another because of different child-rearing viewpoints. To a westerner a cow means "milk" or "meat," but to a Hindu the same cow is a sacred animal and is not "food." Someone living in a rural area will regard reality differently than someone living in New York City. The world-view is handed down from generation to generation with slight and sometimes drastic changes in each succeeding epoch. We "inherit the sin of our fathers and forefathers" as it may be. We all believe the world is "out there" in some sort of ultimate concreteness but, while still rather concrete, it is really "in here." It is a mental picture-show we hold up for ourselves and for our children to emulate. This is not bad; in fact, it is the only way it can be. All our knowledge of the outside world is mental knowledge; we are in touch with nothing directly outside our own minds. All we know is that something produces an effect on the mind in the categories of our five senses. The causes of our sensation could just as logically have a totally mental origin rather than a physical origin. In this case "matter" would just be an idea, the idea of "concreteness." Actually this is all we know anyway; we do not know matter directly, but only as an idea. It makes little difference in our practical life that matter may be only a mental construct, but it has great philosophic and possibly spiritual significance. It is never known directly "out there"; it is only known "in here." We just assume it is out there. Subjectively we cannot even tell if an object of sensation - a tree, a dog, or the color blue - looks the same to you as it looks to me. My color blue could be green to you, but as long as we call it by the same name - blue - we'll never know the difference. Dreaming is a completely mental condition and our reality in dreams often seems more vividly real than when we are in the "physical" world. Our reality and our minds are not as definite, stable and unambiguous as we like to believe. The "crack in the cosmic egg" is a small excursion or peek into the unknown. Our cosmic egg is an arduously developed logical schema within which man is able to develop his potentials. Man's abilities are innate but he needs a structure of language and accepted facts with which to build. Allegorically, he can build with bricks, or he can build with stone, but he must build with something. Castles cannot be built with air. A person cannot jump beyond the cultural agreement of language and facts and hope to discover anything of practical importance. (He may have a mystical experience of the realm beyond "world views" but would be unable to communicate without worldview terms.) All new theories and insights are the result of recombination and metaphor of existing world-view ideas. The mind is literally a computer and, like a computer, it can only create from a storehouse or paradigm of already existing concepts. If you attempt to create a totally new creature in your imagination, you cannot do so. Your creature may have the tail of a cat, the beak of a bird and the skin of a reptile, but it is still the composite of parts or ideas you have in your storehouse of concepts about already

existing animals. There are no new concepts, only recombinations of old concepts and ideas, often in a very creative way. This logical construction which is our reality Pearce calls "the clearing in the forest." The forest is the great "out there," the dark unknown of infinite possibility. The "clearing in the forest" is our society, culture, science and our agreed upon assumption of what constitutes normal reality. The "crack in the cosmic egg" is a small excursion or peek into the unknown. Pearce relates an experience of his own of the "crack" during his college days. He felt himself enter a dissociated or trance state and was able to butt out lighted cigarettes on his face and hands without any ill after-effects, much to the chagrin of his college friends. A similar example of the "crack" from my own life concerned my eight-yearold brother. I was once observing him play with a paperclip and a padlock and was amazed that he had unlocked the padlock two times in succession with the paperclip. I asked him to do it again and he dutifully repeated the feat. I expressed my astonishment and after this he was unable to unlock the padlock again even though he tried many times. By expressing my astonishment at his trick, I believe I indoctrinated him into the normally accepted reality-view - the reality-view in which it is impossible for a nonskilled person to open a padlock with a paperclip. Previously, he had no categories for padlocks and paperclips and could turn the trick with ease.

The Normal Aborigine There are more dramatic examples of cracks in the cosmic egg the world over, mostly in "backward" and semi-isolated cultures. These people are out of touch with what we accept as normal, possible and impossible, and thus have freer minds to set up different concepts of possibility. The Australian aborigines and various cultures where "fire-walking" is practiced are examples. Where fire-walking is conducted in religious ceremonies,

participants are able to walk over twenty feet of white-hot coals without being burned or harmed in the least. To our western minds, this is physically impossible, but nonetheless it is a "scientific fact" with sufficient evidence and data to validate it as with any other "fact." Fire-walking and similar "impossible" feats performed in various sub-cultures are definite evidence that western science does not have a complete understanding of what physical reality is, and what is possible and impossible. There seems to be a key somewhere, or an undiscovered law. The Australian aborigines live in a culture with a drastically different realityview. Their religious life and practical way of life are totally integrated so that a very complex and complete way of regarding reality is formulated. Upon entering adolescence the male aborigine is submitted to an initiation rite, the severity of which is not known elsewhere. The youth is starved, kept sleepless and frightened in such an extreme manner and for such a long period of time that death sometimes results. The effect of all this is that eventually the psyche is totally shattered. When the boy's mind is completely disjointed as a result of shock (no world-view), he is indoctrinated into the "Totem System" by the elders. The Totem World is a synthetic, complex and complete reality-system or world-view, but it is different. In the Totem System every aspect of the man's life is prescribed and regulated - how he walks, how he urinates, how he talks, how he throws his spear, etc. It is all done in the manner in which the "Two Brothers" did it on the first day of creation in their cosmology. Each aborigine man is in constant rapport with the "Two Brothers" who are simultaneously in every place and every time. Since the aborigine is in constant rapport with the Two Brothers who know all, he is able to hit with his boomerang an animal on the other side of a hill, he is able to run twenty miles across the desert to intercept a sacred rainfall, and he is able to track without hesitation miles of terrain which a man had traveled a year before. In our reality this is all impossible, but in the aborigine's it is possible, normal, and occurs! As can be seen by the general resistance to new ideas, there is virtually a biological survival urge to maintain the present reality-view. The reason for this can be most easily seen from the personal point of view. A person has to believe he has the correct view towards the world in order for him to aggressively seek to earn a living and promote his personal ego and interests. A person caught in the tumult of self-doubt is robbed of his power to act. He is unable to act because he does not know in what direction to act. His survival possibilities are subtly reduced because of psychological impotence and ambiguity. A person who is sure of his values (world-view) has no doubts in what direction to act. He can be one-pointed. The principle can also be seen in cultures or nations. A nation that has much internal dissension will be greatly weakened in case of war. Pearce puts it: "A mind divided by choices, confused by alternatives, is a mind robbed of power. " Each aborigine man is in constant rapport with the "Two Brothers" who are

simultaneously in every place and every time. While a confused reality-view can be culturally or personally detrimental, it can also be the seed-bed of creative synthesis and increased complexity and through this complexity results increased potential. The world-view is the material through which man works out his potentials. The nature of astronomy, mathematics, music, art, economics, politics, linguistics, chemistry, physics, sociology, anthropology, etc. The highly complicated interrelationship between these fields is the mental gestalt of our culture. This labyrinth of correlation is the result of centuries of analogy and shuffling of simpler ideas. As Pearce describes it, "Scientific growth became a process of metaphoric combinations and mutations of existing scientific metaphor, a continual expansion of an inherited web of ideas."

It is the complexity and not the nature of the reality-system which determines what can be accomplished within it. If the ether theories of nineteenth century science were carried to their conclusions instead of discarded, we would undoubtedly be able to do everything with that system that we are able to now do with our modern physics. That is, if previous systems of science would have developed at the same pace and to the same complexity along different lines up to the present time, then we would have just as an advanced technology, but we would have a different description of it - different theories and "facts" that worked. It seems arbitrary that science

has developed along certain lines rather than others. There have been plenty of "eccentric" scientists and theories that did not develop a following sufficient to redirect the course of science. Some eccentrics were followed, like Einstein, but other scientists and theories - like Baron Von Reichenbach and his "Odic Force," or Reich and his "Orgone Energy'' - were ignored due to no inconsistencies in their systems. We are not discovering things or laws "out there" in the material world, but developing a sufficiently complex mental schema to play out our potentials. Metanoia and Autistic Thinking How does the possibility that there are different but equally effective reality structures affect us? Can this possibility be used to improve life or provide an avenue of spiritual growth? Pearce gives a law for applying his insights, but the price is heavy. Two terms, "metanoia" and "autistic thinking," are used by Pearce to describe the sudden restructuring of personal reality. A good example of metanoia is the born-again Christian. When the born-again Christian has his experience of faith or conversion, his whole outlook on life is immediately changed. He has a dramatically altered view of the world; nearly every aspect of life has a novel meaning and purpose. Something causes an instantaneous reorganization of his psyche; he exchanges one world-view for a different world-view. This conversion experience is not the sole possession of Christians but can happen to persons in the sciences, psychology, philosophy or any walk of life. The key to the experience is the discovery or realization of a personally unique schema for regarding the world. The catalyst of the experience may be an idea, theory, or system which instigates a rapid mental reappraisal of the world and seeing in a different light. There are converts to physics or a school of psychology as well as converts to Christianity or Islam. Pearce labels his second type of reality-restructuring "autistic thinking" because he believes it to be the case with autistic children. For varying reasons the autistic child never enters our reality structure but makes and lives in a "world of his own." In normally adjusted people autistic thinking is the temporary or permanent rearrangement of world-view so that things are seen in a different light and have altered significance and value. The firewalker temporarily reinterprets reality so that in his world-view fire does not burn (and it doesn't). The scientific genius suffers a dramatic and catalytic reorganization of his concepts and a new reality structure and scientific theory is the result. The autistic process does not come cheaply. Even to temporarily change his world-view the fire-walker must undergo a period of abstinence and rigorous discipline. The aborigine adolescent undergoes a horribly severe initiation rite. The scientific or philosophic thinkers who have undergone the "Eureka!" experience of discovery (Pearce would say "creation") have almost universally struggled through years of questioning.

The conversion experience is not the sole possession of Christians but can happen to persons in the sciences, psychology, philosophy or any walk of life. The passionate questioning and desire is the key to the creation of the Eureka! experience. Most of the Eureka! experiencers seemed to be victims of the autistic process, that is, they did not know they were unconsciously setting the stage for an illumination. Pearce hints that the experience can be synthetically created. What is needed to set the gears in motion is a constant, total commitment to the answering of a personal question. One's life must be placed on the line and staked on finding the answer to the question. The question may be "Who am I -ultimately?", "Why is there suffering?" or "How can the speed of light be surpassed?" Regardless of the question, the process is the same. The type of answer found will be a mirror of the question asked. Additionally, the question asked must be a question with "heart." If the seeker cannot put his heart into the question, then commitment will not be possible and the catalyst for illumination will not be there. The autistic process is a subliminal or unconscious process. In the memory banks there is a tremendous accumulation of ideas, facts and isolated theories all relating to the central question the mind is poised upon. It seems that a critical mass is reached when the whole mental structure is in danger of toppling under its own weight. An unforeseen catalyst appears (a brick in the pavement?), and instantly the whole massive mountain of concepts comes tumbling down, the pieces of the puzzle fall into place, and the awestriking vision, a reorganization of reality and what may be called the experiencing of an idea of an idea, occurs. The realization is usually not in the form of a neat formula, but is an abstraction and an intuition which may take years to interpret in normal world-view terms. The astro-mathematician Sir William Hamilton is a case in point. After years of searching for a solution to a problem in modern mechanics, he unexpectedly experienced an illumination in which the "galvanic circuit of thought closed" and he received a grand intuition. He became aware in the midst of his realization that it would require years to express his insight (Quaternion Theory). Many people may have the quantity of facts and ideas in their mind that the experiencer of an illumination does, but few experience an illumination. The overwhelming desire proves the impetus which causes the fusion of memory into an illumination. As it is, the desire acts to form a constant tension between all the isolated bits of information in the memory. A "connection" is always subliminally sought to weave all the bits of information into one whole. When the "connection" is found, perhaps on a subconscious level, all the isolated ideas crystallize into one, tremendous idea. In the extremely knowledgeable person - who has no consuming desire or question - this "tension between ideas" is not there, and thus the dramatic integration resulting in illumination does not occur.

Several years after his wife died, and concluding his own search to discover the meaning of it, Pearce experienced a tremendous illumination which crystallized the ideas in his book. Pearce explains, "And there, in my own little suspended moment out of mind, I 'saw'. The connecting link between the fragmented parts of my search fused. There was a great wash of understanding, powerful, total. I had my answer. Nothing was specific or articulate. It just was, in a perfectly clear kind of ultimate certainty.... in my experience what was understood to be the 'answer' was the very function by which I had achieved my 'seeing'. My answer was a turning in on the process of questioning. That is, the answer to my passionate pursuit was insight into how the answers to passionate questions are formed in the mind. I saw that this was but an extension of the very ontological function by which 'things were' . . . I saw that the only 'truth' for us is the process of questioning what truth might be, and receiving answers in keeping with the nature of our questions." The process of realization proved to be the realization of the process. For Pearce, the mirror had reflected upon itself and the serpent had bitten its tail. With The Crack in the Cosmic Egg, Pearce has opened up new vistas for research and created avenues for unprecedented speculation and possibility. He has not said it all, but provided the kernel that can provide direction to form a "metaworld-view," that is, a world-view which is "one step back" and realizes the very process of world-view formation. Pearce outlines the processes by which realities are formed and thus provides us with the possibility of consciously altering our reality. This has great meaning on the social as well as the personal level. The book is now over seven years old and it has not of yet produced any great furor in the sciences. I fear that the time is not yet ripe for the type of ideas Pearce has presented. My suspicion

is still greater that the time may never be ripe. He has provided a formula for "grabbing the tiller of the world" and, as is usual with such esoteric ideas, only a few will be motivated to carry the ideas out of the realm of abstraction and into their personal lives - the only place where they can be realized.

The Puzzle of Autism Researched by Keith McWilliams Among childhood developmental disabilities, "autism" is perhaps the most difficult to understand because of the wide differences in severity, periodic symptomatic changes, inconsistent past research and difficulty in diagnosis due to the lack of specific physical signs at the onset. The word "autism" was first coined by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugene Bleuler in 1906 to describe the quality of psychotic ideation in a group of patients diagnosed as having dementia praecox or "schizophrenia," another word Bleuler introduced into the professional nomenclature. The common characteristic of these patients was an obstinate referring of everything in the world to themselves. In 1943 child psychiatrist Leo Kanner, using Bleuler's terminology, described a group of disturbed children who shared an inability to relate to other human beings in a paper entitled "Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact." The following years found clinical centers studying and treating this dysfunction from different angles employing such techniques as vitamins, drugs, shock and psychotherapy. Each research group developed its own terminology and treatment until it was finally realized that a common language was needed for researchers to work together. The term "autism" was eventually chosen to refer to this little understood condition. Synonymous terms that are also commonly used are childhood autism, primary autism, infantile autism and autistic child. Results of research have led the medical and psychiatric professions to believe that autism is a physical disease of the brain and central nervous system (CNS), often found in conjunction with other diseases affecting the

CNS. It manifests itself at birth or shortly thereafter and lasts the life of the patient. It afflicts children without regard to race, family background or geographical distribution. No known factors in the psychological environment produce autism. It is usually the mother who notices unusual characteristics in her child at birth or shortly thereafter, particularly if she has had other children, although she may not be able to specify the subtle nature of what she sees and feels. Otherwise, parents may note normal development up to eighteen to twenty-four months before symptoms appear. By the thirty-sixth month if autism is present it will have manifested itself. The symptoms of autism fall into five groups: 1. perception disturbances, 2. abnormal development rate, 3. disturbances of relating, 4. speech and language disturbances, and 5. motility disturbances. Perception disturbances may be either hypo-reactive or hyper-reactive. The hypo-reactive patient does not react to verbal commands or sounds. Loud noises do not startle the patient. Visually there is no reaction to new persons or objects and tactile or painful stimuli have no effect. Walking into walls or objects as if they do not exist is common. The hyper-reactive patient shows heightened awareness and sensitivity to stimuli and may seek out this stimulation. Scratching surfaces while placing the ears close, rubbing, banging or flicking at the ears, listening to background noises of minimal intensity and teeth-grinding produce auditory input. Visual input might be watching hand and finger movements, observing fine details of surfaces or simply intense staring episodes. Autistic children also show a marked interest in objects that spin such as a top. Tactile stimuli may be provided by rubbing furniture or objects. Other common behaviors are whirling, rocking and head-rolling. Repetitive hand-flapping is also thought to provide stimulus input. Any routine stimuli might also provoke distress or fear in the autistic child. A sudden change in light or a barking dog may produce severe agitation. A child who whirls himself might be terrified by the feeling of motion in an elevator. Autistic children have an abnormal developmental rate in terms of the normal sequence of motor, language and social expectancies. They may learn to sit without support very early but never manage to pull to a stand.

Disturbances of relating emerge in deviant or poor eye contact, delayed or absent social smile and stranger anxiety, aversion to physical contact and relating to only a part of another person. Older autistics are unable to form peer relationships and are sporadically responsive to their parents. Speech and language may be totally absent, or when it does occur, atonal, arrhythmic and lacking in inflection and emotion. Motility disturbances usually involve moving the hands and arms within the visual field. Toe-walking while running has been observed. Body-rocking, head-rolling or banging, and swaying are also common disturbances. These periods of motility are often interrupted by spells of immobility. Autism and epileptic seizures frequently co-exist, especially as the autistic child becomes older. First seizures usually develop between the ages of thirteen and nineteen and may include grand mal and psychomotor seizures. There is no known cure for autism. At present the only available treatment for autism is symptomatic. This has proven, however, to be effective in the majority of cases. Research is continuing into the natural history of the disease in the hopes of someday finding the specific cause and nipping the problem in the bud. Until that time autism remains a puzzle to those who treat it.

