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Acknowledgments t waswhile working in the ZabriskieGallery on Surrealismand on the NouueauxRlalistesthat I beganto look seriouslyat avant-gardeexhibitions,and Virginia Zabriskiehas remainedan inspiration in her unique way of combining intellectual curiosirywith a joyful love of art. At ZabriskieI first sawhow theseexhibitionsbring togetherso much that is importanrto understandingthe art of our time, and rhis project originatedthere in discussions with Ann laPides. From that germinalpoint the intrinsic interestof the materialcarriedmy researchalong,a processenrichedby the opportunity to speakor correspondwith someof thoseinvolvedin the eventsthat I relate:Alcopley,fuman, RobertBarry GraceBorgenicht,John Cage,NicholasCarone, Leo Castelli,Herman Cherry Enrico Donati, Michael Goldberg,DouglasHuebler, Allan Kaprow,JosephKosuth, Gary Kuehn, Katherine Kuh, Conrad Marca-Relli, KynastonMcShine,Phillip Pavia,Pat Passlof,Adrian Piper,Milton Resnick,Connie Reyes,Corinne Robins, Sal Romano,Joop Sanders,Irving Sandler,Martica Sawin, 'Weiner. Seth Siegelaub,Harald Szeemann,EstebanVicente, and fawrence I very much appreciatetheir time and assistance, aswell as*reir candidremarks. I alsomust thank thosewho so often helpedme ro 6nd obscuretextsalong with basicsources,especially Clive Phillporand hisitaffat the Museumof Modern Art Library.Evenwithout suchstrongresearch suppoft,being ableto walk from a beauriful readingroom into galleriescontainingso much of the art that I wasstudyingwould havebeenan incredibleexperience. With their supportI found myselfin an idealsituation, one enhancedby the many suggestions from scholarsmet aroundcardcata.logue and Xeroxmachine. Throughout this project I have been gracedwitl the encouragementand confidenceof my agentRuth Nathan.Along with my editor Mark Greenbergand picture editor Uta Hoffrnann,shehasworkedlong and hard to makethis book possible.I thank them for their effortsin bringing this all to fruition. Finally,I am gratefulfor the friendsand family who haveaccompaniedme through the writing of this book. Curious about my progressand encouragingabout my work, they havebeena sourceof strengththroughout a long process.Although therearemany others,I especially want to thank CarolineBynum, PaulCohen,Susan Linfield, Max Rudin, and Amy Vol[ all of whom, at one time or another had the right word to say.Most of all I thank Holly Hughes,whoseintelligence,emotional support, and companionshiphavebeen critical to my researchand writing. Shehas done the most to push me toward a clearview of art, artists,and the dynamicsof the art world, and this book has profited immeasurablyfrom her insight and from her good sense.


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addressed.These fundamentals crisscrossedthe spectrum of human endeavor, from the aesthetic to the political, from the transcendental to rhe technological. And for the artists of the avant-garde, these issuescould be faced only with old slateswiped clean. The avant-garde could maintain its oppositional stancejust so long as it kept a decent distance from the dominant cultural and economic institutions. But with burgeoning middle-class prosperity after the Second \7orld \?'ar, and the consequent expansion of cultural interest and support, that gap began inevitably to close. Ironically, this period of growth generated a profusion of avant-garde activiry ar the same time as it developed the cultural system that would quell the disorder. This book therefore naturally divides into wvo parts, those classic presentations of the avant-garde before \7orld \Var II, and postwar exhibitions that suggestthe diverse ways in which advanced aft was integrated into the dominant culture at an increasingpace. Tiansi"Degenerare tion is provided by the Nazi exhibition of Arr," an anti-avant-garde avantgarde show whose attendance exceeded any exhibition of the century and the movement of European vanguard artists to New York, breeding ground of an art world that would subvert the subverters. I end with an exhibition of work that consciously sought to oppose the rising commercialization of art during the sixdes, Harald Szeemannt great show of conceptual art, earth art, and sculpture of ephemeral material and process.But that exhibidon was sponsored by a major international corporation, a circumstance symbolic of the fate of advancedart in our own rime. By the late sixties vanguard artists themselveswere skepticai of the continued existence of an avant-garde. In ry67 Barbara Rose and Irving Sandler published the results of a large survey that they had conducted among New York artists. Responding "Is "No."a to the question there an avant-garde today?" most of these arrisrs answered In addition to the impossibiliry of shocking the middle class,always a desideratum of the historical avant-garde,an anistic underground seemeduntenable becausethere was no escaping media attention and the public's voracious appetite for the new. This immediate press coveragewas much talked about at the time, since the notion of an advanced guard required being ahead of something, and in the sixties things appeared to be known and accepted from the momenr of their crearion. As John Ashbery put it "Today in 1968, the avant-garde has come full circle-the artist who wants ro experiment is again faced with what seemslike a dead end, excepr that instead of crearing in a vacuum he is now at the center of a cheering mob."5 For some, like Harold Rosenberg, this situation, and the attendant lack of oppositional content, meant the death of the avant-garde.6And considered as part of the history of modernism, the avant-garde seems to have disappeared wirh the arrival ofthe cultural, social, and economic changesthat together have been designated "postmodern." Judging by verbal practice, today young artists do not even use the term, burdened as it is with such notions as complete originaliry and fairh in artistic progress. But the avant-garde has had a long history and the divirsity of its manifestations defy simple generalization. To find rhe spirit of this phenomenon, we must look at the many scenesofits introduction, the confuence ofartistic practice, aestherictheorizing, promotional skill, businessacumen, and sheerenergy that was the avant-garde exhibition.


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\ 7 I L D B E A S T SC A G E D

of catgut,asa kind of little violin. . . ."27 Maminck had becomean anarchistwhile in the army,attendingthe military retrial of Drq.frrs in 1899,and he contributedarticlesto suchleft-wing publicationsas Le Libertaire,LAnarchie,and Fin dr Silcle.He took to painting in a similar spirit: "'Vhat I could havedone only by throwing a bomb-which would haveled to the scaffold-I attempted to realizein art, in painting, by using colors of maximum purity. Thus I satisfiedmy desireto destroyold conventions,to 'disobey,'in order to recreatea feeling,living, and liberatedworld."28"'With my cobaltsand vermilions,I wishedto burn down the EcoledesBeaux-Artsand to rendermv imoressions without any thought for what hasbeenachievedin the past."zr Largely self-taught,Vlaminck had first met his Charou neighbor Andrd Derain after their train from Parisderailedin June r9oo. They soon beganpainring together,and by Septemberweresharinga studio for ro francsa month in an old inn on an islandin the Seine,nearwhereRenoirin r88r had paintedthe Impressionisr icon Luncheonof the BoatingParty.Eventtally Vlaminck cameto paint with colors squeezedstraightfrom the tube; and when Derain introducedhim to Matisseat the important van Gogh exhibition at rhe Galerie Bernheim-Jeunein March r9or, Vlaminckwas expoundingthe virtuesof pure colors.Van Goghs expressive useof color wascritical in the developmentof many of the Fauves,but \4aminck! reacrion "I wasperhapsthe most impassioned: wasso movedthar I wantedto cry with joy and despair.On that day I lovedvan Gogh more than I lovedmy farher."3o For Vlaminck, "Fauvism more than any of the others, wasnot an invention,an attitude,but a way of being,acting,thinking, and breathing."3t Although Derain and Vlaminck sold painrings ar rhe rgot salons\4aminckt proceedsfrom the Salon d'Automne coveredthe expensesof his third daughter'sbirth-this successpaled before their good fort.rne with the dealer Ambroise Vollard. The role of the art dealersin Parisparalleledthat of the salons, exhibiting rhe work of the founders of modern painring-the Impressionisrs, Gauguin, van Gogh, Q{22nn6-x11dproviding what support could be generatedby sales.But galleryexhibitionsweremore frequent,and the young paintersof Pariswere able to feed at leaston a regulardiet of the new arr. And around 19o5-19o6things beganto pay off for some.In Februaryr9o5 Vollard visired Deraint studio on the adviceof Matisse,and acquiredeighrypaintingsfor z,ooo francs.He alsosentDerain to London to paint the Thames,atremptingto duplicateDurand-Ruelt success four yearsearlierwhen he showedMonett London paintings.32 Deraint bourgeoisfather, who ran a pastryshop in Chatou,wasso impressedthat he decidedto givehis son an allowancefor his painting, which now seemeda good invesrment.In the spring of 19o6Vollard visitedMaminck and purchased3oo paintingsfor 6,ooo francs,offering to buy his firture output. Maminck stoppedgiving music lessons,took his family out of their Nanterretenement,and movedto a housein the woodsat Jochere.33 In addition to Vollard, the other important deder of the Fauveswas Berthe 'Sf'eill. Beginning in February r9o2 wirh her exhibition of the studentsof Gustave "wild Moreau, including Matisseand Marquet, shecontinuedro show many of these beasts,"aloneand in groups.Betweenthesetwo dealersthereweremany exhibitions leadingtoward the r9o5 salons:At W'eillt therewas Dufr in Februaryr9o3, Matisse and Marquet againin May, and in April ryo4 alargegroup show including Matisse, Marquet, Manguin, Camoin, and Puy, along with rwo Dufr exhibitions that year. And at Vollardt Matissehad his first one-personexhibition in June r9o4, with van Dongen showing in November.3aDespite this exposurein the galleriesand ar rhe salons,however,it took Desvallibres's decisionto hang the Fauvestogerherin a single room to bring them, happily or unhappily,to a broaderpublic. And in the fall of ryo5 19


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Andri Derain. Portrait of Matrsse,1905.Oil on canuas,il% x 43A in. Musle Matisse, Nice. Duing their summerof painting togetherin Collioure,Derain capnred rhe interuity of rhe Fauuist Matisse.Here Matise ap?erlnas dzscribedthepreuioussummerb1t "Matisse Henri-Edmond Cross: the aruious, the madf anxious." opposite: Alberr Marquet Matisse Painting in Manguint Studio, r9ay. Oil on cardboard,yr/e x z83Ain. Musle National dArt Modzrve, CentreGeorges Pompidau,Pais


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their current work could be seenin depth outside the Salond'Automne, at Berthe \feill's group exhibition of Matisse,Derain, Vlaminck, Manguin, Marquet, Camoin, dominatedin number of paintings by her favorite, Dufr, and in Keesvan Dongent one-personexhibitionat the GalerieE. Druet.35 By the 19o6 Salon d'Automne, rhe term Fauuewas in wide use,but as a generalphenomenonFauvismwould lastonly through ryo7. k had beena specialand intensemoment, an "ordealof fire" accordingto Derain, unrenablefor the long run but of greatyield in the short. For by the time that the Fauveswenr their separate ways,they had securedfor modern painting the full auronomyof color wrestedfrom natureby Postimpressionism. Exceptfor Maminck, all of the anistshad uained in the academies, and in r9o5 thoseshowingat the Fauvesalonrangedin agefrom Derain, twenry-6ve,to Matisse,thirry-six.36 After Fauvismthey werero conrinuetheir careers, becomingsomethingof an establishmenr, influentialin the Parisianart world and successfully sellingwork in an expandingmarket. By the end of ryo6 they alsohad brought African art into advancedFrench painting.Maminck discoveredthreepiecesin a bistro in fugenteuil followinghoursof painting outdoors,and purchasedthem with a round of drinla for the house.After acquiringsomemore from a family friend, he sold a persistentDerain the largeFang maskthat would be admired by Matisseand Picassoin his studio. Matissebeganhis own African collectionwith a smallstatuepurchasedon the rue de Rennes,repirtedly showingit to Picassothat day at GertrudeSteint.37Picassotassimilationof this powerful sourcewould emergefully in r9o7, andits connectionwith Fauvismjumps out from the pagesof a remarkablearticle published in New York. The American painterGelettBurgessconducteda seriesof interviewsin r9o8-r9o9,prinredwith photographsof the artists and their work as "The Vild Men of Paris" in the ArchitecturalRecordof May r9ro. In discussions with Matisse,Derain, Friesz,Picasso, Metzinger,Herbin, and the Hungarian Bila Czobel,he soughtthe rationalefor the "ugly'' paintingthat shockedhim at the Inddpendants.Derain is shownholding one of his small carvedsculptures,nexr to a largersronework and an African pieceon the foor. Picassosits beforeAfrican sculpturehanging on his srudio wall. And Braque appearsin standardpose,abovea primitivist drawingof threewomen.38 Braque converted to Fauvism after seeingthe paintings of Matisse and Derain in the r9o5Salond'Automne,and the next summerhe went offto Anrwerp to paint with Friesz,his friend from Le Havre. Youngerthan the others-Braque was twenty-threein r9o5-in a srrangeway he would signalthe closureof the movement. Although Clzannewas importanr ro many of the Fauves,it was Braquewho would make the most radical moves under his influence, first in the fall of 19o6 and especiallyafter seeing the great r9o7 rerrospectives.Yet when he submitted his Iandscapes of LEstaquefor the r9o8 Salond'Automne, they wererejected.The jury wascomposedof Matisse,Marquet, and Rouauk, and afterwardMatissecomplained 'petit to Vauxcellesof Braquet cubes."Braquewithdrew his picturesand exhibited them in Novemberat the galleryof Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler.Reviewingthat show, Varxcelleswrote of Braquet reduction") descubes"and laterspokeof his "bizarreries cubiques"at the r9o9 Indipendants.3e Vauxcelleshad christenedanorhermovemenr, " one that would greatly overshadowthe shortlived flame of the ' wild beasts.

2J


IVotes dz LArt,Jnutry-February 1968,p. 16.Also seeFreemm, in Freeman,p. 8i.

Introduction 'Assisted r. Quoted in Nan Rosenthal, Levitation:'The Art Of Yves Klein," in Institute for the Arrs, Rice Universiry, YuesKlein t9z8-t962: (Houston: Institute for the Arts, fuce Universiry r98z), A Renospeaiue p. roo. z. On the social character of the avant-garde, see Harold Rosenberg, "Collective, Ideological,Combative," in Thomm B. Hessand John Ashbery eds., The Auant-Gardz, Art Nms Annual XXXIY (New York: Macmillan, t968), pp. 75-78. "The Avant-Gardeand 3. On the role of the market, seeRoben Jensen, the Tiade in Art," An Journal S?inter1988,especiallypp. j6o16. "Sensibiliry of the Sixties,",4rr lz 4. BarbaraRoseand Irving Sandler, America,Janrary-Februaryry67, pp. 44-57,6o-62. The articleincludes extensiveselectionsfrom the artists'responses. 5. John Ashbery P.t3z.

