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1 of 16 The Life Force

By

Ian Beardsley

Copyright © 2018 by Ian Beardsley



2 of 16 It is here that we see the suggestion of looking at pseudo panspermia, the idea that the organic molecules used to make biological life originated in space and became incorporated into the into the stellar nebulae from which planets formed and seeded the planets for life. So it says life has its beginnings in space. I think if such a thing is the story, then we might say that life is not just a process of the Universe, but is the purpose of the Universe, and thus exists abundantly throughout it. Here, in my work, we see not only a dynamic connection between artificial intelligence and biological life, but parallel lines of evolution. This is even more clear in my work Artificial Intelligence Is Connected To Evolution. I may even say here not only do we understand biological evolution through the study of artificial intelligence, but that the two may be so intertwined that we can’t speak of one without speaking of the other.

There is considerable data showing organic molecules in the interstellar gas clouds.

1970’s Chandra Wichramasinghe proposed a polymeric composition based on formaldehyde (CH2O). A molecule is positively ionized by cosmic rays which attracts a nearby neutral molecule’s electrons.

2008 Analysis of (carbon 12)/(carbon 13) isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in a meteorite (The Marchison Meteorite) indicates a non-terrestrial origin for the organic molecules found which are: uracil and xanthine. Uracil being one of the four nucleobases in RNA.

2009 NASA identifies one of the biological amino acids in a comet, glycine.

2011 Scientists reported that cosmic dust contains complex organic matter that could be created naturally and rapidly by stars.

2012 Astronomers at Copenhagen University reported the detection of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in the protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 at a distance of 400 light years. Glycolaldehyde is needed to form RNA.

2012 NASA reported that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons subjected to interstellar medium conditions are transformed through hydrogenation, oxygenation, and hydroxylation to more complex organics, a step towards amino acids and nucleotides, the raw materials of proteins and DNA.

2013 NASA discovers cyanomethanimine in a gas cloud 25,000 light years distant. It produces adenine, one of DNA’s four organic bases.

2013 In a simulation experiment it is show dipeptides, pairs of amino acids, can be created in interstellar dust.

2014 NASA says more than 20% of the carbon in the universe may be associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the starting materials for the formation of life. That they form shortly after the Big Bang, are widespread throughout the universe, and are associated with new stars and exoplanets.

2015 NASA reported complex DNA and RNA compounds, including uracil, cytosine, and thymine, have been formed in outer space conditions using starting chemicals such as pyrimidine found in meteorites.



3 of 16 Central to the emergence of life in the universe is the formation of carbon. Just how do stars make carbon? It starts from the formation of helium, from hydrogen. Hydrogen was created in the big bang that gave birth to the Universe. First, there is the proton-proton chain. This where helium nuclei are created from protons. You start with 4 protons and end up with helium, and some positrons.


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Once the star produces enough helium, carbon can be made through the triple-alpha process. But, this reaction is unlikely to occur unless the carbon-12 produced is in an excited state. We ask can a nucleus be excited if there are no electrons? Is an excited state of carbon possible? The answer is yes, it was predicted by Fred Hoyle, and is known as the Hoyle-state. It had been shown to be possible experimentally, but not theoretically until recently when NC State University physicist Dean Lee and others published the calculation. Here is the abstract:

Ab Initio Calculation Of The Hoyle State

Authors: Dean Lee, North Carolina State University; Evgeny Epelbaum and Hermann Krebs, Institut fur Theoretische Physik II, Ruhr-Universitat Bocchum, Germany; Ulf-G. Meissner, Helmholtz-Institut fur Strahlen-und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universitat Bonn, Germany

Published May 9 online and May 13 in print in Physical Review Letters

Abstract:

The Hoyle state plays a crucial role in the helium burning of stars heavier than our sun and in the production of carbon and other elements necessary for life. This excited state of the carbon-13 nucleus was postulated by Hoyle as a necessary ingredient for the fusion of three alpha particles to produce carbon at stellar temperatures. Although the Hoyle state was seen experimentally more than half a century ago nuclear theorists have not yet uncovered the nature of this state from first principles. In this letter we report the first ab initio calculation of the low lying states of carbon-12 using supercomputer lattice simulations and a theoretical framework know as eective field theory. In addition to the ground state and excited spin-2, state, we find a resonance at -85(3) MeV with all of the properties of the Hoyle state and in agreement with the experimentally observed energy. 