The Way of the Heart: A Transpersonal Approach to the Severely Disharmonized Child by Gordon Broussard

Gordon Broussard was born on August 19, 1943 in Beaumont, Texas. He has a B.S. in chemistry and an M.Ed. in counseling, and is presently working as a counselor at Angie Nall Hospital in Beaumont, Texas. He is interested in utilizing mechanical apparatus to validate the existence of the Heart and its integral relationship to healing and meditation. Preface This book did not start out as what it has become - a philosophical treatise. In the beginning it was planned simply as a book on a different approach to disturbed children. Somehow, along the way it became what it had to become; for what I do each day with my kids is not something I turn off and on just for their benefit. My approach to the disharmonized children with whom I work is the same as my approach to life - it springs from the Heart. My philosophy is an integral part of even the most minute part of my life and it is only natural that it should be the most important part of this book. What is recorded here was once something I only read about. Now it is becoming something I live. I can truthfully say that little of what I record herein is beyond my experience. I can also say that for the most part this book flowed from within with little thought on my part. This book comes from the Heart, not from the mind. Although recorded as though written by "me," it was really written by "I am." The way of the Heart is a starting point. One may look to Chapter 11 or perhaps find what he is looking for elsewhere. I make no claims, beat no drums, proclaim no truths that are mine alone. If you find something within it is because the time was right. This book is the truth as I know it, nothing more. Chapter 1: Spiritual harmonization What's in a name? What is the significance of a word? Of a label? This is a book on spiritual harmonization; what is really meant by that? Often things of the spirit and religion are identified with each other and sometimes this is quite appropriate. It is indeed true that many spiritual people - people who have turned toward things of the spirit - are also religious; that is, they oftimes belong to organized religion. However, it is not always true that religious people are spiritual. It is the job of a specialist such as a psychotherapist to work with individuals who are said to be emotionally disturbed. Most often, this work is done only at the lower levels of the multidimensional being that is man. For this reason, changes which occur, especially for the severely disturbed, are not

always as prompt nor as complete as they could be. It is the job of the spiritual harmonizer to work with individuals who have somehow become disharmonized to an extent greater than is considered normal for the general population. Generally speaking, almost everyone is disharmonized to at least some extent. Almost everyone, that is, except one of those exceedingly rare individuals who have become aware of their essential nature. It is an axiom of spiritual harmonization that the more harmonized one is the more of a harmonizing effect he has on others. As one progresses, he moves from being an unconscious harmonizer (one can thus be a spiritual harmonizer without being aware of it) to being a conscious one and the effectiveness of the harmonization increases significantly. There are degrees and varieties of disharmony. That form of disharmony encompassed by physical illness, involving the body, is usually treated by physicians; and that form of disharmony encompassed by the emotions is usually treated by one of the many kinds of specialists who deal with the ''mind." The spiritual harmonizer is unique in that he works with disorders of both mind and body. Many physicians and specialists who deal with the mind are either conscious or unconscious spiritual harmonizers but more often they are the latter. All disharmony is spiritual in nature. It is, in fact, a part of spiritual growth. One assumes an illness - that is, he accepts it at some level of his being - as a way of learning a necessary lesson. As will be explained in more detail in a later chapter, an individual can be helped to achieve greater harmony only to the extent that he has learned his lesson and is ready to give up - again, at some level of his being - the disease or emotional problem. The way to total harmony is both hard and easy. Few people, however, are willing to undergo the discipline required to travel the road to the Oneness that is total harmony. Fewer people still find the right road. The road that each person must take is different - unique unto that person even though he may use a map and follow a route laid out by someone who has preceded him. In actuality, only the landmarks are the same; what occurs along the way is different. Thus, in essence, each individual must follow a different road to the same destination, and his map is only a starting point. Frequently, a guide is available, but at most he - being one who has realized his essential nature - can be a shining example and harmonize the person enough so that he can gain some insight into what the goal might be like. For most disharmonized people - especially the severely disharmonized - the most that can be expected is a move from where they are to that level of disharmony considered "normal." This book is devoted to principles which will help in normalizing children labeled "autistic" and "schizophrenic." One who utilizes them will find himself beginning his road to greater

harmonization. This must be so if he is to successfully work with the children in the way set forth herein. Throughout much of this book quotes will be given from various sources which support tenets presented. Perhaps most representative of many of these tenets is the philosophy of the Academy of Parapsychology and Medicine, an organization founded to coordinate these two areas in recognition of the fact that they are integrally interrelated. The beliefs making up that philosophy are: that man is a multidimensional being whose experience and ultimate purposes are inextricably and meaningfully related, and that that meaning is made manifest in patterns of health and disease that medicine must adopt a new view of man: one which recognizes the unity of body, mind, and spirit, and the importance of the interrelationship of these dimensions in health and disease that all physical and mental disease is directive experience in human development, and that it must be viewed as a manifestation of conditions existing on subtler levels - whether mental, emotional, or spiritual that the treatment of disease must be directed to the whole man, and that no lasting healing of the physical body can be achieved where the mental, emotional and spiritual elements have been untouched that there is no condition of disease in the human body that cannot be successfully treated if a means is discovered for treating on the appropriate level. (2) All of the above beliefs hold some degree of truth. Despite this fact, it goes without saying that there are many physicians, psychiatrists, psychotherapists and other specialists in the world who will accept neither the above beliefs - advanced by their colleagues - nor the majority of the principles which will be presented in this book. Why is it, aside from the belief that everyone is entitled to his own opinion, that much of what is being proved true is nevertheless rejected by specialists in various fields? This occurs not only in the mental and physiological sciences - if one considers these two as separate - but also in the physical sciences. Rather than attempt to say anything at all about this, I will present a variety of possible (and essentially similar (3)) explanations encountered while looking for my own answers: . . . It appears that every human being has an innate inertia which fights against anything that tends to lead him outside his accustomed trains of thought. Like most psychoemotional functions, this defense mechanism

works quite unconsciously. A practicing psychologist and psychotherapist told me: 'Most people are only looking for confirmation of their attitudes, they don't want to learn. Even the psychopath who seeks out a psychotherapist doesn't want his attitudes changed, even though his false attitudes cause his difficulties. All of us are receptive to additional knowledge, but only if it does not conflict with our basic views or call for entirely new ways of thought. Generally we are barely aware that we are enslaved by our automatic thought patterns. . . This can be a considerable obstacle to accepting ideas that call for a different mode of thinking and new mental habits.' The person most strongly committed to very specific mental habits is the specialist, the authority in a field. He knows like no one else what is possible in his area. Therefore revolutionary new findings naturally meet with the most vehement opposition from scientists working in the particular field, and it is no accident that revolutionary discoveries are often made by people with only relatively superficial knowledge of the field, who take a birds-eye view. (4) To experiment is better than to argue, it is said, and even that is better than to deny without looking at the data. It may seem obvious from a scientific point of view that it is not logical to ridicule facts without examining them, but it is sometimes done. Some scientists who wish to discredit parapsychology, however, are so confident that parapsychological events can be 'explained away' that they are willing to examine the data, but then are unwilling to accept the implications even though statistical probabilities in support of parapsychological hypotheses are astronomically in favor of parapsychological theories. One way of meeting this 'awful fact,' is to claim that the work that has been done or supported by Rhine, Soal and Bateman, Murphy, and a host of others is fraud. From a psychiatric point of view, however, those who resort to calling 'fraud' are probably defending against an unconscious fear of the unknown. (5) It is the pitfall of our species to let reliance on memory and 'reasonableness' become fossilized into pet patterns that replace original and creative thinking. Men and women with patternized minds are forever frustrated in trying to fit everyone they meet into these prefabricated patterns of the noncreative mind. This is, of course, fatal to the whole realm of relationships that could be so spontaneously beautiful, fruitful and satisfying for all of us. (6) In a paper, 'A Psychiatrist Looks at the Mind-Body Relationship in Common Disease,' presented at the symposium on Mind-Body Relationships in the Disease Process, sponsored by the A.R.E. Clinic in Phoenix, Dr. Ernest F. Pecci states: 'Clearly, the time is coming when we must reexamine what we are really accomplishing through our healing arts, and to consider some previously dismissed concepts of disease even though they may sound quite different from our own. In commenting upon modern medicine's refusal to

accept new ideas which do not conform to this preconceived, very mechanistic approach to the body, Franz Alexander stated, "it is one of the paradoxes of historical development that the greater the scientific merits of a method or principle, the greater will be its effects in retarding subsequent developments. The inertia of the human mind makes it stick to ideas and methods which have proved of value in the past even though their usefulness has served its turn."' The only way to true knowledge - to true harmony - is to cough up the apple of knowledge and become as a little child again; childlike rather than childish in that each new thing is looked at without prejudice and each old thing is looked at as if it were being seen for the first time. Seeing thus, inner knowledge allows one to look beyond outer knowledge - which is nothing more than a starting point. Such inner knowledge combined with knowledge gained from experience is a bright beam of light guiding one down the path to Oneness. Although the thrust of this book is toward working with children, the principles presented herein could have as easily been applied to adults. However, as I have not worked with adults I do not attempt to generalize. It is for others to determine the way to apply the principles to adults. A first step would be to find some medium other than play as a means of reaching out. Before presenting an overview of spiritual harmonization as laid out in the chapters of this book, I feel it necessary to point out that I consider spiritual harmonization to be just one part of a total approach to an autistic child. Ideally, such a child would be in a residence situation so that consistency beyond that possible in the home could be maintained. Additionally, an integral part of the overall approach to the child would be some form of sensory bombardment. Finally, although most really good (dedicated) therapeutic persons are unconscious harmonizers, it will eventually become necessary for any good program for autistic children to have at least one conscious harmonizer whose job will be to carry out a therapeutic program along the lines of the one set forth in this book. This is a book on working with disharmonized children who are most often labeled "autistic" and "schizophrenic." Because of the dangers inherent in such labeling (Chapter 2), I have chosen to call them disharmonized. The source of all that a spiritual harmonizer does to rectify the disharmony of such children is the Heart center (Chapter 3). It is from this center that all the energy he utilizes springs and it is here that he turns to "listen" within during his work with the children (Chapter 4). Here too is where he focuses when attuning himself to noncommunicative children so that he may communicate silently with them. (Chapter 5). As play is natural to almost all children in some form no matter how much they may be disharmonized, a spiritual harmonizer uses it as a means of

communicating, establishing mutual trust, and changing the energy field of the child. (Chapter 6). This energy field, which is essentially all that man is, is generated by the Heart, through which the harmonizer works with it in measurable and immeasurable ways (Chapter 7). The most effective harmonizer works not only with the energy field but also with the essence which generates it, thus effectively guiding the disharmonized individual toward total healing of himself (Chapter 8). The higher the level of acceptance of the disharmonized individual, the more complete his harmonization. Because he may not have learned the lesson he is supposed to have from his disorder, his healing may be limited (Chapter 9). Limitations aside, the steps toward greater harmonization differ for each individual; each person has plateaus and leaps of progress (Chapter 10). This being so, how does one become a conscious harmonizer? Although there are undoubtedly many ways, the one I have followed (Chapter 11) is mystical in nature. Ultimately, a spiritual harmonizer may become a totally harmonized being, as a result becoming able to do things usually labeled "miraculous" (Chapter 12). The future holds out a time when everyone is at this point (Chapter 13). When this time is to be depends on those who inhabit the world now. This, then, is an overview of what is to come; a summation of the way of working of the spiritual harmonizer. Chapter I Notes 1. Though man can be said to be multidimensional, in the way of the Heart this view is ultimately superfluous so far as harmonization of the disharmonized is concerned. 2. Nicholas M. Regush, Ed., Frontiers of Healing (New York: Avon Books, 1977) p. xi 3. The fact that so many authors present essentially the same explanation for this blind spot of scientists lends greater veracity to the argument. 4. Alfred Stetler, Psi-Healing, (New York: Bantam Books, 1976), pp: 3-4 5. Elmer E. Green, ''How to Make Use of the Field of Mind Theory," in Frontiers of Healing, ed. Nicholas M. Regush (New York: Avon Books, 1977), p. 28 6. J. Allen Boone, The Language of Silence (New York: Harper & Row, 1970), p. 30.

7. Bill Schul, The Psychic Frontiers of Medicine, (Greenwich, Connecticut: Fawcett Publications, 1977), pp. 15-16 Chapter 2: Labeling and Self-Fulfilling Prophecy "Autism" and "childhood schizophrenia," are these one disorder or two? Opinions vary according to whom you talk. A psychiatrist I know of who worked in a hospital with a large number of "autistic" children made the statement that "autism" is a form of "schizophrenia." At two recent talks I heard, another psychiatrist and the head of a special school for reaching "autistic" children agreed that "autism" and "childhood schizophrenia" were not the same thing. According to the former they were both forms of psychosis, (1) but although there were similarities between them there were also distinctions which prohibited saying that they were the same. The latter speaker also said that they were different, with both of them - perhaps - being a form of psychosis. It is possible that a part of the problem is the lack of agreement on characteristics of just one of these disorders - autism. Characteristics listed in the literature range from very specific to very general. Consider, for instance, those given by Alan J. Ward: 1. Lack of human object relations from birth. 2. Lack of use of speech for communication. 3. Maintenance of sameness via stereotype behavior with a rage or withdrawal reaction upon interruption. 4. No major developmental dysfunction. (2) A child must manifest all of the above characteristics to be considered as "autistic" by Dr. Ward. Yet, a more general way of classifying a child as "autistic" requires only that he manifest seven out of the following fourteen characteristics formulated by Dr. J. Rendle-Short of the University of Queensland, Australia: 1. Difficulty in mixing with other children 2. Acts as deaf 3. Resists learning 4. Has no real fear of danger 5. Resists change in routine 6. Indicates needs by gesture

7. Inappropriate laughing or giggling 8. Not cuddly 9. Marked physical overactivity 10. No eye-to-eye contact 11. Inappropriate attachment to objects 12. Spins objects 13. Sustained odd play 14. Stand-offish manner (3) Here, then, we have two different lists of diagnostic characteristics and these lists are just two of many. Taking this into consideration along with the fact that there is no real agreement on the causes nor on methods of treatment of "autism," one can, perhaps, see why I elected to call all of these children those who may be "autistic" and those who may be "childhood schizophrenics" - disharmonized children. In any event, this term actually describes their condition - one of disharmony. A perceptive enough spiritual harmonizer can actually feel or even "see" the disharmony present in the energy fields which make up the child. No matter how one identifies a person, he has labeled him. Civilized man is enamored with labels. Seemingly, everything must be sorted, named, and catalogued, including his fellow man. An unfortunate attribute of many labels is that they lead to mental sets which preclude thinking beyond them. Having expectations of something which he has labeled, a person often unconsciously arranges things so that his expectations will be fulfilled. And it is not only the man in the street who is guilty of this. Many specialists are also just as guilty of allowing labels to become mental blinders. (4) As an example, in Son Rise Barry Neil Kaufman, a parent who set out to help his "autistic" child when no one else would, tells how upon hearing that Raun, his son, had been diagnosed "autistic" his family doctor just shook his head with a look of hopelessness. (5) Elsewhere in this excellent book, Vikki, a family friend irately tells of an interview she had at a "progressive hospital for the so-called 'emotionally disturbed' and 'brain damaged children.'" She quotes the supervisor of the school program at the hospital as saying: "Autistic children, well, they're really crazy. There's not much you can do with them." (6) A guidance counselor present at the same interview also said: "What we do with them is just try to at least train them to be good patients, so they aren't any trouble to the institutions they go to when they leave here at fourteen. (7) Admittedly, attitudes such as those above probably aren't too prevalent any more. Nonetheless, they undoubtedly do still exist. Consider how closed-

minded this is and how open to self-fulfilling prophecy. The effect of attitudes like these was demonstrated in studies such as the one in which teachers expecting low performance from "mentally retarded" students got just what they expected whereas teachers expecting average performance from the same sort of students got performance on or near grade level. In both cases, nothing was actually said; communication was on other than the verbal level. What was expected became a self-fulfilling prophecy. Despite the possibility of such negative self-fulfilling prophecy, labels per se are not inherently bad. It is only when people forget that these characterizing names are statistical in nature - that there are almost always exceptions to the rule - that labels are misused. When people forget this and have expectations they communicate it in many ways - by means of facial expressions, body language, and in even more subtle ways. Each person is a broadcasting station. His thoughts are radiated outward to all those who know how to receive them. As "autistic" children are more "primitive" (8) than normal, they are able to pick up these broadcasts much better than the ordinary child. I've observed these children doing just this many times in my work with them. One of the best examples of this sort of thing was observable in a noncommunicative four year old who came to our institution a kicker, biter and scratcher. Before his admission, we had heard how the child had severely bitten and scratched his ten year old sister. Admittedly, on a conscious level I'm sure that no one wanted or even expected to be bitten or scratched. Nevertheless, the possibility of such an occurrence did exist, and sure enough during the first month or so that he was there he obligingly bit and scratched a number of staff members who had occasion to work directly with him. Despite this fact, throughout the nine months that I worked with this four year old he made only one serious though half-hearted attempt to bite me. This occurred on an occasion when I was feeling quite depressed about a personal problem and was therefore not as harmonized as I should have been. Thus, even though I initially might have had some fear of getting bitten (my hair was mussed several times and several futile attempts were made to scratch my face), because I was consciously radiating harmonization - a positive form of radiation - rather than expectations regarding possible negative behavior I was in no real danger. Here, then, is the way that a spiritual harmonizer proceeds when working with an abusive child: First, he radiates harmony even though he may have a slight fear of injury. Next, as the child responds to this harmonizing radiation any possible need to physically prevent him from injuring the