"The

Invisible AvancGrde," in Hess and Ashbery

"Collective, 6. Harold Rosenberg, Ideological,Combative,"in Hessand Ashbery p. 78. For a cogentelaborationofthis view from the opposite political camp, see Hilton Krmer, The Age of the Auant-Gardz (Nw York: Farra! Strausand Giroux, r9n), pp. 3-19. Chapterr I. For Apollinaire'smockery of Jourdain, see Guillaume Apollinaire, Apollinaire on Art: Esays and Reuieusryoz-tgr9, ed. LeRoy C. Breunig (New York Y/nng, ry72),pp. 18-36. z. The story is relatedin many places.See,for instance,John Elderfield, "Wild The Beasti': Fauuism and Ix Affnities (New York: Museum of Modern Art, ry76), p. 43, and Alfred H. Bart, Jr., Matisse:His Art and His Public (New York: Museum of Modern Art, r95r), p. 56. The exact words Vauxcellesused in Gll Bltx to describethe artless look of "the "Donatello Marquet sculpturesamidst orglr of pure tones" were chezles[auves." 3. Rousseaushowed two landscapesalong with this large painring, "The which he entitled in the catalogue hungry lion throws himself on the antelope,devouringhim, the panther amiously awaitsthe moment when shetoo can hayeher shae. The canivorous birds haveeachtorn piecesof flesh from the poor animal who shedsa tear! Sun sets."See Donald E. Gordon, Modzm Art Exhibitionsryoo-r9r6,z vols. (Munich: Presrel-Verlag, ry74), z:t39. a. Ibid.. r:28. "Fauves in the l^ardscapeof Criticism: Metaphor 5. Roger Benjamin, (Ins and Ssndal at the Salon," in Judi Freeman,TheFauueLandscape Angeles:l.os AngelesCounty Museum ofArt, ry9o), p. z5z. A EIA-.A^IA

YY' )''

a)'

"Chronolosr'.-

rz. Theseroom identifiations are taken from Vaucelles'srwie* in the October 17, r9o5, supplementto Gil Blas.The identifiqtion of Louis Valtat and GeorgesRouaultwith Fauvismlargelysremsfrom their being reproducedon the Fauvepageof L'Illustrationof November4, r9o5.On their misidentificationasFauves,seeElderfield,pp. z4-29,6t-62. 13.For the atalogue list of works shown at the r9o5 Salond'Automne. seeGordon, z:t75-t4o. 14. lro Stein, Appreciation: Painting, Poeny, and Prase (New York: Crown, rg47), p. r58, and Gertrude Stein, TheAutobiographyofAlrce B Tohla (New York: Vintage, ty6, 196o),p. 35. On another accounr, Matisse sent his wife to observeand report back to him the public mockery (Crespelle,p. r5). For conflicting storiesof the purchaseof tVomanwith theHa;, SeeBarr, pp.37-j8. r5. Elderfield,p. 32. 16.Jack Flam, Matisseon Art (London: Phaidon, ryT), pp. ryz and 74. respectively. t7. Ietter to Signac, September 28, t9o5, in Pierre Schneider, Matisse (New York RjzrcI| ry84), p. zzz. "Painters r8. JamesD. Herbert, and Tourists:Matisseand Derain on the MediterraneanShore,"in Freeman,pp. t6z-t63. r9. Crespelle,p. r4. zo. Elderfield,p. 43, and Gmton Diehl, The Fauues(New York: Harn' N. Abrams,ry7), p.26. zt. Opplel p. 27. zz. G. JeanAubry quoted in Marcel Giry Fauuism:Originsand Deuelopments(NxYork: Alpine FineArts, r98z),p. to1. 23.For the reviewsof Denis and Gide, seeBarr, pp. Q-64. 24. The Fauvepageis reproducedin lbid., p. 19,md the other is shown in Cuoline lanchner and lTilliam Rubin, Heni Rouseau (New York: Museum of Modern Art, t98), p. t57. zy. Elderfield,p. 6r. 26. Crespelle,p. rrr. z7. Ibid., p, n1. "The 28. Carl R. Baldwin, Fauves:Reflectionson an Exhibition, a Catalogue,md a History" Arts,Jtnery76,p.99. 29. Maurice Maminck, DangerousComer (London: Elek Bools, 196r . P.II.

3o.Oppler,p. rn.

7. Ibid., p. 65.

3r.Diehl, p. roo.

8. Crespelle,TheFauues(Inndon: Oldbourne Press,196z),p. r5.

32. For an accountof Derain'srwo uips to London in the fall of r.t:, "Far from the Earth ofFrance: I:r and in early19o6,seeJudi Freeman, FauvesAbroad," in Freeman,pp. r85-zor.

9. Ellen C. Oppler, FauaismRe*amined(Ann Arbor: UniversiryMicro' films, r97z), p. ror. "Le ro. Mucel Giry Salon Des Inddpendmts de r9o5," L'Infomation "Docd'HistoiredeLArt, May-Jtne r97o, p. rro. Also seeJudi Freeman, umentaryChronology,r9o4-r9o8," in Freeman,pp. 57-68. Ir. Marcel Giry

"Le

SalondAutomne de r9o5," L'htfomation d'Histoire

33.Crespelle,p. rrz. 34. Elderfield,pp. 1r-1z. 'Weill, October zr-November :: 35. For the worls shown at Berthe r9o5, and at the GalerieE. Druet, October z3-November rr, r9o,. s

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CUBISM MEETS THE

PUBLIC

dants was not juried, all power lay with the hanging committee, which usually was elected as a matter of course from those proposed by salon officials. But the Cubists decided to elect their own committee, and the meeting on the boulevard Raspail became a battlefield of art politics. The radicals printed a list of alternative candidates, and their posters denounced the old order of Signac and the other officers. fugument "Never lasted far into the night, and, as Gleizes later wrote, had plural voting more honor. One voted, left, and then returned to vote again."e In the end the Cubists' candidates were elected by a majoriry greater than the total number of voters. Le Fauconnier became president of the hanging committee. Because of publiciry surrounding the generd meeting, and articles in the pressby friends of the painters, the opening of the rgrr Inddpendants was a wild event. The Cubist work was displayed in rwo rooms, numbers 4r and 43, separatedby a retrospective of Henri ("k Douanier") Rousseau,who had died the previous fall. The center of attention was Room 4r, and Gleizes recounts what he found at the vernissage "People about four o'clock on a lovely spring afternoon: were packed into our room, shouting, laughing, raging, protesting, giving vent to their feelings in all sorts of ways; there was jostling at the doors to force a way in, there were arguments going on bewveenthose who supported our position and those who condemned it."rO Among the pictures causing such a stir were Le Fauconniert monumentd depiction of mother and child against the modern countryside, Abundance, L(ger's "tubist" Nudcs in a Landlcape, Gleizest fractured interior W'oman with Phlox, and "toppled Delaunays Effil Tbwer,which the critic of Petit Parisien described as over, presumably with an eye to destroying the nearby houseswhich, dancing a cancan, are rudely sticking their chimney pots into each other's windows."rlAlso appearing in Room 4r were the completely non-Cubist figurative works of Marie laurencin, included in deference to her companion Apollinaire. \X4rile Mecinger's was the only work in the salon that Apollinaire said should properly be called Cubist, the general Dressreacted otherwise. From this time on the term Cubismentered popular parlance, and was used by critics to attack the new painting. Gabriel Mourey viewed the Cubist room at the "a r9n Inddpendants as rerurn ro primitive savageryand barbariry" and Rigis Gignorx "render in Le Figaro explained that Cubists all their subjects indiscriminately in the form of cubes."r2 By the next winter there was such discussion that LAction published "lnquiry a long on Cubism," canvassingcritics and anistsfor their views.Summing up "these the conservative reaction, Camille Mauclair judged paintings and these theories Guillnume Apollinaire, poet and lto be] the poorest, most ugly, most childish imaginable."'3 Even in the cabarets,the comedians regularly made jokes about the ridicnlorls Cubw. promoterof Cubism,ca.ryr4 Apollinaire soon decided to retrear from his purist interpretation ofthe term and to apply it more broadly. So when many of the painters from Rooms 4t and 41 were invited to exhibit with the BrusselsSociery of Independent Artists in June, Apollinaire accepted the title Cubist for them in his catalogue introduction. He defended the painters again under this rubric at the Sdon d'Automne, a defense all the more necessaryas the public outrage was greater at the Grand Palaisthan it had been on the Coursla-Reine in the sprine. Since the fatt sato"'was juried, and therefore was thought to represent higher standards than the Inddpendants, the exhibition of Cubists in Room MII seemedeven "the more insulting, and Vauxcelles attacked it as sort of art and ideology that would have delighted [Alfred Jarryt] Pbre Ubu."ta Although the jury was antagonistic to the Cubists, they appear to have been persuaded by the sculptor Raymond DuchampVillon to accept Cubist entries. Their work was displayed together, thanks to the efforts of Duchamp-Villon and Roger de La Fresnaye, whose Zr Cuirassier, a faceted

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CUBISM MEETS THE PUBLIC

Cubist painting cdricaturedat the ryrz SalondAummne in the Frenchpresl* Nre, Ocabo 26, r9r2 oppositeabove: Fernand Zlgar. Nudes in a Landscape, r9o9-rr. Oil on canuas, 48 x 68 in. RijhsmuseamKrii lln-Milller Onerln, TheNetherknds oppositebelow: Albert Gleizes. Woman with Phlox, r9ro. Oil on canuas,321/t x 3ghe in. TheMuseum of Fine Arts, Houston, Gif of Esther Fhrence \Vhinery Goodrich Foundation

military figure basedon a Gericaultcomposition,had beenshownin Room 43 of the ". Indipendants.Gleizesdescribesthe opening scene: . . unbridled abusecomesup againstequdly intemperateexpressions of admiration;it is a tumult of cries,shouts, burstsof laughter,protests.The anisa, painters,sculptors,musiciansarethere;someof the writers, poets, critics; and that unholy Parisian opening-day mob, in which socialites,genuine artlovers and picture-dedersjostle one another,along with the dairyman and the conciergewho have been given an invitation by the anist who is a 'We customerof theirs or lives in their block. . . . were accusedof the worst intentions, of seekingscandal,of making fun of the public, of trying to get rich quick by milking chesnobs;. . . hangingwastoo good for us."15 "The The exhibition included Mezingert Le Goilter, called by Salmon

29


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The brothersDuchamp-Marcel Duchamp,PaymondDuchampVillon. and JacquesVillon-in their garden in Pateaux, where artistsand writers met on Sunday afiernoons in ryrrrz. Photograph courteryAlexina Duchamp Italian Funrists in Pais in rgrz, wheretheir Februaryexhibirion chalhngedthe auant-garfustatus ofFrench Cubismb7a radical use of techniquesstudiedfour months beforeon a tour of Paisian sndios and the Salon dAutomne: (hfi to righ) Luigi Russolo,Carh Cant, E T Marineni, Umberto Boccioni,Gino Seuerini.

naire, Marie Laurencin, Andrd Salmon, the Duchamp brothers and their sister, Suzanne,Picabia, La Fresnaye,Kupka (whose studio was next door to the Duchampst), 'W'alter Pach. Henri Valensi, Andrd Mare, Alexander fuchipenko, and the American And their discussion encompassedtopics as diverse as their work. One thread stemmed from the days of the Abbaye de Criteil, the role of art in coming to terms with modern life, and with its increasingly fragmented and condensed experience. The faster pace of communication and transportation, of technological and scientific discovery of political and cultural change, demanded new pictorial expression. Other ideas entered from intellectual areasof general in161s51Henri Bergsont notion of perception involving memory of experience over time; the dwelopment of non-Euclidean geometries; and talk of the Fourth Dimension, spiritualism, and psychic experience. In fact, when Andrd Salmon announced plans for the Section d'Or in Gil Bla in June r9rz, he suggestedthat Bergson would write the catalogue introduction. Unfortunately, the eminent philosopher denied knowledge o[, or

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CUBISM MEETS THE

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sympathy with, the Cubists.rT The Duchamps had come from Rouen and, along with Picabia and La Fresnaye, were members of the Sociitd Normande de Peinture Moderne. They invited their new associatesfrom the Cubist salon to show with them at the Galerie de l'Art Contemporain in Paris on the rue Tionchet in November and December, r9u-in effect a prototype of the Section d'Or-and the combined group again exhibited in Rouen at the June salon of the Soci6ti Normande. Apollinaire lectured at the November exhibition on the Fourth Dimension in contemporary painting, and in the catalogue for the Rouen show, Maurice Raynal-who would lecture at the Section d'Or-saw the artists as working alongside scientists in presenting a view of the world grounded in the most advanced knowledge. For these artists, painting was to depict intellectual conception and not visual appearance,encapsulatingwhat is known rather than what is merely seen. One idea very much in the air was that of simultaneiry the hallmark of the "the Italian Futurists, who declared its expression to be intoxicating aim ofour art."r8 It was a commonplace of Cubist criticism that the new painting simultaneously displayed various perspectiveson the same subject, or combined imagesfrom disparate times and places in a single composition. Extrapolating from Bergsont view that perception involves remembered experience, and attempting ro presenr fi.-rllconceptions rather than momentary impressions, artists like Delaunay, Metzingeq and Ldger created pictures synthesizing elements across space and rime. The Italians rook this approach and turned it into an aggressiveideology, eventually promoring it in Paris as an alternative to French Cubism, Futurism's central figure was F. T, Marinetti, poet and publicist, whose primary art form was the manifesto.le Marinetti had announced his movement on the "Foundation front page of Le Figaro on February zo, r9o9, his and Manifesto of Futur"exalt ism," calling for an art that would the aggressivemomenr, the feverish insomnia, running, the perilous leap, the cufi and the blow."2o Claiming to have receivedclose to ten thousand responsesto this announcemenr, which he had paid the paper ro prinr, he embarked on promoting a movement that produced over 6fry manifestos by ryr5. In rgrr Marinetti thought that Futurist painting was ready for Paris, and he arranged an exhibition for December at the Bernheim-Jeune gallery at that time managed by the former anarchist and man of letters Fdlix Fdndon. But when Gino Severini, who had been painting in Paris since 19o6, visited the Milanese artists during the summer, he found their work retrograde by advanced French standards. Although they had "Gchnical published a Manifesto" of Futurist painting in April r9ro, the paintersUmberto Boccioni, Carlo Carr), Luigi Russolo, and, in Rome, Giacomo Balla-were working in tlle sort of divisionist technique long rejected by the Parisian avant-garde. He suggested that they delay their exhibition, and go to Paris ro see the Cubists. Funded by the wealthy Marinetti, in October they did just that. Boccioni, Carr), and according to some accounts, Russolo were guided in their tour by Severini, who knew the French afi scenewell. They visited the studios of Picassoand Braque and attended the Salon d'Automne, where they were able to seethe Cubist work that had come before the public. Their visit was reported in the Mercure dz France by Apollinaire, and Picasso brought them to Gertrude Stein, who found them boring. Fernande Olivier, Picasso'scompanion, remembered dawn coming to Marinetti's hotel room after he had been speaking without interruption for ten hours, and Boccioni wrote to a friend of arguing from seven until three in the morning in a Left Baqk restaurant with Apollinaire and Marinetti.2r Returning to Italy, they rushed to modify existing paintings and create new work for the rescheduled exhibition, to be held February 5-24, r9rz, at Bernheim-

Jean Metzingen Tea Timo r9u. Oil on wood, zgTax zZ% in. Phikdelphia Museum of Art, TheLouiseand lValterArensberg Collection. This painting, frst exhibited in the rgn Salon d'Automne,was called by critic 'lhe Andri Salmon Mona Lisa of Cubism."


