Page 1

FR AG M E NTAT ION A LO NG

30⁰

A SSIGNM E N T

E

# 4

E i m ea r

Ty na n


THE QUEST:

T

o continue exploring the theme of fragmentation through the use of a line of longitude. Layers will be examined, along longitude 30⁰ E in Finnmark, at different scales. These layers may hold a powerful charge for seeing the north in a different light. It will help to evaluate the conditions that made these places exist and to understand the dynamic relationship between activity and place.

PASSWORD: FRAGMENTATION STRATEGY: A LINE LINE OF LONGITUDE : 40,008 km Study area 32km; Location: Finnmark

N FIN

PURPOSE OF LINE:

LINE OF EXPLORATION + RANDOM FINDINGS

INTENDED USE:

TO MAP THE VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE TO FIND CONNECTIONS ON MACRO, MESO AND MICRO LEVEL

CONSIDERATIONS:

TIME, DISTANCE, MOVEMENT, SCALE

MAR

K

30

#1

⁰E


LINE OF LONGITUDE - BACKGROUND

L

30⁰ E

The first coloured aerial photograph of the South Pole by Emil Schulthess, The Exact geographic position of the South Pole, near the Amundsen-Scott Station, 1958. Superimposing a graphic of longitudinal lines radiating from the South Pole was used to make sense of such an isotropic environment (Cosgrove, D and Fox, William, L., 2010)

NE

AN

ta l

DI

Po r

ME

RI

ar en ts

GR EE

NW

IC

H

:B ur ce So ap M

LI

we bs ite .

Ac

ce

ss

ed

20

-1

0-

20

13

on·gi·tude - from Latin longitudo Long = length tudo= state or condition

Compass by Edward Chafe. Source: Cambridge Digital Library

Images: L:Board of Longitude c.1714, London; R: Harrison’s prize-winning longitude watch, completed in 1759. Source: Cambridge Digital Library

#2


LONGITUDINAL LINE 30⁰ E NATIONAL SCALE

15⁰ E LIN

E

GLOBAL SCALE

ICH

MER

IDI

EN

20⁰ E

GRE

ENW

10⁰ E 5⁰ E

Map Source: Google Earth

10⁰ E

15⁰ E

25⁰ E 5⁰ E 20⁰ E

#3

Map Source: Google Earth

25⁰ E

30⁰ E


30⁰ E - APPROACH The study area, 30⁰ E, will be examined as follows: 1. Perspectives of different users 30⁰ E

2. Territory analysis 3. Focus areas or “Hot Spots” along the line 4. Conclusion

Sør Varanger

STUDY AREA

Map Source: Norge Digitalt

#4


USER PERSPECTIVE AVERAGE HEIGHT:

THE SNOWY OWL

THE HIKER THE BUMBLEBEE

THE REINDEER

15m (but varies)

chubby

3m

THE

LEMMING

THE DRIVER

1.8m

1.5m

1.2m

0.2m

AVERAGE SPEEDS:

RESTRICTED VIEWS

ABILITY TO SEE 270⁰ - 360⁰ DURING MOVEMENT

Illustrations using AutoCAD

DRIVING SPEEDS AND FIELD OF VISION: what we see depends on speed of movement

25 kmh

35 kmh

40 kmh

50 kmh

Original source: www.slowresearch.org; Illustrations using AutoCAD and Photoshop

#5


USERS AND DIFFERENT FIELDS OF VISION ALONG 30⁰ E THE BUMBLEBEE

THE REINDEER

THE SNOWY OWL

THE HIKER

THE LEMMING

LEGEND Full view Partial view No view Analysis of line of sight for 360⁰ around each user with a 2km radius. The user is placed in the centre of each circle and lines of sight are calculated from this point

Source: Contour Data from Norge Digitalt; Analysis in Autodesk Civil 3D

#6


WALK THE LINE: TOPOGRAPHY ALONG 30â ° E

33 elevations at 1km intervals 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04

