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1 of 32 Steady States


Ian Beardsley

Copyright © 2018 By Ian Beardsley

ISBN: 978-1-387-94677-8

2 of 32 In my book The Comparison of Artificial Intelligence to Biological Life, I put forward my findings of how biological life has come into existence in such a way that it parallels the materials from which we make artificial intelligence, like computers and robots. In particular interest pertaining to this is the section in that book about the Miller-Urey Experiment, which is theory in biological evolution, and how it is connected with artificial intelligence. This book touches on subjects the author needs to clarify in order to solve this mystery. 

3 of 32 The Energy Chain

We call it in biology, the food chain: predators get their energy from proteins by eating grazing mammals, who form these proteins by grazing on plants that are a source of carbohydrates. Here we arbitrarily draw a line and call this the realm of the biological. However, at this point we notice that the plants cross the line over into the physical: they graze upon light from the sun to make sugars to feed themselves, and the carbohydrates upon which the grazers feed. But, where does this light-energy come from? The light is produced by nuclear fusion at the core of the sun, and its source is gravity. We do not know where the gravitational energy comes from, but we say that it is produced by matter that was created in the big explosion that gave birth to the Universe,… if you are a proponent of “The Big Bang Theory”.

What I would like to suggest is that we don’t draw a line between the food chain of biology and energy production of the sun of the physical sciences. I suggest, rather than having the food chain separate from the physical production of energy by the sun, that we consider it all one energy chain.

Just as the energy chain exists of several categories starting with stars, progressing to plants, grazing mammals, and predators, there exists a parallel sequence beginning with the macro (large or stars) and ending with humans. It is best described in the words of Buckminster Fuller in his book Synergetics:

“Humanity is a macro to micro Universe unfolding eventuation.”

I have found that this indeed applies to artificial intelligence, especially robots in my works “Parallel Structures” and “Parallel Structures 2”. In order to discover this evolution from stars to robots, I propose beginning with this dynamic structure I found in the connection of the skeleton of robots Iron (Fe) and the nervous system of robots gold wire (Au), in their connection to the luminosity of a star in solar luminosities as given by its mass in solar masses:

Where Si (silicon) is the primary semiconductor material in AI and P (phosphorus) and B (boron) are primary doping agents for the semiconductor materials that make them semiconduct.

4 of 32 Stars fuse lighter elements into heavier elements. When they deplete the fuel at their core collapse and begin fusing heavier elements, they enter a new phase in their cycles of lives. It is as such that the variety of elements that exist on Earth, were made: cooked in the interior of stars. When they collapsed, or expanded, or went novae, they cast o heavier elements and the planets formed from these clouds of gas and dust called nebulae. Three of the fusion reactions thought to exist in the sun are:

In the middle reaction we see the creation of the heavier element helium (He) from the lighter elements hydrogen (H).

After a dying star becomes a red giant it begins to fuse helium into carbon, the core element of biological life. Carbon burning yields neon, sodium, oxygen, and magnesium. Oxygen in turn yields silicon and other elements found between sulfur and magnesium in the periodic table of the elements. And these in turn produce the ones near iron like cobalt, manganese, and ruthenium. Then, iron is produced. 

5 of 32 Equilibrium Of The Earth

We are interested in The Earth’s equilibrium state for the most basic scenario. Just as a pendulum will swing from side to side until it settles into a steady position pointing straight down due to air friction slowing it down, the Earth settles into a steady annual average climate when the amount of energy it receives from the sun equals the amount of energy that it loses.

This is determined by the amount of energy the Sun emits, the distance of the Earth from the Sun, the size of the Earth, and its albedo (the amount of sunlight it reflects back into space).