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CUBISM MEETS THE

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"the The dtle for the exhibition referred to the geometrical ratio of golden section," used since ancient Eg'pt in architectural design and the composition of paintings. The name seemsto have been proposed by JacquesVillon, who at the time was reading Leonardo da Vincit Tieatiseon Painting, recently translated into French. Leonardo and the topic of geometrical proportion were being discussed in the Puteaux-Courbevoie group, yet it appears that only Gris actually used the golden section to structure paintings.28 But the use of this term suggeststhe relevance to their work of theory-of aesthetic, philosophical, social, and scientific ideas. And in conffast to the rabid tone ofthe Futurists, the theory it alludes to is classicaland rational, and very French. The Bulletin dr h Section d'Orpublished a single issue, opening with a piece "Young by Apollinaire entitled Painters, Dont Get Excitedl" ("JeunesPeintres ne vous "Collaborateurs" frappez pas!"). The front page listed as nineteen writers and critics, including the insurance acuary Maurice Princet, who is credited with teaching rhe Cubists about non-Euclidean geometry. Maurice Raynal contributed the most extensive article in the eight-page publication, emphasizing the great variety of work "the included in the exhibition of a movemenr now so diverse that term'cubism is day by day losing its significance, ifit ever had any very definite one."2e The poles of this diversiry are seen in the entries ofAlbert Gleizesand Marcel Duchamp. Gleizes exhibited fifteen worla, the earliest from r9o8 and culminating in Haruest Threshing at a.lmost9 x o feer one of the largesrCubist paintings. A rural analog of Delaunay's The City of Pais, this panoramic landscape celebratescooperative work, modern agriculture, and village life. Its expressionof the epic social impulses of the Mercereau group contrasts with the more intellectualized and hermetic paintings of Duchamp. Gleizes had asked Mllon and Duchamp-Villon to have their brother withdraw one of these from the rgrz Indipendants, the nororious Nudz Descendinga Staircase,i/a. z. With chagrin, Duchamp did so, but he went on to exhibit the work in Barcelona at the Galeries Dalmau, and after appearing in the Section d'Or, the painting would find its way to greater fame at the Armory Show in New York. Painted just before the Bernheim-Jeune exhibition had displayed the Futurist obsessionwith repre"chronophotography" senting motion. the work udlized the results of Marey's and Roentgent x-rays to produce an image of the moving figure.3oDuchamp used similar pictorial devicesto depict a kind of psychological movement in others of his six works shown in the Section d'Or. One of these, King and Queen Sunoundzd by Swifi Nudts, was marked by Vauxcellesas the most offensive of the new Cubisr paintings. The issue of abstraction was an importanr one at the Section d'Or, as much for what was not shown as for what was. Of the original Cubists from Room 4r, both Le Fauconnier and Delaunay refirsed to participate. lr Fauconnier seemsto have been put offby the increasingly abstract character of much advanced painting, and the corresponding move away from narrative contenr. Delaunay, on rhe other hand, actually was moving toward complete abstraction, and in an open letter to Vauxcelles in G/ Bln of October z5 he denied being a founder of Cubism and disassociatedhis work "certain from that of young painters" at the Section d'Or.3r Delaunay would not exhibit his abstract work in France, having developed important foreign connections, beginning with Kandinsky's invitation to show at the first Blaue Reiter show in Munich in December r9rr. Paul Klee, who visited Delaunay the next April as he was "the painting the first of his FenLtes ("Windows"), wrote of them as model of the autonomous painting, living without a natural motif, with an entirely abstract plastic existence."32LesFen4treswere shown as a group at the Sturm gallery in Berlin in Janu^ry r9ry, the catalogue prefaced by Apollinaire's radical poem of the same title, disjointed and unpunctuated.33

17


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CUBISMMEETSTHE PUBLIC

Among the paintersof the Sectiond'Or, Delaunaywaspanicularlyannoved at the attentionpaid to Picabia,the son of a wealthySpanishfamily.Although Delaunay remainedcloseto Apollinaire,who in fact lived with the Delaunaysin the fall of rgrz while his own apartmentwas being renovated,the poet and Picabiahad spent much of the summertogether.Also a good friend of Marcel Duchamp,with whom he would later becomea prime mover of Dada in New York, Picabiawasdevelopingan abstractart after a successfulcareerpainting Impressionistpictures.In paintingsof rgrz-such x Dancesat the Sping inspiredby a peasantdanceseennear NaplesPicabiareferredto the connectionbetweenmusicand paindng that would leadApollinaireto mark his work, alongwith that of Delaunayand Henri Valensi,asOrphism. Planningmeetingsfor the Sectiond'Or wereheld in Picabiatlargeapartmenton the avenueCharles-Floquet,and it appearsthat he partially funded the exhibition. Certainly his importanceto the group is suggested by the number of his works that were hung in the show-thirteen, secondonly to Gleizestfifteen. Developingthe relationshipbetweenmusic and painting camenaturdly to artistssteepedin the Symbolisttradition, aswerethoseof the Sectiond'Or, who gatheredaround Paul Fort at tle CloseriedesLilas, and, beginningin Septemberr9rz, at the monthly dinnersof the futists of Passyin the Placed'Alma. Using color and form asa composerusesnotes,evenarrangingthem in nonobjectivepatterns,the artistwas thought to work like a musician,his creationsdirectly affectingthe soul of the viewer. "Musicalism," Henri Valensi,who dubbedhis own painting exhibitedworkswith such titles as Rhythm of the Saint-Moscowand Harmony on Saint-Yues. Yet while he argued from the musicanaloglrto the idea of a "pure painting," Valensi'swork remainedtied to identifiableimagery.It was left to CzechFrantisekKupka, neighborof Mllon in Puteaux,to makethe first breakinto completeabstraction. Kupka had beena medium in Vienna and remaineda spiritualistin Paris. "simultaneity" For him, talk of and suggestedan all-inclusivestateof consciousness, the Fourth Dimensionwasmore mysticalthan geometric.Kupka exhibitedtwo monumental abstractionsat the Salon d'Automne just beforethe Sectiond'Or opened, Amorpha,Fuguein Two Cohrs and Amorpha, Hot Chromatic,describedby a critic as "geometrically bizarre,monstrouslyhuge figures."3a Dwarfing eventhe largestCubist painting,onewascloseto 18x r8 feet.The poet NicolasBeauduinremembered Apollinaire presentinghis conceptionof Orphic Cubism-"the art of painting new suuctureswith elementswhich havenot beenborrowedfrom visualrealiry but havebeen â&#x201A;Źntirelycreatedby the artist"-while standingbeforethree canvases by Kupka at the Sectiond'Or, stressingthe connectionbetweenpainting and music.35 But despitethis accountand Kupka'sinvolvementwith the other artistsin Puteaux,he is neitherlisted in the catalogueto the exhibition nor mentionedin the publishedversionof Apollinaire'slecture.Deliveredon the afternoonof Octobern, ir wasentitledL'Ecartllement du Cubisme-The Quartering,asin drawing-and-quartering, of Cubism.Relatingthe term to artistsas diverseas Fauvesand Futurists,it suggeststhat virtually anything nontraditionalcould be calledCubist beforethe war. The lecturewas publishedin earlyr9r3 in Apollinaire'sThe CubistPainters: Aesthetic Meditations,a collectionof writings on the new art. The book supplemented a growing critical literature on Cubism, joining Andri Salmonk The YoungFrench "Anecdotal Painting with its History of Cubism," and Cubismby Gleizesand Metzinger,the first volume entirely devotedto the subject.Growing out of conversations betweenthe two artists after Metzinger moved to Meudon in the spring of ryn, Cubismpresentsmany ideasdiscussed in the Putearx-Courbevoie meetings.By ryry a number of foreign translationshad appeared,including Englishand Russian,exporting their perspectiveon the new movement. Gleizesand Metzinger begin with

79

FrancisPicabia. Dances ar the Spring,ryrz. Oil on canua,47h x 47% in. Phikdclphia Museum of Art, the Louise and \Y'alter ArensbergCollection.Thispainr ing was inspired by a peasant dancethat Picabia ltad seennear Napks.


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CUBISM MEETS THE

PUBLIC

"a government's providing a national monument to band of renegadeswho behave in the art world as the Apaches do in everyday life." The mamer was raised in the Chamber of Deputies on December 3, when Jules Louis Breton proposed thar the Grand ". Palais be denied to the Salon d'Automne, since such exhibitions . . run the risk of compromising our magnificent national heritage. And this is all the worse since it is mosdy foreigners who in our national galleries wittingly or unwittingly bring our French art into disrepute."a2The proposal failed, but it highlights the nationalisric and racist feelings that greeted much of the new arr before the war. Such views were advanced years earlier against the Fauves,as when the consâ&#x201A;ŹrvativeCatholic newspaper LAction Frangaiseruled on October z;8,rgog, "Foreigners and Jews,by whom the Salon d'Auromne has let itself be invaded in fantastic numbers, exploit this approach which is in keeping with their barbarian and imperfect souls. . . . \Vhen, in one of these brutal canvases,with shrieking colors, where the author reduces things to the level of his impoverished vision . . .you look for the artist's name in the catalogue,nine times out oFren you find the nami of a Swiss,a Belgian,an American, a Hungarian or a Finn."a3 By ryrz these feelings had become more widespread, and in Gil Blas Vatxcelles published an attack on foreigners exhibidng in rhe sdons, taking "The over the world of French art: Salon d'Automne and the Inddoendants have been swarming with Moldo-\(allachians, Germans, Slavs,and GuaremJans. These foreigners are colonizing Montrouge and Vaugirard."aa Ironically, a nationalistic response to the Parisian avanr-garde was nor confined to its critics, for the promoters of the salon Cubists saw rhem as perpetuating the French tradition of rational order. Roger Allard viewed Cubism as a modern classicism, reviving a tradition lost during Impreisionism. Merzinger described Gleizes as combining the logical with the sensual and saw lr Fauconnier's Abundance depicting the "men heroic responseto the modern landscape of of our race" (despite it being a picture of a mother and child). Olivier-Hourcade took Cubism to be an Idealist art illus"profound ffating the truth of race, of a country."a5 The Futurisrs seem to have been right in accusing these artists ofperpetuaring the French classicalffadirion. Nationalism would receiveits just desertsin the war that so radically changed the terms of European political and cultural life. But as rhe war commenced, advanced artists throughout Europe welcomed the conflagration. In addition to the bellicose Italians, the poets Apollinaire and Blaise Cendrars were enrhusiastic. Cendrars, fresh "the from his collaboration with Sonia Delaunay on 6rsr simultaneous book'-the sixfoot long La Prosedu Ti,anssibirien a dz k petite Jehanne dt France-wrote on his way "this to the front that war is a painful delivery needed to give birth to freedom. It 6ts me like a glove."a6Ironically, he was to lose his righr arm before the delivery was complete. From Russia Kasimir Malevich echoed the Futurists' paean to war and technol"I ory, and in Germany Franz Marc wrote to Kandinsky, am not angry at this war; I am gratefiJ for it, from the bottom of my heart. There was no orher avenue to the time of the spirit; it was the only way of cleansing the Augean stables of the old Europe."az Marc himself was killed in t9r6 near Verdun, five years after he had joined Kandinsky to become a messengerof such avant-garde purification in the activities of the Blaue Reiter.

41


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NOTES

and Co., t967), pp.55-69. 4r. PierreDatx, Cubistsand Cubism(NwYo*:

Rizzoli, ry82),p. 86.

lVillim

Robin, Picassoand Braque:Pioneeing Cubism (New York: 42. Museum of Modern Art, 1989),pp. 4o7, 4r2.. "The Fauves:Reflectionson an Exhibition, a Cata47.Carl F. Bddwin, logue,a History" Arts,Junery76, p. ro3. aa. Gil Bla, March 19,r9rz, in Daix, p. 82. "Cubism, Clssicism and Ideology: The rgrz 45. Robert S. Lubar, Exposici6d'fut Cubista in Barcelonamd FrenchCubist Criticism," in Eliabeth Cowling and Jennifer Mundy, On Chssic Ground: Picasso, Liger dt Chirico and the Nm Chssicism, r9r0-r9j0 (london: Thte Gallery r99o) p. 3r3.

"Reminiscences," in Robert L. Herbert, ed., rr. Vssily Kandinslcy, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hal\,ry64), p. 42. Modzm Anistsonlrr rz. From the r93o letter to Westheim,in Paul Vogt, The Blue Ri.dzr (Woodbury NY: Barron's,r98o),p.92. r 3 .V e i s s ,p . 6 6 . r4. Hahl-Koch, p. I37. 'h 15.Klaus lmkheit, History of the Almanac," in Vassily Kardinslry Mxc, The Bkue ReiterAlmanac, ed. KJtus Lankheit (New md Frmz York:Da Capo,1989),pp. 15-16, 16. Ibid., p. 18.On the name not originating from a r9o3 painting of Kandinskvi, seep. 18n8. It seemsthat the namewasa while in coming, on Septemberzr. however,asit first appearsin correspondence

46.Perloff,p. 6.

r 7 . I b i d . ,p . z o .

tz. Arrnin Zweite, TheBlue Rifur in the Lenbachham,Munich (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1989),p. tr. For Malevich,seePerloff,p. Iz.

r8. Hahl-Koch,pp. r35 r3-.

Chapterj r. Letter to Paul Westheim,publishedin Dn Kunxblatt,vol. 14,r93o,in Hans K. Roethal, The Blue Ridtr (New York: Praeger,r97r), p. 3r. z. In her memoirs ElisabethMacke describesgroup glasspainting sessionswith her husband,Franzand Maria Marc, and Heinrich Campendonk in the neighboringvillageof SindelsdorlArmin Zweite, TheBlue Rider in the Lenbachhau,Munich (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1989),notes to plate93. 1. On the commercialsuppoft for avant-gardistsmoving from Secession-qpe organiations to establishmore advmced forums for exhibi"Selling Mxtyrdom," Art in tion and promodon, seeRobert Jensen, Ameica April1992, pp. r43-r44. 4. PeterSelz,Geman ExpresionistPainting(Berkeley;Universiw of Ca.lifornia Press,1957),p. zot. 5. Zweite, notesto plate98. 6. Selz,p. 196. 7. Roethal,p. 39. 8. Selz, p. r9j, assertsthat this was the firsr such exhibition. but in Decemberl9o9 eight hundred worls weremsembledbv Madimir AlekseevichIzdebskyand shown in Odessa.largely consistingofu'ork bv Ru5sim 2ftisss-including Kandinskv,Jawlenskv,and von $0erefkin, who wereworking in Munich-the exhibition alsocontainedpaintings by Matisse,Rousseau,Gleires,Balla,Miinter, md other'WesternEuropeans.The show then traveledto St. Petersburgmd Kiev. In IgIo-r9rr Izdebsky put together mother lage exhibition of 44o work, ;3 by Kandinslry,including other membersof the NK\4r4 md such members ofthe Russianavant-gardem the Burliulc, larionov Goncharova,and Thtlin. The etalogue wm an ambitiouspubliation, containingKandin"Content sky'sessay and Form," and an advancedexcrpt from Schijn6erg's Theoryof HarmoryyGolicitedby Kandinsky). On Izdebsky and his activities,seeJelenaHahl-Koch, ed.,AmoA Schoenbrg VassilylQndinsfo: Letters,Picturesand Documents(lnndon: Faberand Faber,1984),p. r89. For worls included in theseexhibitions, seeDonald E. Gordon, Modzm Art Exhibitiorc19oo-1916, z vols. (Munich, ry71, z:4otff., 49ff. 9. Zweire,p. 29. ro. Wmsily Kandinsky, Conceming the Spirinal in Art, trans. M.T.H. Sadler(New York Dover, ry77), pp. r-2.

r 9 . I b i d . ,p . z r . z o . I b i d . ,p . 3 6 . zr. From Omo Fischer.Da, nrueBrZ (\{unich, rgIz), quoted in Selz, P'197. zz. Vogt,p. 25. zj. lakheir. p. r;. 2 4 .V t i s . p . - o n 4 9 . 25.lakheit, p. 14. "Disappearances, The First ExhibiAppearances: 26. Jmice N{cCullag, 'Blaue 1987,p, 47. tion ofthe Reiter,"',4rrr,September z-. Ibid., p. a6. "Henri Rousseauand Mod28. Croline l:nchner and Villiam Rubin, ernism," in Caroline l,anchner md William Frubin, Henri Roiuseau (Neu'York: Museum of Modern Art, ry8), pp.68-69. :9. Ibid., p. 7r. Delaunayrepliedwith a letter criticizing Kandinskyand Marc's German spiritualist interpretation of Rousseau,viewing him ratherasthe lxt ofthe greatFrenchclxsicists. 3o.lankheit, p. 29. y. Zweire,notesto plate7. Drauings, and Vritings 32. Klaus lankheit, Franz Marc: W'atercolors, (New Yorb Hrry N. Abrams, 196o), p. 16. Muc continuâ&#x201A;Źsin more "For instance,ifyou mix blue-so serious,so spiritual-with red, detail: and the comyou intensifr the red to the point of unbearablesadness, fon of yellow the color complementaryto violet, becomesindispercablc (womanm comfort-giver,not m lover!).. . . If you mix red and yellow to obtain orange,you endow the passiveand femde yellow with a termagantlike, sensualpower, so that the cool, spiritual blue once again maleprinciple; a blue now automaticallyfalls becomesthe indispensable into placenext to the orange;thesecolors are in love with eachother is the color harmony of celebration." Blue md orangthat 33.Kandinsky,ConcemingtheSpiritual in Art, p. t7. 34. McCullag, p. 52. 35.Ibid., p. a8. 36. Hahl-Koch, p. r5o.

