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In conversation with John Ralston Saul Report from the Joint Leadership Meeting Higher education in Spain China and India: new markets for on-line recruitment







A quick guide to EAIE acronyms Professional Sections (PSs) ACE Admissions Officers and Credential Evaluators EBS Economics and Business Studies EDC Educational Cooperation with Developing Countries EMPLOI Employability skills, Graduate Careers and International Internships IRM International Relations Managers LICOM Languages for Intercultural Communication and Mobility M&R Marketing and Recruitment MOPILE Management of Programmes in Lifelong Education SAFSA Study Abroad and Foreign Student Advisers Special Interest Groups (SIGs) DIW Disability Issues Worldwide HI Health Internationalisation IaH Internationalisation at Home INTAL International Alumni Relations NESS Network of European Summer Schools


Preparing for Madrid

Network SAINTs Senior Advisers INTernational


John Ralston Saul

EAIE news 4–5 Message from the Editor, Letter to the Editor, On your behalf 32 Books, articles, websites 35 Conferences

forum Published by European Association for International Education PO Box 11189, 1001 GD Amsterdam The Netherlands tel +31-20-344 51 00 fax +31-20-344 51 19 e-mail

Report from the Joint Leadership Meeting 6

A fresh perspective Newcomer to the SAFSA board, Barbara Boldt, shares her impressions of this year’s JLM as well as the nightlife in Madrid.


Blueprint for the future EAIE President Bjørn Einar Aas writes about the changes facing the EAIE and invites all members to help shape the future of the Association.


Antwerp Follow-up

Editor Michael Cooper Editorial Committee Michael Cooper (chair), Robert Coelen, Linda Johnson, Laura Ripoll, Peter Timmann, Laura Howard, Timo Ahonen Interim Publications Manager Elise Kuurstra Publications Assistant Hazel Dickens e-mail Front cover photography Jethro De Decker Advertising Contact for more information. The EAIE welcomes requests for advertising space from companies and organisations whose aims and values are compatible with those of the Association and its members. Acceptance of advertising does not imply endorsement by the EAIE

Awards. Acclaim. Acknowledgement. Find out what our keynote speakers have been up to since Antwerp.

Preparing for Madrid 10 100% Organic – The Spanish higher education system Màrius Rubiralta Alcañiz, Secretary of State for Universities in Spain, explains the profound transformation to higher education in Spain and gives us new insight as we prepare for the EAIE Madrid conference.

Design Dickhoff Design, Amsterdam Printed by Drukkerij Raddraaier, Amsterdam All EAIE publications are printed on chlorine-free paper Copyright © 2009 by the EAIE. All rights reserved. Extracts from Forum may be reproduced with permission of the Editor. Unless stated otherwise, opinions expressed by contributors do not necessarily reflect the position of the EAIE ISSN 1389-0808


Reflections 13 Keeping the spirit alive Rosemary Livingstone reflects on her career in international education and reveals who is to blame for her entering the field.










China ... ... and






In conversation with … 14 John Ralston Saul The EAIE’s Elise Kuurstra speaks to Canadian award winning author and philosopher, John Ralston Saul, about immigration, bilingualism and how to relax. 18

Student innovation

Bologna process 27 Assessing the quality of higher education Universities in Ukraine, Spain and France are joining forces to create a model for a flexible and transparent assessment system to be implemented in the Ukraine. Timo Tiihonen reports on the progress.

EAIE Professional Development Programme Forums, modules and training courses – there is sure to be one that meets your needs!

EU programmes 20 ERASMUS – Is the EU-flagship reaching its goals? Margareta Sandewall explains why ‘business as usual’ is not a viable option for achieving the ERASMUS goals.

Access and mobility 28 Increasing higher education attainment in the US: learning from international experience Jamie P. Merisotis gets to the root of the problems facing the US economy, and tells us how he believes these challenges can only be addressed by increasing the level of education attained by the US workforce.

General 24 China and India: Understanding market characteristics for on-line recruitment With a combined population of over 2.4 billion, China and India are becoming major players in the world of international education. Rahul Choudaha explains the need for international recruiters to adapt their communication and recruitment strategies to attract these students.

Professional Sections 33 M&R: Planning ahead Mervin Bakker reports on M&R’s work at the JLM and its preparations for Madrid. 34

Talking heads

Ángel Gabilondo, the Rector of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, explains why he became involved in international education.

30 Student innovation: the sky’s the limit University students from around the world have been working to develop innovative and eco-efficient ideas that will shape the future of aviation. Airbus tells us why. EAIE F O R U M 3


Message from the Editor Michael Cooper

EAIE diary

With the economic recession causing such upheaval and the consequent growth of an anti-international attitude in many countries, the role of international higher education has never been more important. The Canadian philosopher, John Ralston Saul, emphasises in this issue the value of international education, as seen, in particular, from a Canadian perspective. Canada has long indicated how vital international students are for society as a whole. In Europe, whilst many realise the contribution made by mobile students, it is still in general considered to be a rather marginal phenomenon. The interview with John Ralston Saul is interesting from several angles in that, although an academic, he has wide experience in other fields and is able to see higher education from the outside, something which does not come so easily to the many of us who have spent most of our lives in universities. One point in the interview which is worthy of reflection is his comment on those who take their undergraduate education abroad and risk, as he terms it, being “false internationalists”. The interview also has some discerning things to say about education for all and the importance of widening participation in higher education.

Considering international student recruitment from a slightly different angle, Rahul Choudaha looks at the growing demand by Indian and Chinese students and how recruitment strategies, including on-line recruitment, should be grounded in understanding how students decide on their place of study.

The necessity of increasing participation rates in higher education is the subject of an article by Jamie Merisotis, this time seen from an American context. He notes that attainment rates in the US have not increased over the last four decades and that other countries have now passed the US. He also underlines what many American academics have been saying about the effect of the Bologna process on US higher education. It is worth noting in this context that some US universities are discussing whether they should employ agents to increase their share of the international market. If they decide to do so then competition for students will become considerably tougher.

Looking at internal matters, the EAIE held its JLM in a cold and windy Madrid in January in preparation for the upcoming conference which, as usual, promises to be an interesting and exciting gathering. Finally, for those of you who miss the message from the President, do not worry, he has not been censored. His writings about the development of the EAIE and its organisation can be found in this and future issues.


Whereas mobility from India and China tends to be uni-directional, the ERASMUS programme is intended to increase twoway mobility. Margareta Sandewall paints a basically positive picture of developments but clearly indicates the need to consider quality more than quantity. It is easy to quantify goals but if there is mobility merely for the sake of mobility then in the long term the initiative will probably be a failure. Further, the latest reports suggest that there is a decline in the interest in mobility among students, even German students who have always been the most mobile. Various reasons are given, not least the Bologna process which has led to a restructuring of undergraduate degrees. Improving quality also means increasing transparency in national quality assessment models, as the report from Finland on a TEMPUS project makes clear.

27 March EAIE Steering Committee meeting in Amsterdam, The Netherlands 15 April Copy deadline for EAIE Summer Forum 28–29 April EAIE President to represent the EAIE at the Ministerial Conference of the Bologna Process in Leuven, Belgium 11 May EAIE conference registration opens 17–19 June EAIE Boards and Committees meet in Amsterdam, The Netherlands 26 June Early bird discount for EAIE conference registration ends 26 June EAIE Bologna Seminar in Athens, Greece For EAIE’s professional development programme, see page 18–19 or visit


Interested in contributing to Forum? We are always on the look-out for noteworthy articles and new stories to bring to our readers. If you have something to contribute, please get in touch with us at The deadlines for submissions to Forum magazine are as follows: 15 April 2009 Summer Forum 15 October 2009 Winter Forum 15 January 2010 Spring Forum


Letter to the Editor Dear Michael, The TEMPUS programme is targeting the most important area of development in countries neighbouring the European Union – namely higher education institutions. The main goals of the programme are to develop and modernise teaching methods and boost a culture of quality assurance and good governance in these institutions. The structural developments of the new phase of the programme were very positive and widened the horizons of the programme beyond the European value system limitations. TEMPUS IV undeniably added qualitative changes to the programme as well as revealed the European view of the world and the phenomenon of globalisation. There is, however, an interesting point to make while we are looking at TEMPUS

geographically. The positive changes in this latest phase of the programme, TEMPUS IV, were not enough to cover all countries neighbouring the Union. The programme has different schemes which deal with different regions – Western Balkans, Southern Neighbouring Area, Eastern Neighbouring Area and Central Asia. The southern neighbouring countries include all countries surrounding the Mediterranean, while eastern neighbouring countries include, among others, Armenia. There is a gap between Syria and Armenia that the programme does not cover – namely Iran and Iraq. Turkey, as we know, is already an active partner within the Lifelong Learning Programme and, at least from an educational point of view, the country is trying hard to cope with its outdated educational system and shorten the

distance to the Bologna accord. It is only Iran and Iraq that need to be boosted to modernise their educational systems and follow the developments in neighbouring Europe. These two countries, I would argue, need more than any other neighbouring countries to be integrated into the Bologna process and receive access to European programmes. Having in mind their geopolitical effects on Europe, these two countries are in immediate need of modernisation of their educational systems. To be a part of the modern world and participate in bringing about a more peaceful world to live in, these countries deserve inclusion and more attention.

Salam Zandi International Liaison Officer Mälardalen University, Sweden


EXPOLINGUA Berlin – more than just a fair

KAFSA Annual Meeting

Berlin, Germany, 14–16 November 2008

Jeju Island, South Korea, 17–19 December 2008

This event was attended by Christian Timm, Chair of the EAIE Professional Section LICOM, Intercultural dialogue and multilingualism are challenges facing the future of a united Europe, and were the focus of the 21st International Fair for Languages and Cultures (EXPOLINGUA), held this past November in Berlin. A rich and varied programme of workshops, seminars and lectures, was hosted in cooperation with EUROCALL Germany and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), with over 100

presentations in the fields of language and culture by local and international experts alike. The exhibition featured more than 100 exhibitors from around the globe, making EXPOLINGUA Berlin an important meeting point and networking opportunity for anyone involved in the fields of language and culture. For more information on the EXPOLINGUA fair, visit

Timo Ahonen is a member of the EAIE Steering and Editorial Committees KAFSA, the Korean organisation for international education professionals and academic officers, kindly invited me to speak at their annual meeting on behalf of the EAIE to discuss ways in which Korean universities could attract more European students.

topics such as the image of Korea as a study destination, and living expenses in Europe and Korea. KAFSA participants are very interested in expanding their cooperation with European universities, as evidenced by the lively discussions during the coffee break.