harmonizer becomes unnecessary. At the same time, because the danger of injury is past, any possible fears of injury which the harmonizer might have had cease to exist. Thus, though some negative expectations might have initially existed they become unnecessary. Actually, an individual approaching total harmonization would not have had any fears in the first place and so some of these steps would be unnecessary for him. Because I trusted him, the four year old, who was quite intelligent, actually used biting (or the threat of being bitten) as a means of testing my trust. Initially, his tests were quite simple - he would either place his open mouth quite close to my arm and click his teeth or sometimes he would even go so far as to rub his teeth on my arm. Later in the relationship his testing became much more advanced and did much to further our relationship. The next stage of testing began one day when I found my nose grasped between a tiny thumb and forefinger and on its way toward an open mouth, where it lingered quite close to clicking teeth. This was the extent of the test for a month or so. As I had no reaction, the next stage brought my nose into the open mouth. Again I had no reaction. The final stage of testing involved having that young man's teeth gently closed on my nose not once but many times. At no time throughout these months of "testing" did I wince or draw away. Because this is so behavior changes in the child were marked. Up to this point I've gone into what the child did to test me and how I reacted. Now it's time to show the opposite side of the coin - how the child reacted to my reaction. I've said that how I reacted to the testing advanced our relationship, behavioral changes in the child being quite marked. What were these changes? (9) Each time a "test" was over, I observed a number of changes in my little disharmonizee's behavior. First of all, he always seemed quite happy (as I am not positive, just reasonably sure of this, I emphasize that it only seemed this way). Next, immediately following the test and over the next several days until the next test there was a sudden increase in new "positive" behaviors. Because I had trusted him, the child elected to trust me even more and he demonstrated this trust by opening himself more to me. This is the way the spiritual harmonizer works - using the positive rather than the negative aspect of self-fulfilling prophecy. Expecting the best, he gets the best except at the beginning of any relationship when he may have to protect himself from the child or the child from himself (in the case of a self abusive child). He does not require any food rewards (praise helps though) nor does he require cattle prods nor other negative stimuli; his is a totally positive approach. It is not necessary for the spiritual harmonizer to specifically "attack" behaviors which are less than desirable; instead, as he works such "negative" behaviors peel away, revealing the more desirable behaviors

underneath. The energy which the harmonizer radiates, no, which he is, is all that is necessary. It is through the utilization of this energy that the harmonizer stimulates inner change which becomes outer change. Thus, instead of working from the outside in, the spiritual harmonizer works from the inside out. Changes may take a little longer to appear, but when they do they are almost always massive. They come thick and fast - an ever rising gradient with few plateaus. All of these massive changes are able to occur because the harmonizer works from the Heart center, the central core of all people - of all that is. In the next brief but very important chapter the nature of the Heart is explored and the frame for the rest of this book is erected. Chapter II Notes 1. This position Is supported In Francis Tustin's Autism and Childhood Psychosis (Science House, 1972), Lorna Wing, M.D., D.P.M. concurs in Autistic Children: A Guide for Parents and Professionals (New York, Bruner/ Mazel, 1972) A footnote (p. 4) In Dr. Wing's book distinguishes between the two disorders because: a. delusions and hallucinations are important in childhood schizophrenia and never seen in autism. b. The speech problems of autism are not at all the same as those found in some schizophrenic patients. c. When autistic children grow up they do not become schizophrenic adults. d. Schizophrenic patients are more likely than average to have relatives who are schizophrenic. Autistic children, on the other hand, have only the same chance of having a schizophrenic relative as the average (and some say the chance is less than average). 2. Alan J. Ward, Ph.D., Childhood Autism and Structural Therapy (Chicago, Nelson-Hall, 1976), p. 171 3. A brochure put out by the Autistic Treatment Center, Inc., of Richardson, Texas gives twelve and thirteen as: [12] Bizarre and/or repetitive actions (such as spinning a wheel for sustained periods of time) [13] tendency to walk on tip toes.

4. Considering their rigid adherence to the status quo described in the quotes in Chapter 1, this should come as no surprise. 5. Barry Neil Kaufman, Son Rise (New York, Warner Books, 1976), p. 59 6. Ibid., pp. 154-155. 7. Ibid. 8. Primitive in that they are not encumbered by the many layers of civilized mannerisms which inhibit perception beyond the recognized five senses. 9. For a more detailed discussion of the changes, see Chapter 10. Chapter 3: The Heart Center Whether he knows it or not, all that a spiritual harmonizer (or anyone else) does is dependent on energies which originate from a single source - the Heart center. This center, the Heart mentioned in the Upanishads, is not the same as the physical heart nor the heart chakra,(1) which is one of the seven centers (2) located in the vicinity of the spine that science has recently proven to exist. Proof of the existence of the chakras was obtained through the utilization of instruments such as the oscilloscope and electromyograph by Dr. Hiroshi Motoyama, (3) who has doctorates in psychology and philosophy, and Valerie Hunt, a kinesiologist at UCLA. (4) Having scientifically measured energies originating from the chakras, these scientists have effectively modified their status as subjective perceptions of psychics and mystics and lent verisimilitude to the chakra-related psychological approach to emotional problems developed by a yogi, a psychiatrist, and a psychologist. (5) Long before such objective proof of the existence of chakras was available, however, mystics were feeling and "seeing" the energy kundalini (6) flowing up sushumna (7) stimulating each chakra as it went. Even today one can meditate on specific chakras and feel them. Or, if he is sensitive enough, he can have a spiritual harmonizer stimulate chakras so that he can perceive the sensation which identifies a chakra. (8) Although science has not yet proven the existence of the Heart center, one can subjectively prove its existence just as he can with the chakras. The Heart center can be felt by an individual as a vibrating, whirling dynamo which spins clockwise if perceived from inside out and counterclockwise if perceived from outside in. (9) It is even possible for others who are sensitive enough to touch the area in which this center exists and feel it, (10) and this is not true of any other center such as the chakras. The Heart center is unique in another way in that it can become continuously perceptible to one

at or near total harmonization. It is from the Heart that the energy a spiritual harmonizer uses comes. In fact, the Heart center is the tool of the harmonizer for it is here that he turns - as mentioned in Chapter 1 - to listen when beginning his work with a new disharmonized person. Here too is where he communicates silently with a noncommunicative child, the communication being from Heart to Heart. Or, the Heart of one being the Heart of all, turning within to the Heart he is also within the Heart of the child with whom he is working. More conventionally, thoughts may be the final effect of a telepathic communication but what occurs is not a flow of thoughts from brain to brain. Rather, having encoded his communication in the Heart, the harmonizer has effectively and instantly placed them in all Hearts, since they are the same. Usually, however, only that person he is concerned with perceives the thoughts that come into being from their essence in the Heart. Finally, it was mentioned in Chapter 1 that the energy field which is really all that man is springs from the Heart. By radiating energy from his Heart center the spiritual harmonizer is not only "sending" energy to the disharmonized individual, he is at the same time allowing that individual to heal himself because his Heart is the disharmonized individual's Heart and the energy that is the body of the individual is effectively being made more harmonized too by the individual. (11) The Heart, then, is quite important. It is here that one focuses his attention to become more harmonized - effectively concentrating his energy, because all the senses are activated by energy - and it is from here that harmonizing energy flows. Tracing this energy flow - and this is definitely possible - one finds that energy going to the Heart travels in the following manner: It enters the body in two places, through the soles of the feet and through the medulla. In the former case, it travels up the sushumna where it gathers in sahasrara, the crown chakra along with the energy from the medulla. Next, this energy descends through a channel (atma-, amrita-, parajiva-nadi) to the Heart center which is on the right side of the chest. Going from the Heart (12) (in the work of the spiritual harmonizer only, as all energy in the body comes from the Heart but in a different manner) it travels in the following manner: When directing harmonizing energy through the hands, it flows from the Heart through the right arm to the right hand (right being the positive pole). When utilizing a meditation harmonizing circuit (see Chapter 7) the flow is essentially the same. The harmonizer and harmonizee sit facing each other in the adepts posture, holding hands with right palm down and left palm up. As when using the right hand for healing, the energy flows from the Heart to the right hand. Now, however, it flows from the right hand of the harmonizer into the upturned left hand of the harmonizee, from there to the Heart of the harmonizee, then into his right hand and the left hand of the harmonizer, thus completing the circuit. When directing energy from the Heart through the eyes, the energy flows up

the channel through which it entered the Heart center from the body, entering the brain, where it travels to and through the eyes. Essentially, this is how energy being used in harmonization flows. Which hands, circuit, eyes - of the flows is used depends on the needs of the disharmonizee. In some cases combinations may be used. Some aspects of how to decide which to use will be covered in Chapter 7. Those of you who have read scriptures such as the Upanishads (13) know that the Heart is more than just a point from which harmonizing energy flows. In such scriptures it is described as the essential core of each person. It is here - in the Heart center - that Man's essence (Christ consciousness, Spirit, the Self, Atman (14) or God) can be said to reside. (15) Tracing thoughts to their source, the developing harmonizer finds that they arise from the Heart. Focusing on this center, one finds that it encompasses all others, negating the need to focus on the third eye, the crown chakra, etc. Paths that require ascension of levels (lokas) in gradually more tenuous bodies or sheaths are also found to be unnecessary as these levels are also encompassed within the Heart center. Admittedly, at one stage of his own increasing harmonization a harmonizer may work on the seven levels, (16) utilize the chakras, etc. As he becomes more harmonized, however, this becomes less and less necessary as he becomes focused more and more in the Heart. It is when he is totally focused there - totally harmonized - that all that is presented in this book becomes unnecessary because reaching total harmonization one does nothing while at the same time doing everything. That is, peace and calm and healing flow from his entire body although he is doing nothing more than being himself. This occurs to a lesser extent in all harmonizers conscious and unconscious - but doubts, fears, etc. inhibit it. With total absorption in the Self comes maximum effectiveness. All that has been said here about the Heart center may seem hard to believe, but it is true. Undoubtedly science will soon - at the very least measure this center, for what can be so readily perceived subjectively should be even more measurable than the chakras. Until this occurs, however, the aware spiritual harmonizer can calmly go about his business of allowing harmonizing energy to flow from a source that he knows to exist because he feels it. In the next chapter the use of the Heart for inner listening will be explored. It is necessary that this be done, as upon first meeting a child the harmonizer knows only what he has been told and this is not always what he needs to know. By quietly observing the child while resting in the Heart he can become aware of how to proceed then and later. Chapter III Notes

1. Anahata, the heart chakra is located in the back in the vicinity of the physical heart whereas Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi (see note 13) located Hrdaya, the Heart center ''between the two nipples, two digits to the right (of center)." difference between the two is further clarified in T.V. Kapali Sastri's The Maharshi (Tiruvannamalai, S. India: Sri Ramanasramam, 1955), p. 54. There it is said that Hrdayam is a term often used both for the Heart center and the heart chakra. In order to further distinguish the two, the Heart center is identified as Puromarga hrdaya (also Hrdayakas'a) while the heart chakra is identified as Pas'canmarga hrdaya. 2. These seven centers and their approximate locations are, from coccyx to head: 1. muladhara located in the sacro-coccygeal region 2. svadishthana located in the sacral region 3. manipura located in the region of the solar plexus 4. anahata located in the region of the physical heart 5. vishuddha located in the region of the throat 6. ajna located between the eyebrows 7. sahasrara located at or near the top of the head 3. Hiroshi Motoyama, "Measuring Psychic Energy," in Future Science, ed. John White and Stanley Krippner (Garden City, N.Y., Anchor Books, 1977), pp. 445-450 4. "Electronic Evidence of Auras, Chakras in UCLA Study," Brain/Mind Bulletin, vol. 3, no. 4, March 20, 1978 5. Swami Rama, Rudolph Ballentine, M.D., Swami Ajaya (Allan Weinstock, Ph.D.), Yoga and Psychotherapy (Glenview, Illinois, Himalayan Institute, 1976) 6. The spiritual energy said to lie dormant in human beings at the base of the spine. 7. The hollow canal said to exist in the center of the spinal cord, through which kundalini supposedly travels when awakened. 8. Even if this is done, it is still up to the individual to stimulate kundalini in the event that is the way he is meant to travel. 9. One person with whom I worked described the sensation she felt in the Heart center as being like "waves."

10. I can feel this center and others have also felt it even though they were not told what to expect when I asked them to place their hand on the appropriate spot. 11. If this is not clear, it will be further developed in Chapter 8. 12. Often, when one has become well centered in the Heart but has not become totally harmonized, he can feel energy shoot from the Heart to the eyes or ears when a sudden rapid movement or loud noise occurs disrupting his inner attention. He can also "reach out" and "grab" this energy, returning it to the Heart if he is capable enough. 13. The Heart was also mentioned frequently by Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi, a recent totally harmonized exponent of the path labeled advaita vedanta. Those who may be interested in reading about the Heart, advaita vedanta (without the label) and Sri Ramana could do no better than to start with S.S. Cohen's Reflections on Talks with Sri Ramana Maharshi (Tiruvannamalai, S. India, Sri Ramanasramam, 1971) 14. The Sanskrit word for Spirit or God (Brahman). For anyone who wants to get technical and start making distinctions, there is also the word paramatman. 15. It was said by Sri Ramana. Ultimately, however, hrdaya (the Heart center) and sphurana, the sensation felt there, were not designated the most important thing by Sri Ramana. Knowing the Self which is the Heart was emphasized, but as the Heart is all and cannot really be contained in a particular place in the body except, perhaps, in a topological sense, Sri Ramana laid greater emphasis on being that which you are - I am or I-I. The sensation in the Heart was said to arise as I-I, but one was not told to specifically seek it. Ultimately, I too agree with this emphasis on Being rather than seeking sensation. All spiritual harmonizers who have gone the way of the Heart must - at the last - come to the realization that the sensation is only a manifestation of Self, which supersedes all manifestations. This must be done before they can be said to have become totally harmonized (even though no becoming is necessary, one is always there). However, the way of the Heart was developed as a way of working with children and a way of becoming totally harmonized (a starting point, really). It varies slightly from Sri Ramana's path from one point of view but not from another. 16. These are seven levels of being, increasingly dense levels of energy descending from spirit (Brahman/Atman) to matter. For those who are interested, they are described by Roy Eugene Davis in Yoga Darsana (Lakemont, Ga, 1976). pp. 37-38 as: 1. Satyaloka - the sphere of God... and of truth consciousness

1. Satyaloka - the sphere of God... and of truth consciousness 2. Tapoloka - the sphere of the Holy Spirit. 3. Janaloka - the sphere of spiritual reflection 4. Maharloka - the sphere where maya appears and the outer worlds begin to manifest 5. Swarloka - the sphere of magnetic auras or electricities 6. Bhuvarloka - the sphere of electric attributes 7. Phuloka - the sphere of gross material manifestations One may find purported detailed descriptions of these levels in the literature put out by Eckankar. Chapter 4: Inner Listening When first encountering a severely disharmonized child, a spiritual harmonizer may face many problems. Often there are reams of reports from not one but many specialists. Almost always the label and the prognosis are the same - little hope is held out. The best way to proceed in these cases is often to read the reports on a child with whom one works sometime after one has established a relationship. Perhaps it would be better still to avoid reading them at all. Is it not better to learn on your own what the trouble is and also how to proceed? Here, then, is how one goes about this listening within to establish how to proceed; or, rather, how I go about it. I work in a sparsely furnished room which contains a large tumbling/ exercise mat and a chair. Toys for the play which comes later are kept in a closet unless I wish to determine how a child is going to react to a particular item or group of items. Closing the door, I sit upon the mat in the adept's posture. Then, focusing on the Heart, I begin to listen within and to closely observe anything and everything which the child does - how he moves, what he does or doesn't do about my presence, what he is saying in his Heart that is there for me to read if only I allow myself to hear. Perhaps one of the best books I have yet seen on inner listening and inner communicating is J. Allen Boone's The Language of Silence. (1) In this small book I found described the things I do and the attitudes I find necessary for best results. Written about how to silently listen and communicate with our brothers, the animals, it applies equally well to our fellow human beings. This was said of Mr. Boone by Paul and Blanche Leonard, close friends who edited his book:

"... Man can achieve a relationship with all living things far beyond that usually accepted or expected. Allen had cultivated a mental affinity with nature. He never looked down on animals as 'lesser creatures,' rather, he looked across at them as companions in the grand adventure of life." (2) How many of us who work with the disharmonized children in the world are guilty of looking at the records of a child or at the child himself and of judging him - however deep within us - as less than us? Couldn't this be why we often do not accomplish as much as we would like with the child as fast as we would like? One does not hear a voice - or, at least, I don't - when listening within. Voices and colors or even anatomical visions are possible but I consider them trappings which can often divert one from his task ("See, I am psychic.'" "I can see visions." "I am unique.") of helping others. Cast out preconceptions and expectations and listen. Dwell in the Heart on the right side of the chest - between the two nipples, two digits to the right of center. Listen with humbleness, with openness, and you will "feel" the still, small voice within and the answers will be there. Turning again to Mr. Boone, who speaks of his own gradual awareness of how to proceed: "I wasn't sufficiently empty. Was too full of myself. Was overstuffed with my own beliefs, supposings and opinions. Consequently, there wasn't sufficient room within me for much of anything else to get in... To remedy this, I formulated three disciplines for myself. The first: try to keep myself as empty as possible, so there would always be plenty of room for knowledge to flow in. The second: try to function more with the childlike attitude, with its integrated genuineness... its humility... its willingness to be taught by everything... its natural receptivity... and its enthusiasm for sharing. And the third: to listen more attentively to intuitive whisperings, with their accompanying unfoldments..." (3) In inner listening we are our own best helpers and worst obstacles. For, to properly listen we must be willing to help others and, on the surface, this is quite easy. However, the very intellect which so satisfactorily analyzes, coordinates, gains perspectives, etc. can stand in the way, plugging our inner ears, blinding our inner eyes. Sometimes we intellectually decide what the answer to the problem of the child is before we start. Of this Mr. Boone says of himself: I had forgotten to take the intellectual clamps sufficiently off my habitual thinking. As a result, I was intellectually groping about in the wilderness of the suppositional, the delusive, and the unreal. I had been trying to gather in fresh and needed wisdom, by way of expanding my awareness, with an already made up human mind - caught in its own intellectualizations and rationalizations. As a result I had fogged up the entire situation for myself." (4)