259


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pue lr?I4l Jo uonerogellof,prcads&ar' agt yo rnpo:d 'neulnl4l Pu? qllunlAl uI urog eq pFo.^ArEr{rSlasrlreueu an?lg eql roJ ry z'rouaulv rrll uI PUEuorllgltlxr rellau enelg aql ur uooseg or ala.4, srpser ogl pue 'dno.r8ralag snelg eqrJo srsllrerel{lo or pea;dspporn lrr.tnre sIqI 'u.^aorreqr8unurcdue8aq'lpuerrodtut erour'pue-s8ur -rultd ssepqrv( olpnrsqllunl4J slt{Jo IP \ E Pereor llsueyuef-saldtuexa artnbceol relseu aqr or Sur8uoleg'?Iuar{og puz lueur ue8egslsrueaql 'zror) uueqof ra,^aarq 'Dt4paw1Ztalut17 sacerd -re9 uraqrnostuorg 'sse13 uo s8utlured-asn^ar Pu?snoql 3o ? uer{r arou Jo uolrf,ollo) rr{r perr^o)slp llsuepwf a.raq1'su8lsapu?Ir" eg le_uol] -rPEJlJosuorsJe^ luesBaoUEI slq rpl^[ eJn]IuJryPIrPljolr\Poo/t\aql Palerof,rPPu?sseJP 'rsnoH -.re,reg )q) tnaquastnyrr{l rI PalTEl uEIssnU dlsulpuq4 uago q8noqrp perrods ueu aql put 'ace1daqr qrr.& sprol eql 'esnoqlrots-oerqt e pesel{rrndarls.raururns relunl4J'uDllerel1uol pue l1sue1rcf q]I \ slllqlooJauldp aqr ur parured a ol q IIeJ 'lrrc aqr r{rnosselrurli lorp rautuns 3r{rJo lsor at{l JrAoJJJI{.^a Jo PuE PeuonEf,?,r UEITE ?g eqr 01lIsI^ lsry rlel{raP?IuP"q ^aql eunl ul tnogp 'n?urnwJo u,^aor '9€ assensrelluuryrt Surge,uqr5ur Suqrrasraguarda5 lq 'qcrun61or {r"q paloru rerunry pue lqurpuu;4 806r uI lng '(sorunlueru sruep 'sra8uy 'uaPserq -uadppulsapuoTES ar{rpuu auuornv(p uops oql rpoq te) slr?d PuE 'rS '?ssopo'.l,rof,sotrur Sunrqrqxe'uotlelnder 'uqrag 'Srnqs.raled J leuotltu:alul ue 3ur -dop,rapseru. llsurpuql srtal asaglSulrnq 'slr?dJoePlsrnosrrles l? Lo6t aun[1o6r aunf pue olIEdsUur 9o613o re]ul^{ rI{1Surpuads-lo6r 3o sgruorurrrl{l lsrg el{r roJ ?rsrunJst lar'r se-adorng rnoq8norl{re^ITPu?Ie ?lr PTno.^rerunw pw llsurpur;4


richten, echoing the alternatives so often presented in rhe face of avant-garde shows: "There are only two possibleways to explain this absurd exhibition: either one assumes that the majoriry of the members and guestsof the Association are incurably insane,or elsethat one deals here with brazen bluffers who know the desire for sensationof our time only too well and are trying to make use of this boom."6 In response,Marc wrote "People the letter to Thannhauser that brought him to Kandinslrys attention: react as if thesepaintings were isolated tumors growing in a few sick minds, whereasthey are in fact simple and austere first steps in virgin counrry. Do they not realize that the same spirit of fresh creativity is at work today in every corner of Europe, defiantly selfaware?"7 The paintings truly were indicative of international developments, for the Septemberrgro NKVM exhibition was one of the first large group shows of the European avant-garde, prefiguring the r9r2 Cologne Sonderbund and the r9r3 fumory Show in New York.8 It included pieces by Picasso (his early Crbisr Head of a Voman was reproduced in the catalogue), Braque, Le Fauconnier, Derain, Maminck, Rouault, van Dongen, the RussiansDavid and Madimir Burliuk, as well as the Munich artists and a few other invitees. The catalogue was an important document in itself, containing essaysby Kandinslcy, Le Fauconnier, the Burliuls, Odilon Redon, and an unidenti6ed writert foreword to an earlier Paris show of Rouault. Also hosting exhibitions of Matisse, Gauguin, and an immense show of Islamic art (drawing visitors from throughout Europe, including Matisse and the English critic Roger Fry), Munich in rgro provided a range of artistic stimulation rivding that of Paris. Kandinsky must have been especially gratified to find Marc writing of the

+5

aboveleft: Staircase and chair painted in Bauarian style by Wassily Kandinskl in the MiinterKandinskyhoue, Murnau, ryrr aboveright: Vassily Kandinshy. Poster for the frx exhibition of the New Artisx' Associationof Munich, 1909.Cobr lithograph on paper 37x z5%in. SilidtiscbeGaleie im Munich. Twoyears Lenbachhaus, later the artists of the Blaue Reiter would withdraw fom the New Artists' Association and mount an exhibitionin Thannhauserigalleryalnngsid.e an exhibition by theirformer colbagues.


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FROM ALMANAC TO EXHIBITION

Gabieb Milnter Dark Still Life, r9rr. Oil on canaal joVax 39% in. SaidischeGaleie irn Lmbachharu, Munich

47


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FROM ALMANAC TO EXHIBITION

49


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uith Chickens, and Marct painted-glass portrait of the Douanier and DelaunaysSr. Siuein below Macket Indians and acrossa doorway from Kandinskv'swild Improuisation zz.The largeCompositionTwasadjacent to Marc'sDeerin theForest.and the third Kandinskyin the exhibition, Impression z (Moscow)wasalongsidethe sweetlyrealistic Birdsby JeanBlois Niesddand a srylizedHead by the AmericanAlbert Bloch. In the end, the exhibition did nor includeanythingother than contemporary painting, presentingan explicit conffasrof diversemodernistforms with the largely more conservativework of the remaining membersof the NKVM, shown concurrently in adjacentrooms. In addition to the arrisrsjust mentioned,the BlaueReiter showincludedthe paintingsof David and Madimir Burliuk, combiningRussianNeoprimitivism and the new Cubism; Miintert evocativelandscapes and still lifes;richly colored imagesof Marct friend and Sindelsdorfneighbor Heinrich Campendonk; dreamyfigurativescenesby the CzechEugeneKahler,who had died a week before the openingand was memorializedby Kandinskyin the Almanaz,;and Fauvistwork by Kandinsky'sformer student, ElisabethEpstein.It was Epsteinwho had alerted Kandinslcyfrom Parisof the work of Delaunay,initiaringa ielationshiprhat would makehim one of the best-knownFrenchartistsin Germanybeforethe war.The exhibition wasaccompaniedby a smallcatalogue,lessthan 6 x y inchesin size,listing most of the worksshown.The artistswerecited alongwith their citiesof residence, emphasizingthe internationalcharacterof the group.As might be expected,the cataloguewas not readywhen the showopened,and oddly for Kandinskyand Marc, it includedonly a singlesentenceas programmatictext: "In this small exhibition, we do not seekto propagateany one preciseand specialform: rather,we aim to show by meansof the varieryof forms representedhow inner wishesof the artistsare embodiedin manifold ways."zz The exhibitionmarkedthe first time that Rousseau's paintingswereshownin Germany,and his work was givenvery specialtreatment.For Rousseau was ideal for the BlaueReiter,allyingthem with the Frenchavant-garde througha sharedicon, reinforcing their interestin folk forms, and providing additionalevidencefor Kandinsky's view that both realismand abstractionequallycan express spiritualcontent.His name waslistedfirst and separately in the catalogue,and his Sneawith Chichenswas serup as a sort ofshrine, with a wrearh oflaurel leavesand a band ofblack crepebeneathit. Kandinskyhad first seenRousseau's paintingswhen he and Miinrer lived in Sbvresin

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Installation uiew of the First BlaueReiterErhibition at Gahrie Thannhacuer Munich, r9rr, shouing (lS n ight) Gabieb Milnteri Dark Still Life; (throughdoor) IVas sily Kandinshyi Compositron Y; Albert Bloch'sThree Pierrors; Heinrich CampendonkiLeaping Horse; Henri Rousseau's Street with Chickens;FranzMarciPortrait of Henri Rousseau;Ralarr Dekunay:sThe City No. z. Phongraph b Gabidz Miinter, courteryGabieb Milnter andJohannes EichnerFoundztion,Munich aboveright: Instalktion uiew of the First Bhue Reiter Exhibition at Galeie Thannhauser, Munich, ryn, showing (lefi to right) Franz Marc'sThe Yellow Cow; Arnoll Schanbergp Self-Portr ait; IVas si ly Kandinsfu'sSt.G eorgeII ; (aboue) Vladimir Burliuk\ Portrait Study; (behw) Gabiele Miinteri 'Winter); Country Road (in Marc'sDeer in the ForestI; and the edgeof Kandiwfo's Composv tionY. Photographby Gabrielz Milnter counesyGabrieleMilnter and JohannesEichnerFoundation, Munich


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EXHIBITION

both in size and in ambition-were those of Marc and Kandinslcy. Marc showed four paintings and the Rousseauportrait, and Kandinsky three oils and two worls on glass. The most striking of the Marcs was his leaping Yellnw Cow. Responsesranged from "an altothat of the conservative Alexander Kanoldt, of the NKVM, who saw it as gether deplorable work," to that of the poer and future Dadaist'walter Mehring, wtro "bellowing cow-yellow."31Marc himself had particular associationsin mind ixtolled iis for the intense colori used in his pictures, as he wrote in a December Igro letter to "Blue is rhe male principle, severeand spiritual. Yellow is the female prrnciple, Macke: gende, cheerful, and sensual. Red is matter, bru:'al and heavy, the color that has to come into conflict with, and succumb to, the other tvro."32 Marct symbolic program here, in which the use of color reflects the ultimate triumph of spirit over mafter, was complemented by Kandinskys work in the exhibition. iGndiniky showed an example of each of the three kinds of painting delimited at the conclusion of Concerningthe Spiritual in Art,which Piper had rushed into prinr in time to appear during the exhibition and to be sold there. His ImpressionII (Moscow) "a was direct impression of outward nature, expressedin purely artistic form." t*?*?L "a largely unconscious, sPontaneous expression ofinner character, the satiln 22 was "an expressionof a slowly formed inner non-material nature." And Composition Vwas "reason, feeling, which comes to utterance only after long maturing," and in which .orrr.io,rrt.rr, purpose, play an overwhelming par1."zzTogether they were to signify a development roward the highest state of artistic practice, the use of intellect and consciousnessto display significant feeling and reveal spiritual content' In toml effect the paintings of Kandinslcy, Marc, and Delaunay overwhelmed much of the other work in the exhibition. Niestl6, in particular, was unhappy, both disappointed that the show did nor contain the sort ofhistoricd and cultural variety thaihe had been led to expect, and upset at rhe way in which his modest work looked ". amidst the others. . . I felt such sadnessin viewing the little painting that hung there so forsaken and lost, that I had to leave the exhibition in total frenzy and deeply depressed."3aKoehler had loaned the piece, and Niestld asked him to remoYe it from the exhibition before the show traveled to Cologne. The artists with the largest number of works in the exhibition were Gabriele Miinter and Albert Bloch, each showing six paintings. Miinter contributed four country and village scenes,and wvo still lifes. Her contemporaries considered Mi.intert still "the mysterilifes to be the heart of her work, and Macke was attracted to the senseof 'touched of lomanticism the with vision German interiors. and to their ous" in these "On the Queschurch and 4mily."35 In his important theoreticd essayin rhe Almanac, tion of Form," Kandinslcy used one to exemplify the inner harmony that can be revealedby the juxtaposition of dissimilar elements. Very different was the work of the American from St. Louis, Albert Bloch, who had come to Munich in r9o8. Three of his pictures showed theatrical 6hil'x61s15-harlequins and Pierrots-and they highlight the importance that the performing arts held for the Munich avant-garde. Kandinslcy in particular was involved with the theate! and with the expressive connections between the sensesgrounded in synesthesia.He admired Scriabint exDerimentswith musical sound and colored light-he and von Hartmann had trans"Prometheus," 6r rhe Almanac-and he concluded the lated Leonid Sabaneievt essay, "On Stage Composition," and his original sctipr for Der Alrnanacwirh his own essay, gelbeKhng("The Yellow Sound"). Kandins\y performed exPeriments with the dancer Alexander Sakharoff and von Harrmann testing the validity of synesthetic relations: After showing a seriesa watercolors to von Hartmann, the comPoser created a piece of music based on one of them. Sakharoff then danced to the music, and attempted to identify the watercolor from which it was derived.36The ided of coordinating music,