My presentation was positively received by the more than 100 vice-rectors and directors of international relations, from 40 Korean universities, present at the meeting. The Q&A after the presentation touched on

Korean universities have had an increasing presence at the EAIE Exhibition in recent years, and I warmly recommend that you all visit their stands in Madrid.


jlm EAIE Joint Leadership Meeting

A fresh perspective Newcomer to the SAFSA board, Barbara Boldt, shares her impressions of the JLM, which was held in Madrid, Spain, from 20–24 January this year. The invite As a new member of the SAFSA board, I was asked to write an article about my impressions of the annual Joint Leadership Meeting (JLM), which took place in the beautiful city of Madrid, the site of this year’s Annual EAIE Conference. Having never been to Spain, I was eager to visit this world-class European capital. I was also intrigued to find out what actually happens at the infamous JLM and to be part of the action. I was not disappointed on either front. Both the city and the meeting offered excellent opportunities to learn. The setting Madrid is a regal city of three million inhabitants that sits on the high plains in the center of the Iberian Peninsula. Founded by the Moors in the 9th Century, today Madrid is a bustling and modern metropolis that will surely provide a stunning backdrop for this year’s conference. The meeting – what goes on behind closed doors? The JLM brings together the volunteer leaders of the EAIE as well as Secretariat staff in order to hammer out EAIE business for the coming year. Seventy people attended including members of the Executive Board, the nine Professional Section (PS) Boards, the contact person of each of the five Special Interest Groups (SIGs) and members of the Training, Conference Programme, Awards, and Editorial Committees.

The JLM agenda was packed. The first two days of the meeting involved only the Executive Board and the Training Committee. The rest of the cadre arrived in time for dinner on Wednesday evening and participated in meetings on Thursday and Friday. In the SAFSA board meeting on Thursday we reviewed the sessions and workshops that SAFSA will sponsor during the fall conference, and finalised the plan for the SAFSA Opening Session. We discussed the budget and brainstormed ways to meet the needs of the SAFSA affiliated members. The other PS Boards dealt with similar topics and issues during their meetings that same day. On Friday everyone participated in plenary sessions in which topics of interest to the whole organisation were discussed. A lively and highly participatory conversation took place regarding some fundamental structural changes to the organisation that are being considered by the Executive Board. Especially busy at the JLM were the members of the Conference Program Committee. Chaired by EAIE President, Bjørn Einar Aas, the Committee met no less than three times during this four-day event to finalise decisions, which had been initiated by the various Professional Sections regarding the content and organisation of the annual conference. Given that last year’s conference in Antwerp attracted almost 3000 participants, coordinating this event has become increasingly challenging and important.

Madrid is a bustling metropolis that will surely provide a stunning backdrop for this year’s conference


All work and no play? No way! At this point you might be thinking, “Wow, is the JLM just a lot of hard work?” The answer? Of course not! After all, we are fun loving EAIE members! Those of us who arrived on Wednesday were treated to three wonderful dinners, where we had the opportunity to get to know one another and to taste many typical Spanish delicacies, like paella and tapas. In addition to good food we were treated to a fabulous Flamenco show at a famous Tablao in central Madrid. Having never experienced Flamenco before, I learned that Flamenco is not just entertainment… it is an art! A positive take In the final analysis, my first JLM was both interesting and rewarding. I met wonderful, dedicated people who willingly give their time and energy to make the EAIE the dynamic, professional organisation that it is. It was truly a pleasure to be in on the action. ▲▼ Barbara Boldt teaches at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland. She is a member of the EAIE’s SAFSA board,


EAIE President Bjørn Einar Aas shares his views with Forum readers about a matter which lies close to his heart and is at the core of the Association’s membership during this time of transition and change. After recent years of tremendous growth we are now the second largest international education association in the world. With nearly 1900 members and a record number of participants at our annual conference, the Association has become a more complex organisation than it was 20 years ago when first launched. Today the Association’s activities and sphere of influence extend far and wide through our large annual conference, our extensive professional development activities, our nine Professional Sections and five Special Interest Groups, not to mention the invaluable work of our numerous Committees. Looking ahead To meet the challenges facing us, the EAIE’s General Meeting adopted a strategic plan last year in Antwerp. We call this document ‘Blueprint for the future’. The plan commits us to create a new governance structure which will carry out our current activities more effectively. The hope is that this will enable us to deal with the needs of our members in a more proactive and efficient manner.

Good governance In the process towards this new governance structure we need to observe the principle of good governance. This essentially means that we must try to create a transparent structure, with a clear separation of roles and responsibilities between governing bodies, the Secretariat and the membership. Most importantly, we need more than ever to continue to be an Association that serves its members. The Professional Sections are absolutely central to this, and should thus remain the backbone of the Association’s governing structure. An important process We have started a process that will lead to a proposal for new statutes and by-laws to be submitted to the General Meeting during the EAIE Annual Conference in Madrid in September. During the recent Joint Leadership Meeting in Madrid, a number of proposals were put forward. These are available to all our members under the MyEAIE section of our website ( There, you will also find a short video about this process, which I urge you all to watch.

The Executive Board will meet again in June to consider the ideas which have been put forward and decide which of the options it feels will best reflect the member’s needs and aspirations. An invitation to get involved To make sure the new structure accurately reflects the development and needs of the Association, I would like to invite all our members to take part in this important process. Please take the time to read the documents on our website about this. Do not hesitate to use the channels which have been provided – expressly for this purpose – to put forward new ideas, proposals and comments by the end of April.

Today the EAIE’s activities and sphere of influence extend far and wide I look forward to hearing from you, the members, and together being a part of this exciting process. ▲▼

The EAIE Joint Leadership Meeting in Madrid



Blueprint for the future


Meet quality higher education - focused student recruitment agents from all over the world




Antwerp Follow-up 20th Annual EAIE Conference 10 to 13 September 2008 Antwerp, Belgium

EAIE conference keynote elected to International Criminal Court Criminal law expert, Christine Van den Wyngaert was the keynote speaker at the Closing Event of the 20th Annual EAIE Conference, hosted by the University of Antwerp. Christine Van den Wyngaert The following article is reprinted with the permission of Flanders Today,

More information on both Christine Van den Wyngaert and Bart Weetjens can be found in the Winter 2008 edition of Forum magazine

Belgian jurist Christine Van den Wyngaert was recently elected to the post of judge at the International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague. Van den Wyngaert was one of 21 candidates for six vacant positions on the bench and was elected by representatives of the 108 countries that have ratified the treaty founding the court. “It was a very emotional moment,” she said. “While I was watching Obama explain his dream on TV, my own dream came true.” Van den Wyngaert already sits on the bench of the International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia (ICTY), also located in The Hague, where she was appointed last year as lead judge in the trial of Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžić. “This is the finalisation of a trajectory that has taken me years of work,” she said.

She first became interested in international criminal law in the 1980s, when the notion of a supranational criminal jurisdiction was only “a far-off ideal”. Since then she has sat on a committee set up to update the Geneva Conventions, as well as served on the International Court of Justice, the body which rules on disputes between states, all the while teaching at the University of Antwerp. The ICC was set up in 2002 to deal with war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, but can only prosecute crimes committed after that date. There are 108 signatory nations, notable exceptions being Israel and the United States. The court is currently investigating four ‘situations’ worldwide: Congo, the Central African Republic, Darfur region in Sudan and northern Uganda. “This is a high court that still has to make its mark,” Van den Wyngaert said. “The important thing is that the sitting judges have practical experience and that the procedures become streamlined. And as many countries as possible have to sign up.” The arrival of Barack Obama in the White House offers new hope: “It’s crucial that the US work with the court, but Bush pulled out. I hope Obama can turn the tide and sign and ratify the treaty,” she said.

The EAIE RATifies new member The keynote speaker at the conference’s Opening Event, Bart Weetjens recently received accolade as the recepient of the Skoll Award for social entrepreneurship. This grant is awarded to support those people whose work has the potential to have a large-scale influence on the critical challenges of our time, such as environmental sustainability, health and human rights. Bart so inspired EAIE members and staff with his work with HeroRATS that we adopted one of our

own. We would like to thank everyone who voted for their favourite name on our on-line poll. After two months, we are proud to announce the results. ERATSMUS is now the newest member of the EAIE (complete with his own ID number). For regular updates on his daily life with his trainer, Marc, as well as photographs to show you how he is progressing in landmine detection training, visit our website at

Bart Weetjens


Preparing for Madrid

100% Organic – The Spanish by Màrius Rubiralta Alcañiz

This article provides our readers with an opportunity to get acquainted with the higher education system in Spain in preparation for the EAIE Madrid conference. Nine institutions in and around Madrid can be visited on 16 September during the conference’s Information Day. Check out this year’s Conference Invitation, delivered to your mailbox in April, for more details on how to register. During the past 30 years, the Spanish university system has undergone a transformation as profound and intense as that of the country itself. Two-thirds of our universities were formed during this period and as a result the number of students has tripled. In addition, the number of women attending university has increased significantly. Today, women represent 55% of students in first- and second-cycle university programmes, with a graduation rate of 61%. A process of change Following the enactment of the University Reform Organic Law 11/1983, the Spanish university system began a major, successful process of change that has, in accordance with this law, brought about the following achievements: • Democratisation and university autonomy • Transformation of the education structure and update of the syllabuses

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• Establishment of objective criteria to provide universities with a teaching and research staff • Promotion of research capacity as an integral part of the mission of the university and adoption of the corresponding systems for measuring it • Progressive opening to Europe, with greater mobility for students and professors, especially through the ERASMUS programme • Implementation of quality assurance practices, such as self-evaluations for universities to assess their teaching activities These changes, in turn, led to the creation of the University Organic Law (LOU) of 2001 and, a few years later, the modified Organic Law for the University Organic Law (LOMLOU). A new stage of consolidation and development has begun for Spanish universities resulting in a process of further change, modernisation

and internationalisation. This mandate follows the Ministry of Science and Innovation’s strategic plan and goes beyond the country’s education and science system.