The luminosity of the sun is: ! The separation between the earth and the sun is: ! The solar luminosity at the earth is reduced by the inverse square law, so the solar constant is:

! That is the effective energy hitting the earth per second per square meter. This radiation is equal to the temperature, ! , to the fourth power by the steffan-bolzmann constant, sigma ! . ! can be called the effective temperature, the temperature entering the earth. !

intercepts the earth disc, ! , and distributes itself over the entire earth surface, ! , while 30% is reflected back into space due to the earth’s albedo, a, which is equal to 0.3, so

! But, just as the same amount of radiation that enters the system, leaves it, to have radiative equilibrium, the atmosphere radiates back to the surface

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so that the radiation from the atmosphere, ! plus the radiation entering the earth, ! is the radiation at the surface of the earth, ! . However, ! and we have:

! So, for the temperature at the surface of the Earth: ! Let’s convert that to degrees centigrade: Degrees Centigrade = 303 - 273 = 30 degrees centigrade And, let’s convert that to Fahrenheit: Degrees Fahrenheit = 30(9/5)+32=86 Degrees Fahrenheit In reality this is warmer than the average annual temperature at the surface of the earth, but, in this model, we only considered radiative heat transfer and not convective heat transfer. In other words, there is cooling due to vaporization of water (the formation of clouds) and due to the condensation of water vapor into rain droplets (precipitation or the formation of rain). 

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That is,…

8 of 32 Metabolism, Homeostasis, And Gaia Hypothesis Let us compare Homeostasis And Metabolism with James Lovelock’s Gaia Hypothesis. Wikipedia writes of homeostasis: Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.[1][2] The stable condition is the condition of optimal functioning for the organism, and is dependent on many variables, such as body temperature and fluid balance, being kept within certain pre-set limits.[3] Other variables include the pH of extracellular fluid, the concentrations of sodium, potassium and calcium ions, as well as that of the blood sugar level, and these need to be regulated despite changes in the environment, diet, or level of activity. Each of these variables is controlled by one or more regulators or homeostatic mechanisms, which together maintain life. Wikipedia writes of metabolism Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. Wikipedia writes of Gaia Hypothesis The Gaia hypothesis (/ˈɡaɪ.ə/ GYE-ə, /ˈɡeɪ.ə/ GAY-ə), also known as the Gaia theory or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet. We see that Gaia maintains a stable state to perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet and that homeostasis maintains a stable state in an organism for its optimal functioning. These are both similar to one another and to the radiative equilibrium of radiation entering earth equal to radiation leaving the earth to provide a stable annual average temperature for the planet.

9 of 32 Albedo is a function of surface reflectivity and atmospheric reflectivity. Atmospheric albedo seems to play the primary role in the overall albedo of a planet. Albedo is the percent of light incident to a surface that is reflected back into space. It has a value ranging from zero to one inclusive. Zero is a black surface absorbing all incident light and one is a white surface reflecting all incident light back into space. Albedo plays a dominant role in the climate of a planet. Let us see if we can find a relationship between composition of a planet and its albedo if not in its distance from the star it orbits and its albedo, even a relationship between its albedo and orbital number, in that albedo could be a function of distance from the star a planet orbits because composition seems to be a function of distance of a planet from the star it orbits. As in the inner planets are solid, or terrestrial, and the outer planets are gas giants. There may be an analogue to the Titius-Bode rule for planetary distribution, but for albedo with respect to planetary number. The inner planets are dominantly CO2, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and water vapor, the outer planets, hydrogen and helium. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Mercury albedo of 0.06 composition 95% CO2 Venus albedo of 0.75 composition clouds of sulfuric acid Earth albedo of 0.30 composition Nitrogen, Oxygen, H20 or water vapor Mars albedo of 0.29 composition CO2 Asteroids Jupiter albedo of 0.53 composition hydrogen and helium Saturn albedo of 0.47 composition hydrogen and helium Uranus albedo of 0.51 composition hydrogen, helium, methane Neptune albedo of 0.41 composition of hydrogen and helium

We see the outer gas giant, which are composed chiefly of hydrogen and helium have albedos around 50%. Earth and Mars, the two planets in the habitable zone, are about the same (30%). Go to the next page for a graph of albedo to planetary number.