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FROM ALMANAC TO EXHIBITION a firnvisualform andcolor text, andmovementin the syntheticGesamtkunstwerkwas as an cfeativiry human of all his view damentalone for Kandinslcy,stemmingfrom was pronevel Yelhw Sound The Since spiritual ground. expression ofan underlying duied-plans for ar9t4 productionin Munich wereabandoned-the AJmanacstands monumenrto this ideal,with contributionsfrom eachof the arts ashis mostsuccessful "low." "high' and sources'both and illustrationsfrom \(estern and non-'Western The spiritualismof Kandinskyand of Marc wasquite aliento AugustMacke, "that I must warn you, asa Bhue fuiter, not to think who wrote in raiial termsto Marc too much on the spiritual.Kandinskystandsalone(asan Asian)."37Mackewascritical of Marct work in the Blaue Reiter exhibition and obviouslywas unhappy about Kandinsllybsrronginfluenceon his friend. He was, in fact, lessthan enthusiastic "There area lot of good thingsthere,but alsoa lot of things aboutthe showasa whole: propaganda."After Mackeand Marc viswhich do not warrantthe grosslyexaggerated ited Delaunayin Parisin October r9rz, his work becamestronglyinfuenced by the theory of color,and he movedevenfarFrenchmantvisual,ratherthan psychological, Macke was mocking the BlaueReiterin a By associates. ther from his Munich ryr1, satiricaldrawingand attackingKandinskyin a letter to Koehler.3s Mackedid not seethe exhibition in Munich beforeit closedon January3' but he visitedthe showin Cologne,whereit wasdisplayedduring the lastweekofJanLike many of the advancedgroup exhibitionsbeforethe First W'orld\(ar, the uary.3e Blaue Reiter show went on touf after its initial installation.Both of the first two NKVM showshad traveledextensivelythroughout Germany after being shown at The BlaueReiter Thannhausert,exhibitedin both museumsand private galleries.a0 Gereonsclub,headedby Emmy'Worringer,_ exhibition was shownin Cologneat the'Wilhelm 'Worringer, whoseAbsnactionand sisterof the art historian and theorist Empatlty(r9o8)influencedboth Kandinslcyand Marc. Its most impoftant vâ&#x201A;Źnueaway from home, howeve!was the secondand last, at the opening of Herwarth \Talden's Sturm Gallery March rz-April rc, r9rz. Herwarth W'aldenwas the avant-gardeimpresario of prewar Germany' lwalden developedthis Beginningwith the first issueof Der sturm in March rgro, r*i.* oid."-a, literarure,and music into a vehiclefor the promotion of the visud Provokedby the public fesponseto his useof Oskar Kokoschka'serotic avant-garde. images graphiison the magazinetcovet he beganregularlyto featurethe expressionist In rgIr Dresden. from in Berlin relocated by rgro Briicke group, of -e-b.rs of the Die he stood with the opposition to ih. .ont.*"tive protest againstthe incursion of by Kiinsthr,publishinga response Frenchart into Germany,Vinnent Protestdzutscher tVorringerin hisAugustissue.By I9I2 he wasreadyto expandhis activities,and in celebrationof Der Snrm'sone-hundredthissuehe mountedan exhibition of Kokoschka, new Frenchpainting,and the BlaueReiter,to be followedby the Italian Fu uristsfresh from Parisand LonJon.The BlaueReiterexhibitionar the Sturm gallerydifferedfrom the Munich original-there wasno Schdnbergor Niestli, and worls by Klee,Jawlensky,and von Wirefkin wereincluded.Sincethe original show the Bkue Reitereditors had come to know better KandinskysSchwabingneighbor Klee, who reviewedthe exhibitionwell in the Swissjournal Die Alpen.And Jawlenskyand von'W'erefkinhad left the NKVM, alienatedby the sort ofvicious attacksthat werepublishedby Fischer. In Octoberrgrz WaldenmountedKandinskyt first one-manshow,and he toured and promoted the work throughout'Westernand EasternEurope during the next few years.!(alden would go on to do a seriesof very important exhibitions,including behun"y in earlyr9r3,and the greatshow of the internationalavant-garde,the 366painting ErstercbutschnHerbstialnn("The First German Autumn Salon') of ryry, iunded by BernhardKoehler.The initial Sturm exhibition of r9r4 was the last group

t7


8s -Suerre agr Surzlue8ro-sJlrllllf,EJeqtoslr{Joesn?laqsJreJP uonrqrqxa raqueraq pu? 'h trr;nuef uo 3:aguoqr5 puosredpup Surrultd srq3unoa18eu 3o sureldurocaq'zr6t ot 3urtrr16'pJtuleg\rJ o ser"rllenadsa llsurpuu; Pu? 'asuaulurlsea JelIeUenelg ar{l Jo uonourord pue uonezrue8roar{r ur parlnborTo.^ Jo t"no*.;Hd 1og uer -ssndJodno:8r3o uorsn]luragt lg rasser'rduets srl rng 'salJtuauqrrg ,q, trprluersol sa.lntcrdrarraUrnElg aqr 'eun[ pue leyrquI lue.a aol{s rgr ereq.^ ptuaas aAEr{ tsnru 'au3o1o3uI 'rllolg 'allel lerunw lq g:ea qro.41\.4^{ EPUE'lrEIAIJosalPnls[Blu tr Pue -lu? o 'srolof,rew.lr lqsurpuql e la,!\t snsJrl rploN Jo qror"r crqder8uaalual3sPu? U 'sararduaalrnoys,rel]ent 'p]laH lg s8uv're.rp pue srurrdrq8ra-lruarlu's8uvrrerpauo [ 'urarsqf,ad -lrrrqr :rrrla6 rntlg or{tJo l"qr Potuleq.l.r qro.,'r rq8ra-drlqr Eraugorry Jo 'auop -re o s,zrlo3 re Suvrroqsqrnrg ar| rng ,r..'euoPSuraqsl stql ieuo e8relaq1 Suraqsr oot srqt:su?euruonf,npordergeurseql ' ' ' 'suortrnpordata8'q lsuIEBerue 'ater 'ellslf,ep e se ro ol arou lue Surptal ssel ro (aq lq8no rV'rortrEJ {ooq rno l3l{.1'r I sIll {un{l srsrqrpue)tfi uJoporuJnoJoluaunJopeqt uI tuet{tezlplJorutulol lJaJJof,uI ',,:t,fien.rqaguo lrEI or Sunr:1tr'sauo l I'' lplrrsag daqr)Eqtr?upuqvar{ruI PelnP -orda.req ol elJ.trse8erureryn:g arq rEI{rSunstsurrnq 'uorrrglqxeeql uI >Fo.l.r oqr Jl !ala.l'ror{'dlsutpuql 'Jpupu4v)ql roJ epnlf,uror Suraa:3e'f,nwtsnqruauer{rssalse.^,\ PrrerEtuPerrf,rlos PUEuorrrqnFaqllunw Puof,esrgr uI llglqxo ol slsllr? a]lrug eqr roJPOSu?rre eH â&#x201A;Źr,,'Pueleql ur srarlruPeluals rnoJo sBePIeql sesn ol esolf,sesI IEI{I grpa.l.lpadderunsnopuruen e,,3ollsulpus) or etorr'raI{ 'rallenry orro Pue 'oPIoN 'ltp 'ppaH 'urersqledteurlf,rry sorpnrseqt SulaesraUV 1ro-/"rrleqr uodn aurec Jo -rloq sJEe.traNrr{t re^osluaredq{y\r sH Sunrsr,t'lJ?W t?qt utlJeguI sel,rrI trll PaPunoJ rzad snot.tardagt uolssaf,as,v\rN eraqa 'ullreg or PerPiolerPEqsrsllrEarp3o [e u6r srq PuPurersr{f,ed prq son8eolloc lg 'acuarpne:arear8e or sruudrar{ropue srncpoo.t\asuotulsdnor8aqr ruasardppor'r lI reqr (zr-9o6r) sorloJrrod[Bnuut erpJo $rg eq] Jo uoltetltqnd aql lq pa.trolloJse.l.r e se8ur aqr 'ef,edsaqrSou8lsapar{l uo u?tus5e.rp rng 'orlqndeqrdq porou8rsea./Y\or{s 'tuoor.,v'oqs -Iro.r ernrxg-SultqglT put aPerlsduel? uI su/d aq a1nl.tt IeIleH lg pauletqo 'uourgrqxersrg rlaqr pleg laqr Surpynq,{sotce1"ul palprul 9c,61ur'ulatsqf,adxEW PesquoN erPuo uoll?loslsII{P3Puaoqa-ePloN PuB-rurr{r uror or uesTVJoPUEIST 'rbrc agr ut doqs s<nlPlng agr IIruE Jo uonrppe arp qrlA, Jo uolDas sselc-8un1ror"r 'lDIreH I{lIrE rauroJ e ur ragtaSorPelro.t\ Pue Pa ll-Jnlllou-lPltuqls Irs) Pu? 'fa1g zurg irouqf,rry3y'rpn1 rsurE-(,,e8pug aqJ,,) e>lrnrg aIC Jo slsllr? pur8r:o earqreuoP aqr '(o6r ur uapsarcur ragraSoleuor 3ut,rz11'tltrou eql ol sallur ParPunq 'sluo(ua.{oru Sung-rt33o a8pa apreS-rue,re Suraq>1ror"r [B]rp?Jer{rJo aJe^\eunaJa{ 'a 'rrEW al1aq or llsulpuql tplgry sueeslI pu? tnq J ^orDIrragt etrdsop 'dno.r8a>pn.rger{r srsurptsruorsse'rdxg eqr dq sgul./d?rp pue srurrd30 rogrunutsel E Jo uaaluales 4.ol{sor{a 'eaD'I aum fueu;ag urqlrl( ruo{ puy's8ur.a,rerp pue sagceno8 Pe 'PePnllul eraa Pung auraPow In?d luePlserqllunw aqr pu? drv su?H ,{lqelourso[u rac ssr.{\seqtJo sreqluetua^rc ' ouorre'IIIEFIII trPUE'E^oreqruoS"l|FreN 'q+ePl J rnulss) lg zrssngurory sacatderr.lr ereqJ 'ltunelaq ou lppo q8noqr 'ere1 Ined pue 'uorDo'I rragog 'eleuser{ EI 'urcJec 'llulurcl^ 'anbe-rg'oss?f,Id Jo lJo.lr\JrrrBf, eqt ssoJc?lpeorq arour pa8utr uortlqnlxJ eJu?rCruoJC'ap;e8-lue.c[Euor]?uJerul slqr 'slslu? q)Iunl J el{r qrvt^.le1 .,noqststg aql 3o lrr,rer8Jo ralua) aqr alrqr"r'lpuer (sresn?quuEl{J 'enSopr?f, -.iodrur er{ru?qr l? .^Aoqs a:oyq ar{r ur 5rf qtl q;or"r petsrl \ Pue 'slulrd 's8ur se./r\uourgrqxaJarradan?lg puof,JsSII{J 'sJolof,Jate ra8rel qcnu '(..arrrlt\-Irelg,,) ssPA-zromePs -.rErP P)PIiruEzr'zrlo3 sueH Jo dlarrruaPersrsuoru 'grrun141uI 1r\or{s Puof,ase patuasardlftW Pu? Jo arorqooq rqr e oq?lralp8 egr ur l1surpury1's.uap1eA. re se/duonrqrqxorsrg rlaqrJo uolsrel ullrrg er{l a1[d\ pur8uo aqr3olutru pepnpur rI Pu? tatle1 enelg ol{lJo uolllglqxe ,o's8urtured


FROM ALMANAC TO EXHIBITION

ing for its moveto Cologne,helpingwith the saleof picturesin the show,writing letthe German,French,and Swisscontributionsto ters(eighryin rwo weeks),assembling the SecondKnaveof Diamondsexhibitionin Moscow and unrelentingeditorialwork The Alrnanac,of course,wasthe focus,the unifying effort on which on theAlmanac.a5 the groupt identiry wasbased.And with the lack of public responseto the December exhibition-although it is estimatedthat five hundredpeoplesawthe show,thereare no known published16vi6w5-*1s Almanacbecamewithout question the primary of the BlaueReiter. public expression After much travail,the BlzueReiterAlmanacwx distributedto its subscribers of the subscription. in mid-May, the first printing enlargedto r,2oo due to the success The book was dedicatedto the memory of Hugo von Tschudi,who, as head of the BavarianStateMuseums(after being dismissedas director of the German National Gallery in Berlin for his supportof modern an), had obtainedThannhausertgallery rooms for the first NKVM exhibition, and had encouragedthe Almanacproject. Extensivelyillustrated-with r44 picturesfor r44 pages,only one third showingcon"inner" connecdonof the new temporaryworks-the visualmix soughtto displaythe Therewasabuse, art with the old, the childlike,the self-taught,and the non-'Western. "an interestingobject of course-for the directorof the Berlin Academyof fut it was for psychiatricstudy''a6-but copieswere in demand.ln ryr4 a secondedition was publishedwith new forewordsby Marc and Kandinsky,statementsthat expressfading hope for widespreadspiritualchangebut a residualfaith in its possibiliry.Marc ended "'We his remarksthis way: admire the disciplesof early Christianirywho found the stren$h for inner stillnessamid the roaring noiseof their time. For this stillnesswe pray andstriveeveryhour."a7 Certainly in ryr4 the timeswerefilled with roaring,with eventsthat would sendKandinskybackto Russiavia Switzerlandand Miinter to Sweden,Macke to his deathwithin two months of the outbreakof the war, and Marc to his own end near Verdun in March 1916.The editors'contrastingaftitudesto the imminent conflict are projby the booksofthe Bible that eachchoseto illustratefor an unrealized suggested 'S7ith ect of Marc's in t9t3 Marc selectedGenesis,and Kandinskythe Apocalypse. Macket death and his own experiences in the trenches,Marc becamelesssanguine about the moral and spiritual value of the war, and more discouragedabout the "complete failure" and achievementsof the Blaue Reiter, eventuallymarking it a renouncingartistic collaborationin a letter of March 27, r9t5.a8But in the Almanac one can still breathethe clearair that blew through Munich, Murnau, and Sindelsdorf in r9l-rz, a utopianismof aestheticaspirationthat would resurfacein many forms throughoutthe century.

t9


NOTES

and Co., t967), pp.55-69. 4r. PierreDatx, Cubistsand Cubism(NwYo*:

Rizzoli, ry82),p. 86.

lVillim

Robin, Picassoand Braque:Pioneeing Cubism (New York: 42. Museum of Modern Art, 1989),pp. 4o7, 4r2.. "The Fauves:Reflectionson an Exhibition, a Cata47.Carl F. Bddwin, logue,a History" Arts,Junery76, p. ro3. aa. Gil Bla, March 19,r9rz, in Daix, p. 82. "Cubism, Clssicism and Ideology: The rgrz 45. Robert S. Lubar, Exposici6d'fut Cubista in Barcelonamd FrenchCubist Criticism," in Eliabeth Cowling and Jennifer Mundy, On Chssic Ground: Picasso, Liger dt Chirico and the Nm Chssicism, r9r0-r9j0 (london: Thte Gallery r99o) p. 3r3.

"Reminiscences," in Robert L. Herbert, ed., rr. Vssily Kandinslcy, (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hal\,ry64), p. 42. Modzm Anistsonlrr rz. From the r93o letter to Westheim,in Paul Vogt, The Blue Ri.dzr (Woodbury NY: Barron's,r98o),p.92. r 3 .V e i s s ,p . 6 6 . r4. Hahl-Koch, p. I37. 'h 15.Klaus lmkheit, History of the Almanac," in Vassily Kardinslry Mxc, The Bkue ReiterAlmanac, ed. KJtus Lankheit (New md Frmz York:Da Capo,1989),pp. 15-16, 16. Ibid., p. 18.On the name not originating from a r9o3 painting of Kandinskvi, seep. 18n8. It seemsthat the namewasa while in coming, on Septemberzr. however,asit first appearsin correspondence

46.Perloff,p. 6.

r 7 . I b i d . ,p . z o .

tz. Arrnin Zweite, TheBlue Rifur in the Lenbachham,Munich (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1989),p. tr. For Malevich,seePerloff,p. Iz.

r8. Hahl-Koch,pp. r35 r3-.