Source: Norge Digitalt; Profiles produced using Autodesk Civil 3D

#7

03 02 0

1000 m


TERRITORY ANALYSIS: OVERGROUND ELEMENTS

MIGRATORY ROUTES OVERVIEW: LINE+BORDERS

ELECTRICITY LINES

FLIGHT PATHS

LESSER WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE

kirkenes airport

0

10km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

Source: FlightRadar 24; Diagram: using AutoCAD

Source: http://www.piskulka.net/

International flight paths Domestic flight paths

PROMENANT PLACES ALONG 30⁰ E LANGFJØRDEN KIRKENES

HESSENG BJØRNEVATN BJØRNEVATN IRON-ORE MINE SANDNES

SVANVIK BJØRNVATN PASVIK ELVA

#8


TERRITORY ANALYSIS: SURFACE ELEMENTS WATER SYSTEMS

OVERVIEW: LINE+BORDERS

0

BUILDINGS

10km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

Different elements were mapped with information given 1km on either side of longitude 30⁰ E

5km

5km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

ROAD AND RAIL

TOPOGRAPHY

2km

5km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

#9

Main roads Bjørnevaten mine roads Rail

5km


TERRITORY ANALYSIS: LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS

0

FIELD SYSTEMS

MARSH/PEATLANDS

SHRUB LAYER

LOW HERBACEOUS LAYER

OVERVIEW: LINE+BORDERS

10km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

5km

AutoCAD tracings using Autodesk Map 3D

30⁰ E PROFILE SHOWING LANDSCAPE TYPES

Open area (Åpent område) Woodland (Skog)

150

Marsh/peat (Myr) Lake (Innsjø)

moh

Cropland (Dyrket mark)

100

50

0

5

10

15 km

20

25

30

Source: Norgeskart; re-drawn in AutoCAD

# 10


TERRITORY ANALYSIS: MAIN ACTIVITIES MINING

OVERVIEW: LINE+BORDERS

REINDEER SUMMER GRAZING

Mine tailings dumped into Langfjorden (2010)

0

10km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD Map source: Bing Maps; Illustra-

tions using AutoCAD Map 3D

Mine area (2010)

TERRITORY ANALYSIS: SUB-SURFACE LAYERS SUB-SURFACE LAYERS GEOLOGY

PERMAFROST

Ă˜yegneis-granitt Ambifolit og glimmerskifer Basalt Granitt-granodioritt Glimmer gneis Gabbro Kvarsitt Klonglomerat

Map source: www.ngu.no; re-worked in Adobe Illustrator

# 11

Thin moraine Bare rock Thick marine deposits Thick strand deposits Bare rock Peat-Marsh

Map source: www.ngu.no; re-worked in Adobe Illustrator

MILITARY


TERRITORY ANALYSIS: MAPPING THE INVISIBLE NORWAY/RUSSIA BORDER (Estd. 1826)

MINING + MINERAL LICENCES

PROTECTION AREA (1961 DESIGNATION)

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

Source: www.ngu.no; Diagram produced in AutoCAD

Source: NorgeDigitalt; Diagram produced in AutoCAD

TERRITORY ANALYSIS: COMBINATIONS AND CONFLICTS OVERVIEW: LINE+BORDERS

MINING + WATER COURSES

MINING + URBANISATION +REINDEER GRAZING Bjornevatn Mine waste Urban area Bjornevatn Mine

Bjornevatn mine

Water

Mining licences

0

Summer reindeer grazing areas

10km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

5km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

5km

Source: Norge Digitalt; Diagram: using AutoCAD

# 12


“HOT SPOTS” ALONG 30⁰ E OVERVIEW: “HOT SPOTS” BASED ON LAND USE

THE FJORD

THE VILLAGE AND THE MINE

THE FARM

THE BORDER

NO

30⁰

RU

IA Source: Bing Maps

FJORD VILLAGES MINE REINDEER GRAZING

AGRICULTURE

# 13

SS

RW AY

BORDER


1751

182 6 1920 -194 4

HOT SPOT #1 : THE BORDER

1809

Source: http://www.pasvikelva.no/index.php?page_id=2&lang_id=2&article_id=125

1826

The border between Norway and Russia was established.

1852

The Norwegian-Finnish border was closed for the movement of reindeer. This had consequences for reindeer-herding Sami, as new grazing lands had to be found. It was however difficult for the authorities to enforce the agreement along the border.

1920

Finland and the Soviet Union signed the peace treaty in Dorpat. Petsamo-Suenjel became a Finnish area when the border was drawn between Soviet-Russia and Finland inasmuch as Finland was independent. Russia was now no longer a neighbour of Norway.

1939

The Finnish-Russian War between Finland and the Soviet Union. Finland had to surrender parts of its territory to the Soviet Union.

1940

World War II begins. Norway is occupied by Germany.