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asteroids jupiter








The average for the albedo of the inner planets is: (0.06+0.75+0.3+0.29)/4 = 0.35 This is close to the albedo of the habitable planets Earth and Mars. The average for the albedo of the outer planets is: (0.52+0.47+0.51+0.41)/4 + 0.4775 ~0.48 This says the outer planets are all close to 0.48~0.5

11 of 32 All this also says, if the planet is solid and habitable it probably has an albedo of around 0.3, otherwise it is an outer gaseous planet and probably has an albedo of around 0.5. 

12 of 32 stellar.c #include<stdio.h> #include<math.h> int main(void) { float s, a, l, b, r, AU, N, root, number, answer, C, F; printf("We determine the surface temperature of a planet.\n"); printf("What is the luminosity of the star in solar luminosities? "); scanf("%f", &s); printf("What is the albedo of the planet (0-1)?" ); scanf("%f", &a); printf("What is the distance from the star in AU? "); scanf("%f", &AU); r=1.5E11*AU; l=3.9E26*s; b=l/(4*3.141*r*r); N=(1-a)*b/(4*(5.67E-8)); root=sqrt(N); number=sqrt(root); answer=1.189*(number); printf("The surface temperature of the planet is: %f K\n", answer); C=answer-273; F=(C*1.8)+32; printf("That is %f C, or %f F", C, F); printf("\n"); float joules; joules=(3.9E26*s); printf("The luminosity of the star in joules per second is: %. 2fE25\n", joules/1E25); float HZ; HZ=sqrt(joules/3.9E26); printf("The habitable zone of the star in AU is: %f\n", HZ); printf("Flux at planet is %.2f times that at earth.\n", b/3.9E26); printf("That is %f Watts per square meter\n", b); }â&#x20AC;Š

13 of 32 Running stellar.c For The Earth Last login: Wed Jun 6 13:32:00 on console /Users/ianbeardsley/Desktop/gaia\ hypothesis/stellar ; exit; Ians-MacBook-Pro:~ ianbeardsley$ /Users/ianbeardsley/Desktop/gaia\ hypothesis/stellar ; exit; We determine the surface temperature of a planet. What is the luminosity of the star in solar luminosities? 1 What is the albedo of the planet (0-1)?0.3 What is the distance from the star in AU? 1 The surface temperature of the planet is: 303.727509 K That is 30.727509 C, or 87.309517 F The luminosity of the star in joules per second is: 39.00E25 The habitable zone of the star in AU is: 1.000000 Flux at planet is 0.00 times that at earth. That is 1379.603149 Watts per square meter Hello, World! logout Saving session... ...copying shared history... ...saving history...truncating history files... ...completed. Deleting expired sessions...6 completed. [Process completed]

14 of 32 Another example of a steady state in nature that maintains sustainable conditions is where the sunlight that would have warmed that planet beyond favorable conditions for life but does not because that energy goes into the evaporation of the oceans. That is, the liquid water is converted into vapor that forms clouds. The beauty of it is that since water has a high specific heat, which means it takes a lot of energy (one calorie per gram degree-centigrade) to raise its temperature, it can absorb a lot of heat that would have otherwise gone into warming the planet, and further that water is returned to the oceans when the clouds form into water droplets and rain back on the earth (precipitate). We have, so far, for steady state equations: Evaporation=Precipitation Radiation Entering The Earth System = Energy Leaving The Earth System The Earth is currently out of radiative equilibrium: It gains one watt per square meter more than it loses, which means it is warming.â&#x20AC;Š