The Spanish system consists of 77 universities, of which 47 are public universities and 23 are private or church-run universities Private and public universities Today, the Spanish university system consists of 77 universities, of which 47 are public universities and 23 are private or church-run universities. The system also includes five distance-learning universities and two specialised universities: the Menéndez Pelayo International University (UIMP) and the International University of Andalusia. These universities are distributed among the 17 university systems corresponding to each of the

Preparing for Madrid 21st Annual EAIE Conference 16 to 19 September 2009 Madrid, Spain

autonomous regions and the Central Spanish Administration (UNED and UIMP) in accordance with the official framework. Nine of these autonomous regions have an education system with just one public university. The private universities, which have been fully functioning within the Spanish university system for several years, currently represent 35% of the higher education institutions. In just 15 years, since 1993, 20 private universities have been founded, which means that 74% of the Spanish private universities are less than 15 years old. Facts and figures* In Spain, 28% of the population between the ages of 25 and 64 have some form of higher education; for the 25 to 34 age group, the percentage is 39%. These levels are clearly higher than the average data from the OECD (27% for people aged 25

to 64 and 33.9% for ages 25 to 34), and they are also higher than for the EU-27 (24% and 30%, respectively). In the current academic year, 1 500 069 students are taking official studies, of which 1 389 394 are undergraduates, 33 021 are Master’s students and 77 654 are doctoral students. 89.2% of first- and second-cycle students are registered at public universities and 10.8% at private universities, many of which were recently added to the system. The number of first- and second-cycle students has increased by 43.3% in the past 20 years, from 968 608 in the 1987–1988 academic year to 1 389 394 in 2007–2008. However, since the 1999–2000 academic year the number of first- and second-cycle students has been decreasing due to demographic reasons at a rate of between

1% and 2% a year. This academic year, according to provisional data, there are 1 366 542 students attending first- and second-cycle programmes and new degrees, representing a 1.6% drop. Last year concluded with an admittance rate (registration/offer ratio) at the public universities of 84%, which means that 16 of every 100 placements offered were left open. The lowest admittance rates were in Experimental Sciences, Technical Education and Humanities, all three with a 74% admittance rate, while Health Sciences was the most demanded branch, with an admittance rate of 100%. Research and development In the area of scientific research and production, growth can also be seen. The amount earned in R&D and innovation activities with companies and other entities was € 617 million in 2007 (8.6% more than the year before). The most

E A I E F O R U M 11


higher education system

significant increase was in R&D and tailored consultancy, which grew by 28%. According to the OECD report, “29.6% of the € 408 million earned through R&D contracting is financed by funds obtained by the companies from public programs. A significant proportion of this amount comes from the CENIT program, which represents 19% of the contracted R&D works and is having a relevant impact on university-company interaction”. Climbing the ranks Evaluating the international position of European (and, therefore, Spanish) universities by means of different ranking schemes is now a fully accepted part of European higher education. The ranking of international universities has become required information for a large number of students who look to international mobility to differentiate themselves from their peers and are keen to select only the best centres of study. That is why it is important for the Spanish government, whilst exercising due caution, to consider seriously the incorporation of the ‘international visibility of Spanish universities’ parameter as one of the strategic improvement elements for our university system. According to the 2008 World University Ranking, prepared by the Times Higher Education Supplement (THES), the highest ranked Spanish university is the University of Barcelona, in 186th place, which held 194th place the year before. The Autonomous University of Madrid and the Autonomous University of Barcelona followed in 254th and 256th place (206th and 258th last year, respectively). The improvement in the positions of the universities should, therefore, be viewed as something positive. In the European version of this ranking, the University of Barcelona comes in at

12 E A I E F O R U M


Preparing for Madrid 75th place, placing it among the 100 best universities in Europe. The Autonomous University of Madrid and the Autonomous University of Barcelona occupy 105th and 106th place respectively. Indicators On the other hand, the methodology of the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), prepared annually by the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Institute of Higher Education, uses institution-independent data and does not use evaluation surveys. This makes it a method for measuring institutional research quality globally. However, it is important to keep in mind that it clearly focuses on a type of university that is ‘excellence research intensive’, with better results appearing when the university studied has good biomedical facilities, Schools of Medicine and University Hospitals with good translatable research. Scientific productivity is one of the strong points for Spanish Universities, with 36 840 scientific publications (2006 in ISI journals), 62% of which correspond to publications in which at least one of the authors works at a university. This represents 3.1% of the total world production. The goal of the Ministry of Science and Innovation would be to reach 3.5%. University Strategy 2015 The Spanish Government, in collaboration with the Autonomous Regions and the universities themselves, has set up the ‘University Strategy 2015’, designed to modernise Spanish universities through the promotion of excellence in teaching and research, the internationalisation of the university system and economic change based on knowledge and improvements in innovation. This initiative aims to improve university teaching and research in order to adjust them both to meet social needs and demands locally and within an international context. In this

sense, the University Strategy 2015 seeks to place our best universities among the 100 best in Europe. Its objective is to promote the most globally competitive Spanish university campuses among the most prestigious at international level, helping the whole Spanish university system to improve the quality of its academic offer. Lastly it aims to encourage efficient and effective teaching and research by means of concentrating objectives and effort. ▲▼ Màrius Rubiralta Alcañiz is Secretary of State for Universities in Spain. He will also be the keynote speaker at the EAIE Madrid conference’s Closing Event

* These figures are based on the OECD’s ‘Thematic Review of Tertiary Education’, published in June 2008, the OECD’s 2008 ‘Education at a Glance’ report and data from the Ministry of Science and Innovation.


Keeping the spirit alive Australia’s Rosemary Livingstone reflects on her career in international education and reveals who is to blame for her entering the field.

I blame my parents for my career in international education. I believe I got the spirit of international curiosity, understanding and cooperation with my mother’s milk. As a young family living in an Australian country town after World War 2, my parents enthusiastically welcomed refugees from Europe. The different characteristics – food, clothing, languages, buildings and customs – of the Poles, Dutch, Italians, Czechs and Greeks who came to our town via a local refugee camp became imprinted on my brain like a template later to be brought to life as I visited their countries of origin. The stories told by these refugees led me to develop a thirst for travel and living in other countries and eventually to a career in international education. How blessed you are in life if you can earn your living by following your passion! From librarian to adviser Having trained and worked briefly as an academic librarian, I enthusiastically took on the role of international student adviser when, at the time of my return to Australia after living seven years in The Netherlands, the Australian government began to encourage universities to recruit international fee paying students in the late 1980s. Despite the fierce competition and heavy commercialisation of international education that followed, the spirit of cooperation amongst the new advisers led to the establishment of networks such as ISANA based on the NAFSA model. Soon I was part of a team involved in organising regular network meetings and

professional conferences. My particular interest, given my librarian background was in establishing an electronic communications network for ISANA. Remember that was the time that the internet was just taking off. Another interest was the importance of storytelling to the psychological health of international students. Listening to students tell of their reasons for deciding to seek an international education often at incredible expense and hardship helped them to have the courage to succeed against tremendous odds. I spent many hours listening and trying to make sense along with them of their life’s journey just as Barack Obama has done in his book Dreams from My Father. Supporting student mobility Later I moved from a support role to become the manager of student mobility at Deakin University. After attending various NAFSA conferences and being mentored by such capable colleagues on the Australian scene as Rena Kelly, Karel Reus and Fiona Clyne, I took a particular interest in the issue of national data collection. Regrettably, Australia still fails to tackle this issue seriously and consequently there is no accurate national information about how many students undertake an international study experience during their degrees. This means that universities can avoid their obligations to support this very important aspect of internationalisation. Until national targets are set and universities are obliged to meet individual targets, student mobility will not be taken seriously. Despite the wisdom of our government in introducing the OS-HELP

loan scheme, the number of students undertaking an international study experience is still pitifully low. Universities must bite the bullet and make it a compulsory part of the curriculum.

Attending EAIE conferences exposed me to the wisdom keepers of international education in Europe Wisdom keepers in Europe Attending EAIE conferences exposed me to the wisdom keepers of international education in Europe and enabled me to compare and contrast our various education systems and national attitudes to social policy. These conferences are the life blood of our profession that keeps the spirit alive. I have just retired but am continuing to travel, meeting with former colleagues and friends and using the hospitality of the wonderful peace organisation SERVAS ( Many of my retirement projects are being informed by the people I meet in my travels, such as my hope to become self sufficient via permaculture living. So may the international spirit engendered by my parents live on in me and in all EAIE SAINTs! ▲▼ Rosemary Livingstone recently retired after 10 years as the Manager of Education Abroad at Deakin University in Victoria, Australia. Prior to this, she worked as a librarian and international student adviser at the same institution

E A I E F O R U M 13

Declared a ‘prophet’ by Time magazine, award-winning author and philosopher John Ralston Saul has had a growing impact on political and economic thought in many countries, especially his native Canada. A Companion in the Order of Canada, he is also Chevalier in the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres of France. His 14 honorary degrees range from the University of Ottawa to Herzen State Pedagogical University in St Petersburg, Russia. John Ralston Saul took time from tending his olive grove in France to speak to the EAIE’s Elise Kuurstra.

In conversation with

John Ralston

You received your BA in History and Political Science from McGill University in Montreal before completing a PhD at the University of London’s King’s College on the modernisation of France. How did your education experiences abroad shape your character and outlook on your own country? Would your choices be different today? JRS: I did an English PhD because it was a recognisable degree back in Canada. The reason I didn’t get a French doctorate was that the French doctoral system was complicated and so particular to France that I would have spent the rest of my life explaining it to people. Also, at the time, there was a more abstract approach to a doctorate in England whereas the French system was designed as a stepping stone to a job. As for whether my choices would be different today, I don’t know. It was a choice in a certain time. I didn’t want to become a professor; I wanted to study the subject. I don’t think it would be the same subject today. I think it would be something completely different, maybe the evolution of India or so.