1944

Finland’s border with the Soviet Union was changed. Petsamo and Suenjel became Soviet territory. Norway acquired the Soviet Union as its neighbour in the east. Movement across the border was strictly limited. Sør-Varanger was liberated by the Red Army as the first area to be liberated in Norway.

1991

The Soviet Union is dissolved. Russia becomes an independent republic.

The drawing of the border in 1826 between Norway and Russia cut right across the siida areas. Three siidas were inside the Norwegian-Russian communal district: •The Njavddam siida (Neiden siida) had its summer settlement in Neiden and its winter settlement in what is now Finland. •The Paccvei siida (Pasvik siida) used both sides of the Pasvik river •The Peisen siida (Petsjenga siida) was in Russia

HOT SPOT #2 : THE FARM THE HIGH NORTH - MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS

The terrestrial environment in the High North is generally less affected by local activity than areas further south. This is partly because the cold climate results in low biological production in much of the region, and in consequence population density is low and there is little human activity.

http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/ud/documents/propositions-and-reports/reports-to-the-storting/2011-2012/meld-st-7-20112012-2/8.html?id=697770

# 14


HOT SPOT #3 : THE VILLAGE AND THE MINE

THE HIGH NORTH - MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS

There is growing global demand for mineral raw materials, and their prices are rising, and this is creating opportunities for new activities and value creation. However, the extraction of metals and minerals involves physical disturbance of the natural environment and requires sound management of waste and pollutants, and can result in environmental problems.

http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/ud/documents/propositions-and-reports/reports-to-the-storting/2011-2012/meld-st-7-20112012-2/8.html?id=697770

HOT SPOT #4 : THE FJĂ˜RD THE HIGH NORTH - MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS

The conservation of the wild salmon stocks in North Norway is an important issue, and the cumulative environmental effects on these stocks must not be allowed to increase. These stocks contribute to value creation in the region, and they are an important part of the natural resource base for Sami culture.

http://www.regjeringen.no/en/dep/ud/documents/propositions-and-reports/reports-to-the-storting/2011-2012/meld-st-7-20112012-2/8.html?id=697770

# 15


CONCLUSION 1. DIFFERENT PRESSURES ON A VULNERABLE LANDSCAPE COMING FROM DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES/LAND USES 2. LITTLE PROTECTION FOR PLANT HABITATS THAT ARE SEEN TO HAVE LOW VALUE BUT VITALLY IMPORTANT FOR REINDEER GRAZING AND WILDLIFE 3. EMPHASIS OF ACTIVITY ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THIS LINE OF STUDY 4. URBAN DEVELOPMENT APPEARS INCOHERENT : THE THREE VILLAGES: BJORNEVATN, HESSING AND SANDNES ARE GRADUALLY MERGING. NO CLEAR IDENTITY. 5. DUMPING

MINING URBAN SETTLEMENT

AGRICULTURE

REINDEER HERDING


REFERENCES AND BACKGROUND READING Arctic Portal website, http://arcticportal.org/ Barents Portal website, http://barentsportal.com/barentsportal_v2.5/index.php/en/ (accessed 11 Nov 2013) Cambridge Digital Library, http://cudl.lib.cam.ac.uk/collections/longitude (accessed 15 Nov 2013) Cosgrove, D and Fox, William, L (2010) Photography and Flight. Reaktion Books Ltd., London. Desvigne, M (2009) Intermediate Natures. Birkhäuser. Basel Boston Berlin Jones, M. and Olwig, K. (2008) Nordic Landscapes. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis London Kartverket website, http://beta.norgeskart.no/#10/1077226/7798606/+land (accessed 27 Oct 2013) Miljø Direktoratet website, http://www.miljødirektoratet.no/no/Tjenester-og-verktoy/Kart/ (accessed 14 Oct 2013) McHarg, Ian. L (1992) Design with Nature. Wiley . Canada Norge Digitalt website, http://159.162.103.4/norgedigitalt.no/?_to=914 (accessed 12 Oct 2013) Norges geologiske undersøkelse website, http://www.ngu.no/no/hm/Kart-og-data/ (accessed 20 Nov 2013) Norsk Ornitologisk Forening website, http://www.birdlife.no/ (accessed 30 Nov 2013) Sobel, D. (2005) Longitude-The true story of a lone genius who solved the greatest scientific problem of his time. Walker & Company.

FRAGMENTATION along 30E  

Tromsø Academy of Landscape and Territorial Studies Semester 01_Assignment #4

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