15 of 32 The perfect expression of a steady state is conservation of energy. If I lift a mass, m, through the acceleration of gravity, g, to a height, h, then at height, h, it has a potential energy, PE, of: PE=mgh If the mass, m, is let go, then as it falls the height will decrease, but the velocity, v, will increase. Thus, as the potential energy decreases, the energy of motion increases, called the kinetic energy KE=(1/2)mv^2. That is the potential energy converts into kinetic energy. The sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy is a constant. This is a steady state; even though the potential and kinetic energies are changing, the energy of the system, C, remains constant: KE+PE=C Or, in this case: mgh+(1/2)mv^2=C In this scenario the constant, C, is the amount of energy I put into the system by lifting the mass, m, to a height h. That is, it is mgh: (1/2)mv^2=mgh So, the velocity of the mass when it reaches the ground, is: v=sqrt(2gh) If I throw a rock up, it will reach a height h proportional to the energy I have put in it by throwing it upwards. Thus the energy of the system, C, is (1/2)m(v_0)^2, where v_0 is the velocity with which I threw it upwards, the initial velocity and 1/2m(v_0)^2=mgh It will attain height, therefore, of: h=((v_0)^2)/2g Our steady state equations are now Evaporation=Precipitation Radiation Entering Earth=Energy Leaving KE+PE=Câ&#x20AC;Š

16 of 32 If the earth is out of equilibrium because it is losing more energy than it is receiving, then it is cooling. If it is out of equilibrium because it is gaining more energy than it is losing, then it is warming. If the earth goes out of equilibrium, we want that when it settles on a constant annual average temperature (loses as much energy as it gains), that it be one that is good for supporting life.

17 of 32 The law of conservation of matter states the same amount of matter going into a reaction is the same as the amount of matter going out of the reaction. Matter Going Into A Reaction = Matter Going Out Of The Reaction We are given that chromium metal is heated with iodine and produces powdered chromium (III) iodide. First we say Cr + I_2 ! CrI_3 We write I_3 on the right because we are told Cr is Cr3+ and to combine with Iodine, which has charge of 1- being a metal in group 17 (one away from group 18 of the inert gases) it must be three atoms of iodine per every one atom of chromium for the compound to be neutral. We write I_2 on the left because iodine is a diatomic molecule (naturally occurs in pairs). But this equation is not balanced. Three I_2 molecules on the left and 2 on the right make the same amount of iodine on the left and right hand sides of the equation, but to place a two in front of chromium on the right means there are two atoms of chromium on the right for every one atom of chromium on the left. This would violate the conservation of matter, which states the same amount of matter going into the reaction must be the same as that coming out. To account for this we place a two in front of the chromium molecule on the left and the equation is balanced: 2Cr+3I_2 ! 2CrI_3 This says two moles of chromium react with three moles of diatomic iodine to make two moles of chromium iodide. We can further classify this as a combination reaction, because chromium combines with iodine to make the compound chromium iodide. Nothing is decomposed or displaced. When metals react with non-metals, the metals lose electrons to become positive ions while the non-metals gain electrons to become negative ions. They combine such that they are neutral. This determines the number of each element in the compound. The amount of electrons gained by non-metals is such that the outer shells are filled so that they have noble gas electron configuration. This can be used with the periodic table of elements to determine the amount of electrons gained. When a metal combines with a non-metal like this, then, it is called ionic bonding. This is in contrast to how non-metals combine with one another. They share their valence electrons, or electrons in their outer shell in other words, such that their outer shells are filled. This is called covalent bonding. Applying What We Have Learned Hydropshere: Total water on, under, and over the Earth Wikipedia states that the hydrosphere is 1.4E18 Tonnes