5 of 16 I would like to suggest that the prebiotic chemistry might have been passed through an activation function that disappeared after life was on its way to evolving.

The problem, then, of answering the question of how life began is one of finding the activation function and its mechanism by which it takes prebiotic chemistry and activates it (makes it alive) so it can now self-replicate, and evolve. We assume that as this mechanism activates the molecules, its mechanism depletes as it activates from what is available. In this sense the mechanism is a least reactant, so it determines how much material is activated before it depletes completely.

Logically, the way to determine what this mechanism is, and how it serves as an activation function is to look for the by products of the reaction that are left over, and from that, deduce its nature.

To do this, we have to look for that thing in our knowledge of the Earth’s history that does not make sense. This would be in the faint young star paradox. We know that five billion years ago, when the Earth and Sun first formed, that the sun was 0.7 times its present output and so, the Earth should have been frozen over, yet, we know it was not. That it had water in its liquid phase. Thus something was there that is not present today. That something must have been the mechanism for the activation function that “turned on” prebiotic chemistry.

I have presented it like this because 1) Life has not been created in the laboratory from scratch 2) New life does not seem to be originating on earth in present times. Therefore, the activation function is probably not present on Earth today and more than likely disappeared, or depleted after activating prebiotic chemistry. Life exists, yet we do not know how prebiotic substances organize into self-replicating systems that evolve. Therefore, we must look for something concerning the Earth that does not make sense. I suggest that would be the young star paradox. If the Earth had water in its liquid phase when it should have been frozen over, then something could have existed then that was a least reactant, or something like it, that activated prebiotic substances, in that it was responsible for warming the earth (perhaps a heat retaining substance). Also, we do not know what dark matter is. Could it be the prebiotic material, x? Or, could it even be responsible for the activation function?






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11 of 16 It would seem that the gene pools are passed through an activation function where their beneficial mutations are being iterated and reiterated. The end result in the convergence upon one, or unity,‌ Cosmic Totality, as Buckminster Fuller would call it:

311.03 Humanity can only evolve toward comic totality, which can in turn only be evolvingly regenerated through new-born humanity.

This echoes Hinduism, where Sheila Chandra sings that we spiral up and up until we reach the top, somewhere the circle stops.

I think if I understand the Bagvad Gita, the circle stops, or the final place reached, is Krishna’s abode. 





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What I am saying, is that in a particular system, like the Earth-Sun system, we don't keep evolving forever. We reach a state of evolutionary perfection for the given environment. We don't start evolving again, until the environment changes, because then, we are no longer perfect, like we may become perfect for the Earth-Sun system, but if we go to the stars, then the environment changes and we start evolving again until we achieve evolutionary perfection for those environmental conditions, which one could compare to becoming Arthur C. Clarke's starchild. I think the same applies to AI. Just as it evolved from vacuum tubes to the transistor, it will next evolve to quantum computers using fundamental particles as opposed to elements and compounds. This may be the arrival for AI at evolutionary perfection, its own cosmic totality, if it becomes self-aware. 


15 of 16 Inside the microscopic cells of life, which in a human are trillions, we have all kinds of molecules, and organelles, unzipping, and zipping, transcribing, translating, and transferring, and synthesizing, swimming around in a cytoplasm pool, or penetrating a cell wall. We read a biology textbook, and it says this is what is happening, but it never says how these organelles in the cell “know” what to do. That is, the every cell seems to be conscious, as if each has a mind of its own. As it would turn out we know what the components of a cell do, but we don’t know how they do it. I would like to suggest there is an unseen force behind this, present in every cell, and in every cell organelle. If we want to state all that we can, we find Buckminster Fuller’s definition of synergy, does the job:

101.01 Synergy means behavior of whole systems unpredicted by the behavior of their parts taken separately.



16 of 16 The Author

The Life Force  

Suggests there is an unseen life force present in biological organisms.

The Life Force  

Suggests there is an unseen life force present in biological organisms.

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