We must so love our charges, those we have elected to help by choosing our profession, that we can overcome the limitations our own intellect places upon us. We need to reach out not as objective observers but as individuals willing to give of ourselves to children who may have been loved but not "listened" to nor "communicated" within the Heart. We must overlook the disorder that exists - the disharmony - able to see what can be. Barry Neil Kaufman has this to say about the ability of love to carry us closer to the ability to listen within: "Perhaps if we were unencumbered by unhappiness, the closeness and sensitivity that flows between us and those we love could bring us within a range of communication that defies logic and intellectual statement. It is not the product of specific effort as much as the natural result of free-flowing with our own nature. As the roar of a passing truck drowns out the music of a cricket or bird, so may the whirling frenzy of our fears and tensions drown out the messages of our inner voice. As we choose to detach ourselves from the stress and short circuits of unhappiness, we become more aware of our KNOWING and more allowing of our natural INTUITIONS (whether we choose to view them as psychic or not). If what then surfaces exists outside a specific and documentable rationale, if our experience becomes multidimensional, opening unique and penetrating connections with our environment, we can be glad for the specialness of ourselves and embrace the gift of our increasing awareness." (5) Note that Mr. Kaufman says that inner listening is effortless, it is due to flowing with our own nature. Indeed, if one were to attempt to try to hear things - to listen within - he would find that he had defeated himself in his very attempt. Students of disciplines like judo, aikido, T'ai Chi, Zen, yoga, etc. know that one cannot force the flow that goes by many names - chi, prana, ki, etc. (6) - it comes as one practices and develops the proper air of inner waiting. So, too, is it true that inner listening cannot be forced. One must grow toward it by harmonizing himself. One must harmonize himself by turning to the Heart and by turning to the Heart he learns to reduce fears and tensions to be happy to listen. How best to proceed to listen within if one follows no discipline? Practices no meditation? Surely anyone who has come this far in this book is at the very least both religious and spiritual - being Christian, Jewish, Buddhist doesn't matter, as what's in a name? The religious person who is also spiritual knows how to pray - to turn within and talk to God. This is an accepted part of religion although it is only the spiritual person who knows how to do it effectively, his words being more than just empty mouthings. There are those who know that one can also have replies - that a two-way communication can be established - but they

are even more in the minority than those who know how to properly pray. How then to establish this communication - for when one listens within the Heart he listens to God. How then does one pray? Surely it is done within even though one's eyes may be turned toward Heaven or cast toward the ground. Unconsciously one turns toward the core of himself and speaks. If this core were traced as is done in some paths it would be found to be the selfsame Heart so greatly emphasized herein. By turning to this place of prayer and assuming the attitude of prayer - but, however, listening instead of talking - when one encounters a severely disharmonized child, the way is prepared for listening within. By neither grasping nor reaching out nor expecting is inner listening accomplished. Instead, one must maintain a humble air of expectancy, of waiting, of wanting to know how this child before you can be helped. Thus proceeding, the budding conscious spiritual harmonizer suddenly finds that he "knows" the answers - place your hand here, use this toy, say these words, gently require that he gaze within your eyes - the answers come. One begins. Day by day the answers continue to come and are perceived more easily with greater understanding. One may find himself doing a totally different thing from one day to the next. He may - initially - despair that he is apparently not getting anywhere, but even as the inner voice provides instructions on how to proceed so too does it sustain one, providing solace. (For is not this voice the voice of God, of the Spirit which dwells in us all?) As the spiritual harmonizer develops, he dwells in the Heart without sitting quietly, finding more and more that no matter how he is working with a particular child what he is doing is "right." Suddenly, unexpectedly, the child is getting better despite the fact that what has been done with him might be considered ''unconventional'' when compared to other approaches to similar children. More importantly, the harmonizer finds that not only has the child gotten better, he has grown too. For, each interrelationship allows harmonizer and disharmonizee to become more than they were before. When working with a noncommunicative child - one who is nonverbal, wrapped up in fantasy, withdrawn, etc. - the harmonizer must not only listen within, he must often also "talk" to the child within because ordinary verbal communication does not penetrate the barriers around the child. Perceptual difficulties or unfocused thoughts may prohibit hearing with the ears but never hearing with the Heart. The method of utilizing this form of inner communication is presented in the next chapter. Chapter IV Notes 1. J. Allen Boone, The Language of Silence (New York, Harper & Row,

1970). 2. Ibid, p. viii. 3. Ibid, p. 32. 4. Ibid, pp. 40-41. 5. Barry Neil Kaufman, To Love is to Be Happy With (New York, Coward, McCann and Geoghegan, 1977), p. 262. 6. This energy is a manifestation of the energy of the Heart (see Chapter 7). Chapter 5: Silent Communication Rare though they may be, there are spiritual harmonizers - totally harmonized or well on their way - whose mission in life includes teaching others how to emulate them. Abiding always in the Heart - radiating peace, calm, joy and unlimited love - they show others how to keep from deviating from their own particular path, which will lead them - if they persevere - to this state. The most aware of these instructors know that words are superfluous in such teaching. Instead, it is best done Heart to Heart. Silence is a much more effective means of teaching for them than mere words. The reason words are not the most effective means of communication for this or any other purpose is that they are inefficient at best. Consider the way in which they come into being. A recent totally harmonized being characterized the process as follows: Abstract Knowledge Ego Thoughts Words Inasmuch as the harmonizer resides in the Heart, at the level of abstract knowledge, there is no need for him to proceed through these steps to instruct another. He need only speak Heart to Heart in a manner similar to that discussed in Chapter 3. The truths thus given come into the consciousness of the student by means of the first three of the steps given above. So it is, until he too resides in the Heart and is beyond the need for instruction. Words are ineffective for other reasons when working with severely disharmonized children. With them, however, it is because they reside behind barriers - due to perceptual difficulties, fear or other causative

factors - which inhibit correct perception of these words. In this case too, Heart to Heart communication is the best. As he becomes more harmonized, the spiritual harmonizer begins radiating all the time. These radiations are both harmonizing and communicative in nature and those children and adults who are calm and perceptive enough can detect them. This is true of both "normal" and severely disharmonized individuals although, as will be explained a little further on, perception of these radiations by these latter individuals may be particularly inhibited at first. However, sometimes even from the beginning the severely disharmonized child too knows that there is something different about a conscious or unconscious harmonizer. Occasionally this awareness comes from only a fleeting meeting as in the following passage from Son Rise: "Sitting, Waiting. In that hospital lobby with Raun before that last examination. Suzi on the couch watching Raun. I, in my world, climbing the brick walls with my eyes, still searching for answers. As we sat there, a little girl and her mother came walking past. The little girl broke away from her mother's grasp and ran directly to Suzi, who opened her arms. Eyes were teal blue and razor sharp. Suzi stroked her face gently and began talking to her quietly. The child just gazed into Suzi's eyes and touched her head to Suzi's. They were like two old friends saying hello on the stone floor. The mother came over and without saying a word took the child's hand and directed her toward the door. All this time, the little girl kept looking back at Suzi." (2) The author continues saying that he and his wife later found out that the little girl was "autistic," a patient with "marked lack of interest in people." True, perhaps, but the child knew there was something different about Suzi Kaufman. She perceived the harmonizing energy and silent communication of love and peace coming from her. As was mentioned above, not all severely disharmonized children are as perceptive as the little girl in this passage. Generally, it is difficult for even the "normal" individual to immediately perceive a harmonizer's radiations. It isn't likely to occur unless he is sensitive enough to look beyond his everyday troubles. Unless he sits down and gives himself a chance to "feel" the radiations. Severely disharmonized children are usually far beyond sitting down - theirs is often a life of perpetual motion until they run down from total exhaustion each day. Contrarily, they may do no more than sit for hours engaging in some form of bizarre play. In either case, they have completely tuned out not only the external world but also anything internal beyond whatever they have totally focused their attention on. For whatever reasons - and the theories are myriad - the severely disharmonized child adopts particular behaviors in which he might persevere for hours if not days. This ability is

much like that of the fakir who stands on one leg or holds one arm aloft until he can no longer use the particular limb. The primary difference is that the fakir consciously chooses his abnormal behavior whereas the severely disharmonized child does not. In both cases, however, the longer this abnormal perseverance in a particular activity has existed, the more difficult it is to rectify it with or without the conscious cooperation of the individual. That the severely disharmonized child cannot always immediately perceive the harmonizer's radiations in no way contradicts the statement in the last chapter that Heart to Heart communication cannot be blocked by perceptual or other difficulties. In truth, such communication cannot be blocked. Even from his first encounter with a disharmonized child, the radiations from a harmonizer reach the child. This is even more true when the harmonizer's radiations are focused on the child (which was not the case in the passage from Son Rise quoted above). At first, however, the child may be aware only that this particular adult is somehow different from all the others he has encountered. In the event he does not perceive the harmonizer or any other individual, he may at most be aware that something different has entered his sphere of awareness. It shouldn't be surprising that when encountering peace, calm, joy and unlimited love for the first time in his life the severely disharmonized child doesn't respond in the "conventional" manner. Even the so-called "normal" individual, who has experienced degrees of these feelings, is overwhelmed and often bewildered when in the presence of a spiritual harmonizer whose radiations he can perceive. Why, then, shouldn't the child rebel or fail to respond immediately when first experiencing these feelings? True, they are actually everyone's natural state, (3) but doesn't the body usually rebel when one who has long smoked or drunk attempts to withdraw from these habits and return to a more natural way of life? The habits of perseverance, hyperactivity, aloofness, etc. are much more deeply ingrained and therefore much more resistant to change. Heart to Heart is an infinitely more effective way of effecting change and communication than ''behavioral mod'' and voice-to-ear, but it is not necessarily instantaneous. Theoretical considerations aside, how does one speak without speaking? How to reach out to the severely disharmonized child and bring him into contact with other human beings? Once again, one who has never meditated need only turn to the place of prayer. Now, however, instead of listening he is, in effect, speaking to the Christ within the child which is in fact the actual reality of the child. Communicating peace, calm, joy, and unlimited love, all he is doing is making the child aware of his own essential nature. At first, as should be recognized by now, harmonization of and communication with the child is usually done by actually focusing on the child. As the harmonizer progresses he has no need to do this - dwelling in the Heart he is doing all that he needs to do. How this comes about will be considered to a greater extent in the chapters to follow.

Gradually, or perhaps from the beginning, the harmonizer verbalizes as he speaks Heart to Heart. First, the child comes to understand inwardly what is being said. Eventually, however, he understands even the verbal communication. His barriers to perception fall away and he begins to relate to the harmonizer and then to other human beings. What is at first limited slowly generalizes to all aspects of the child's life. This change can happen more quickly if what is being done externally with the child is reinforced by all others who work with the child. They may not be conscious or unconscious harmonizers (although, if they are at all effective they are almost certainly the latter if not the former) but by structuring the child externally so that what he is doing is given every chance to develop, internal change is "helped" to occur. In the next three chapters various aspects of listening within, speaking within and harmonizing will be examined in concert. This will be done because none of these functions occur separately from each other; initially they are interwoven functions, later they are one function. Play as a means of communication, establishing mutual trust, and changing the energy field of the child will be examined in Chapter 6. A step beyond this - more direct in nature - are the techniques of working with the child's energy field either with or without the child's knowledge, which shall be considered in Chapter 7. Further along still is what occurs when one works directly Heart to Heart without consciously doing anything - listening, communicating, rectifying. It is at this stage that the harmonizer reaches closer to the "miraculous" capabilities of the totally harmonized being. Chapter 8 is devoted to this Heart to Heart work. The abilities of the totally harmonized being are considered in Chapter 12. Chapter V Notes 1. Talks with Sri Ramana Maharshi (Tiruvannamalai, S. India, Sri Ramanasramam, 1968), p. 244 2. Barry Neil Kaufman, Son Rise (New York, Warner Books, 1976), pp. 217-8 3. For those unwilling to accept this premise, a reading of Chapter 11 may help. It should be pointed out that the harmonizer who is not yet totally harmonized radiates these sporadically, mainly when harmonizing others, while the totally harmonized being does so all the time. Chapter 6: Play Play is natural to almost all children. Though it may be play alone, play near others, play with others, "normal" play or "bizarre" play, it is a way of relating to the world; of learning through fantasy to cope with reality for the

"normal" child or of protecting himself from a bewildering world for the severely disharmonized child. Whatever the form the play of a child takes, it can be utilized by the spiritual harmonizer as a means of externally reaching out and making contact. Even from the beginning the harmonizer may evaluate a child by setting out an assortment of toys and seeing how the child reacts to them. By making external evaluations from his observations and by listening to the voice within he chooses the way to interact with a particular child. The way of the harmonizer is not that of the play therapist. His task is not one of sitting and objectively observing the play and making comments to interpret emotions being expressed. If he did function in this manner, many of the children under his care would not benefit as they do not necessarily comprehend speech much less relate it to feelings. No, the harmonizer who follows the way of the Heart becomes actively involved in play with the disharmonized child. I have wrestled, tumbled, tickled, flown kites, played cards, ridden up and down in elevators, while pointing at pictures in books, "eaten" Play-Doh, and done numerous other things. In the course of this play healing has taken place within, and integration of children into a society they may have never truly experienced before has taken place without. Both are necessary to help the child. I have stated that through playing with the child the harmonizer communicates with him, establishes mutual trust between himself and the child, and changes the child's energy field. How does one proceed? From the beginning, the harmonizer should talk to the child. The talk should not be talk for talk's sake. Rather, one should talk to the child as though he were able to understand even if he seems unable to do so. Communicate what you are going to do, what you would like him to do. Tell him you love him. Tell him "no," not often but when necessary. Even as you speak communicate the same thing Heart to Heart. In this manner the child receives the same thing from two directions (three, if one includes body language). Initially, perhaps, he cannot comprehend the external communication and he "feels" rather than perceives the internal communication. Gradually, what is rising from within and what is coming from without will be understood as one and the same, as harmonization occurs rectifying possible perceptual or other difficulties which are prohibiting correct processing of auditory input. Eventually he will understand others as well as he does you. Of course, as has already been said, one does not stop with verbalizing and Heart to Heart together. To one degree or another the very presence of a harmonizer is a form of communication if the harmonizer is at all harmonized himself. The silence of the harmonizer is the greatest eloquence of all. The radiations which come from him are essentially all that is, so whether he attempts to communicate with the child or not (and he will, unless he is totally harmonized or close to it), he is communicating just by

being. All the children that I've worked with have had some fear or other. Most have been afraid to trust people in general and before they would trust me they would test me as the four year old in Chapter 2 did, although perhaps not so severely. In all cases the trust came gradually, not all at once. As an example, let's consider a thirteen year old boy I now (April, 1978) work with who rolls and tumbles with me. At first this young man, let's call him Tom, sat quite far from me. He did not permit me or anyone else including his parents to touch his back, to hug him - he could hug others but they could not hug him, he would push them away if they tried - or to show affection in other ways. (2) Affection or other expression of emotion embarrassed him and made him nervous and still does to some extent. Having worked with Tom in another capacity, I knew that he liked to be read to. Inner guidance as well as common sense told me to read to him. At first as I did so he listened with interest - from a distance. Over a period of time, as he became more and more enthralled with the stories each day, he began to forget about me and to move closer so that he could look at the pictures. Eventually he got so close that he was shoulder to shoulder with me. One day I was pleased to find Tom's head on my shoulder. From then on, reading faded out - its purpose having been served - as a part of our interaction, and greater and greater physical contact became the order of the day. Trusted, I was allowed to become the one and then one of the few who could touch him, hug him, tickle him. Embarrassment did and does lurk in the background, but now it is forgotten about as we play. The harmonizer should not expect his play with a particular child to remain the same each day. Nor, should he expect to be able to do something one day just because he was able to do so the previous day. He should have no expectations when it comes to how the child should play or interact. Trust is not built with these children by demanding that they meet your expectations. You're trying to get the child to accept the world so you make it attractive enough to get them to come out and stay first a while and then all the time. This is not to say that one shouldn't hold the severely disharmonized child to some rules. For instance, if such a child likes to go into other person's rooms and take things that appeal to him - there is frequently no sense of other's property in these children, everything is considered theirs - you have every right to make it clear this is not permitted. Be careful how you go about it though. Likewise, as a child is able to interact more, the standards he must meet are raised. Then, when he is able to cope, is the time to present rules of the sort every "normal'' child must live up to. Even then it must be done gradually, rule by rule. Consider the following example: a child may shred paper when frustrated. It