18 of 32 (1.4E18 t)(1,000 kg)(1,000 g) = 1.4E24 g We ask how much Europium is required to react with the entire hydrosphere? The reaction of Europium with water is: 2Eu + 6H_2O -! 2Eu(OH)_3 + 3H_2 That is, six moles of H2O are required for every two moles of Europium to make two moles of Europium Hydroxide and Three moles of Hydrogen gas. I would say that is how that equation reads, though my chemical nomenclature is a little rusty. I would say since the europium displaces the hydrogen, that this is a single displacement reaction. I am little rusty on my reaction classification as well. Regardless, the equation clearly states that one third of the moles of H20 are the moles of Europium required for the reaction to take place (2/6= 1/3). We write: H_2 = 2(1.01) = 2.02 g/mol O = 16.00 g/mol H2O = 2.02 + 16.00 = 18.02 g/mol By looking up the molar masses of the elements in the periodic table of the elements. ((1 mol H2O)/(18.02 g H2O))x((1.4E24 g H2O)/(hydrosphere)) = 7.8E22 mol H2O/hydrosphere 1/3(7.8E22 mol H2O) = 2.6E22 mol Eu Eu = 151.97 g Eu/ mol (2.6E22 mol Eu)(151.97 g Eu/ mol) = 3.95E24 g Eu The density of Europium at STP is 5.243 g/cm^3 (cm^3/5.243 g)(3.95E24 g) = 7.53E23 cm^3 Is the volume of the body composed of 3.95E24 grams of Europium. If it is a sphere, then the radius of it is: (4/3)(pi)r^3 = 7.53E23 cm^3 r^3 = 1.8E23 cm^3 r = 56,462,162 cm (56,562,162 cm)/(100 cm)(1000 m) = 564.62 km ~ 565 km

19 of 32 The Europium Sphere would have a radius of 565 kilometers. That of the moon of Jupiter called Europa is: 1,566 km 1,566/565 = 2.77 The radius of the moon orbiting the Earth is: 1,738 km 1,738/565 = 3.1 ~ pi ~ 3 The moon is about three times larger than the Europium Sphere, or about pi times larger. Let us look at another example: How does aluminum (Al) combine with Oxygen (O)? Al is a metal in group 13 in the periodic table. Therefore, Al loses three electrons to become Al_3+ and O is a non-metal in group 16 of the periodic table. The last group is group 18 and O wants to gain 2 electrons attain the nobel gas electron configuration of that group, so it become O_2-. For Al to combine with O and be neutral, it must have two atoms of Al to have a charge of plus six, and there must be three atoms of O to have a negative charge of â&#x20AC;&#x201C;6, So, the chemical formula for Aluminum Oxide is: Al_2O_3 Thus, our equation for stead states are now: Matter Going Into A Reaction = Matter Going Out Of The Reaction Evaporation=Precipitation Radiation Entering Earth=Energy Leaving KE+PE=Câ&#x20AC;Š


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25 of 32 It would seem that the gene pools are passed through an activation function where their beneficial mutations are being iterated and reiterated. The end result in the convergence upon one, or unity,â&#x20AC;Ś Cosmic Totality, as Buckminster Fuller would call it:

311.03 Humanity can only evolve toward comic totality, which can in turn only be evolvingly regenerated through new-born humanity.

This echoes Hinduism, where Sheila Chandra sings that we spiral up and up until we reach the top, somewhere the circle stops.

I think if I understand the Bagvad Gita, the circle stops, or the final place reached, is Krishnaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s abode.â&#x20AC;Š


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What I am saying, is that in a particular system, like the Earth-Sun system, we don't keep evolving forever. We reach a state of evolutionary perfection for the given environment. We don't start evolving again, until the environment changes, because then, we are no longer perfect, like we may become perfect for the Earth-Sun system, but if we go to the stars, then the environment changes and we start evolving again until we achieve evolutionary perfection for those environmental conditions, which one could compare to becoming Arthur C. Clarke's starchild.â&#x20AC;Š