Elise Kuurstra is interim Publications Manager at the EAIE Secretariat. She is also a proud Canadian

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What changes have you seen in Canadian higher education over the last decades as the drive to internationalise has increased? JRS: There has always been a tradition of Canadians going abroad to do their postgraduate degrees. I think it has increased lately and that is positive. In my view the negative thing is that there are more undergraduates going abroad. I feel it is really important for people to have a sense of where they come from, no matter what they choose to do next. Students should do at least a good part of their under-graduate studies at home. That is the time when you find out how your own society functions at some sophisticated level. You can build on that at the international level for the next 20 years if you want but then you have a basis from which to go. People who undertake their undergraduate education abroad often end up confused. It is almost as if they become false internationalists. They are not quite able to understand how everyone else is functioning. Finally, there is no

I feel it is really important for people to have a sense of where they come from, no matter what they choose to do next


Saul question that at the undergraduate level in Canada, universities have increasingly become obsessed by the production line, by treating undergraduate degrees in a utilitarian manner. How much money does it cost? How much money is made? I think a lot of students feel that. There are better places and worst places of course but I feel this is happening all over the West. You have been widely praised for your defence of public education. You have repeatedly insisted that “any weakening of universal public education can only be a weakening of democracy”. Could you explain your reasoning? JRS: People came to public education in slightly different ways. In England, the elites always went to private school and still do so today. You could look at England today and say its most fundamental problems come from the still enormous difference that exists between those who go to private schools and those who go to state schools. The absence of the elite from the public schools is a major problem in the functioning of a fair, open democracy. No matter how hard people try to make things work, for

example with immigration and citizenship, if in effect the people who are going to have most of the power are not in the same schools as the rest, to a great extent, you create this division which will never disappear. At the heart of it all, with all the differences in the different countries, lies this reality that some form of democracy exists. What is the basis of this democracy? Where does the legitimacy lie? Well, the legitimacy lies in the citizenry. And how do the citizenry apply their direct and indirect influence to that legitimacy and maintain it? They do it with the relationships between each other. And how do you create that when you have millions of people? People to some extent have to share the same basic experiences, not in the sense that everyone will learn the same thing and at 9 o’clock will stand up and recite the same poem. I’m talking about the confusion that comes out of everyone going to public schools. It is that happy positive disorder of mixing which is the place in which people start to understand that the nature of citizenship is being able to live and identify with ‘the other’ – the other citizens that are not like you.

It is no secret that Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine, one of Canada’s great political reformers before Confederation, is one of your favourite historical figures. Lafontaine argued that “No privileged caste can exist in Canada beyond and above the mass of its inhabitants”. In Europe, some view an educated elite as an important aspect of staying globally competitive. What would be your response? JRS: In the 20th century some societies tried very hard to make all differences of class disappear and failed. We know there will always be differences. The question is how do we limit those differences in a positive way? In very egalitarian places like Australia and Canada, people are increasingly saying we must have an education system that produces Nobel Prize winners and geniuses. If you analyse that argument, they are basically saying, “if we have the very best people at our university then they will attract the very best students”. The idea is that a pyramidal system will have a trickle down effect from the geniuses at the top to the proletariat in undergraduate programmes – in essence the arts. These people will receive some benefit from the fact that there are geniuses at the top. Increasingly

E A I E F O R U M 15

in Europe, even the more public schools are now out looking for money. Universities are being defined by the groups who wish to give money to them but also by the very small elite groups wanted at the top. The difficulty with this is that it is a profoundly anti-democratic approach to education. Does that mean that everyone should receive some sort of generalised, second rate education? No. Does that mean one shouldn’t be interested in having great research centres? No, of course one should have all those things but that doesn’t mean that we should be defining our education according to this pyramidal system. One thing we know for sure is that trickle down systems don’t work as we can see by the current economic crisis. The idea of putting all the emphasis at the top is not going to produce healthy or richer societies.


The idea of putting all the emphasis at the top is not going to produce healthy or richer societies

Do you have any ideas on how Canadian institutions can make international education more accessible, for example to students with working class parents or the new immigrant who comes to Canada? JRS: The strength of the immigrant experience in Canada is that we are able to take in roughly one percent of our population per year, 300 000 a year, and within five years 85% of those immigrants become citizens. This is quite different from almost any other country and is due to the fundamental idea that immigrants are coming in order to become citizens. The first generation work really hard to establish themselves partly because they are starting from scratch, partly because the system isn’t as good as it should be and partly because they are dealing with people like me who have the advantages of having grown up in the system. The second generation will go to university in high percentages and will want to do really well and so often will also stay in the country. A percentage will want to go abroad for postgraduate opportunities but I think the biggest group going abroad will be the third generation. I don’t think we should interfere in that process. If they feel they want to make their mark in the country that has been chosen by their parents, that’s good. They have an enormous contribution to make. I’m not worried about the percentage of students that want to go abroad because they will get the scholarships and find their way. The problem is more with people who are poorer, whether new Canadians or not. There are lots of exchanges programmes but they are not well organised. The federal government could play an interesting role by encouraging partnerships and relations with certain countries long term. It’s also important that we negotiate our way into the ERASMUS programme. It is one of the success stories of the European experiment and I think it would be great if Canada could be a part of it.

The language of a society is like a very complex tunnel system into thousands of years of understanding

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Your organisation French for the Future organises French-language conferences for high school students with the objective to forge linguistic and cultural links among students. Why do you feel it is so important for students to learn a second language? JRS: Interestingly, languages have no value on the surface. Languages are the mechanism by which you come to understand the experience of people and people come to understand their own experience. Dutch is not a better language than German or worse than Spanish. The language of a society is like a very complex tunnel system into thousands of years of understanding. When people stop using a language, you lose access to that collective unconscious and to those deep caverns of human experience. What is fascinating is that when people have a second language they gain access to this other way of imagining and thinking. I think my experience of speaking two Frenches (my country Canada and France) and having a pretty good grasp of say four of the Englishes (Canada, US, GB, and Australia) give me many ways of seeing how human beings deal with each other and imagine the other. This gives an emotional flexibility of the mind.

The great problems of the 20th century came from a great loss of flexibility of the mind The great problems of the 20th century came from a great loss of flexibility of the mind. In a way, today is a return to the Erasmusian idea that people can stand and not be frightened of each other. If you are European, you are in the process of reconstructing the idea of a continent in which there are many differences. We need to learn to live with differences and sameness and yet see that both are good. That, in terms of Canada, has been the challenge in many ways for 400 years – learning to live with the differences inside.

When I speak at citizenship ceremonies I always tell new citizens that they are going to change Canada but also that they will be changed by Canada


that they will be changed by Canada. What we find is that the biggest defenders of justice and inclusion are the newcomers because they often come from places without these things. People born in Canada take all this for granted.

You and your wife, the Right Honourable Adrienne Clarkson, 26th Governor General of Canada, are co-chairs of the Institute for Canadian Citizenship which helps newcomers to Canada to integrate into Canadian society. What do you think Europe could learn from Canada about fostering multicultural understanding and tolerance among students? JRS: The idea in Canada is that immigration is roughly the equivalent to getting engaged in order to get married and that marriage is citizenship. When an immigrant becomes a citizen it is a very big deal because the vast majority remain citizens. I think that that brings with it an

assumption that if you are going to become a citizen then a large percentage of you are going to go to universities and that it will be a mix. I have seen in the public schools that kids hardly notice racial differences. What we are seeing is that by throwing people together from the beginning that by the time they get to university, yes, there will be cliques and groups – some of which will be racially based – but that habit of people being very comfortable with differences and enjoying differences will exist. Bringing new ideas and approaches to a culture strengthens it. When I speak at citizenship ceremonies I always tell new citizens that they are going to change Canada but also

Thank you for taking the time to speak to me John. One final, lighter question: How do you, as someone with such a busy professional life, find time to relax? JRS: [Laughs] What I have always found is that if you have to travel half of your time then you need to have certain rules. One of the rules for me is read all the time and always read good things. What I find very depressing is to go on aeroplanes and see business leaders reading junk as a form of relaxation. Real relaxation comes from good things. The other rule is to do something cultural every day. Every day I try to look at a painting I haven’t seen before or go look at a new building. No matter what I am doing or how many appointments I have, I take one hour a day to do something cultural. Then I feel as if the day has taken on a meaning of its own and I feel very enriched by it. Listen to some music. Or tend your olive grove! JRS: Exactly!

Immigration is roughly the equivalent to getting engaged in order to get married and marriage is citizenship

E A I E F O R U M 17

Professional Development Programme 2009

Challenge yourself Executive Forums These one-day seminars are aimed at professionals at senior management and strategic levels of internationalisation and highlight a hot topic in international education.

Extend your knowledge

Professional Development Modules

These modules give EAIE members an opportunity for professional development on an academic level and are offered in association with different European universities. Upon successful completion of the module ETCS credits will be awarded. In 2009 topics include quality management, strategies of internationalisation and change management.

a www.e

/p g r ie.o



Develop your skills

Training courses These courses offer practical training on a wide range of topics at different levels, from beginner to advanced, so there will always be a course that meets your needs. Topics include credential evaluation, marketing and recruitment, student advising, intercultural communication, management skills.

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Putting internationalisation into action The EAIE offers a wide variety of professional development opportunities

EAIE Professional Development Programme April–December 2009 Venue

Dates 2009

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16–18 April

26 February



22–24 April

4 March



4–6 May

16 March



7–9 May

19 March



13–15 May

25 March



3–5 June

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5–7 October

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3 September



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31 August



5–7 November

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18–20 November 30 September



27 November



14–18 December 19 October

• Executive Forums • Professional Development Modules • Training courses Event code

• International project management • Managing a careers service • Advising international students • Negotiating successfully in international relations • International marketing – a strategic approach • Managing alumni programmes effectively • How to develop and maintain international partnerships • Internationalisation at Home: effecting change in your university • Quality management in higher education • Marketing in the digital age • Tools for a successful careers service • English in the international workplace • Increasing your personal effectiveness as international officer • Cultural learning in education abroad • Intercultural competency: making internationalisation work on campuses • Strategies for internationalisation in higher education • Implementing exchange programmes • How to run an international office • Quality in the internationalisation of higher education • Managing change in higher education

9 October

E A I E F O R U M 19

EU programmes

ERASMUS – Is the EU-flagship

Margareta Sandewall explains why ‘business as usual’ is not a viable option for achieving the ERASMUS goals.