Chapterj r. Letter to Paul Westheim,publishedin Dn Kunxblatt,vol. 14,r93o,in Hans K. Roethal, The Blue Ridtr (New York: Praeger,r97r), p. 3r. z. In her memoirs ElisabethMacke describesgroup glasspainting sessionswith her husband,Franzand Maria Marc, and Heinrich Campendonk in the neighboringvillageof SindelsdorlArmin Zweite, TheBlue Rider in the Lenbachhau,Munich (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, 1989),notes to plate93. 1. On the commercialsuppoft for avant-gardistsmoving from Secession-qpe organiations to establishmore advmced forums for exhibi"Selling Mxtyrdom," Art in tion and promodon, seeRobert Jensen, Ameica April1992, pp. r43-r44. 4. PeterSelz,Geman ExpresionistPainting(Berkeley;Universiw of Ca.lifornia Press,1957),p. zot. 5. Zweite, notesto plate98. 6. Selz,p. 196. 7. Roethal,p. 39. 8. Selz, p. r9j, assertsthat this was the firsr such exhibition. but in Decemberl9o9 eight hundred worls weremsembledbv Madimir AlekseevichIzdebskyand shown in Odessa.largely consistingofu'ork bv Ru5sim 2ftisss-including Kandinskv,Jawlenskv,and von $0erefkin, who wereworking in Munich-the exhibition alsocontainedpaintings by Matisse,Rousseau,Gleires,Balla,Miinter, md other'WesternEuropeans.The show then traveledto St. Petersburgmd Kiev. In IgIo-r9rr Izdebsky put together mother lage exhibition of 44o work, ;3 by Kandinslry,including other membersof the NK\4r4 md such members ofthe Russianavant-gardem the Burliulc, larionov Goncharova,and Thtlin. The etalogue wm an ambitiouspubliation, containingKandin"Content sky'sessay and Form," and an advancedexcrpt from Schijn6erg's Theoryof HarmoryyGolicitedby Kandinsky). On Izdebsky and his activities,seeJelenaHahl-Koch, ed.,AmoA Schoenbrg VassilylQndinsfo: Letters,Picturesand Documents(lnndon: Faberand Faber,1984),p. r89. For worls included in theseexhibitions, seeDonald E. Gordon, Modzm Art Exhibitiorc19oo-1916, z vols. (Munich, ry71, z:4otff., 49ff. 9. Zweire,p. 29. ro. Wmsily Kandinsky, Conceming the Spirinal in Art, trans. M.T.H. Sadler(New York Dover, ry77), pp. r-2.

r 9 . I b i d . ,p . z r . z o . I b i d . ,p . 3 6 . zr. From Omo Fischer.Da, nrueBrZ (\{unich, rgIz), quoted in Selz, P'197. zz. Vogt,p. 25. zj. lakheir. p. r;. 2 4 .V t i s . p . - o n 4 9 . 25.lakheit, p. 14. "Disappearances, The First ExhibiAppearances: 26. Jmice N{cCullag, 'Blaue 1987,p, 47. tion ofthe Reiter,"',4rrr,September z-. Ibid., p. a6. "Henri Rousseauand Mod28. Croline l:nchner and Villiam Rubin, ernism," in Caroline l,anchner md William Frubin, Henri Roiuseau (Neu'York: Museum of Modern Art, ry8), pp.68-69. :9. Ibid., p. 7r. Delaunayrepliedwith a letter criticizing Kandinskyand Marc's German spiritualist interpretation of Rousseau,viewing him ratherasthe lxt ofthe greatFrenchclxsicists. 3o.lankheit, p. 29. y. Zweire,notesto plate7. Drauings, and Vritings 32. Klaus lankheit, Franz Marc: W'atercolors, (New Yorb Hrry N. Abrams, 196o), p. 16. Muc continuâ&#x201A;Źsin more "For instance,ifyou mix blue-so serious,so spiritual-with red, detail: and the comyou intensifr the red to the point of unbearablesadness, fon of yellow the color complementaryto violet, becomesindispercablc (womanm comfort-giver,not m lover!).. . . If you mix red and yellow to obtain orange,you endow the passiveand femde yellow with a termagantlike, sensualpower, so that the cool, spiritual blue once again maleprinciple; a blue now automaticallyfalls becomesthe indispensable into placenext to the orange;thesecolors are in love with eachother is the color harmony of celebration." Blue md orangthat 33.Kandinsky,ConcemingtheSpiritual in Art, p. t7. 34. McCullag, p. 52. 35.Ibid., p. a8. 36. Hahl-Koch, p. r5o.

259


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EXPLOSION AT THE

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now overwhelmed with the magnitude of the project, he cabled Davies for assistance. Davies sailed on the S.S. Minnehaha on October 26, and arrived on November 6. Kuhn spread the word among dealers and artists about the great exhibition to take place in New York, and about a growing art market in America-certainly more hope than realiry. He also was introduced by Jo Davidson to the Chicago lawyer Arthur T. Aldis, who expressedinterest in the exhibition for the fut Institute. 'W'alter Davies and Kuhn were shepherded around Paris by Pach, whose knowledge of the Parisian scenewas critical to their success.He took them to meet the Steins, to Puteaux to seethe Duchamp-Villon brothers, to the studios of Brancusi and Redon. Davies bought Brancusit marble Torso for himself, and he told Pach that Redons Roger and Angelica was sold. It would go to Lillie P Bliss, whom he advised. After seeing Redon, Davies concurred with Kuhn's view that his work should be featured, no surprise given his own Symbolist proclivities. Pach led them as well to Bourdelle and Archipenko, and to Elie Nadelman, Patrick Henry Bruce, and Morgan Russell. They also visited numerous dealers, and requested loans from BernheimJeune, Uhde, Kahnweiler, Vollard, and Emile Druet, who sent over a hundred items. Their efforts brought them a full complement of van Gogh, Gauguin, and Cdzanne, and a wide spectrum of strong works by Divisionists, Fauves, and the new Cubists. After appointing'Walter Pach their European agent, the nvo painters set off for London on November rz. In London they visited Roger Fryt Second Post-Impressionist Exhibition, which had opened a few weels earlier at the Grafton Gallery. This was the sequel to Fryt exhibition of Manet and the Postimpressionists,held in the same location at the end of r9ro, which had introduced the new painting to London. Unlike that first exhibition, the second contained Russian and English work, but the French, of course, were the stars. Matisse was the highlight, with forry-one worls, followed by Picasso with sixteen. Yet Kuhn and Davies were nor especiallyimpressed, for they felt that they had secureda larger selection ofgreater range and historical depth for New York. Since Frys show contained nothing earlier than Câ&#x201A;Źzanne, and the Armory Show, like the Sonderbund, featured the earlier masters van Gogh and Gauguin, they were right in this. But they immediately cabled Pach to obtain as much Matisse as he could, asking him to have the Steins encourage the artist to loan them the works at Grafton as well as more from the studio. They especially wanted the great plaster of Matisset Bach I, which did come to America along with the rest. After making arrangements for loans from the Grafton Gallery exhibition, they finally departed Liverpool on the S.S. Cebic on November zr. On the voyage home, Kuhn translated the excerpts from Gauguint Noa-Noa that they would publish as a pamphlet, and a series of van Gogh's letters, which in the end were not orinted. A press releasewas issued on December rz stating that 199 paintings and zr sculptures had been secured for the exhibition, and that there would be separaterooms devoted to Cdzanne, Redon, Gauguin, van Gogh, Matisse, the Cubists, and the Futurists. By the time that the full Association heard Daviest report on December r7, it was clear that the show would, to say the least, offer a great challenge to the American artists. There was a Domestic Committee responsible for organizing the American worfts, chaired by \Tilliam Glackens. They sent invitations to specific individuals asking for work by January r, but advance publiciry set off a cry by the uninvited. So the Domestic Committee agreed to jury such work on January zo-26, and as a consequence, many of the firture American modernists entered the exhibition, including Oscar Bluemne! Stuart Davis, Andrew Dasburg, Edward Hopper, Joseph Stella, and \Tilliam and Margaret Tnrach. Publiciry was a major activity, and the Association had good press contacts.

63

Arthur B. Dauies. Dauies u,as electedasa mild-rnanneredbadzr of the Associationof American Paintersand Sculptors,but his aggressiue inclusion of European modernismin the Armory Show changedthe courseof American art. fu Gu! Pine du Bois would "dragon euoluedfrom remarh, a that uerygentlecocoon." Archrues of AmericanArr, Smirhsonian Instituti on, \Yas hington, D. C.


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EXPLOSIONAT THE ARMORY

Therewasmuch printing to be done in addition to thesepublicity materials, Catalogue by the initial order of fifiy thousandcatalogues. and its scaleis suggested preparationwasone of the most difficult tasks,for worls continuedto be addedto the exhibition up to the last moment. But somehowthe cataloguearrivedfor the first day of the exhibition on February18.A supplementwas printed correctingerrors,listing additionsand deletions,and sincethe cataloguehad beenprinted beforethe showwas hung, therewas an index indicating the location of wery work. The organizersalso publishedfour pamphletsthat weresold at the show:A translationby Pachof Elie Fauwritten ret long essayon Ctzanne,Kuhnt translationsfrom Noa-No4 and nvo essays for the occasionby Pach,one on Redon and the other on Duchamp-Villon'sMaison Cubiste,'A Sculptort Architecture."Completing the publication effort was a set of half-tone postcards,one showing the interior of the Armory with the show fully installed,and fifty+ix photographsof exhibitedworks,half foreignand half American. After Kuhn and Davies returned from Europe, the Associationrented an office in the CameraBuilding on East2tth Street,and as the show approachedthey took more office spaceaswell as a stableon 3znd Streetto accommodatethe works arriving from Europe.There were someworrisomedaysin Januaryas storms at sea delayedfor a week the arrival of the S.S.Mexico,but it landedon the r3th, followed threedayslaterby the S.S.Chicagowiththe restof the Europeanloans.Things by then were moving at a hectic pace,as new American works were juried, American loans arranged,and plansdrawn for the layout of the exhibition itselfand the fabricationof structural supports.Of course,there also was some internal politics. Although the membershipmeeting on January zz offrcially approvedDaviest arrangementsfor the exhibition, thingswere souredat the beginningof Februaryby the resignationof Guzon Borglum overthe lack of attention given to sculptureand the rejectionof his conservative selectionsasheadof the SculptureCommittee.He laterwould character"farcical izethe showasa and foolish exhibition madeup largelyof paranoics."s Daviesconceivedof the exhibition in an historicalway,tracingthe development of the modern movementfrom its roots in the nineteenthcentury.His general view of the Europeanswassketchedin a chart publishedin the specialexhibitionissue of Art and Decoration(March r9r3),editedby Guy Ptne du Bois.There Daviesidentified threetendencies: beginningwith Ingresand Corot, extendingthrough Classicists, C(zanne,Gauguin,and Matisse,and culminatingin Picassoand the Cubists;Realists, to, again,Cdzanne,and moving from Courbet,Manet, and most of the Impressionists leadingto the Futurists;and Romanticists,from Delacroixand Daumier to van Gogh and, appearingagain,Gauguin.At the Armory the contemporaryAmericansalsowere given historical precedents,in the work of -Vhistler, the ImpressionistsTheodore Robinson and John Twachtman,and the important rediscoveryof Albert Pinkham Ryder. The physicalarrangementof the eighteenoctagonalroomsof the exhibition centeredon the Europeans,with a row of six rooms on eachof the north and south walls mostly showing American worls. Entry was through the room of American sculpture,commandedby GeorgeGrey Barnardt marble ProdigalSaz, from which one could walk straightaheadto the largeroom of Frenchpainting and sculpture'Off to the left wasthe sho#s main attraction,the Cubist 1ee6-fu61v11 as the Chamber a Staircase.e of Horrors-with the lines waiting to seeDuchamp'sNude Descending There wereabout r,3ooworks in the exhibition, a third European,and many a visitor must haveechoedPrendergasttremarkwhen he camedown from Boston to seethe "Too much-O my God!-art here."lo Amazingly,MacRae'sdiary indicates show: that the entire exhibition was hung in rwo days,beginningon the rlth. The process wasfacilitatedby Daviespreparinga watercolorsketchof everyroom, ashe laterwould

65


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EXPLOSIONAT THE ARMORY

plan a complete layout for the show in Chicago. By the time of the press preview on Sunday the r6th, the Armory had been decorated with pine trees, yellow cloth streamers forming a canopy from the ceiling, and garlands of greenery hung from the partitions and along the walls. All of the planning and preparations had cost a great deal of money, which had been raised by Davies and Clara Davidge among their sociery friends. But the organizers had high hopes that they would more than cover their expensesthrough admissions receipts, sale of publications, and optimistically, art work. They were not disappointed. AJthough the reaction of the public and the presseventually was overwhelming, it did not staft out that way. Certainly on the evening of February 17 the opening crowd of 4,ooo was impressed by what the Association had accomplished. John Quinn in his speech touted the show as the most complete modern art exhibition of the past twenty-five years, and initial presscoveragewas positive. The Sun called the exhibition "an "sensational" and event not on any account to be missed," and the Euening Post "In half an hourt visit . . . one may meet with ridicule, rage, helplessquesdonnoted, ing, and savageenthusiasm, but not with indifference."l r Yet the crowds at first did not come, Three weeks into the exhibition, howevet attendance began to mount, and it grew in the last week to a peak of approximately ro,ooo on the final day. At best estimate, the total was close to 88,ooo.r2 On that last day-Saturday, March ry-lines circled the block, trafiic jammed the streetsaround the fumory and the doors had to be closed from z to 4 p.M. becauseof overcrowding. For by then the opposition presshad marshaled its forces, providing many comic interpretations of Duchamp's Nudt "a Descending a Staircase and describing Brancusit Mlle. Pogany x hardboiled egg balanced on a cube of sugar." Even the sympathetic New York American entided its Feb"Is rvary 24 piece on the show, She a Lady or an Egg?" Indeed, history has best remembered these attacks on the European afi in the press,and here Matisse elicited the strongest reacdon. The Boston Tianscriptof Febru-

67

Installation uiew of Galkrl H of the Armorl Show. On the pedestalto the lef is the plaster of Constantin Branrusi'sMlIe. Pogany, describedby a crinc as 2 hardboiled eg balnncedon a cubeofsugar."In thecenterofthe gallery is Wilhelm Lehmbruck\ Kneeling'Woman, comparedto a praying mantis by Teddy Rooseuelt. Archiuesof American Arr, Smithsonian Instirution, IVashingnn,D.C.


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EXPLOSION AT THE

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term for the new art-in both New York and Chicago the exhibition often was called "the Cubist show." Theodore Roosevelt'swas one of the more famous visits to the exhibition, and the former president was shown around by Davies, Gregg, Kuhn, and his artist "Sheriff" friend Bob Chanler, whose decorative screenswere a hit of the exhibition. '\?'oodrow Instead of attending Wilsont inauguration on March 4, Roosevelt went to '.A Laymant View of the Armory and he published his account later in the month as an Art Exhibition." There T.R. extolled the strength of the American artists and deni"lunatic fringe," unfavorably comparing Duchampt nude to the grated the European Navaho rug in his bathroom, Archipenkot Family Liferc a set of childrent blocla, and Lehmbruck's kneeling woman to a praying mantis. Another well-known visitor was the tenor Enrico Caruso, who entertained the public one Saturday by giving away his caricatures of the paintings drawn on exhibition postcards. And it is said that Mrs. Astor came every morning after breakfast, well able to afford the special $I admission charged on weekday mornings to allow for quiet viewing apart from the crowds, who paid z5 cents in the afternoons, evenings, and weekends. For the artists who visited the show, the experience inevitably was traumatic "Old friends argued and separated, in one way or another. As Valt Kuhn remembered, never to speak again. Indignation meetings were going on in all the clubs. Academic they painters came evâ&#x201A;Źry day and left regularly, spitting fire and brimstone-but came----cverybodycame."2l For the poet'S7illiam Carlos Williams, who would become involved with the painters of the Grantwood artists' colony and the fuensberg salon, ". . . it was not until I clapped my eyeson Marcel Duchampt Nudr Descendinga Stair' casethat I burst out laughing from the relief it brought mel I felt as if an enormous weight had been lifted from my spirit for which I was infinitely grateful."22 Confronting this amount of radical aft was a revelation even for those who had seen Stieglitzt shows in his small space at z9r, exhibitions of Rodin drawings in r9o8 and r9ro, works by Matisse in r9o8 (his first one-man exhibition outside of France), r9ro, andtgrz (the first exhibition of Matisse sculpture anpvhere), and eighry-three Picasso works on paper in r9rr. It fixed modernist innovation indelibly in the minds ofAmerican artists, something not immediately welcomed by many of the local exhibitors. As Stuart Davis, one of the most positively affected, remarked with characteristic verve, "In retrospect it . . . suggestsa masochistic reception whereat the naive hosts are trampled and stomped by the European guestsat the buffet."23 The only European guest to actually attend the buffet was Francis Picabia, who, after Matisse and Duchamp, seemsto have been most frequently mentioned in the press. Picabia gave many interviews, and with European charm and critical intelligence promoted the avant-garde cause,and his own, in society and in the press.\'Vhile his statements seem straightforward enough now to the uninitiated American public they could seem obtuse, and the Sundzy World offered a prize for the best r5o-word elucidation of one of his comments. Picabia became involved with Stieglitz during this visit, and immediately after the Armory Show there was an exhibition at z9r of sixteen of his New York studies. The artist and his wife, Gabrielle Buffet, would return during the war in r9r5, and along with Duchamp, another expatriate of that year, he would develop around the Arensberg circle those activities to be known as New York Dada. During the Armory exhibition Stieglitz had a show of thirry of his own photographs, something that he never had done before. Established in r9o5 as the gallery of the Photo-Secession,his establishment soon was known x z9r for its Fifth Avenue address.(Actually, in February r9o8 the gallery moved acrossthe hall to what was really zy Fifth Avenue, the two buildings having been combined.) Stieglitz began showing nonphotographic works in r9o8 with an exhibition of Rodin drawings, sâ&#x201A;Źnt to him

69


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E X P L O S I O NA T T H E A R M O R Y

Marcel Duchanp. Nude Descendinga Staircase, No. z, ryrz. Oil on canuas,y8 x jS n. Philadelphia Museum of Art, TbeLouiseand W'aber Arensberg Collection. Displayed in what "Chamber wascalbd the of Horrors," this painting becamethe mostnototiousuork in the exhibition. It was the subjectof a contestin American Art News, which ffired $to to whoeuer could locatethe nude lad1.h was purchasedfor $jz4 b7a dealerin prinx fom San FranJapanese cisco,FredericC. Tbnq.