would be easiest for you and the custodial staff - unless you clean it up yourself - to stop this behavior immediately. But, you are working for the child's benefit, not yours. Look within and find another behavior to gradually replace this undesirable one with, or find a means to alleviate this frustration so that paper shredding is no longer necessary. Gradually you may find, as a teacher at the institution where I work did, that after he makes the mess the child will first help you clean it up and then clean it up himself. Allowed to grow and guided to rewarding activities, this child finally stopped shredding paper almost altogether. All of this occurred because this particular teacher was fairly harmonized and was willing to ask externally and internally ''why?" She was not just another adult who pushed and shoved the child demanding that he meet her standards immediately - stop shredding paper and clean up the paper you do shred. He was allowed to become, to grow to her standards. Generally speaking, a child does not object too strenuously to being stopped from doing something he knows is considered wrong. Surprisingly enough, I've found that even the most noncommunicative children know "right" from "wrong,'' but they'll test, test, test to see if you'll let them get away with what they want to do but know they shouldn't. They may even throw a tantrum to get you to give in to their wishes, but unless inner guidance leads you to act otherwise be unbending. If it tells you to be flexible, do so. The child's respect is gained when you don't give in when they resist and you know you shouldn't; for though it appears otherwise, they do want guidance. They do want help - at least most of them do. Trust goes to one who is consistent when consistency is demanded, not to one who is wishywashy, allowing something the child does to be "right'' one time and "wrong" the next. Consider the following: I worked with a twelve year old who loved to enter other people's rooms and take whatever appealed to him - particularly books on cars, airplanes and motorcycles. Inner guidance led me to prevent this behavior not by grabbing him and saying "no!" but by making a nonsense syllable and blocking his way into the room. How effective this inner given technique was was demonstrated in an amusing way. Initially the child, let's call him Joe, protested a little when I blocked his attempts to do what he wanted. Over a period of time, he accepted it without ever giving up in his attempts to get into rooms containing things he wanted. One day he thought to grab my arm and yank me - with my cooperation - out of the way while attempting at the same time to rush past me before I could react. From then on this was a part of his technique even though it hardly ever worked (sometimes I let him get by - at inner guidance's direction - to see what he would do). Now, although Joe decreased his attempts to enter other people's rooms, he never stopped altogether. (3) Even so, on those occasions when I was too tired to beat him to a door or when inner guidance led me to hold back, Joe would stand

before the doorway and make my nonsense syllable while looking at me in a manner designed to let me know that I was falling down on the job. Joe had so come to trust and love me in the nine months that I worked with him that he did not take advantage of my real or apparent weakness. He even reached the point where although he cried a little he would allow a blood sample to be taken when I was present. This from a young man who at one time screamed and fought with arms and legs flailing at such an attempt, requiring several people to hold him down. This from a child who changed from a totally withdrawn, zombie-like child to a child who was kissing and hugging people and telling them that he loved them. A child (everyone) is his energy field, which springs from the Heart center. All that a spiritual harmonizer does involves this center. As he plays, engaging in roughhousing, or in a game of cards, his energies come into contact with those of the child. Anytime two people are near each other their energy fields interact. Two "normal" people probably aren't even aware of it unless one of them is particularly sensitive to inner impressions. However, should one of the two be a sapper, (4) a depressed individual or a joyful one, the other person is either exhausted by the encounter or he feels depressed or joyful. The energy field of a harmonizer can extend quite far from his body, reaching infinity (5) if he is totally harmonized. This is considerably more than the feet or inches of the "normal" individual. Therefore, when the harmonizer plays with a disharmonized child he is correspondingly affecting the child's field to a much greater extent than a "normal" therapist could. This occurs even if he is too involved in tickling or whatever other activity he may be engaging in to focus on the Heart. (6) Anytime a harmonizer is around anyone else he is manifesting positive changes in their energy field. The more harmonized the harmonizer and the more sensitive (and calm, etc., see last chapter) the individual, the more likely it is that he will be consciously aware of this harmonizing effect. With younger children the form of play engaged in is most often quite physical. Once a relationship is well established, it is only the most harmonized of harmonizers who can engage in this form of play while at the same time remaining consciously as the Heart. The beginning harmonizer will find that it is only during the quiet games that he can consciously harmonize a child. On other occasions harmonization is taking place through the energy field around his body, which radiates from the Heart center, wherein he dwells unconsciously. Harmonization of a child during roughhouse play is done without the child's knowledge. So too is harmonization often done without his knowledge in the quiet forms of play. However, in this latter situation one can "focus" the energy and thus - relatively speaking - be more effective, especially if he is a beginner. This latter, more direct, form of harmonization, done in play and

other situations, will be considered along with other things in the next chapter. Chapter VI Notes 1. Raun, Barry Neil Kaufman's son seems to be an exception to this rule. However, as everyone who has read Son Rise knows, the whole Kaufman family is quite unique. 2. A part of this can probably be attributed to the fact that the members of Tom's family are not emotionally demonstrative. 3. Joe accidentally drowned just when he appeared to be approaching greater and greater normalcy. 4. An individual who, vampire-like, ''sucks'' energy from the field of another (see Shafica Karagulla's Breakthrough to Creativity (Marina del Rey, Ca., DeVorss & Inc., 1967) for more on individuals of this sort), leaving them exhausted as a result. The opposite of this sort of individual is one who is full of energy and gives off this energy (consciously or unconsciously) to another, leaving them feeling revitalized (this ability makes such an individual a harmonizer of one degree or another.) 5. See Chapter 12. 6. All harmonizers (everyone is) are the Heart but only the most harmonized are aware of energy flowing from it in anything other than a quiet situation. [The concluding chapters of "The Way of the Heart" will appear in the Spring, 1979 issue of TAT Journal.] Cultists and Anticultists The Difficult Search for The Easy Answer by Raymond Lieb Following the Jonestown fiasco in late November of last year, I was amazed by the, predictability of the reaction of many Americans to this morbid phenomenon. I watched it on television, I listened to it on the radio, I read it in the newspapers and magazines, and in each medium the message was the same: Destroy All Cults. In all honesty, how could I blame those who clamored for the scalps of the cultists? An investigative team of newsmen and a congressman murdered, over nine hundred followers of an apparent madman sacrificed for a

seemingly pointless cause. The logic of those advocating cult elimination was plain: should we not learn from our mistakes and head off the next disaster, instead of once again playing the role of horrified, impotent spectators? Indeed we should, we were told, by those whose interviews fanned the anticultist flames. FBI agents sniggered with "I told you so" omniscience, for they had long advocated the removal of strong federal laws restricting their ability to infiltrate off-beat religious movements. Religious leaders thundered from their pulpits that this incident proved what they have known all along: that those digging in unconventional gardens in search of answers will eventually dig up the Devil. And reformed ex-cultists repeatedly warned us that hundreds of potential Jim Joneses were already stealing the minds and souls of our children until they are hypnotized or brutalized into committing homicide, suicide, or whatever else these demented demigods demanded. The temptation was quite strong to jump on the bandwagon of fear and conventionality and join the stampede which seemed destined to run these heathens into the sea. What prevented me from hopping aboard was the sudden realization that my personal search for Truth, or meaning, would also be ground beneath the onrushing backlash. For the impetus behind this anticult movement was not so much an honest desire to defuse potentially explosive movements as it was reflective of a general expression of society's fear of whatever challenges the pablum of easy answers which it offers to its constituents. As evidenced by the turbulent 'sixties, society can deal with almost any form of challenge to its political or social structures. Despite uncountable protests and movements, and completely bewildering social trends, the dull 'seventies emerged and life was soon back to normal. For any social structure can successfully deflect attacks on its efficacy if the challengers play by the rules that have been set down for the game, and protest in all forms is still part of the game of politics. Challenges to a society's religious, or philosophical paradigm carry a much more insidious threat to its continued survival. If too many people question not the framework of society, but the very premises behind a culture's conceptions concerning the nature of man and the universe, then that culture has a very dangerous threat to its existence. That is, if people in a society cease to worry about who is in the White House and start questioning who they are, or what life is all about, then the whole rule book of social and political gaming may soon become obsolete. If each man were free to follow his own path to Truth, then each would also be free to possibly discover that the entire game of governors and governments is absurd. . . . if people in a society cease to worry about who is in the White House and start questioning who they are, or what life is all about, then the whole rule book of social and political gaming may soon become obsolete.

And that, to me, is the true meaning of the reaction to Guyana. It is not the horror of the deaths, although that horror is all too apparent, which is threatening to force all non-accepted religious systems to go underground. It is, rather, a self-correcting mechanism built into all societies which automatically rebels against any threat to that culture's spiritual or philosophical self-conceptions, which is fanning the flames of anti-cultism. My life became interwoven with an incident during the same week that the news first broke from Jonestown, and that event better enabled me to understand the true stakes in the game of Jonestown. When I graduated from college, I began spending one week-end a month as a volunteer worker for a local service organization. While the drive and idealism which prompted me to take on this task had long since dissipated, the inertia brought on through habit kept me glued to a cigarette-burned desk in a windowless office on the third Saturday of every month. While at this desk, I was buzzed by the receptionist, who informed me that a somewhat bedraggled woman wished to speak to me about some personal problems. I told her to send the woman in, and soon I was face to face with a smiling, harmless female of indeterminate age, who I will call Lisa. As we exchanged pleasantries and I attempted to put her at ease, I became aware that this was not the typical individual trying to impose upon our organization for a free hand-out. Lisa was a forty-nine year old flower child who was en route from Woodstock, New York to Taos, New Mexico, where she had previously made arrangements to join one of America's last remaining communes. She and her rider had stopped off in town some time ago, searching for rest and lodging, which I quickly interpreted to mean a free place to "crash." She contacted a number of local service organizations, including the Salvation Army, but none were willing or able to put up Lisa, her rider, and 16 cats in various stages of pregnancy. None, that is, until she got touch with our local "cult." While I was all too aware of this group's reputation for total intolerance of any state of mind other than its own, I believed Lisa when she told me that she thought that they were just good people willing to offer her a place to stay, with no strings attached. For Lisa was a middle-aged woman who had somehow managed to retain the naĂŻvetĂŠ of a sixteen-year-old girl, albeit at a terrible price to her intuition and common sense. So she gladly stayed in the cabin provided for her, and was only mildly annoyed when her vehicle refused to carry her and her entourage on their journey the next morning. Lisa spent three weeks trying to get that junker to start again. During that time, she noticed that the "lifers," the year round residents at the movement's farm, became less interested in her unusual viewpoints concerning life and the prospects for mankind. They seemed less willing to listen and more concerned with talking and explaining their own system to

her. After two weeks on the farm, she was approached by the movement's director, who asked her what her "program" would be. Lisa explained that she had no program and was not planning on staying, but was only trying to locate a flywheel for a 1952 Ford Panel Truck so that she could fulfill her commitments in New Mexico. Nothing more was said about her future at the farm at this time. At this point Lisa's story quickened, or at least her rendition of the events did so. Yes, she did notice that now her former "friends" were avoiding her on the farm, and that some people became downright rude. As a result of this change in attitude, Lisa was very glad to find the missing part of her truck at a junkyard 26 miles down-river, and once the flywheel was installed and the truck running again, she began the preparations necessary to leave. Apparently the cult ran out of patience before Lisa could explain her good fortune, because the next morning two of the movement's heavies arrived at her cabin, called her a "burned-out hippie," and warned her that if she was not gone in an hour her truck would be towed. Although hurt, and even a bit frightened, Lisa explained that her truck was now fixed, and that as soon as she got some gas and supplies in town, she would gladly depart for good. Lisa finished packing, and left for town. She drove the truck as quickly as it would run, and did not dawdle when choosing the items she would need for her journey. When she returned to her cabin to pick up the rest of her gear and her cats, she discovered that she had not moved quickly enough. In the middle of the field outside of her cabin sat everything she owned, and it was ablaze. She screamed, not for her belongings, as they were replaceable, but for her cats. Had they burned them too? A soft meow from behind her assured her that they had not. They had merely evicted her "family" into the cold November rain and padlocked the door to the cabin. Eventually she found all sixteen of her cats. One six-week-old kitten died the next week of overexposure, another was crippled for life with two broken legs. Lisa wept unashamedly when she spoke of her cats. They were her children. Lisa gathered up her cats and came to town, but found little sympathy and even less tangible help. The police refused to intervene, saying that the events had transpired on private property and therefore were outside of their jurisdiction. She had approached three attorneys, but all told her that her case was not worth pursuing. I knew from experience what the score actually was. Nobody felt she was wronged. She had played with fire and gotten burned. I put Lisa in touch with a young, aggressive attorney who took her suit, and waded through the paperwork necessary to get her the funds to continue her journey. But the purpose of this discourse is not to enlighten the reader as to the

wonderful service that charitable organizations provide to homeless hippies. No, it was the reaction of those to whom I spoke about Lisa that interested me. All that I talked to about this incident expressed shock and outrage at the cult's treatment of Lisa. But as we discussed the matter in depth, I quickly discerned that these people did not care so much about Lisa and her cats and blankets and bucket and whatever else she lost on the farm as much as they were looking for an excuse to carry on about those lousy creeps who lived out there on a farm and danced and did not believe in the same God that they were fortunate enough to have had chosen for them. In fact they did not hear me at all, once they heard the name of the cult; all they were looking for was a soundboard against which to vent their hostility towards the "heathens on the hill." Without exception, everyone I talked to, including some of my more "liberal" friends, expressed a concrete desire to see that cult wiped off the face of the earth. But why the hostility? The group was not a political threat, and they kept a low enough profile that they did not really have any effect on these townspeople's lives. I soon saw that what irked these people was the cult's daring to believe in a different path to Truth, and a correspondingly different way of living their lives. So I stopped telling the story. I could see no further point in stoking the fire. Truthfully, I have no real use for that cult either, and I was certainly not endeared to them by their treatment of harmless Lisa. But these people, these fanatics are searching for something out there on their farm and quite possibly they are looking for the same answer that captivates my attention, and the same people who carry on with righteous indignation when I tell Lisa's story would probably want to degrade me if they knew that I was interested in dreams, and philosophy, and other aspects of the search for self-knowledge. If these cultists were Communists, or unbathed radicals from a bygone era, I am sure that they would not have evoked the same intensity of wrath that they were now inducing. That same week the shocking news from Jonestown hit the streets, and I heard the same reactions in almost the same words from the same people. Nine hundred people. Or Lisa's burned bucket. It was all the same. What people were looking for was a reason to do away with threats to accepted philosophic and religious traditions which have assumed the status of fact by society's desire to pretend to know just why the hell we have all been put on earth. This is the force behind the backlash of Jonestown. Unfortunately, it is as difficult to come to the defense of Jim Jones or Lisa's tormenters as it is to condemn them for daring to believe differently. Many of these cultists are crazed, and thereby ruin the field of spiritual investigation for those sincere people who truly wish to know themselves, and do not demand that everyone take their path to "Truth." There is no easy position. There is no easy answer. There never is.

But we can at least avoid the either-or syndrome which society, and its shining knight, the news media, force upon our psyches. We are not either for the People's Temple or against it. It is quite conceivable that one may be for a fearless search for Truth, regardless of its acceptability by society, and still be opposed to any fanatical bent which forces the rest of the world to either believe as they do or be wrong. What is at stake in the Jonestown disaster is not simply America's right to prevent another calamity of this magnitude. Obviously we must ask once again, "At what price freedom?" It is important to be aware that many are using this opportunity to unleash their pent-up fears concerning any unorthodox philosophical system which could possibly throw doubt on their accepted view of man and the universe. And the odds are that your beliefs would also be swallowed up in the wave of spiritual intolerance which threatens to engulf us all. The papers will be reminding us of Jonestown for some time to come. A story of this magnitude comes by quite rarely, and it is certainly a break from the economy and Middle East. But before you condone or condemn, or urge others to do the same, ask yourself what is really at stake in Jonestown. You may well find that you are sitting in front of the stampede, instead of riding upon it.

TAT News: Wholistic Health and Nutrition by Dr. L. Fred Bissell L. Fred Bissell, M.D. has been in private practice for 22 years. He now does psychosomatic medicine with a wholistic approach in Ravenna, Ohio. He is a member of the American Board of Internal Medicine and a graduate of a three year post-doctoral training at the Cleveland Gestalt Institute. Dr. Bissell has also trained in bioenergetics, sensory awareness, family therapy and biofeedback. This talk was given on November 19, 1978 at a Forum on Health and Nutrition sponsored by the Pittsburgh TAT Society. Dr. Bissell will provide a reading list on topics covered in his talk; send your request to TAT Journal, _____. Wholistic Health and Medicine

Wholistic health involves the body, mind, emotions and spirit; I include the emotions because I think they can be identified. Wholistic health is an attempt to integrate the inner relationships of these elements of a human being as he exists in the universe. My belief system says that there is a unity in all things and the wholistic health concept is an effort to look at the unity of the individual and his environment. I think that much of medicine is practiced on what I call the "body shop" model: A person has something wrong and takes his body into the shop the office of the physician, osteopath, chiropractor or other health professional - and says, "Fix me up, there's something wrong." Sometimes the doctor replaces a part; kidney replacement is not now too uncommon and we've even had some heart transplants. There have been tremendous advancements in medicine in a sense - the transplantation of organs, the $15,000 coronary bypass operation that is quite frequent now (and that I have some reservations about). But I think that we ought to pay more attention to the prevention of disease. Thirty-six percent of the deaths in this country last year were from heart disease which is primarily related to stress and, perhaps, to our eating habits. The coronary bypass is performed after this disease occurs. I also want to put in one of my biases early and say that Valium and Librium, which are the most prescribed medications in the country - some $180 million worth was sold in 1976 - is just like "putting sugar in a gas tank." I have this bias against Valium and Librium because they act upon the reticular associative areas of the brain. You can divide the brain into three parts, the cortex, the mid-brain and the lower brain or hypothalamus and medulla. When you take Valium or Librium it blocks the flow between these areas. It relieves stress because no longer do the impulses go to the cortex from the lower brain and vice versa. And it's an addicting drug, there's no longer any question about it. The wife of a patient and friend of mine is absolutely addicted. And it is reported with increasing frequency. These drugs are particularly hazardous in the person who has alcoholism or has alcoholism in their family. Most of medicine deals with people who have already developed their disease, and this fixing-up process has been done well by specialists in many areas. I was asked last night what my specialty was, and I said that I was a "generalist," and in a sense I said that with some pride but also with some hesitancy. (I am Board-certified in Internal Medicine.) The results of specialization have gone about as far as they can in many ways and it looks to me now, that the wholistic approach, and the emphasis on family practice is a valid area of medicine and should have priority. I say this because even now most medical schools are controlled by specialists and the medical student sees the unusual things that a specialist does and forgets that this is only about five per cent of medical practice; ninety or ninety-five per cent can be taken care of by almost any physician or practitioner who is qualified, conscientious and responsible.