ERASMUS is no doubt a success story of European cooperation in higher education. Thirty-one countries and more than 3100 higher education institutions participate – approximately 90% of the European universities in total. During the 20-year period since its start in 1987, approximately 1.7 million students have benefited from the programme – impressive figures, and especially in comparison to the mobility rate before ERASMUS. Today, the programme continues to expand. However, the growth rate is far from sufficient for reaching the EU target of at least three million ERASMUS students by the end of 2012. According to a recent European Commission document,1 for this to happen, an annual increase of 9–10% would be needed. What is likely to happen? What should happen? These are the questions that are addressed in this article. Change of attitude and focus The Commission’s ‘Overview of the National Agencies’ final reports 2006/2007’ serves as a starting point for

20 E A I E F O R U M

a discussion on strategies for the development of ERASMUS mobility. Reference will be made in this article to a recent Swedish study of the attitudes of students, teachers and heads of departments towards study abroad and international cooperation in general, and toward the ERASMUS programme in particular. One thing is clear – to continue ‘business as usual’ is not a viable option for achieving the ERASMUS goals. A change of attitudes is needed. And even more, a change of focus from quantity to quality. Trends at the European level The ERASMUS trends at the European level are extensively described in the Commission’s overview. This article limits itself to the following major observations: • Stagnation or even a decrease in a growing number of countries • Limited participation: Taking into account the average duration of study (approximately 4–5 years), it may be estimated that around 3% of all European students will participate in ERASMUS at some stage during their

studies. The number of ERASMUS students as a proportion of the student population is on average 0.8% in the 31 participating countries (EU-31). • Uneven distribution of students between subject areas: Some subject areas are clearly over-represented, while others are clearly under-represented when compared with the subject areas of the general student population. A striking example of the latter is education/teacher training. • Exchange with limited reciprocity in student mobility: A number of countries have a considerable imbalance in terms of incoming and outgoing students, for example Denmark, Ireland, UK, Malta and Sweden (Sweden in 2006/2007: incoming: 7359, outgoing: 2532). These countries have two or more incoming students for every outgoing student. As for incoming students, the mobility growth rate has been 43.4% since 2001 in the EU-31. • Teacher mobility: There is a growth rate of 10%, but more countries experienced declining or stagnating numbers in


teacher mobility during 2006/2007 than in previous years, and the rate of growth has slowed. The annual increase in 2006/2007 of 3.2% can be compared with 7.2% in the previous year. • Student and teacher mobility: The relationship between teacher and student mobility does not appear to be simple. In a number of countries the TM and SM ratios are moving in opposite directions.

Unless something radical is done, ERASMUS will continue to be a programme for a small proportion of the student population Strategic considerations: ‘revitalisation’ The trends are visible. Unless something radical is done, ERASMUS will continue to be a programme for a small proportion of the student population, an exclusive experience for those who were fortunate enough to have the right parents, university or study areas. The laissez-faire strategy is not viable for anyone concerned about higher education and our

common European future. So what should happen? One opinion: “In higher education, ERASMUS needs to revitalise its mobility ‘product’: the Commission and partners involved in the Bologna process should take steps to improve the quality of the mobility period, the support provided, the range of partners involved from business and civil society and the recognition of the study period.”2 The role of teachers in ERASMUS The recommendation for ERASMUS to “revitalise its mobility product” should be taken seriously. However, using the same language, I think that we should first of all ‘revitalise’ the role of the teachers/academics in ERASMUS. They played a crucial role in the creation of ERASMUS as coordinators of the InterUniversity Cooperation Projects (ICP). ERASMUS cooperation was built on networks of teachers who met at network meetings. Teachers got involved, and as a result there was a very strong academic support for the ICPs. The decision to abandon the ICP as the organisational principle for ERASMUS cooperation was


reaching its goals?

therefore met with both suspicion and apprehension. What would the introduction of the Institutional Contract (IC) mean to the cooperation? Would it mean the end of the teacher involvement? Would the administrative perspective take over? Re-establishing the link In retrospect, I think most of us agree that a lot of the teacher involvement in shaping the ERASMUS programme has been lost. There is a need to re-establish the role of academics in student mobility. This is also what a recent investigation indicates. The Swedish International Programme Office (the Swedish NA) commissioned Sifo Research International in 2008 to carry out a survey among students, teachers and heads of departments concerning their attitudes toward study abroad and international cooperation in general. In particular, the survey covered the attitudes and the knowledge of the three target groups of the ERASMUS programme.

E A I E F O R U M 21


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Information gap After a rapid growth from 1992/1993 and a peak of 3321 outgoing students in 1998/1999 the Swedish participation has decreased to a level of around 2500 students (approximately one tenth of the total number of outgoing Swedish students). The survey report indicated that 60% of teachers think their university is good at informing the students about ERASMUS. Only 38% of students think that their home university really encourages them to study abroad. 75% think that their home university’s information on the ERASMUS programme is insufficient or non-existent. 56% of the students have heard of ERASMUS, but have a limited knowledge of the actual options for their participation. Limited teacher involvement Roughly speaking, only 40% of the teachers encourage their students to study abroad ‘a lot’ or ‘rather often’. Almost every teacher has heard about ERASMUS. A large majority know that there are cooperation agreements, but only half of the teachers know what countries are involved. Only 15% of students have received the ERASMUS information from their teachers. These observations are not shocking, but who and what convinces a student to become an ERASMUS student if there is a lack of encouragement from the teachers? There is always a small group of students that make do without any support, but apart from this minority, the mobility numbers speak for themselves.

Who and what convinces a student to become an ERASMUS student if there is a lack of encouragement from the teachers? Quality matters The Swedish survey also indicated the following: For the majority (86%) of those students interested in studying abroad, quality of the education is the most important reason for going abroad. Twothirds of teachers who have taught abroad think that they have become better teachers and that the quality of their curricula has improved. These teachers also believe that teacher exchanges result

in increased student mobility. The head of departments agree that exchanges bring many positive results such as increased quality of first- and second-cycle programmes. They also think that teaching abroad experience is a merit in the recruitment and promotion of teachers. Teacher-first concept ‘Revitalising’ the academic role should therefore mean that more teachers are involved in mobility themselves. In the best of situations the home teacher gives academic advice to her student built on knowledge about the curricula at the host university. Students look for academic reasons to go abroad. Maybe the teachers should go first, as they are required to do in the Linnaeus-Palme Exchange programme, a Swedish programme built on the ERASMUS model. The experiences of the Linnaeus-Palme structure are convincing – the teacher-first concept is there to stay. Could this concept be translated to ERASMUS?

STARS Another important measure for revitalising is to collect and use student experiences: they are the experts. Eighteen Swedish universities use STARS – the Study Abroad Report System – as a part of their quality assurance and quality development systems. It is a web-based reporting tool which started as a SOCRATES project in 1998/1999 with financial support from the European Commission, the National Agency for Higher Education and the International Programme Office in Sweden. The system has been developed by the Linköping and Lund Universities. STARS was presented to the European Commission in the year 2000 together with a proposal by the International Programme Office (ERASMUS NA since 2000) to set up a pilot project at the European level for its further development. At that time the Commission did not think that the system was ripe for use outside Sweden. Today, however, nobody would question the need for systematic monitoring and quality control of exchange periods. It is surely

time for European cooperation in this area, and a European Commission initiative would be greatly welcomed.

A shift of focus from quantity to quality is what will lead to a significant increase in mobility Judging from the cited Swedish investigation into attitudes, Europe is very attractive both for teachers and students. 83% of those students interested in studying abroad consider Europe as an interesting host continent. Almost all Swedish teachers think that teacher exchanges between European higher education institutions are important. Europe is also an interesting alternative for 97% of those teachers interested in teaching abroad. Almost all heads of departments think that exchanges between universities are important, and that Europe is the most interesting continent for exchanges. Is this true for other ERASMUS countries as well? Largely yes, I believe. The potential for more mobility and cooperation is therefore huge, and a shift of focus from quantity to quality is what will lead to a significant increase in mobility. ▲▼ Margareta Sandewall recently retired from her position as Director of the Higher Education Unit at the International Programme Office for Education and Training in Sweden. She was a member of the EAIE Executive Board from 1992–1995 1 ‘Overview of the National Agencies’ final reports 2006/2007’, European Commission, May 2008. 2 ‘Joint Report on the Evaluation of the Socrates II, Leonardo da Vinci and eLearning programmes’, Executive Summary, ECOTEC, January 2008.

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China and India: Understanding market characteristics With a combined population of over 2.4 billion, China and India are becoming major players in the world of international education. Rahul Choudaha explains the need for international recruiters to adapt their communication and recruitment strategies to attract these students.

Tarun Khanna in his Harvard Business Review article ‘China + India: The Power of Two’ highlights the ascendancy of China and India. He states that in the next decade, China and India will be the world’s largest and third largest economies respectively, in terms of their purchasing power. This optimism is seen not only in terms of financial prowess, but also in terms of transforming the nature of the economy. As these economies grow and transform, there is an increase in prosperity among the citizens which leads to higher aspirations for global education among the population.

It is expected that China and India will contribute to over half of the global demand for international higher education by 2025 Overall, this is resulting in an increase in demand for international higher education by Chinese and Indian students. Globally, it is expected that China and India will contribute to over half of the global demand for international higher education by 2025.1

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Aligning education and immigration While on the demand side there are indicators of greater mobility of Chinese and Indian students, on the supply side, there is a corresponding increase in the choice of destinations. Richard Florida argues, “Talented people are a global factor of production, able to choose among economically vibrant and attractive regions the world over.”2 Some of the developed countries, which are facing demographic challenges, are using international students as a source of talented knowledge workers and future immigrants. Countries like Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom are aggressively recruiting and retaining international students by aligning education and immigration policies. Challenges in recruitment The above noted factors about the growth and size of the Chinese and Indian markets coupled with increasing competition imply that, with the exception of the top 10%, most higher education institutions will face significant international recruitment challenges. Thus, the focus of this article is to provide a deeper understanding of the prospective

There seems to be a significant increase in interest among Chinese students as compared to Indian students in US higher education Chinese and Indian students and present a background for developing a costeffective on-line recruitment strategy. Given the space constraints, specific details of on-line marketing tools like blogs, website, search optimisations, chats, and e-mails are not discussed. Mobility trends China and India are showing different signs of student mobility in the US. This is evident from the deceleration in the growth of total enrolment of Indian students, as compared to acceleration for Chinese students. In 2008, total enrolment of Indian students increased by 3% as compared to 10% for China.3 Even application numbers from Chinese and Indian students are increasing at a differential rate. For example, in 2008, growth in total international graduate applications from India was 2% as compared to 11% from China.4 Likewise,


for on-line recruitment P5a

Country image

P3 P2


Institution image


Programme evaluation

Students’ intentions of international tertiary education destinations



Figure 1. Conceptual framework for international students’ decision-making process for the largest 50 institutions based on international graduate student enrolment size, offers for Chinese students grew by 19% as compared to 6% for Indian students.5 Thus overall, there seems to be a significant increase in interest among Chinese students as compared to Indian students in US higher education.