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EXPLOSION AT THE

ARMORY

"Seeing woldt series of cartoons in the Euening Sun in March, New York with a Cubist." Political cartoonists took up the Cubist theme as well, with John T. McCutcheon in the Euening Sun of April g showing \(oodrow Wilson proudly painting a falling faceted figure entitled Thriff DescendingDownward. A slew of humorous verseswere printed; Mary and Earl Lyell published The CubiesABC with each letter of the alphabet lampooning some paft of the show; and there were such mocking events 'Academy as an exhibition by the of Misapplied Arts" for the benefit of the Lighthouse for the Blind. Not all of the criticism in the press stemmed from ignorance, however, a.s some writers were fairly Familiarwirh modern art. For instancel Royal Cortissoz had been to Paris and seen the Futurists at Bernheim-Jeune, and his account of their work is clear and accurate. The opposition of such critics emphasized wo points, that the new work stemmed from a wholly individualistic point of view-'what he choosesto do in art is right becausehe chooses to do it"27--and thar these artists lacked traditional craft and skill. There also were criticisms of the exhibition from inside the modernist camp, as when the astute Christian Brinton complained that the show did not include the artists of Die Briicke, the Blaue Reirer, rhe Nnn , the Berlin Neue Sezession, and the Italian Futurists.2s\7ith only Kirchner and Kandinsky representing the new painting from Germany, and knowing how much German art Kuhn had seen in Cologne, the anti-German bias seems clear. Gregg explained rhat the organizers felt recent German work to be largely derivative from that of the true innovators, the French, and the AAPS even had answered requesrcfor participation from Die Briicke and the Neue Sezessionby falsely srating rhar ihe sho* alreadriwas complete. There was some dissensionwithin the avanr-gardearound the exhibition, in addition to the well-known unhappiness of the more realisrically inclined American painters. Max \(eber, who had loaned sevenwork bv his Paris friend Henri Rousseau, refused to be included when only rwo of his own paintings were ttj be exhibited. From the French side, Robert Delaunay demanded that his work be removed from the exhibition becausehis huge City of Paris was not hung in the final installation. Although marked in the catalogue supplement as never having arrived, the large work was sent rolled and was to be restretched by Delaunay's friend, the painter Samuel Halpert. After Davies did not exhibit the painting, Halpert carne ro remove Delaunayt other pieces, and in solidariry the American Patrick Henrv Bruce, working in Paris, demanded that his work be taken down as well. Davies and company refused to do so, but when the exhibition moved on to Chicaeo and Boston no Delaunays or Bruces were included. In Paris,the lournal MontjoieZnackedrhe Armory Show For its injustice to Delaunay and, ironically, for its poor installation of the French art. Aware of how much the newspapers had contributed to their success,the "our "beefsteak AA?S invited Friends and Enemies of the Press"to a dinner" on March 8 at Healys Restaurant at 66th and Columbus. All of the critics were there, along with 'W'aitresses Stieglitz and Quinn, and spirits were high. sang and danced, speecheswere made, comic telegramswere read. But Royal Cortissoz probably expressedthe feelings of many who were both excited and disturbed by the exhibition, as he ended his "It speech: was a good show, but dont do it again."z'r As it would turn out, it did not have to be done again, for the Armory Show triggered the sort of interest in the new art that ordinarily would have taken years to develop. Not confined to the aft world, this interest was general, refected in popular forms like the full-page ad for the John \Tanamaker Store in rhe Euening Sun of March r3-"Color-Combinations of the Futurists, Cubist Influence in Fashions in the new Paris Models for Spring . . . At last the modern spirit is developing in the realm of woment dress." The show also made enthusiasts of many who would infuence things

/)

Beefteakdinner held by Armory Showorganizers for'bur Friends and Enemiesof the Pres," Healy's Restaurant, 66th Street and ColumbusAuenue, New York City, March 8, ry4. Archiuesof AmericanArt, SmithsonianInsrintion, Vashington,D. C.


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EXPLOSION AT THE ARMORY

the department-store chain. Attempting to capitalize on A-rmory Show publiciry Gimbels began the show at their Milwaukee headquarters in May and sent it along to stores in Cleveland, Pittsburgh, New York, and Philadelphia. There were paintings' some majoa by Ldger, Metzinger, Pierre Dumont (none of whom was included in the Armory Show), Gleizes,JacquesVillon, and fwo obscure Hungarians, all purchased by agents in Paris for $roo apiece.3a Stimulated by interest in the department-store exhibition, the Pittsburgh Art Sociery organizrd a show of American Cubists and Postimpressionists for December and asked Davies to selectthe pictures. Among the forry works were those of his AAPS colleagues Pach, Glackens, Prendergast, Kuhn, and MacRae, along with Morton Schamberg, Charles Sheeler, and Joseph Stella. About thirry of these paintings were included in the Davies-organized exhibition at the Montross Gallery in February r9r4. The organizers of the Armory Show, in fact, were instrumental in the ongoing exhibition of new art in New York, where becween r9ry and r9r8 there were close to two hundred fifty shows of modern painting and sculpture.35 The largest of these, the first exhibition of the Sociery of Independent Artists in April r9rz, almost seemsan Armory Show reunion, presided over by officers Glackens, Pach, and Prendergast,with legal assistancefrom John Quinn. But it was governed by the spirit of the new American modernism of the combined Stieglitz group and fuensberg circle, on whom press commentary centered. It was an immense exhibition of z,5oo works displayed over two miles of aisles,alphabetically arranged by artist. All work entered was accepted, except for the urinal submitted surreptitiously by Duchamp as the Fountain of R. Mutt. The Europeans who were exhibiting-including Brancusi, Matisse, Derain, Picasso,and Delaunay-elicited no special notice.36 For by this time modern European art was a relative commonplace in New York. Soon after the Armory Show one obstacle to its exhibition had been removed, with John Quinnt successfulfight for repeal of the It percent import dury on art less than rwenty years old. And with the interest stimulated at the Armory especially that of socially prominent collectors, new galleriesand a new market blossomed. These new establishments actively exhibited American modernist painting and sculprure aswell as European, but many felt that the Americans were getting the short end of the stick. The most focused response was the Forum Exhibition, held in March 1916 at the Anderson Galleries, which displayed about rwo hundred worla by seventeen artists. They included the Synchromists, many members of the Stiegliz group' Man Ray, Charles Sheeler, and the Zorachs. Criticizing the neglect of American art since the Armory Show, the catalogue attacked the new galleriesfor directing so much attention to work of commercially desirable foreigners. There is some irony in the reaction ofAmerican modernism to an exhibition instrumental in creating the conditions of its own existence. For while the Armory Show did not significantly influence the sryles or gready expand the knowledge of theseAmerican painters, many of whom already had worked in Europe, it did foster an environment receptive to their efforts. Bringing modern art to the attention of a greater public, inspiring collectors and patrons, creating a market in which galleries could survive, the Armory Show was of signal importance for the new American art. Additional irony lies in the presenceof Robert Henri on the organizing committee of the Forum Exhibition. For in ultimately securing a future for advanced art in the United States, the Almory Show laid the ground for the development of American modernist abstraction instead of American realism. This move toward abstraction, of course, was a world-wide phenomenon, yet in different circumstances it would be touted as the highest form of realism. To seethis we must look at a very different group of artists, halfway around the globe.

77


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NOTES "Evolution 28. Christian Brinton, not Revoludonin Art," Intemational Sndio, Aprrl r9r), p.34. 29.Brown, p. t5z. 3o. Detailson purchasesmadeat the exhibition come from Brown, pp. tzo-ryg, and. sales information from his catalogue of the show, pp. 244-128.

'World

ofArt and the SymbolistBlue Rosegroup.

6. The donkey (lolo) belongedto Fridi, proprietor ofthe lapin Agile in Montmartre, where Picsso and his friends gathered.For the lilll storymd a photo of Lolo at work, seeJohn Richardson,A Life of Piasso, vol. r (NwYork RandomHouse,r99r),p.375.

7. About halfofTltlint entrieswerecostumesketchesfor the rgrr rnno"Frederic vative production The Plzy about the Tiar Maximilian and his Anogant For Torrey the complete story seeFrmcis M. Naumann, 3r. SonAdnlf On Tatlin's designs,seeJohn Milner, Vladimir Thtlin and the C. Torrey md Duchmp! Nudz Descendinga Staircase,"in Bonnie Rusian Auant-Garla (New Haven: Yale Universiry Press,1983),pp. Clearwater,ed., \V'estCoastDuchamp (Miami Beach:GrassfieldPress, z8-32. Goncharovaincluded a seriesenrided Artistic Posibilities ofa Pear99r), pp.rr-23, which correctsmuch misinformation passedalong bv coch,wirhthe bird renderedin Chinae, EgJptian,Cubist, and Russim earlieraccounts. Embroiderystyles.For the cataloguelisting ofthe Donkey'sTail exhibi"Mabel tion, seeDonald E. Gordon, Mofum Art Exhibitiorptgoo-r9r6, z vols. Linda Dalrymple Henderson, Dodge, and Gertrude Stein, 32. (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, r974), z:562-566. Max \07eber: A Four-DimensionalTiio," lrrs, Septemberr982,p. ro6. 33.Brown, p. zo6. 34. For an accountofthis exhibition, seeSheon,pp. 9l ro-. " 'The Vorldt New Art Center': N,lodernArt 35. SeeJudith Ztlcre1 Exhibitions in New York Ciry r9r3-r9r8," Archiuesof Ameican Art Jour"Modern nal14, no.3 ft974):z-7; and An md Its Sources: Lxhibitions in New York, ryrc-r921 A SelectiveChecklist." in William lnnes Homer, ed., Auant-Garfu Painting and Smlpnre in Ameica r9r0-r92t (Wilmington:DelawareAn Museum,r9-5),pp. r66ff "The Big Shos'.The First 36.On this exhibition,seeFrancisNaummn. Exhibition of the Socier,vof Independenr Anists," Anfomm, February 1979,pp.34-39,andApril 1979,pp. 49-5t. Chapters "old r. All datescited for Russianevenrsarein the sn'le" usedbeforethe October Revolution,which can be convenedto srmdrd Wesrerndating by adding r3 days.This meansthat for thosein Pris or Munich, for "old instmce, the exhibition o-ro openedin 1916.My useof srle" dating conformsto that ofthe standardliterarureon Russianan, however, and it seemsleastconfusingto adopt this practice.On designatingthis exhibition o-ro, rather than m o.ro, a mistakenform which had established itself due to a mistake in printing the exhibirion caraloguemd postet seel:rissa A. Zhedova, Mabuich, Suprematismand Rnolution in RusianArt rgro-rgjo (London: Thamesand Hudson, r98z),pp. lz3-r25. z. Kasimir Malevich, From Cubism and Futurism to Suprematism:The New Painterly Realism,in John E. Bowlt, ed., RussiznAn of the AuantGarde, Theoryand Criticism r9o2-r9j4 (New York: Thames and Huds o n ,1 9 8 8 )p, . n 8 . 'Worlds, Kasimir Mabuich and the 3. Charloae Douglas, Swarc of Otber Origirc ofAbsnactionin RusLt(Ann.\tbor: UMI, r98o), p. y4. 'Westernprecedentsin rhis 4. The Neoprimitivists also were awareof direction. Larionov had accompmied SergeiDiaghilev to Parisfor his exhibition of thirteen elegmt rooms of Russianart at the 19o6 Salon d'Automne,wherehe had seenthe Gauguin retrospective alongwith the work of the Fauves.And most of the artists had visited rhe srear Shchukhinmd Morosov collectionsof Frenchpainting in Mo.c* Ot Diaghilev'sRussiansectionof the 19o6 Salon d'Automne, seeJohn E. Bowh, TheSiluerAge: Rusian Art ofthe Early TwentiethCenturyand the "W'orld of Art" Grazp (Newtonville, MA: Oriental ResearchPartners, 1979),pp. 169-17r.

8. Douglas,p. 7. The exhibition includedwork by David, Madimir, and Ludmilla Burliuk. 9. Ellen Proffer and Carl Proffer, eds., The Ardis Antholngl of Rusian Futurism(Ann Arbor: Ardis, r98o), p. t79. In addition to poems and essaysby the Russian Futurists, A Skp in the Face of Publit Titste included a number of prose poems from Kandinskyt Kknge, prblished without his permission.Conservativein demeanorand uncomfortable sryle of manifesto,he sent a letter to rhe Rusian with the aggressive 'lYordinMay t9r3protestinghis inclusion in the volume. ro. Both of thesesourceshad been emphasizedin Madimir Markov's "The Principlesof the New Art" with particular referencero Chinese art, pointing away from Europem precedentstoward the Emt, the ground, according to Goncharova, of all the best in Russian art. Markovt essayws published by the Union of Youth in r9rz, and is Art of theAuantGardr, pp. 4_1,8.It is inrertranslatedin Bowk, Russian estingto comparehis emphasison chance,and the generd rejectionof logic by the RussianFuturists,with the coniemporary essayby Ben"The jmin De Casseres, Renaissance of the Irrational," published by Stieglitz in his special Armory Show isste of Camera Worh, }une t9t3. "Cut That essayends: down the sacredBo-treeofsciencewith its mock orangeand stuffed nightingales!. . . The blzing consteflationsin rhe rcdiaa ofthe irrational are calling us, and up the sun-shaftofthe ages we go dancingthe lmciviousdanceof the atomslwe go like godssweating stars,chanting a Te Deum-to Chance." (p. z+) On Goncharova's rejectionof the Westfor the East,seeBowlt, pp. Sj-6o. rr. Douglm, p. 36, from the publishedreport of"The First All-Russian Congress of Poets of the Future (The Poet-futurists)," in which Kruchenyck,Matiushin, and Malevichwerethe soleparticipants. rz. Ma.levichletter to Matiushin, May r9r5, in Dougl*, p. 64. For imagesof the squarein Victoryouerthe Sun, seeJean-ClaudeMarqde, "K.S. Malevich: From Blzch Quadrilateral(r9r3) to White on Whie (r9r7); from the Eclipse of Objects to the Liberation of Space,"in StephmieBarronand Maurice Tirchman, eds.,TheAuant-Gardrin Russia, ryro-rgjo: New Perspectiua(Los Angeles: Los Angeles Counn' MuseumofArt, l98o), pp.zo-zt. r3. Milner, p. 84. 14. On Tatlin's knowledge and recitation of Khlebnikou see \iB. "'il/hat I RememberAbout Thtlin," in LarissaA. Zhadova,ed., El'konin, Thtlin(Nor York: Rizzoli,1988),p. 437.