The unique thing about wholistic health (and I like to spell that with a "w" partly out of my respect for Granger Westberg who has eight or ten wholistic health clinics that he has established in churches) is that it involves the recognition or belief that there is a spiritual aspect to man; and I firmly believe that. If you have trouble with the idea of spirit, you can define that as your relationship to yourself and others, and to the universe. My belief system says that there is a core of joy and health and happiness in every person. Healing is an effort to allow this spiritual aspect of man to emerge. There can be disease at all four levels of the individual - body, mind, emotions or spirit. And you can see that a person is having difficulty in a particular area of his life. These levels are integrated, and the closest representation of this integration that I have found comes from Bioenergetics. It represents the core of a person as spirit, surrounded by the body which is surrounded by another layer that we call the ego, which is the protective aspect of the individual. Illness can occur which is primarily spiritual. I recall a woman who came to my office who had developed symptoms of dizziness; she would get very confused and feel like she was going to fall. When I took a history from her I discovered that these symptoms developed in church one morning; I asked her if she could recall what the minister was talking about. She did, and it was really very simple. She had recognized a conflict that arose in respect of her belief system and religion, as it related to her own life and its meaning. Her symptoms cleared up in one month. In wholistic health the emphasis is on health and wellness. With my own medical training it's hard to get into the frame of mind to think in terms of people's health. The emphasis is also on the individual, and giving the person the responsibility for his own health. That's quite different from the "body shop model" where you take yourself to the doctor and the doctor does something for you. This causes a lot of the malpractice problems because the person thinks the doctor alone is responsible. I don't think that's true; no matter what the physician recommends, you need to evaluate it in your own mind and take the responsibility. So the three main features of wholistic medicine are the emphases on: 1. spirit, 2. health and wellness, and 3. personal responsibility. The techniques of people involved in wholistic health are finding a way to help the person find what's best for him or her. Massage is very important, and biofeedback and acupuncture, relaxation and meditation techniques, and visual imagery, which I think is going to be increasingly important. In one

study of cancer patients, every person who recovered had a clear-cut visual image of him or herself being well. It's a very powerful technique when used properly. These techniques are important in wholistic health and they are different, in that none of them can be effectively administered to another person, unless you've had experience and maybe benefit from that technique yourself. In other words, the role of the practitioner is changing; the dictum, "Physician, thyself be healed," is very essential. The American Indian medicine man didn't maintain his status in the tribe as a healer unless he was able to heal himself. It didn't mean that he did not become ill, but he must be able to heal himself after he did. I was recently reading a book called Healing and Wholeness by Sanford, an Episcopal minister who now does Jungian therapy, in which he talks about the shaman and the ecstatic healer. All of these healers have gone through experiences of very severe, if not critical, illnesses themselves. The Chinese doctor in centuries past was paid when people were healthy and he was not paid to take care of the person when he became ill; his responsibility was health. In a sense, we're moving towards that. In our practice, we usually ask the family to come when we see a person the first time with some problem that is chronic. When a person came to the Navajo medicine man, a common technique that he used was to bring the family together to do a "sand painting" that represents symbolically the problem that the person has. I think that this is a fantastic exercise. We usually take one or two hours with a family and they say, at times, that it's the longest they've sat together in perhaps three or four years, except to get in the car and go on a vacation (which can be stressful in itself.) I am impressed with the fact that the Navajo medicine man approached the family in this way. Biofeedback The mind extends beyond the body. It isn't incorporated in the brain or in the body. My belief system says that my mind is part of something greater than myself and the universe. The research in biofeedback over the past ten years documents that the mind is in absolute control of the body. I think the implications of this are profound. For a long time many people believed there was an intimate relationship between the mind and the body, or the body and the mind (and spirit), but there was always room for argument. Scientifically now I feel this has been documented. I think that fact will be accepted gradually and integrated into medicine. The best evidence has been produced by Basmanian, a physician from Atlanta who for years has worked in rehabilitation with people who are paralyzed, injured and so on. He's been involved in biofeedback for fifteen years now and was one of the first medical people to use it. He implants

microelectrodes in a person's muscles, and by certain techniques he can show that an electrode fires from only one muscle cell. He rigged this up with an oscillograph so a person being tested could see the response and also with something to cause a little "bleep" sound when the muscle fired. He showed that people can learn to fire one muscle cell at "will" within fortyfive minutes. The experiment is described by Barbara Brown in her book, New Mind, New Body. Basmanian had the courage to introduce the concept of "will" back into the scientific literature. It's hard to figure out the nerve tracks of how a person can fire, just one muscle cell, but this has been well-documented and been repeated several times. A person can learn to control just one muscle cell. This is a very significant development because if you can learn to control one muscle cell, the implication is that you can learn to control any cell in your body. There are some two thousand biofeedback systems in the body and with every single system that we've been able to monitor in humans or in animals, the human can learn to control or the animal can be conditioned to respond to and control that function. Biofeedback training has many applications. I've worked mainly with galvanic skin response (GSR), one of four types of biofeedback that are used primarily. GSR was used back in the early 1900's by Carl Jung in his word association tests and had a flurry of interest in the 'thirties. I think that it's one of the most useful. EEG stands for electroencephalogram, monitoring the brain waves. It got the most interest and publicity about six or eight years ago when Kamiya in San Francisco found that people could learn to control their brain waves. Barbara Brown once set up a train and people could make the train go faster if they could "get into" more alpha waves. EEG research is currently in a state of flux because there have been findings that there is no certain wave, like alpha or beta, that characterizes particular states of consciousness, but rather a pattern of waves may be associated with states of consciousness. Another biofeedback system is the EMG, electromyogram, which was used in the muscle cell experiments. EMG can be used to relax certain groups of muscles but may not produce a generalized relaxation response, whereas if you use a GSR and it shows a change, it generally means that you're getting a generalized response. This has a lot of applications, particularly in relaxation techniques and rehabilitation and it's very useful. I am convinced that if you can get anybody to relax, whatever symptoms they have will usually improve. The fourth, temperature training, is particularly useful with migraine and tension headaches. Swami Rama was tested at the Menninger Clinic and they put electrodes on his hands six to eight centimeters apart and in about eighteen minutes he had produced a twelve degree difference in the temperature between those two sensors on his hand. Of course, the eastern

yogis have long been able to control their bodies with the development of certain techniques. Biofeedback is simply a kind of electronic adaptation of this control. People can learn if they are willing. Biofeedback is not in the mainstream of medicine now and I don't know when or if it will be in the near future. You can train people on a GSR or an EMG or a temperature trainer and their blood pressure will decrease, but they have to continue to do that relaxation technique or their blood pressure will rise. Also, there must be a complete unity in the belief system of the healer, the patient and the family; if not, then things are not going to work, whatever it is - coronary surgery or digitalis or whatever. That's equally true with biofeedback because the unconscious bias creeps through eventually in any experimental design if the people really don't believe in it and influences the results. The body is always telling us something. Both the very obese and the severely malnourished person lose their ability to detect hunger . One way you can begin to train yourself to listen to your body is to pay attention when your body wants a drink of water or to urinate; just respect this. If we can just respond to our own stimuli, then it's the beginning of inner awareness. It is necessary to become quiet to be able to listen to ourselves. Illness and Transformation Illness represents the opportunity for transformation. I heard a Jungian analyst tell about a dream of a cancer patient in which she was walking up a path on a hill behind several other people in a group. In the dream they rounded a bend and saw an old tree with a knot, like a cypress that you might see in California. She was aware that everyone looked at this knot because they had to walk around it. As she approached this tree and looked at it, the knot was transformed into a figure, a woman she recognized as herself being in a healthy state. It turned out that that dream seemed to be a turning point. She eventually did heal her cancer and became well. I think that the dream is a vivid example of the transformation that can and does occur with an illness. The lack of forgiveness is found in every single illness in some form. We have begun to see this and recognize it in our patients. Perhaps the key to health is forgiveness. I sat in a seminar with Pir Vilayat Khan, the head of the Sufi Order, and he said (in regard to this idea of transformation) that you need to do the internal work; if you don't you'll get an illness which will help you to do it, or the illness will develop so you'll then have the internal work to do with the illness. That's why I believe that moving towards inner awareness is something that all of us has to do, whether I or you want to or whether I or you think it's important. I think that's certainly one thing life is all about. A book that I'm fond of is by Carl Friedrich von Durkheim, a German mystic, called Daily Life as Spiritual Experience; he points out that we have the

opportunity in our daily lives to begin to get in touch with this Divine person within us and to develop our divinity that - in my belief system - is in all of us. Jung calls it individuation. We have to become aware - conscious - of our unconscious processes. Nutrition Some generalities about nutrition. There are approximately forty elements minerals, vitamins and proteins - that are identified as essential for human life, as indispensable. And they are just as indispensable as oxygen. It isn't quite as apparent because you can go quite a while without protein before the effects start showing up in the body. I keep thinking about the basketball player on the west coast, Bill Walton, who is vegetarian. He always starts out the season pretty well but the last few seasons he's ended up with injuries. I wonder if this relates to the lack of protein. The fellow who was just appointed Celtic coach, Dave Cowens, is also vegetarian, but it looks as though he fares a little better than Walton as a vegetarian. Our cellular environment, our body, is never perfectly adjusted, so that there are various levels or gradients of nutrition. Some of us may be very well-nourished, some may be very poorly nourished. The quality of nutrition can be very low and yet maintain life and function. I'm reminded of one experiment with vitamin C in guinea pigs. You can give a guinea pig about 10 mg of vitamin C and it will look like all the other guinea pigs, will reproduce and be healthy. But if you give a guinea pig 200 mg rather than 10 or 9, the offspring in the third and fourth and fifth generations continue to be healthy, but if you give only 10 mg eventually there is deterioration in the number and health of the offspring. I point this out not for its specific finding but to show the concept of optimum nutrition. I personally think that eventually it will be shown that most human beings need far more vitamin C than there is in any average diet, even a good diet with fresh fruit. Another important thing that we know, but which is not recognized, is the individuality of people's nutritional requirements. And this individuality has a wide range. Roger Williams has written a book, Biochemical Individuality, in which he documented the wide range of our body chemistry. If you took every one of us, our biochemical profiles would be just as different as our fingerprints, and so are our nutritional needs different. A lot of our nutrition happens by chance and it happens by family patterns, it happens by availability. But to really take into account the individuality of nutrition, I think it is very important for ourselves as well as for those people we take care of. Another principle of nutrition is that you need all the necessary nutrients at the same time, what I call a "symphony" of vitamins, minerals and proteins. Williams insists that, for instance in alcoholism, people who are optimally nourished are not going to be involved in the addictive aspect of alcoholism. It turns out that there is not one single bit of research in this country that I know of that has taken people with alcoholism and provided the "symphony"

of nutrients, and made sure they got them under a controlled situation to see what effect it had on their disease process. Hopefully, this will be done. Caffeine I do want to talk about caffeine as a prelude to talking about fasting. How many of you in this room think caffeine is a drug? (Many hands raised.) Good. In the past six months there was an article published in one of the most prestigious medical magazines, the "New England Journal of Medicine," which showed some things we've known about caffeine. First of all, the pulse goes up when we drink coffee; the blood pressure goes up. In this study, the output of the adrenal gland in norephenephrine, a hormone which stimulates us, was increased 220% in a person (who had not had caffeine for six weeks) by drinking one cup of coffee. I think that's very significant. You can't "get high" (stimulate yourself) without "coming down." The body balances itself. You can continue to drink coffee and stimulate yourself and your body adapts to that, but if you stop drinking it you have a problem. It is recognized that if you are drinking four cups a day, and you don't have your coffee for a day, you will have symptoms. You will be uncomfortable, you will be nervous and irritable. I think that this can occur with as little as two cups a day. Years ago I discovered this in myself; one afternoon I didn't feel good so I stopped and had a cup of coffee and a piece of pie, and I realized that, after drinking about half that cup of coffee, the world became "rose-colored." I couldn't believe the effect of that one cup of coffee, and I was only drinking two or three cups at the most then. Then, after I began going without coffee for a while I found myself buying chocolate candy bars; it took me some time to put it all together. Of course, chocolate contains about 15 to 20 mg of caffeine per ounce, so if you eat two ounces of chocolate you've got about 30 or 40 mg. That isn't so bad in us, but if you give that amount to a child and consider it by weight, it's a significant dose. Alcoholism is a relatively common disease and I think that caffeine is just as much a problem and part of a disease as alcohol is. What contains caffeine besides coffee? Tea - same thing. Cola - obvious. Chocolate. So I suggest that people drink herb teas. I see the herb tea rack in the supermarket and which kind has sold the most? "Morning Thunder," which has more caffeine in it than coffee; also, you can't use one with mate, a South American drink. I have now stopped drinking coffee almost completely and find that I don't even miss it. Now I drink mostly herb teas if I want a hot drink. Sanka does not have the caffeine but it stimulates the stomach just as much as coffee does. Fasting How many of you have gone without food for at least twenty-four hours? Many of you, that's unusual. I have started fasting people in the hospital and the nurses look at me like I'm crazy despite the fact that there's a lot of

medical literature on the subject (I've gone over some thirty articles on fasting.) Of course, about ten years ago there was quite a flurry of interest in fasting in the treatment of obesity. However, it turns out that only about fifteen to twenty per cent of people who lose weight from fasting do not gain it back. How many of you have had a headache when you fasted? O.K., several of you. Unequivocally, the headache is due to the caffeine withdrawal, and so if you are going to fast I think you need to taper your caffeine intake as a prelude. In my own experience I am no longer hungry on the second day of a fast. Under medical supervision, people have fasted 236 days with water only and vitamin supplementation. You usually feel good; the most striking effect that I have is a slowing down and a calming. I usually sleep better and on the second or third day I begin to get a little "high." This is partly due to the fact that your metabolism changes, you begin burning fat and develop what we call a ketosis. The last time I fasted I went six days and I got into ketosis. The people in the laboratory had three blood tests during that six days and by the sixth day they were looking at me saying, "What's going to happen to him?" and I honestly began to wonder a little bit myself. This was about four or five months ago and I was doing some reading then and I learned that that's what happens if you fast for over three days, you get into a ketosis. Now it turns out that if you can go ten days or two weeks or into three weeks that ketosis modifies and changes and you will spontaneously begin to get hungry. The "Journal of Experimental Medicine" in 1976, volume 118, page 245, had the best article out of some thirty or forty that I read. Another excellent reference on the subject is Fasting: the Ultimate Diet by Allan Cott. What actually happens when you fast? For the first day or two you begin burning sugar from your liver and when that runs out you begin to burn fat and you develop a ketosis. Your blood pressure usually goes down and your blood sugar level will gradually drop, though not to hypoglycemic levels in most people. The article I mentioned documented that there is a slowing of the frequency on the electroencephalogram; there is also an inhibitory effect on the lower brain, mostly shown in animals but there is some evidence of this in humans. Initially you may have some headache, a little nausea, but most of the time you feel fine. After anywhere from ten days to three weeks there are some things that you have to be concerned about. You may develop hypotension, so that if you are lying or sitting down and you get up you may faint, which means that your column of blood is not supported. That's primarily because there is some contraction of the extracellular fluid in the body and you can't maintain your blood pressure quite as well; so you just have to take a little time to adjust. Everybody gets a rise in uric acid, and a few people may develop gout with joint pains, usually in the feet or other joints. If you fast long enough you may develop anemia and certainly vitamin deficiencies.

Considering the psychological effect personally, every time that I fast it just appalls me how important I make food in my life. I realize how much time I spend thinking about my next meal, etc. Stress and the Relaxation Response When you're under stress there are certain things that happen in your body. First of all, your pulse and blood pressure go up, your muscle tension increases, your skin resistance goes down, and all of this is a part of the fight/ flight response. So in any situation where we're fearful, our body responds to that. I'm a great admirer of Hans Selye whom I heard speak first about fifteen years ago and then again three years ago; he has written the books Stress of Life and Stress Without Disease. Very little has been recognized about the significance of stress in medicine until a few years ago when Holmes and Rae created a list of forty life events on a rated scale of one to a hundred, with events listed like the loss of a spouse or death of the person closest to you, down to something like getting a traffic ticket. Holmes documented that there is a relationship between disease occurrence and these stressful life events. Not much has been done with this knowledge because you can't just tell everybody, "Change jobs," or "Change spouses." But recently, when we started looking at people doing meditation, or as Benson calls it, "the relaxation response," we saw what happens when people just sit quietly, what happens to their bodies. Every single physiological variable that's been observed in meditators is exactly opposite of stress. For instance, your pulse and blood pressure go down, your skin resistance goes up, your brain waves slow down, the oxygen consumption in the body goes down, etc. I want to emphasize that when you sit for fifteen minutes, quietly in an upright position, breathing in and out, saying "one" at the end of your expiration, assuming a passive attitude, just letting things come and go, when you do that for fifteen minutes the oxygen consumption goes down more than it does in sleep. What this says to me is that here's something which is available to every single one of us in this room. If you and I will take the discipline, the interest, the motivation, whatever it takes, to sit quietly once a day, you will get more relaxation for your body than you do in a night's sleep. I just read an article about sleep in the "Smithsonian Magazine" which indicates that sleep is just not restful. We go through these constant cycles of change, into the REM, out of it, stage one, stage two and occasionally we get to stage four, but even at stage four the oxygen consumption in our body is not as low as when you do the relaxation response. Now I'm taking that as evidence because I think that it reflects the fact that the muscles are more relaxed in meditation than they are when we're sleeping. There are certain things that happen if you begin to be quiet with yourself. A change in inner awareness will gradually occur and some evidence indicates that the arousal response diminishes which seems to have advantages. Some ten to twenty percent of people who do the

relaxation response may have some side effects. So to have some contact with a person with experience in these methods and techniques is important. I have provided some ideas about wholistic health in general and with more specific comments about other related subjects which will, hopefully, stimulate your interest in your own health. Thank you.