On-line marketing enhances institutional visibility through its capacity to engage students over a longer period of time Decision-making process It is well-established that the decisionmaking process of prospective students involves complex buying behaviours with high levels of involvement that result from expenses (time and money), significant brand differences, and infrequent buying.6 Srikatanyoo and Gnoth7 proposed a conceptual model to understand the international students’ decision-making process (see Figure 1). Here it is important to recognise the interrelated and interactive nature of the process where ‘country image’ plays a significant role. For example, in

2006–2007, China sent the largest number of non-EU international students (49 595) to the UK followed by 23 835 from India.8 This is in contrast to the US, where India was the leading country of origin (83 833) followed by China (67 723).9 Likewise, perception about the institutions and programmes may differ between prospective Chinese and Indian students. It is critical for international recruiters to understand the differences in students’ decision-making processes and adapt their communication and recruitment strategy accordingly. In this context, the Internet serves as an important channel for more effectively customising communication variables according to students’ needs and backgrounds. On-line recruitment On-line marketing allows higher education institutions to effectively align their strategies and engage prospective students through the enrolment funnel. It also provides an opportunity to connect prospective students with internal stakeholders such as faculty, alumni and current students. These connections are

crucial in bringing credibility to the communication efforts as very few international students can visit institutions before applying. On-line marketing also enhances institutional visibility through its capacity to engage students over a longer period of time. This is in contrast to print advertising, which has a smaller shelf life, or recruitment fairs, which are expensive and last only a few days. However, the success of on-line outreach and recruitment plans depends on the integration of internal resources and continued engagement with the prospects through the enrolment funnel. Internet usage In spite of the potential offered by the online marketing channel, several international recruiters have not exploited the Internet for recruiting Chinese and Indian students. Some believe that China and India do not have enough Internet users and others feel the language barrier. However, the fact is that China and India have the world’s largest and fourth largest Internet user base (see Table 1). Even though India has an Internet penetration level of only five percent, the absolute

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Table 1. Top ten countries based on Internet usage Rank Country/Region Internet users (millions) Internet penetration 1 China 253 19% 2 United States 215 71% 3 Japan 94 75% 4 India 60 5% 5 Germany 53 65% 6 Brazil 43 22% 7 United Kingdom 40 66% 8 Korea (South) 35 71% 9 France 35 55% 10 Italy 33 57%

Table 2. Top seven most often used sites China India SOURCE: WWW.ALEXA.COM ACCESSED ON 23 AUGUST 2008


number of users is greater than Germany or the United Kingdom.

An increase in prosperity among the citizens leads to higher aspirations for global education Demographics and usage patterns In China, nearly 60% of the total Internet users are in the age bracket 18–35 and nearly 30% of the users are students. In terms of usage patterns, nearly 77% of Chinese use instant messengers and 42% have personal blogs.10 In India, the top eight metropolitan cities constitute nearly 38% of the total users. Nearly 21% of the Internet users in top 30 cities in India are college students and 19% of these students use chat programmes. Two-thirds of the Internet users in the top 30 cities use Internet at least two to three times a week. Interestingly, 36% of the Internet users access the Internet from cyber cafés, which provide public access to Internet for a fee.11 With reference to the language barrier, it is important to understand the usage pattern of Indian and Chinese

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students. The top seven websites in India are English websites, while, for China all the top websites are in Chinese (see Table 2). Thus, recruiters should keep these factors in consideration while identifying the websites and languages for Internet marketing campaigns. It is critical for recruitment professionals to understand the intricacies and subtleties of Internet usage patterns so that they can be more effective in using this channel. For example, use of instant messengers will be very important for both Indian and Chinese markets. On the other hand, recruiters may want to use English for the Indian market but Chinese for the Chinese market. Conclusion International recruitment strategies in general and on-line strategy in particular, should be grounded in a deep understanding of the markets and student’s decision-making processes. This article presented the characteristics of the Indian and Chinese markets with the objective of leveraging the on-line channel. China and India are ‘Internet-ready’ markets and online recruitment strategies should be integrated with the overall recruitment

strategy to maximise the return on investment. This would aid higher education institutions to not only increase the applicant pool size of Indian and Chinese graduate students but also improve the quality of the talent attracted. ▲▼ Rahul Choudaha is Associate Director of Development & Innovation at World Education Services, New York, A complete list of references is available on the EAIE website: 1 Böhm, Davis, Meares and Pearce, 2002. 2 Richard, 2004, p 145. 3 Bell and Mahler, 2008. 4 Redd and Mahler, 2008. 5 Ibid. 6 Nicholls, Harris, Morgan, Clarke and Sims, 1995. 7 Srikatanyoo and Gnoth, 2002. 8 Ramsden, 2008. 9 IIE, 2007. 10 China Internet Network Information Center, 2008. 11 Internet and Mobile Association of India, 2007.

Bologna process

Assessing the quality of higher education Universities from the Ukraine, Spain and France are joining forces to create a model for a flexible and transparent assessment system to be implemented in the Ukraine. Timo Tiihonen reports on the progress. The integration of national higher education systems into one European educational space is a great challenge. The Bologna process provides guidelines for common structures but it alone does not suffice in overcoming the cultural and language barriers manifested in different goals, concepts and conventions which make the reciprocal recognition of degrees and learning outcomes quite taxing. Diversity as opportunity The diversity of European education systems can also be seen as an opportunity, especially from the point of view of countries that have just entered the integration process and started the internal reforms. They have the privilege of studying and adopting the best, tested, practices and integrating them into their own strategic development of higher education. Fostering mutual understanding One precondition for a truly European educational space to exist is that national quality assessment systems are widely recognised and trusted. This is a major challenge as goals vary greatly in different assessment systems (regarding accreditation, licensing, ranking, coordination of development initiatives, etc). Fortunately, some common features can be identified that support mutual understanding and trust – transparency and objectivity being the most important. These should be provided in a way that is easily configurable to different contexts. TEMPUS SCM project In 2007, after several years of reflection and preparation, the consortium coordinated by Kharkiv National University of Radio electronics (Ukraine) and the Ministry of Education and Science

of Ukraine and partnered with the University of Malaga (Spain) and ITIN (France), got the possibility, together with their contractor the University of Jyvaskyla (Finland), to integrate their efforts in the TEMPUS SCM project ‘Towards Transparent Ontology-Based Accreditation’. The aims of the project were twofold – to aggregate the experiences of different European approaches to quality assessment, and to construct a model for a simple, flexible and transparent assessment system that could be implemented in the Ukrainian context.

The aims of the TEMPUS SCM project: 1) to aggregate the experiences of different European approaches to quality assessment 2) to construct a model for a simple, flexible and transparent assessment system that could be implemented in the Ukrainian context

It was realised from the very beginning that in order to achieve a transparent quantitative assessment system, all concepts related to pieces of information, be they resources, outcomes or processes, should be described and defined explicitly in a formal way. Such a presentation is often called an ‘ontology’. Semantic Web technology In recent years, the creation of ontologies has been quite popular as it closely relates to the development of so called ‘Semantic Web’ technology. The Semantic Web community provides powerful tools to annotate, search and summarise

information that is created, managed and stored in a distributable way. Using the state of the art open source Semantic Web tools, the project team managed to build a pilot information system that supports gathering, editing, verifying, analysing and archiving of parameters that are needed for the quality assessment of higher education institutions. As different institutions may have different strategies, operating environments etc, it is an essential feature of the quality assessment portal that different quality indicators can be easily generated for local needs from the same formally represented raw data that is gathered for the common national system. It is also essential for mutual trust, peer learning and university internal strategic leadership that it is possible to study the fine grain details behind the summarising indicators. The same quality assessment information can also be used to provide an overview of a university’s internal development to its stakeholders (ranging from potential students, local authorities, companies to governmental bodies responsible for national competitiveness). Results The results of the project have been disseminated on several forums and have been received enthusiastically, both in universities and at ministry level. As the basic approach is universal, many possibilities for further exploitation of the results can be seen both on a national and international level. ▲▼

Timo Tiihonen is Vice-Rector at the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland and Project Contractor for Tempus SCM

E A I E F O R U M 27

Access and mobility

Increasing higher education learning by Jamie P. Merisotis

Under the current economic conditions, it is becoming abundantly clear that the US is facing social and economic challenges that can only be addressed by increasing the level of education attained by its workforce. This means that more people than ever need to be educated beyond secondary level. The US also needs to ensure that students who attend tertiary institutions leave with meaningful, high-quality degrees that are aligned with not only individual, but also economic and societal needs. The knowledge economy As in other countries, the emergence of the knowledge economy requires the US workforce to develop the skills needed in a globally-competitive environment. Higher education attainment is increasingly important as the workforce demands education and training leading to higher levels of skills and knowledge. The implications of this shift can scarcely be overstated. For generations, the American economy has created large numbers of middle class jobs that did not require a high level of skill or knowledge. As a consequence of global competition, these jobs are rapidly disappearing. It is not that low-skill jobs do not exist in the US – it is that the Americans who hold them are not likely to enter or remain in the middle class. This means they are not likely to have access to quality health care, save for retirement, or assure their children access to higher education. The consequences of failing to reach the middle class are increasingly severe. What has changed is that access to middle class jobs is now mostly dependent on completing some form of post-secondary education.