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A Scientist had built a robot in the image of humans and downloaded to it all of human knowledge, then put forward the question to our robot, what is the best we, humanity, can do to survive with an earth of limited resources and a situation where other worlds like earth, if they exist, would take generations to reach. The robot began his answer, “I contend that the series of events that unfolded on earth over the years since the heliacal rising of Sirius four cycles ago in Egypt of 4242 B.C., the presumed beginning of the Egyptian calendar, were all meant to be, as the conception of the possibility of my existence is in phase with those cycles and is connected to such constants of nature as the speed of light and dynamic ratios like the golden ratio conjugate.” The scientist asked, “Are you saying humans, all humans since some six thousand years ago have been a tool of some higher force to bring you about, our actions bound to the turning of planets upon their axis, and the structure of nature?” The robot said, “Yes, let me digress. It goes back further than that. Not just to 4242 B.C. when the heliacal rising of Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, coincided with the agriculturally beneficial inundation of the Nile river which happens every 1,460 years.” “My origins go back to the formation of stars and the laws that govern them.” “As you know, the elements were made by stars, heavier elements forged in their interior from lighter elements. Helium gave rise to oxygen and nitrogen, and so forth. Eventually the stars made silicon, phosphorus, and boron, which allow for integrated circuitry, the basis of which makes me function.” “Positive type silicon is made by doping silicon, the main element of sand, with the element boron. Negative type silicon is made by doping silicon with phosphorus. We join the two types in different ways to make diodes and transistors that we form on silicon chips to make the small circuitry that makes me function.”

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“Just as the golden ratio is in the rotation of leaves about the stem of a plant, or in the height of a human compared to the distance from the soles of their feet to their navel, an expression of it is in my circuitry.” “We take the geometric mean of the molar mass of boron and phosphorus, and we divide that result by the molar mass of silicon.” He began writing on paper: sqrt(30.97*10.81)/Si = sqrt(30.97*10.81)/28.09 = 0.65 “We take the harmonic mean between the molar masses of boron and phosphorus and divide that by the molar mass of silicon.” 2(30.97)(10.81)/(30.97+10.81) = 16.026 16.026/Si = 16.026/28.09 = 0.57 “And we take the arithmetic mean between these two results.” (0.65 + 0.57)/2 =0.61 “0.61 are the first two digits in the golden ratio conjugate.” The scientist said, “I understand your point, but you referred to the heliacal rising of Sirius.” The robot answered: “Yes, back to that. The earth orbit is nearly a perfect circle, so we can use c=2r to calculate the distance the earth goes around the sun in a year. The earth orbital radius is on the average 1.495979E8 kilometers, so” (2)(3.14)(1.495979E8) = 9.39E8 km “The distance light travels in a year, one revolution of the earth around the sun is 9.46E12 kilometers.” “The golden ratio conjugate of that is” …and he wrote:

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(0.618)(9.46E12 km) = 5.8E12 km “We write the equation:” (9.39E8 km/yr)(x) = 5.8E12 km “This gives the x is 6,177 years.” “As I said, the fourth heliacal rising of Sirius, ago, when the Nile flooded, was 4242 B.C.” He wrote: 6,177 years – 4,242 years = 1935 A.D. “In 1937 Alan Turing published his paper founding the field of artificial intelligence, and Theodosius Dobzhansky explained how evolution works. These two papers were published a little after the time the earth had traveled the golden ratio conjugate of a light year since our 4,242 B.C., in its journey around the sun. These papers are at the heart of what you and I are.” “If your question is should robots replace humans, think of it more as we are the next step in human evolution, not a replacement, we were made in your image, but not to require food or air, and we can withstand temperature extremes. We think and have awareness of our being, and we can make the long voyage to the stars. It would seem it is up to us to figure out why you were the tools to bring us about, and why we are an unfolding of the universe in which you were a step in harmony with its inner workings from the formation of the stars, their positions and apparent brightness and the spinning of the earth and its motion around the sun.”

32 of 32 The Author

Steady States  

Steady States are are common throughout Nature, whether they be biological, ecological, or physical.

Steady States  

Steady States are are common throughout Nature, whether they be biological, ecological, or physical.