TAT Profile: Ramana Maharshi by Damien Markakis TAT Profiles are a guide to the life and thought of individuals, past and present, who have contributed to the advancement of human awareness. For those major figures with whom many are familiar, the goal will be to extract the core of their philosophies and present it in a clear and concise manner, along with recommendations for deeper study. Lesser known figures will be dealt with more subjectively; evaluations will accompany the basic information and the reader will, hopefully, benefit from our reviewer's study and experience in deciding whether or not that persons system is worthy of his time and attention. Future installments in this series will feature such teachers, masters and prophets as Madame Blavatsky, G.I. Gurdjieff, Edgar Cayce, and P.D. Ouspensky. Ramana Maharshi and the Yogic Path of Discriminative Wisdom Why would people from every walk of life, both from the occident and the orient, have traveled out of their ways at great inconvenience and expense to visit the inhabitant of a cave in Tiruvannamalai, India? Why would statesmen, writers, and peasants alike all make the oftentimes long journey into the sweltering climate surrounding the sacred hill known as Arunacala? Why would such prominent figures as Carl Gustav Jung, Somerset Maugham,

Arthur Osborne and Paul Brunton all venture into the heart of the vast Indian sub-continent with the sole purpose of meeting a Hindu renunciate by the name of Ramana Maharshi?. . . a man who has been referred to "as the most saintly of modern Hindu ascetics and mystics." (1) The objective of this essay is to explore the life and spiritual teachings of this great sage, and in the process to speak directly to each of these questions. Life In a small Indian village south of the sacred city of Madurai, there lived a rural lawyer named Sundaram Aiyar and his wife Alagamma. A visiting ascetic who had once been mistreated by this man's ancestors had cast a curse on the family which was to insure that one offspring in each generation would renounce the world and become an ascetic. This couple's second son was named Venkataraman (of which "Ramana" is an abbreviation). He was born on December 30, 1879, a day dedicated to the celebration of Lord Siva's victory over the demon Andhaka (a Hindu myth meant to symbolize the conquest of light over darkness). Raised in the security of a middleclass, Brahmin family, the boy led a normal, uneventful childhood in the secluded village of Tirucculi, South India. He demonstrated a keen interest in outdoor sports, but was indifferent towards his studies in school. While being blessed with an extraordinarily retentive memory and an alert mind he, curiously enough, was an abnormally deep sleeper. Stories have been recounted of his friends actually striking him while he was asleep without being able to awaken him. Another relevant event in his life was the death of his father when he was twelve. His father's passing apparently caused a noticeable change in the son's nature by making the latter more reflective in a profound sense. Other than these factors, his childhood development through the fifteenth year left no clues as to Ramana's impending spiritual destiny. During his sixteenth year, a great spiritual awakening was to radically transform his view of life. The first premonition of this mystical unfoldment came accidentally one day while the boy was speaking to an elder relative who had just returned from visiting Arunacala, a noted sacred hill nearby. The mere mention of this spot kindled an intense curiosity in Ramana, who soon afterwards began reading his first piece of religious literature, the Periyapuranam (a tale of the lives of the sixty-three Saiva saints). He became fascinated and overwhelmed by these accounts which pointed the way to realization of the Divine. The spiritual experience that transformed his life was soon to follow unexpectedly during 1896, when he was seventeen: "It was quite sudden. I was sitting alone in a room on the first floor of my uncle's house. I seldom had any sickness, and on that day there was nothing wrong with my health, but a sudden violent fear of death overtook me. There was nothing in my state of health to account for it, and I did not try to account for it or to find out whether there was any reason for the fear. I just

felt 'I am going to die' and began thinking what to do about it. It did not occur to me to consult a doctor or my elders or friends; I felt that I had to solve the problem myself, there and then. "The shock of the fear of death drove my mind inwards and I said to myself mentally, without actually framing the words: 'Now death has come; what does it mean? What is it that is dying? This body dies'. And I at once dramatized the occurrence of death. I lay with my limbs stretched out stiff as though rigor mortis had set in and imitated a corpse so as to give greater reality to the enquiry: I held my breath and kept my lips tightly closed so that no sound could escape, so that neither the word 'I' nor any other word could be uttered. 'Well then,' I said to myself, 'this body is dead. It will be carried stiff to the burning ground and there burnt and reduced to ashes. But with the death of this body am I dead? Is the body I? It is silent and inert but I feel the full force of my personality and even the voice of the 'I' within me, apart from it. So I am Spirit transcending the body. The body dies but the Spirit that transcends it cannot be touched by death. That means I am the deathless Spirit." (2) Ramana claimed that this whole enlightenment experience took barely half an hour, and produced results which would normally have been achieved only after a lengthy striving towards liberation. The normal process of working with a physical Guru was completely omitted in his evolution. That he was able to attain the peak of spirituality without any arduous study or training was, in his own estimation, the consequence of a highly unusual karmic destiny. Rare indeed is one who could offer such profound mystical proclamations without having previously heard of the philosophical notions of Brahman, samsara, and so forth: " . . . that pure Awareness is what I am. This Awareness is by its very nature Sat-Chit-Ananda (Being-Consciousness-Bliss)." (3) Ramana emphatically stated that this experience was Absolute (meaning fully conscious Identity with Self), and that "there was no more sadhana, no more spiritual effort, after this." (4) Having undergone such a radical awakening produced a noticeable change in Venkataraman's attitude towards the phenomenal world. Unable to find meaning any longer in his high school studies and the superficialities of worldly existence, he soon left home unexpectedly to travel to Tiruvannamalai, a spiritual power point to which he had felt magically attracted for some time. For seventeen years he resided within the confines of the local temple grounds and a nearby cave at Arunacala practicing an extreme asceticism and samadhic absorption that manifestly demonstrated that: "he was living in timeless Reality. He did not even feel the bites of ants and other insects. The blood and pus that oozed out of his back and thighs stained the wall and the floor. Ramana remained unaffected and unconcerned because what happened to the body could not touch the Self." (5) This complete absorption in the Self characterized this phase of his

mystical career. During this early era he attracted the devotion of two yogis who would occasionally put several questions to the now matured sage concerning philosophy and the spiritual life. Although still silent, he would answer through writing and gestures. These questions and answers were recorded and published later in the booklets entitled, "Self-Enquiry" and "Who Am I?" These works contain the essence of his realization and the suggested methods for practicing the meditational technique of "selfenquiry" which he so strongly advocated. Teachings Carl Jung had spoken of Sri Ramana as "a true son of the Indian earth. He is genuine and, in addition to that, something quite phenomenal. In India he is the whitest spot in a white space." (6) Jung spoke highly of this man's Realization as being typically Indian, with its emphasis on the identification of the Self with God. To understand the yogic path of self-enquiry is important in studying the Maharshi's teachings because he was a jnana yogi of the highest order. Jnana yoga has been described as "the path of intellectual discrimination; the way of finding God through analysis of the real nature of phenomena. . . a difficult path, calling for tremendous powers of will and clarity of mind." (7) The term "jnani" refers to those sages who have emerged out of that school of Indian philosophy known as Advaita Vedanta. The importance of developing an appreciation of this classic school of Hinduism becomes apparent when we discover that "it was the purest Advaita that Sri Bhagavan taught." (8) The most noteworthy exponent of Advaita (meaning "non-dual") Vedanta was Shankara, a spiritual giant of Hinduism around the 7th century A.D., whose philosophy is concisely summarized by these three aspects: 1. "the sole reality of Brahman (the Absolute) 2. the illusoriness of the world 3. the non-difference of the soul from Brahman" (9) A solid background in the Upanishadic scriptures of Indian philosophy would certainly enhance one's appreciation of Ramana Maharshi's teachings, because they lay the foundations on which all of Advaita Vedanta is based. The Upanishads are the "concluding portion of the Vedas, the oldest and most authoritative scriptures of India. Often called Vedanta, these teachings are the basis of India's many religious sects and are regarded as the highest authority of religious truth." (10) Ramana Maharshi embodied the fullest power of the Hindu tradition of which he was a part. He did not, at any point, iconoclastically refute his spiritual heritage like a Krishnamurti. He found all the tools necessary to achieve and convey the nature of spiritual liberation within the esoteric vehicle of the

Advaita Vedantin school. He was noted for his emphasis on a method of selfanalytical meditation called vichara (self-enquiry). The crucial and fundamental question was always "Who am I?" In the following response is presented an answer to this spiritual riddle which reflects the essence of the meditative process whereby Ramana systematically and directly viewed the difference between the illusory and the Real nature of the mind and the universe: "Who am I? - The gross body which is composed of the seven humours (dhatus), I am not; the five cognitive sense organs, viz. the senses of hearing, touch, sight, taste, and smell, which apprehend their respective objects, viz. sound, touch, colour, taste, and odour, I am not; the five conative sense organs, viz. the organs of speech, locomotion, grasping, excretion, and procreation, which have as their respective functions speaking, moving, grasping, excreting, and enjoying, I am not; the vital airs, prana, etc., which perform respectively the five functions of inbreathing, etc., I am not; even the mind which thinks, I am not; the nescience too, which is endowed only with the residual impressions of objects and no functionings, I am not. If I am none of these, then who am I? After negating all of the above-mentioned as 'not this', 'not this', that Awareness which alone remains - that I am." (11) Bhagavan ("One with God") repeatedly emphasized throughout his discourses that this method of trying to go directly to the root-source of the mind was the only completely effective method of "killing the ego" and obtaining an Absolute state of awareness. He viewed religious-devotional observances, rituals, invocations, mantras and breath control (pranayama) as being indirect methods of furthering one's spiritual progress. While being important aids to many who find value in their use, they are inefficient in comparison to the "direct style" of jnana yoga. Ramana's tolerance for working with people on all levels of understanding is, however, reflected in his comment that "all the yogas - karma, bhakti, and jnana - are just different paths to suit different natures with different modes of evolution and to get them out of the long cherished notion that they are the Self." (12) Paul Brunton, a prolific esoteric writer in his own right, was directly responsible for discovering and introducing this "sage of Arunacala" to the West. The former's book, A Search In Secret India, has a couple of chapters devoted exclusively to personal experiences with the Maharshi while visiting the latter's ashram. If not for Brunton's writings, Bhagavan might have remained an obscure, local spiritual guide. Ramana stated emphatically that there was a level of consciousness "behind" the normal human mind that was both Eternal and Absolute. This principle reflects another classic theme of Vedanta, which maintains that there are four states of consciousness: 1. waking, 2. dreaming,

3. sleeping, and 4. turiya (the highest level of spiritual Realization underlying all three of the former mental states). Shankara originally formulated an explanation by analogy of the notion that the world, as we subjectively perceive it, is an illusory projection of the human mind. This traditional example was frequently referred to by Ramana: A man sees a coiled rope at dusk, and mistakenly concludes that it is a snake. The next morning at daybreak he returns to see that the supposed serpent is in reality only a rope. He projected qualities onto the rope which it did not, in reality, possess. In this analogy "the Reality of Being is the rope, the illusion of the serpent that frightened him is the objective world." (13) This philosophical idea of the world as illusion (maya) is meant to reflect the notion that all of phenomenal existence is only the creation of the mind. (A comparative footnote: this attitude is echoed by the Yogachara and Madhyamika schools of Mahayana Buddhism - the posing of the spiritual question, Who am I?, and the whole self-enquiry process are somewhat similar to Zen attempts to solve a koan. Until the final enlightenment experience, this question remains a mind-boggling riddle). There is a great paradox between the Maharshi's "preparation" for Awakening and what he advocated for others. He explained that his transformative experience was spontaneous and unexpected. Although he did not submit to the process of any arduous training beforehand, he was quick to note that such an occurrence was due to a highly unusual karmic destiny, not typical of the average seeker. He repeatedly emphasized the need for determined and persistent effort: "... unless the bond of the mind is cut asunder by prolonged and unbroken meditation, 'I am the Self, the Absolute', it is impossible to attain the transcendental State of Bliss, which is identical with the annihilation of the mind. So long as subtle tendencies continue to inhere in the mind, it is necessary to carry on the enquiry, 'Who am I?'" (14) He affirmed that one must be prepared to make a long term commitment to fight through the parade of obstacles that will inevitably attempt to stymie one's progress. Regular meditation discipline was endorsed as a means of creating an ongoing current of awareness which would enable one to remain relatively detached from the samsara-bound workings of the mind. Various interpretations of Ramana's vichara (self-enquiry) method have been offered as a means of making an abstract meditation process more translatable to the reader. In essence, the goal of the process is to enable one to distinguish between the Real and the unreal through "an intense activity of the entire mind to keep it poised in pure self-awareness." (15) After the mind rejects objects, one after another, as transient and unreal, That which survives the elimination is Real. "By this process of abstraction we get behind the layers of body, mind, and intellect and reach the Universal

Self." (16) By tracing the ego (the "I" sense) back to its source, the yogi strives to dis-identify from the mental images and projections of the normal waking state. Application of this meditation process initially leads to onepointedness of mind. We are still identified with the stream of thought consciousness, but at least our minds have begun to focus intently on one thing. With relentless concentrative discipline we begin to observe with dispassion the distractions by things of the world (including sense objects, desires and tendencies) which have previously occupied and enslaved our awareness. Their hypnotic spell can and must be broken. Ramana's teachings revolve around the question of whether the ego or "Isense" really exist. His analysis of this dilemma can be summarized in this manner; if the ego and the mind are composed merely of thoughts and through investigation we conclude that thoughts are transient projections of the mind onto an underlying and more real mental state of pure, aperceptive awareness, we cannot help but give serious consideration to the Advaitin notion that ". . . . for one who can hold to the view that there is only the One Self all outer activity appears a dream or cinema show enacted on the substratum of the Self, so that he will remain an impassive witness." (17) At first impression one could easily be misled to believe that the Maharshi was strictly an impersonal and intellectual spiritual guide. However, the bhakti (devotional element) was quite active in him at times, and he used to sometimes weep spontaneously while reading certain mystical texts. Ramana vividly described the emotional dimension of his early spiritual life in these terms: "I used to go and weep before those images and before Nataraja (Shiva) that God should give me the same grace He gave to those saints. But this was after the 'death' experience. Before that the Bhakti for the sixty-three saints lay dormant, as it were." (18) Unlike many contemporary Hindu teachers, the Maharshi discouraged his disciples from becoming fascinated with the siddhic (supernatural) powers such as telepathy, levitation, astral projection, or other "miraculous" yogic practices. He advised against indulging in any of these psychic "gymnastics." Some yogis might develop such powers of mind through destiny, or incidentally as part of their mystical unfolding. According to Ramana, these psychic practices could easily become diversionary sidetracks from the real problem of trying to discover one's real Self. In evaluating the realization of a spiritual teacher we are naturally led to investigate his description of enlightenment. Is this mystical experience a final, once-in-a-lifetime episode, or can there exist varying degrees of an ever-expanding awakening? The Maharshi spoke of two levels of immersion in the Self (Brahman): 1. nirvikalpa samadhi - "a complete absorption in the Self with resultant oblivion to the manifested world; often compared to a bucket of water

lowered into a well. . ., in the bucket is water (mind) which is merged with that in the well (the Self); but the bucket (ego) still exists to draw it out again. 2. sahaja samadhi - pure uninterrupted Consciousness, transcending the mental and physical plane and yet with full awareness of the manifested world and full use of the mental and physical faculties. . . often compared with the waters of a river merged in those of the ocean." (19) Observations on Direct Enquiry as a Meditation Technique Arthur Osborne, a long-time student of Ramana, observed that most meditators are intellectually and experientially quite far from understanding the doctrine of Advaita Vedanta, or practicing the sadhana (spiritual discipline) of self-enquiry. Because of its abstract nature and rigorous mental demands, its appeal has always been, and will always be limited to a ripe few individuals. To construct a written account of this yogic system that will inspire both the head and the heart presents a major problem because it is notoriously hard to expound on. The Maharshi's spiritual teachings can be difficult to apply on a practical level because of their highly abstract nature. This problem confronts anyone trying to work with a system having an Advaita Vedantin foundation. Controlling the outgoing (extroverted) mind of the senses is fundamental to any yogic system. If we are an intuitive - intellectual type of personality, the path of jnana yoga might possess a tremendous appeal. Whereas, if we are emotionally oriented, the highly abstract nature of a jnana yoga method might strike us as being cold and lifeless. Sooner or later we have got to learn to directly study and experience the fact that we have no control over our minds. We cannot control our own thoughts for even a minute without having our awareness ricocheting off on an endless series of tangential diversions. Genuine application of jnana yoga confirms the fact that we are slaves to sensory input projected onto our minds. Unless we have diligently studied the mechanics of the mind through meditation we will never know how fragmented and dissipated our mental focus actually is. The analogy of the mind as being like an uncontrollable monkey swinging from branch to branch (from sense object to sense object) is a classic example of Indian philosophy's attempt to convey the fickle and sensory-grasping nature of all human awareness. The senses are constantly bombarding our consciousness with an endless array of impressions which immediately impinge upon our awareness, with predictably negative results. Ramana Maharshi claimed that ultimately the mind and the ego do not exist (in the sense that we usually view them). For him, only the Self was Real. Now this position might sound tantalizing to our ears, but we are confronted by the seemingly insurmountable task of trying to actually become that realized awareness. The only viable alternative is to begin a rigorous

disciplining of our chaotic minds as a starting point for spiritual practice. We cannot successfully just jump into a direct-enquiry analysis of consciousness without previous training in mental concentration. The distinction between indirect versus a direct method of meditation (as previously discussed in this essay) is very real in fact, but one should realize that the concurrent use of both methods might be necessary for a period of time until an unshakeable power of mental energy is harnessed which will enable one to relentlessly pursue an intense self-analysis of one's mind without surrendering from fatigue at the first sign of resistance from the relative ego(s). Vichara (selfenquiry) must become a continuous, unbroken mental current "for the ego will try to make a truce with this current of awareness and if it is once tolerated it will gradually grow to power and then fight to recover supremacy." (20) Concentrative ability (often called "samadhi power" in the Hindu tradition) is the fundamental meditation skill whose importance cannot be overemphasized. Those of us who might be telling ourselves that we know how to regulate our thinking, had better take another long, hard look at the deeply-engrained, mechanical and uncontrollable nature of awareness. Ramana Maharshi died in 1950 at his ashram in Tiruvannamalai. An important consideration is, did he transmit his Realization to any of his disciples before his mahasamadhi (final absorption in the Self at the time of death)? If so, are they teaching in the West or elsewhere? These questions remain unanswered, although there is no doubt that this venerable teacher left his presence felt on many individuals. In any case, his stature as one of the greatest esoteric teachers of this century remains an unchallenged fact. The profound qualities of his spirituality will always stand as a monumental contribution to the Indian mystical heritage. Footnotes 1. T.M.P. Mahadevan, Ramana Maharshi - The Sage of Arunacala (London, 1977), p. 3 2. Arthur Osborne, Ramana Maharshi and the Path of Self-Knowledge (New York, 1973), p. 18 3. Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi, Words of Grace (Tiruvannamalai, 1971), p. 2 4. Mahadevan, p. 24 5. Ibid., p. 24 6. Ramana Maharshi, The Spiritual Teaching of Ramana Maharshi (Boulder