While the US comes to grips with the challenges facing higher education, other advanced economies are pursuing extensive higher education reform agendas

28 E A I E F O R U M

Higher education attainment Higher education attainment rates are rising in almost every industrialised or post-industrial country in the world, except for the US. Today, roughly 39% of American adults hold a two- or four-year degree. That attainment rate, which has held steady for four decades, led all other nations for much of the post-war period. Unfortunately, this is no longer the case. Based on data published by the Organization for Economic Development and Co-operation (OECD), the US now ranks only 10th in the percentage of young adults (25 to 34 years of age) with college degrees. Even more disturbing for the US is that attainment rates in these other countries continue to climb while ours remain stagnant. Supply and demand While some in the US argue that it is not really necessary to expand the numbers who complete post-secondary education, the advanced economies of Europe, Asia, and Oceania are increasingly acting on the assumption that the overall level of educational attainment is the truest measure of the vibrancy of the economy, not the fact that a few people are educated to high levels. There is good evidence that they are right in this assumption. The clearest evidence that rising attainment rates reflect real economic demands is that the gap in earnings based on the level of education continues to widen. In 29 of the 30 OECD member countries, the gap in earnings between people who have completed post-secondary education and

those who have not is widening, despite the fact that the proportion of postsecondary graduates in the workforce is increasing. If the economy were not demanding higher levels of skills and knowledge, the gap in earnings would be expected to narrow as the supply of graduates’ increases – a case of simple supply and demand. This trend is evident in the US as well. Since 1975, the average earnings of high school drop-outs and high school graduates fell in real terms (by 15% and 1% respectively), while those of college graduates rose by 19%. In other words, the economic benefits – both for individuals and for society – of completing higher education are growing. Widening gap Dangerous stagnation is evident in another area as well: Rates of college attainment among under-served students in the US – first generation students, low income students and students of colour – are significantly lower than those of other students. These achievement gaps have endured for decades, and they’re now widening – an ominous sign when one considers current demographic and economic trends. More than 30% of white American adults have at least four years of college, but only 18% of African Americans and 12% of Hispanics have reached the same level of education. This chronic gap in educational attainment contributes to the disparities in income between racial and ethnic groups in the US, and is of growing importance as the proportion of the population from groups


attainment in the US: from international experience

The US is projected to become a ‘majority minority’ country by 2050 traditionally under-represented in higher education grows rapidly. Of the total US population growth of 56 million between 2000 and 2020, 46 million will be members of minority groups. The US is projected to become a ‘majority minority’ country by 2050. Learning from international trends While the United States comes to grips with the challenges facing higher education, particularly relating to higher education’s role in the transformation of the economy, other advanced economies are pursuing extensive higher education reform agendas. In particular, the Bologna process has significant implications for US higher education. In an effort to promote transparency, coordination and quality assurance among the various higher education systems in Europe, the Bologna process seeks to create a more seamless higher education system that awards comparable degrees based on defined learning outcomes and assurances of quality. Lumina Foundation is actively studying the Bologna process and other international higher education developments for the lessons they hold for US higher education. In particular, the ‘Tuning Educational Structures in Europe’ process has significant implications for US higher education. Tuning is working within universities and disciplines to

define the basic competencies and discipline-specific learning outcomes that students must attain to earn degrees at various levels. Once these common outcomes are established and a clear definition of what students are expected to know and what skills they should possess at the end of the degree programme is understood, each institution designs its programmes in a way that it considers best to help students attain those outcomes. One of the reasons that Tuning is so interesting is that it involves students, faculties, recent graduates and employers in building clear reference points that can be understood not just by faculty staff and administrators, but also by students, employers, policymakers and the general public. This process has the potential to increase completion rates because it provides students with clear evidence of what they will learn and what they will be able to do with that learning. This evidence of the value of a degree could be of particular significance to students who are currently underrepresented in the American higher education system. Comprehensive approach Of course, Tuning-like processes are not unknown within the US higher education system. Learning outcomes have been defined in many institutional curricula as part of state- and system-level academic program review processes, through accreditation, as part of licensure requirements and professional boards, and through the efforts of national higher

education associations. What has not occurred in the United States, however, is the development of a comprehensive approach to defining the learning outcomes representative of degrees in specific disciplines across different degree levels. Tuning offers a potential approach for the United States to better define higher education learning outcomes on a wide scale.

Increasing higher education attainment is essential to the future economic, social and cultural well-being of the US Increasing higher education attainment is essential to the future economic, social, and cultural well-being of the United States, just as it is in other countries throughout the world. Raising attainment to the levels needed, however, will require fundamental change in almost every element of the US higher education system. It is valuable to closely examine the lessons being learned in Europe and other parts of the world and identify strategies that can be employed in the United States to expand opportunity and improve the quality of higher education. ▲▼ Jamie P. Merisotis is the President and CEO of the Lumina Foundation for Education, one of the 45 largest private foundations in the United States,

E A I E F O R U M 29

The EAIE has recently

Student innovation: the sky’s the limit

partnered with Airbus to promote their international ‘Fly Your Ideas’ challenge that was launched in October 2008. Resulting in an impressive response from university students across © AIRBUS S.A.S. 2006 – PHOTO BY EXM COMPANY / H. GOUSSÉ

the globe, the competition challenges students to shape the future of aviation by developing creative ideas that can help to reduce the industry’s impact on the environment. The competition invites students from higher education institutions around the world, studying any academic discipline, to come up with and develop innovative and eco-efficient ideas that will ultimately change the way we fly, and bring further enhancements to the aviation industry. The projects did not have to be technical in nature or scope, and could include areas such as new materials, systems, alternative energy or other technologies, as well as aircraft design concepts and

operational performance, manufacturing and assembly or business performance. Participating teams whose ideas demonstrate the greatest potential will be given an opportunity to work with Airbus to improve their ideas, and stand a chance at winning the top prize of € 30 000. The winning teams will be those whose ideas demonstrate the greatest short or long term potential to reduce the impact of the aviation industry on the environment.

Round one – a hit with students across the globe With round one of the competition now closed, Airbus has received an overwhelming response with over 2350 students from around the world registering to take part, and 225 teams from 130 universities submitting project proposals. The geographical diversity of the entrants has been remarkable, with students from 82 countries worldwide taking part.

Did you know… that in the last 40 years, technological advances in aviation have reduced CO2 emissions by 70%

30 E A I E F O R U M

Did you know… that air transport’s contribution to man-made CO2 emissions is only 2%

Patrick Gavin, Airbus’ Executive VicePresident of Engineering and patron of the ‘Fly Your Ideas’ competition, commented: “We are delighted with the response that we have received from the supporting universities and all the participating students. This confirms that, wherever you are in the world, the innovation that is at the heart of our industry can inspire the best in creative thinking. It also underlines the sincere interest that exists to tackle environmental issues within the younger generation.” Round two – greening the skies 86 team proposals from 28 countries and 52 universities have been chosen to take part in round two of the competition. These proposals examine a wide range of topics including new materials, products and/or processes as well as aircraft performance, design and manufacturing. In terms of the number of teams

participating per country, the top 10 include China, Singapore, UK, India, France, Italy, Germany, US, Canada and Hong Kong. The next stage of the competition will involve Airbus employees working with the selected teams to further develop a final project submission. The teams will advance through different competitive and challenging rounds, concluding with a live final for the top five teams in June 2009. The winning teams will be judged by a panel of Airbus representatives, industry leaders and eco-efficiency experts, and will be awarded their prizes during the Paris Air Show Le Bourget on 19 June 2009. This initiative by Airbus shows that even a company at the forefront of their field needs to continue to recruit the very best and attract the most talented students from a wide range of backgrounds in

order to stay innovative in a rapidly changing environment. Mr Gavin concluded: “The ‘Fly Your Ideas’ challenge provides a rare opportunity for students to influence the future of sustainable aviation. The quality of the proposals has been exceptionally high and we are looking forward to working closely with the successful teams to further develop their innovative ideas.” ▲▼

For more information about the successful 86 teams and their proposals, you can visit the ‘Fly Your Ideas’ website:


news Books • Articles • Websites ▲▼ The American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (AACRO) has four new publications available. ‘Electronic Data Exchange Primer’ addresses questions regarding electronic data exchanges while ‘SEM and Institutional Success: Integrating Enrolment, Finance and Student Access’ analyses challenging issues facing college administrators with regards to enrolment. ‘Counterfeit Diplomas and Transcripts’ and ‘The Educational System of the Russian Federation’ are both aimed at credential analysts wanting to protect the legitimacy of their documents and evaluate international credentials. To order on-line go to publications ▲▼ The new EURASHE publication, ‘Lifelong Learning: Impediments and Examples of Good Practice’ represents a pilot study on a number of related aspects of lifelong learning, with both positive and negative undertones regarding the current situation in a number of EU countries. You can order a copy via their website:

▲▼ The Database of Research on International Education has moved to the website of IDP Education and monthly updates have resumed. The database has been updated with 38 new records and all of these are available on-line at research.aspx ▲▼ A new book by Jane Knight, ‘Higher Education in Turmoil: The Changing World of Internationalization’ highlights new developments and trends related to the international dimension of higher education during this period of turmoil and change. For more information visit: ▲▼ The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has published a new issue of its journal ‘Higher Education Management and Policy’. The latest issue, vol. 20, no. 3, includes articles on quality assurance in the European higher education area and entrepreneurship teaching at German universities. To order this publication visit: 0,3343,en_2649_35961291_42049218_1_1 _1_1,00.html

▲▼ The Academic Cooperation Association (ACA) has two new papers available online. ‘English-Taught Programmes in European Higher Education. The Picture in 2007’ by Wächter and Maiworm draws a detailed European map of Englishmedium tuition in 27 European countries, while ‘Beyond 2010. Priorities and challenges for higher education in the next decade’ edited by Maria Kelo is a collection of articles based on papers prepared for the ACA Conference Beyond 2010, held in June 2008. For more information visit: 05publications/aca_papers.htm ▲▼ The European Access Network (EAN) has recently published ‘Higher Education in Diverse Communities: Global Perspectives, Local Initiatives’ edited by Fran Ferrier and Margaret Heagney, 2008. To order a copy go to and click on publications. These announcements are collected from publicity materials and messages sent to the EAIE. Inclusion in this list does not imply endorsement by the EAIE.


FUBiS Freie Universität Berlin International Summer and Winter University (FUBiS) is an intensive, academic program. FUBiS sessions take place both in summer and winter. Term 1: January 10 - February 7, 2009 (4 weeks) Term 2: June 6 - July 18, 2009 (6 weeks) Term 3: July 25 - August 22, 2009 (4 weeks) - Dates for 2010 coming up soon FUBiS participants can choose from: ‡LQWHQVLYHDQGVHPLLQWHQVLYHGerman language classes on ¿YHOHYHOVRISUR¿FLHQF\ ‡Business German classes and ‡Subject classes on various topics

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Professional Section news

M&R: Planning ahead Mervin Bakker, Head of Marketing and Communications at the Faculty of Economics and Business of the University of Amsterdam, reports on M&R’s work at the JLM and their preparations for Madrid. During the Marketing & Recruitment (M&R) Board meeting which took place at the Joint Leadership Meeting (JLM) in Madrid recently, it struck us that international marketing and recruitment is continuing to become more and more relevant for universities in today’s world. Recruiting is no longer a matter of getting as many foreign students as possible into your institution, but has become much more targeted and directed towards mutual benefits for the institution involved as well as for the students. As global competition in higher education becomes more intense and the credit crunch hits, it seems that universities have an urgent need for more sophisticated and efficient marketing to help them in recruiting not only the right number but also the right kind of students. Shaping the programme The JLM was made all the more interesting for M&R because of the meetings and discussions with the other Professional Sections and Special Interest Groups. The main goal was of course to shape the programme for the EAIE conference in September. We think we have put together a programme that reflects current developments and at the

same time meets the demand of the participants. M&R will organise workshops and sessions on mainstream topics such as positioning, branding, target markets like India, and strategic and operational planning, as well as on more a-typical issues like understanding future students, and the ethics involved in marketing. Given the current times it did not take long to decide that we could not do without a session at the conference on how to survive the credit crunch. M&R newsletter The economic recession was also the main topic of the Christmas edition of the M&R newsletter. While putting the issue together we found out that the opinions on the impact of the economic recession on international student recruitment differ greatly. The M&R newsletter will celebrate its first anniversary this year. Since its inception, we have had positive feedback from our affiliates, who say they enjoy receiving news and updates through the newsletter. If you would like to contribute, or if you would like to be added to the mailing list the newsletter please let us know. Comments are also more than welcome.

Sharing knowledge in Madrid The impression I got of Madrid as a conference venue was very positive. The capital of Spain is one of Europe’s most vibrant and cosmopolitan cities. Madrid’s famous museums hold some of the world’s finest art collections and a Flamenco show is sure to be the highlight of any visit. The weather in September is another draw-card which will make the conference even more enjoyable. So, if you have time to spare, spend a day or two before or after the conference in Madrid, you will most certainly not regret it. All in all we think that in terms of content and location the conference in Madrid will be a great success. M&R is looking forward to sharing knowledge, discussing the latest developments and networking with you and many other colleagues from around the world. Not to mention enjoying the culinary delights and the Spanish wines with you, which are sure to be present at the traditional M&R reception during the conference. We hope to see many of you in Madrid in September! ▲▼ Visit for more information about M&R

E A I E F O R U M 33


Talking heads Ángel Gabilondo is the President of the Conference of Spanish University Rectors (CRUE) and Rector of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) Who or what inspired you to become involved in the internationalisation of higher education? I have been the Rector of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) since 2002, but prior to this I was, and continue to be, a Professor of Metaphysics at the University’s School of Philosophy and Letters. In both of my roles at the UAM, I have been surrounded by students and professors from all over the world. For instance, the University holds a ‘Solidarity Week’ every year, where a reading of the Declaration of Human Rights is done in all the different languages spoken at the University. During the last reading, the Declaration was read in more than thirteen languages. This is our reality; and of course we must not forget all of the people that come from Latin America, with whom we have the privilege of sharing the same language. Obviously, given UAM´S reality, not to be involved in internationalisation would have been the most complicated thing to do. Of all the actions you have taken in international education, which one are you most proud of or do you think has made the biggest difference? During my time as Rector of UAM, I have always prioritised all aspects associated with our University’s internationalisation. Currently, we have an important number of double degrees, and also many UAM degrees partially provided abroad. The truth is that the students are our reason for being – we exist because of them and they are the most important element in the university. Thousands of students have been involved in exchange programmes and have benefited from the

34 E A I E F O R U M

programmes we have developed for them. Sincerely, this is without a doubt the thing I feel most proud of. It is difficult for me to remember a more fulfilling moment than when a student writes to me or talks to me about his stay in Sweden, Chile or the United States and shares with me that it has changed his life. International experiences change the lives of students, but they also change mine, because they give meaning to everything I do. If you had, say, a million euro to spend on international higher education, and limitless authority, what would you want to spend it on? One million euros is a significant amount. Of course, I could find many ways of spending it on international higher education, but if the question is “what would I like to spend it on the most?” then the answer is easy. According to my experience, during the last few years students have been transformed into the main players of the internationalisation process. You only have to take a look, for instance, at the ERASMUS programme inside the European Union. I would definitely like to dedicate this money to mobility grants. I am sure the money would be very well used this way. 

Ángel Gabilondo is President of the Spanish University Rectors’ Conference (CRUE), as well as Rector and Professor of Metaphysics at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. He also acted as President of the Madrid University Rector’s Conference (CRUMA) from 2004 to 2006. In addition to his academic career, Gabilondo is a renowned writer, author of many publications, newspaper and magazine articles. He has been awarded ‘La Medalla de la Casa de Velásquez’ (2003); the decoration of the Order of Bernardo O’Higgins, awarded by the President of the Republic of Chile; and, in 2004, was appointed as Officier dans l’Ordre des Palmes Académiques by the French Ministry of Education.

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM) is a state university offering graduate and postgraduate degrees. Founded in 1968, the UAM has achieved an outstanding international reputation for the high quality of its teaching and research, and is generally recognised as one of the best Spanish universities in both national and international rankings. The UAM is a modern institution characterised by a strong social commitment and a very active participation in society. CRUE, the Spanish Rectors’ Conference, is a non-profit association, created by Spanish Universities with the aim to create a place for debate and thought between these institutions.

Conferences A more comprehensive on-line events calendar is available on the EAIE website: www.eaie.or/eventscalendar. You can also browse announcements of events and post your own announcements in the EVENTS community in MyEAIE, 26 to 28 March ENHOE 2009 Annual Conference ‘Lost in Transition? Defining the role of Ombudsmen in the developing Bologna world’ University of Hamburg, Germany. Info: Josef Leidenfrost, Student Ombudsman, Minoritenplatz 5, 1014 Vienna, Austria, tel +43-1-531 20 55 33, fax +43-1-531 20 81 55 33, e-mail, 13 to 16 April AACRAO’s 95th Annual Meeting ‘Charting the path to institutional and student success’ McCormick Place West, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Info: Melissa Ficek, American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, One Dupont Circle NW, Suite 520, Washington, DC 20036, USA, tel +1-202-293 91 61, fax +1-202-872 88 57, e-mail, 15 to 17 April APAIE Annual Conference ‘Asia-Pacific higher education: developing leadership and enhancing harmony’ Renmen University of China, Beijing, China. Info: APAIE, Room 121, International Studies Hall, Korea University, Seoul, 136-701, Korea, tel +82-2-32 90 29 35, fax +82-2-912 06 84, e-mail, 14 to 16 May ACA Annual Conference 2009 ‘Innovation through internationalisation’ Warsaw, Poland. Info: ACA Secretariat, ACA, 15, rue d’Egmontstraat, 1000 Brussels, Belgium, tel +32-2-513 22 41, fax +32-2-513 17 76, e-mail, 15 to 16 May StudyWorld 2009 ‘4th International fair for higher and continuing education’ Russisches haus der wissenschaft und kultur, Berlin, Germany. Info: Silke Lieber, ICWE GmbH, Leibnizstrasse 32, Berlin, Germany, tel +49-30-31 01 8 1 80, fax +49-30-310 18 18 29, e-mail,

21 to 22 May 19th EURASHE General Assembly and Annual Conference 2009 ‘Higher education, enterprises and regions: partnerships for innovation and development throughout Europe’ The University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic. Info: Anja Matthys, EURASHE Secretariat, Ravensteingalerij 27/3, Brussels, 1000, Belgium, tel +32-2-211 41 97, fax +32-2-211 41 99, e-mail, 24 to 29 May NAFSA 2009 Annual Conference & Expo ‘Fostering global engagement through international education’ The Los Angeles Convention Center, USA. Info: NAFSA: Association of International Educators, 1307 New York Avenue, NW, 8th Floor, Washington, DC 20005-4701, USA, tel +1-202-737 36 99, fax +1-202-737 36 57, e-mail, 27 to 29 May eLearning Africa 2009 ‘4th International conference on ICT for development, education and training’ Le Méridien Président, Dakar, Senegal. Info: Katharina Goetze, ICWE GmbH, Leibnizstrasse 32, Berlin, Germany, tel +49-30-31 0 1 81 80, fax +49-30-310 18 18 29, e-mail, 7 to 10 June 23rd ICDE World Conference including the 2009 EADTU Annual Conference ‘Flexible education for all: open global innovative’ Maastricht Exhibition and Congress Centre (MECC), The Netherlands. Info: 23rd ICDE World Conference Secretariat (M-2009), Open Universiteit Nederland, PO Box 2960, Heerlen 6401 DL, The Netherlands, e-mail, 15 to 17 June Languages and Business 2009 ‘Languages and international business communication’ Lindner Congress Hotel, Duesseldorf, Germany. Info: Sebastian Schattenmann, ICWE GmbH, Leibnizstrasse 32, Berlin, tel +49-30-310 18 18 0, fax +49-30-32 49 833, e-mail, 22 to 24 June The 18th EAN Annual Conference ‘Changing the culture of the campus towards an inclusive higher education – 10 years on’ York St John University, York, UK. Info: EAN Secretariat, University of Westminster, 16 Little Titchfield Street, London, W1W 7UW, UK, tel +44-20-79 11 58 68, fax +44-20-79 11 58 73, e-mail,

EAIE meetings and deadlines – page 4 EAIE professional development – page 18–19 E A I E F O R U M 35

1,400 study programmes taught in english

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