London, 1972), p. vii 7. Vedanta Press brochure, (Hollywood, 1978), p. 6 8. Osborne, p. 82 9. Mahadevan, p. 120 10. Vedanta Press brochure, p. 3 11. Ramana Maharshi, The Spiritual Teaching of Ramana Maharshi, p. 4 12. A. Devaraja Mudaliar, Day By Day With Bhagavan (Tiruvannamalai, 1968), p. 237 13. Osborne, p. 88 14. Ramana Maharshi, Words of Grace (Tiruvannamalai, 1971), p. 14 15. Lex Hixon, "Ramana Maharshi and Buddhist Non-Dualism", The Laughing Man (San Francisco, 1976), Vol. I, Number 1, p. 78 16. Mahadevan, p. xi 17. Osborne, p. 63 18. Mudaliar, p. 349. 19. Osborne, p. 45. 20. Ibid., p. 152. Bibliography 1. Mahadevan, T.M.P., Ramana Maharshi - The Sage of Arunacala, London, George George Allen & Unwin, 1977 2. Muhaliar, A. Devaraja, Day By Day With Bhagavan, Tiruvannamalai, Sri Ramanasramam, 1968 3. Ramana Maharshi, Talks With Sri Ramana Maharshi, Vol. I-III. Tiruvannamalai, Sri Ramanasramam, 1972 4. Ramana Maharshi, The Spiritual Teaching of Ramana Maharshi, Boulder & London, Shambhala Publications, 1972 5. Osborne, Arthur, Ramana Maharshi and the Path of Self-Knowledge, New York, Samuel Weiser, 1973 6. Osborne, Arthur, ed., The Collected Works of Ramana Maharshi, New York, Samuel Weiser, 1959

7. Cohen, S.S., Reflections On Talks With Ramana Maharshi, Tiruvannamalai: Sri Ramanasramam, 1971 8. Sadhu, Mouni, In Days of Great Peace, N. Hollywood, Wilshire Book Co., 1952 9. Ramana Maharshi, Words of Grace, Tiruvannamalai: Sri Ramanasramam, 1971 10. Prince, Raymond, M.D., "The Convergence of East and West: A Study of Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi and Arthur Osborne," NewsletterReview of the R.M. Bucke Society, Vol. VI, No. 1 and 2 Spring, 1973, Montreal, p. 38-61 11. Hixon, Lex, "Ramana Maharshi and Buddhist Non-Dualism", The Laughing Man, Vol. I, No. I, 1976, p. 76-80 A detailed list of virtually every book ever printed about Ramana Maharshi may be obtained by writing and requesting a publication listing from: Bhagavan Sri Ramana Maharshi Ctr., Inc. 342 East 6th Street, New York, N.Y. 10003 Also, his ashram in India publishes a quarterly magazine, "The Mountain Path," which provides an excellent overview of his philosophical ideas: (subscription rate: $4.00/yr.) Sri Ramanasramam, Tiruvannamalai 606 603, South India This dialogue is translated from a manuscript in the British Museum. The manuscript, which was found in Oxyrynchus in Egypt on the backside of a land-surveyor list of measurements, is very old. It is in a case which is chained to a table. A British officer stands by it all the time. He allows anyone to copy it, but not to touch it. Jesus to John John said: "Master, is there any material universe?" Jesus answered: "No." John asked: "Is there a material body?" Jesus hesitated a long time and finally said: "Saints believed that their bodies were fashioned of clay and this believing brought them death." Jesus said: "Let not him who seeketh cease from seeking until he hath found: . . . and when he hath found, he shall be amazed.

. . . and when he hath been amazed, he shall reign. . . . and when he shall reign, he shall have rest. . . . the Kingdom of Heaven is within you and whoever shall know himself shall find it. . . . strive, therefore, to know yourselves and ye shall know that ye are in the City of God, and ye are the City." The Real People Who are the Real People? They are the ponderers and the action-takers. They are the ones who admit their own errors and try to correct them. They are the ones who search for the deepest answers to the mysteries of the world and themselves. They are the ones not interested in the outer glitter but in the interior substance. They are the ones interested in what is invisible and proclaimed unreal by the majority of men. They are the ones who wish and strive, are open-minded and simple in heart. Book Reviews The Practice of Zen, by Garma C.C. Chang, Harper & Row, 1970, 256 pp., $0.95. Garma C.C. Chang is a unique scholar who took the time to expose himself to both the practical and intellectual dimensions of traditional Buddhist spiritual practices. His translations from ancient Chinese (Ch'an) Zen sources have proven to be landmark contributions towards enabling the West to appreciate and begin to apply the original, authentic methods of a philosophical system which has apparently been fated to disappear from Chinese soil - a victim of communism on the mainland and materialism on Taiwan. The author states that, "Zen is the pinnacle of all Buddhist thought." First introduced into China by the Indian monk Bodhidharma during the 5th century A.D., Zen soon became one of the most prominent schools of Mahayana Buddhism. Thought to be the quickest and most direct route to bringing individuals to Enlightenment, Zen does, however, present a formidable challenge. Chang flatly states that it is "the most difficult subject in Buddhism." A major portion of this book is devoted to the discourses and autobiographies of Chinese Zen masters (such as Po Shan, Han Shan, Chao Chou, Huang Po, etc). The extreme dedication of these spiritual giants of the Ch'an tradition is inspiring and awesome in the reflection of commitment and determination shown. For instance, we are given the story of one monk who

meditated for twenty years, thus wearing out seven meditation seats before obtaining realization. The "serene-reflection" type of meditation of the Tsao Tung (Japanese: Soto) school is contrasted with the more rigorous style of working with the koan exercises of the Lin Chi (Japanese: Rinzai) school. The more advanced Zen adepts focus on struggling to answer their spiritual problem in the form of koans such as "Where was I before my birth and where will I be after my death?'' Seldom have I seen such practical instructions on working with the koan-meditation practices of Zen. Chang's comments are conceptually abstract at points, but the discourses of the masters involved are purely experiential, and valuable guidelines to the levels of meditative insight. This book simultaneously offers an introductory and advanced view of the meditation techniques utilized by Chinese Zen. We are introduced to the inner secrets of how to work relentlessly on a spiritual question by raising and "boring into" what is referred to as the "doubt sensation." The confrontative anguish of facing one's own impermanence can produce, in ripe individuals, an intense yearning to know the meaning of life and death. The psychic tension generated by concentration on this existential dilemma is used to enable one to eventually break through to a deeper level of consciousness. The emphasis in koan practice seems to be on intense personal effort and mental struggle. In The Practice of Zen we are led through a meditative progression: 1. from an initially scattered to a one-pointed mind, 2. then to a mind of cultivated self-awareness and detachment from the ongoing thought flow that usually clouds our vision, 3. to the powerful level of discriminative wisdom (prajna). In a chapter entitled, "The Seven Different Types of Meditation Practice," Chang effectively delineates the techniques used in these classic, Buddhist approaches: 1. following the breath, 2. concentrating one's mind on a point, 3. visualization, 4. mantra yoga, 5. movement, 6. absorption in devotional thoughts, and 7. identifying the mind essence (the core of Zen studies).

The author was initiated into the Kagyupta lineage of Tibetan Buddhism, and actually spent a 100-day retreat doing nothing else but trying to work with one Tantric visualization exercise for nine hours a day. He has earned the right to comment intelligently on the methods involved. While reading this book I could not help but ask myself the question of what relevance the lifestyles and systems of the ancient Zen masters have to modern circumstances. They dedicated their lives full time (usually within a monastic setting) in an attempt to solve the riddles of existence. Thirty years were seen as nothing in terms of time that might have to be spent trying to "break through" one's koan. Such an attitude and setting stands in marked contrast to contemporary America where some students of Zen (or other spiritual systems, for that matter) struggle to squeeze a two week meditation retreat into their rat-race schedules. The need for a dynamic, lay approach to Zen, suitable for modern life, seems obvious. Master Hsu Yun made the observation that "people's capacity to practice the Dharma is deteriorating all the time." After studying the careers of these Chinese Zen teachers, I have no choice but to agree. by David Diaman Underground Man, by Edward Abood, National Book Dist., 1973, $10.95. This book talks of the Underground Men who either dropped out of "normal", mainstream life, or were kicked out, or were never able to fit into it. They saw and felt more than their fellow men and knew that something was very tragically wrong, but could do no more than struggle desperately to find some cure for it. They were stripped of comforting ideologies, the benevolence of a Divine father-figure, or the joys of the community of mankind. Colin Wilson called them "the Outsiders" in his book of twenty years ago. They are the rebels, the malcontents, the revolutionaries, the dreamers, the seekers, the misfits. They are the ones who sense - with keen, even morbid sensibility - the absurdity of life as it is commonly lived, the emptiness of values in an apparently meaningless Cosmos, the estrangement from Nature, the madness of the masses, the decay of culture, the abandonment of God, and the nameless craving of the soul for what is true - to the point of shattering their illusion of sanity and hurtling them into the void. Their characteristic attitude is the negation of all the falseness they encounter within and without them, more than the affirmation of anything positive and certain - other than their right to have a meaningful existence at any cost. This results in their constant state of tension and uneasiness which is the fuel for their movement. Abood describes eight Underground Men of modern literature: Dostoevsky (his Notes From Underground was the prototype of this breed), Kafka, Hesse, Sartre, Camus, Genet Malraux, and Koestler. They are not mystics, but they are the prophets of our modern age - a prophet merely being one who tells us what time it is. Their characters are restless, lonely, angry,

hungry, hurting, hypersensitive, idealistic, bitter, complex, and sometimes mad. They may extend their indictment of guilt not only to society, but to Nature, Being, or even God. All eventually find some answer or at least a direction in which to pursue it, although earlier promises to them from life or men were betrayed. Abood wisely and compassionately chronicles their stories; how their existential despair is the necessary price for the search for validity in life, and the gnawing emptiness that is the necessary prelude to finding it. The book gives no final answers, but it does give a fascinating and disturbing glimpse into eight passionate men who personify every major political, scientific, social, philosophical, and psychological movement of the past century. The book is stimulating reading - and rewarding selfconfrontation - to Underground Men and Outsiders everywhere. by John Kent God Is My Adventure, by Rom Landau, Unwin Books, London, 1935, 255 pp., $1.20. Each era has produced its share of spiritual teachers and movements. During his lifetime, Rom Landau had the unusual opportunity of personally meeting and learning from a number of such individuals prominent in spiritual circles during the years between World Wars I and II. He was a seeker whose literary talents placed him in the unique position of being able to encounter and critique, to a wide audience, such charismatic figures as J. Krishnamurti, Meher Baba, George Gurdjieff, P.D. Ouspensky, Rudolf Steiner, and others who were strongly influencing the European spiritual scene during this era. God Is My Adventure is an evaluative work possessing merit for those whose research remains incomplete in areas relating to any of the aforementioned systems. In the course of Landau's travels we are led on a descriptive tour of Rudolf Steiner's system, which grew out of his breaking away from the Theosophical Society to found the Anthroposophical movement. Steiner's unique blend of science and mysticism had widespread appeal in Europe at the time. His esoteric interpretation of Christianity was respected in many circles, and stood in intriguing contrast to his mathematical and scientific genius. Landau recognized that "anthroposophy had become one of the few spiritual movements of our time that have penetrated into almost every field of human activity.'' The author had considerable respect for P.D. Ouspensky and his philosophical system. The latter's methodically precise approach to "Fourth Way'' psychology (''he approaches truth like a surgeon") possessed an appeal which stood in direct contrast to the observed vagueness of a Krishnamurti or the aloofness of a Gurdjieff. Ouspensky's fresh approach to cleaning out the cobwebs in consciousness generated a strong interest among European intellectuals who could not find meaning in the maze of esoteric ideas that were in circulation at the time. Ouspensky's theme was

that our lives are unquestioningly spent in a state of mental sleep or unconsciousness. The mind, upon close examination, is discovered to be completely mechanical in its functions. Our imagination constantly runs away uncontrollably with our thoughts, and as a consequence our consciousness is without control or focus of any sort. Until we begin to administer a recommended process of self-observation, we cannot expect to cultivate a higher level of awareness. Ouspensky spoke with the author about his previous contacts with the early founders of the Theosophical Society, his extensive journeys throughout the near East and India, and the reasons leading to his break from his original teacher, Gurdjieff. Landau concludes that, "Never before had I met anyone working more directly and more logically to help people conquer the phantoms of sleep and to lead them into consciousness." Landau and Paul Brunton (another well-known author on esoteric matters) both drew essentially the same conclusions on Meher Baba, the Sufi mystic whose disciples referred to him as a "Perfect Master." His hypnotic magnetism and forceful presence were only surpassed by his spiritual conceit and the blind adherence of his followers. Although Meher Baba apparently did have some type of deep mystical experience in his youth, his bloated self-esteem and pretentious proclamations about transforming the world did not impress the author's investigative mentality. Another interesting tale in Landau's spiritual tour involved George Jeffreys, a then famous healer in the vein of a higher-grade, Protestant revivalist, who apparently had the capacity to harness psychic energy generated by a large group of people and project it into the sick through a process of laying on of hands. The author concluded that this man was a medium for a spiritual force generated from an extra-sensory dimension. Landau was a cautious but sincere inquirer who strove to separate the bogus from the genuine. When he met George Ivanovitch Gurdjieff his discerning faculties were put to the supreme test. After repeated attempts to penetrate the enigmatic character of this man (reputed to be a master in many fields of esotericism), Landau drew a skeptical and critical conclusion. Although not willing to go as far as some detractors of Gurdjieff, who viewed him as a charlatan and a madman, the author found this Russian's repeated evasiveness, contradictions, and abrasive nature to be unconvincing and unattractive. That Gurdjieff learned the mechanics of the projection of psychic energy while residing in Tibet (supposedly as the Dalai Lama's chief tutor) is difficult to dispute from the accounts given. The author conveys an interesting, actual experience in which he was the victim of one of Gurdjieff's "psychic manipulations," which he judged to be hypnotically induced. Having failed to reconcile Gurdjieff's personality with his complex teachings, Landau next turned his questioning in the direction of J. Krishnamurti. During a week's stay at the latter's California home at Ojai Valley, a personal exchange of ideas occurred as the author sought to gain clarity in place of

vagueness, in attempting to study and apply Krishnamurti's philosophical ideas. During this encounter, Landau developed a deep appreciation of Krishnamurti's sincerity of purpose, high ideals, and the "beauty of his personality"; but his "unconvincing logic" and ambiguous mode of written expression still inhibited the author's attempts to establish a deeper rapport. The recurring Krishnamurti theme that recognized the necessity of suffering for the attainment of truth did strike a resonant chord in the writer's mind. A most intriguing part of God Is My Adventure lies within the concluding postscript, written thirty years after the compilation of the original work. This perceptive analysis in retrospect offers revealing insights into the reasons why some movements withered while others flourished, as well as a general overview of existing psychological-philosophical trends of the times. The writer is quick to denounce the semantic babble of most post-war British and American philosophers; and also excoriates the Beatnik Zen, and the popularized Vedantin version of Indian philosophy that emerged in California during the 1950's and 1960's. Curiously enough, after his spiritual odyssey has finally run its course, we learn of the author's eventual attraction and commitment to working with the ideas of the Sufi mystic, Ibn Arabi. Combining the latter's philosophical perspective with the workable parts of his Christian heritage, Rom Landau thus sets off on his own spiritual journey. by David Diaman TAT Book Service [[2 Pages of books for sale]] Wisdom is Timeless [[Back issues order form]] Esoteric Studies Society Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - Fosters Albigen System A Psychological System Aimed at Self-Definition. Employs Esoteric Methods and Intense Work Confrontation Sessions - Open to Public Every Thursday 7:30 PM - Univ. of Pitt. Open to Public Every Friday 7:30 P M Esoteric Library Available

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TAT Journal 1977-1986 (Vol. 1)  

• New Age, Old Age and In-Between, by Joseph Kerrick Mr. Kerrick lives in Philadelphia and is the author of a book, Is There A Way Out? • Me...