15.In Bowlt, RusianArt oftheArant-Gardz,pp. 8o-8r. y. It hm beensuggested that the Knaveof Diamondswu namedfor the diamond-shapeddesignson the uniforms of prisoners----emphasizing 16.For Goncharova's remark, seeDouglm, p. z3; and for an accountof the anist'srole asoutcast-but this desienationalsocontrmtedwith the the Moscow event see BenediktLivshits, Ilr One and a Halffued effete titles of the more establishedar-rists'organiarions, Diaghilev's Archer,trans.lohn E. Bowlt (Newtonville,MA: Oriental ResearchPart-

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IN THE ZERO OF FORM

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Futurists. Early interests in peasantand children's art developed into linguistic attempts to capture a more pure, prelogical state of mind, and the results were aggressivelypresented in collaborative text and performance. Their Igrz manifesto, published in the aboveleft and right: burlap-covered A Slap in the Face of Public Tiate, proclaimed the right of poets to create Instalktion of \4adimir Tatlini "insuperable completely new words out of an haued for the language that existed largecornercounter-relief at o-ro, before them."e The Last Futurist Exhibition of "beyond The language created was called um, a contraction meaning sig- Pictures,Petrograd,ryr5. Thtlin ni6cance," and it consisted of neologisms linked togetherwith syntactic oddiry tonal also allowed works by Liubou PopouaandNadtzhlaUdzbsoua peculiarity, and unanticipated juxtapositron. Zaum was to be independent of traditional patterns of thought and standard causal assumptions, appropriate to a world of to be shotanin this room,tahich radically different perception and consciousness.Nonrational intuition and chance hedtsignated"ExhibitionofProphenomena were welcomed.ro Emblematic of the usesto which umwas put is the fessionalPainters."StateRussian December r9r1 productio n of Victory ouerthe Sun in St. Petersburg,with text by Alexei Museum,St.Paersburg Kruchenykh, music by Matiushin, and setsand costumes by Malevich. The work originated the previous summer at Matiushin's estate in Finland, where the three friends "to formulated plans for publications and performances designed destroy the antiquated movement of thought according to the law of causaliry the toothless common 'symmetrical sense,the logic' . . ."rl In the performance sponsored by the Union of Youth, Malevicht costumes reflect the cubistic forms of his current painting, but one "The of his sets,he later saw,was to anticipate the most srartling image from o-ro: curtain depicts a black square, the embryo of all possibilities-in its development it acquires a terrible strength."12 The disjunctive language of zaum corresponded to contemporary developments in painting, with images dismembered under Cubist infuence and reassembled in the alogical mode of works like Malevicht An Englishman in Moscow. Kruchenykh "'We exclaimed, have cut the objecd W'e have begun io see through the world!" and 'When what appeared was takâ&#x201A;Źn to be a different perceptual order. Matiushin translated passagesof Gleizes and Metzinger's Cubism for the Union of Youth, he interpolated excerpts from Pyotr Uspenskyt Ti:rtium Organum, connecting French allusion to the Fourth Dimension with remarks about the hieher consciousnessto which artists

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IN THE ZERO OF FORM

seenclearlyat o-ro. More thatr half of the fourteen arristsin the exhibition had spent time in Paris,and most of thosehad worked therefor ayearor more' Mafia Vasileva,in Paris from ryo7, ran what was known as the AcaddmieRusse,frequentlyvisited by Liger, and the site of his important lecruresdeliveredearlyin the summersof ry.4 and ryt4. worked there in rgrr-rz. Liubov Popova, Natan Altman and Zhenia Boguslavskaia NadezhdaUdaltsova,and Vera Pestelall painted at the Acaddmiede la Palettein were teaching.Ivan rgr2-r3,where Gleizes,Metzinger,Le Fauconnier,and Segonzac ?etersburgirt t9tz, to St. Puni beganworking at the AcademieJulianin r9ro, returning were marBoguslavskaia he and After Futurists. where h"ebecameiirvolvedwith the to Russia back forced be to only in early Paris to moved again ried, the two artists ryr4, by the outbreakof the *at The most Amous excursionto Pariswasthe shortestone, however-Thtlint visit to the studio of Picasso' Thtlin traveledto Parisby way of Berlin in the earlysummefof t9r3,wherein the springhe had gonewith a group of Uk "i.ri* musiciansto play at an exhibitionof Rurri"., iolk ".r.3i"ging atrJ phying the stringed bandore,he was able to make enoughmoney ,o .oi itr",t.o.t io p"tir. There was.alargeand activecommuniry of Russilnartistsin Parisat the time, including the sculptorsfuchipenko, Lipchitz, Zad' kine, and BaranoFRossind,and the month or so Thtlin spentthereexPosedhim to at leastsomeof the new Cubist sculpture.He certainlyhad good contactsin Popovaand Udaltsova,who had worked witir him at the studio calledthe Tower on Kuznetslly Bridge in Moscow.lsBut the critical experiencewas going to Picassotstudio at z4z bou[vard de Raspail,wherettlin r"* hir ground-breakingconstructionsand reliefs. ApparentlyJacquesLipchiu actedas interpreter,and Thtlin entertainedPicassowith Rriri"r.un.r. it is said that Picassogavehim sometubesof paint as a gift, and that Thtlin askedto be kept on asan assisLnt.Certainly he had-seenthe work that would inspirehis imminent movefrom painting to sculpturalreliefl Returningto Moscoq t"di" big- working with the kind of found materia bottle in Cubist setalsthat he had seei usedin Paris,and his first relief represented to.oPenhis studio wo^rk of body enough a largr had constructed May rgr4he By ting. foti fiu.-d"y .*hibitio" of reliefs.The public was invited to 37 OstozhenkoStreetfor recite his rwo hours each evening,where they also could hear SergeiPgdchagvslcy "post-zaum" of Synthetic-static.composiExhibition show poerry.reThtlin calledthe tions, and inihe pamphlethe publishedfor e-ro-where it wascalledthe First Exhibition of PainteriyReliefs-the works in it were describedsolely in te_rmsof their "wood,'metal, putry, glass,plaster'cardboard,primer, tar,-etc.'"whosesurmaterials: 'ipu1ry, glosspaints,dust sprinkling and other means."20 faceshavebeentreated*ith thesereliefswerelargelyabstract,emphapi..id.nti, Cubist IJnllke TheBonlz andits sizingthe inherentproperriesoftheir physicalconstituentsratherthan any rePresentain the Russiancritical tradition as tionJ function. This focus on -"t.ti.k-ktrown of with regardto qualiry painting surface-was to reachits fahtura and first discussed "counter-reliefs" shownat o-ro. 'purestform in the The o-ro show culminated a year of ma.iorexhibitions, beginning with tamway V the First Futurist Exhibition, in Petrogradin March r9r5.This was the monrh that the police finally closedthe Stray Dog cafe, where the Futurists had "pharmacists,"regularlymaligninga bourgeoisaudidivided the world into artistsand encethat cameto be both amusedand abused.It alsowasthe secondmonth of UsPensky's lectures in Petrograd on Indian philosophy, theoso^phy,and the Fourth Dimension. Named foi a trolley line, Tiamway V was financed by Puni and The who later would uie their independentwealth to support o-ro' Boguslavskaia, "ambushpreis looked askanceat both shows,the PetrogradBulbtintreatingthem as

83


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z5 pictures each, then it will only just be enough.":a The original ten contributors grew "ro" to fourteen, belying the in the title, and in the end only a few more than one hundred fifty pieces were shown. But Puni need not have worried about Malevich, who exhibited thirty-nine paintings in whar became one of the most famous installations of the century. He had been working largely in secretsince the spring, hiding what would be called Suprematism from all but a few intimates. In Septembe! howevet Puni sur"I was caught like a prised Malevich in the studio, and, as he wrote to Matiushin, chicken in soup."ai Malevich wanted to exhibit these new paintings at o-Io under the banner of Supiematism, but he was dissuaded by his Moicow ciicle, who sought to avoid dividing the group of advanced artists by explicit factionalism. Thus there is no mention of that term in the catalogue. However, concerned to establish the correct understanding of this difficult work, and to safeguard his own prioriry of discovery Malevich decided to print a statement accompanying its presentation-the oracular pamphlet From Cubism to Suprematism. The New Painterly Realism.36It was sold at the exhibition, for by the opening there was no pretense of unity. Malevich had been unsuccessfulin convincing Puni to deny Tadin space in the exhibition, and the ill feeling benveen the two artists increased as the show approached. Thtlin for his part refirsed to exhibit alongside Malevicht new work, which he considered amateurish, and the wo artists reportedly had a fistfight just before the opening.3TAlexandra Exter, who did not exhibit in o-ro despite being in Tiamway V, arranged a compromise whereby Thdin, Popova, and Udaltsova would show in a separatesection. Thtlin put a sign over the door: Exhibition ofProfessional Painters. Malevich now felt free to designate the new work correctly, and labeled his area Suprematism in Painting, K. Malevich. The opening itself was tumultuous, with its explosive mix of tense participants and skeptical public. But Puni managed to convince the police that neither the antagonistic artists nor the sculpture blocking the exit posed a real danger. Although Puni-only rwenty-three years old at the time-had insisted on the inclusion of Thtlin in the show, he and Boguslavskaiawere partisans of Malevich, and showed in the Suprematist section of the exhibition. They produced one of the four Suprematist manifestos disseminated at o-ro, an enumeration of simple remarks ranging from the suggestive-'A picture is a new conception of abstracted real elements, deprived of meaning"-to the 6ls6g16-"2 x z is anything you like, but not four."38 It was available without charge at the exhibition, as was another leaflet connining short statements by Kliun on pure sculpture and Mikhail Menkov on pure painting, and the first eight paragraphs of Malevich's booklet. Among those who exhibited along with Malevich, Puni and Kliun seem to have come closestto showing Suprematist worls at o-ro. Malevich had urged his associates to develop Suprematism in three dimensions, and some reliefs and sculptures in the show display their efforts. Although Puni exhibited Cubo-Futurist paintings, such x Hairdresser, he also developed a reduced geometric imagery in pieces like Vhite Ball in a Green Bar. Most extreme was his work reported in a Petrograd newspapet the ". Euening as number ro7 in the exhibition, . . a simple board about ro x Jt centimeters, painted green. The visitors were perplexed. . . . Some touched it, others smelled it secretly, for there was nothing to see." According o the Penograd Bulletin, Maria Vasileva exhibited a similar work, a white board about zo x ro centimeters, one side of which was cut in a semicircle, displayed on a windowsill overlooking the Summer Garden and called SpanishLandscape.3e KTltn also mixed Cubist work with Suprematist experiments, sho*ing his humoious free-standing frgxe, Cubist at Her Dreising "Basic Thbb, along with seven worla listed generally as principles of sculpture,"

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Vkdimir Tatlin photograpbedby AlexanderRodchenko,ca. ryr6. Photographcoufies! V A. RodchenkoCollection,Moscow


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"l show away: see in it what people at one time used to seebefore the face of God."a6 Rather than the Gospels, Malevich would have had in mind the views of Uspensky, who sketched a route of spiritual progress analogous ro rhar followed by Malevicht own painting, from the apprehension of a higher-dimensional realiry through the "sensation abandonment of logic, to a more advanced stage of consciousnessin the of "square" infiniqr."+z Malevich pushed Supremarism to this edge in his white on a white background of r9r8, and wrote ecstatically of his achievement as he concludes his state"I ment for the r9r9 Tenth State Exhibition: have breached the blue lampshade of color limitadons and have passedinto the white beyond: follow me, comrade aviators, sail on into the depths-I have establishedthe semaphoresof suprematism. . . . The white, free depths, eterniry, is before you."48 Such high-blown prose was anathema to Thdin, whose own brochure for o-Io was written simply and concisely. Prepared with the help of Udaltsova, it reproduces photographs of rwo recent corner counter-reliefs along with rwo painterly reliefs owned by Puni and by Exter, and lists exhibitions in which Tatlin had participared. Irs only programmatic statement,apart from the list of materialse-ployed in the reliefs, "He is his denial of group afiiliation: has never belonged and does not belong to Thtlinism, Rayonism, Futurism, the'Wanderers or any other group."ar In the exhibi"corner" "cenrer" tion Thtlin showed rwelve or thirteen consrrucrions, both and counter-reliefs. One particularly large corner work supporrs its central assembly of metal and wood forms on a diagonal rigging of six ropes or cables, evoking both Thdin's early days as a sailor and his beloved bandore. Yet despite their radical sculptural achievement, and unique combination of eleganceand dynamism, Thtlint reliefs at o-ro received little critical nodce compared with that garnered by Malevich and his colleagues. The exception was a long eisay by Sergei Is-akov,a cenual figure in the Apartment No. 5 group of artists and critics, and publisher of the New Journal for "out Eueryone.Isakov saw Thtlin as providing a route of the frustrating dead-end of 'transposing modernity' by discovering the laws of materials and them into the plane "cast of the beautiful," achieving the sort of dominance over matter that can off the humiliating yoke of the machine."50 Equdly gratifying to Thtlin, certainly, was

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compositions using raw materials (glass,tin, wood) along with painted elements, and Automobib evencontained a rubber ball and a brick or cobblestone. Probably alluding "humorto Khlebnikovt obsessionwith the planet Mars, Matiushin described them as ous works for young Martians."52 In ryr6 Rozanova married the poet Kruchenykh, and after the Revolution she worked reorganizing the craft workshops with Rodchenko. But in November r9r8 she died at age thirty-tlvo from diphtheria, stricken in Moscow while decorating an airplane for the first anniversary of the October Revolution. She was the first of the new artists honored by the Bolshevik regime, with a large posthumous show of her work the following January. Both Kliun and Rodchenko designed monuments for Rozanova, Kliunt featuring imagery from the Biqtclist. At her funeral Malevich carried a black flag with a white square, reversing his signature image. Other artists in o-ro marked their sympathies with either Thtlin or Malevich in the titles of works. Natan Altman, who would decorate the square around the \finter Palacewith Cubo-Futurist designs when he was in charge of Petrograd events on the first anniversary of the October Revolution, showed a single still life snbtrtJ.ed fahtura, space,uolume. Mikhail Menkov called his worl<s Painting in Four Dimensions. But the pressgenerally was unable to keep the parties apart and seemedto lump everphing under the new word, Suprematism. Although the exhibition was well attended, reportedly seen by 6,ooo people, it was a disappointment to the press.53B. Lopatin wrote that he missed the colors of "dry the old Futurists, finding the work in the show and monotonous, without art and without individualiry." For the critic of the PetrogradBulbtiz, the exhibition signaled "The an impasse reached by advanced art, a dead end of anarchy. public roars with laughter, but for me, I am bored, bored. . . . After this, what can be done?"54 Malevich attempted to explain his new theoretical position at an evening lecturâ&#x201A;Ź on January rz. Part ofa performance with Puni and Boguslavskaiaat the concert "The hall of Tenishevo College, the talk contained such sections as spread of the Inqui"Nero sition in painting" and and you."55 Judging by newspaper reports, Malevich failed to convince the unconverted, his messianic words provoking many to leave the hall-"I am the royal infant . . . before me there have been only stillborn children. Tens of thousands of years have prepared my birtfu."se Despite their continuing antagonism, Malevich agreed to exhibit in a show that Thtlin organized in March in Moscow, the Store. Held in an empty storefront at 17 Petrovka Street, the exhibition oddly contrasted Thdins new formal innovations in the counter-reliefs with pre-Suprematist works by Malevich. \X4rile Thtlint display seemed very much like that at o-ro (with rwo corner counter-reliefs, a relief from r9r5, and four reliefs from r9r3-r4), Malevich exhibited only earlier works. The catalogue lists the ten pieces under the heading Alngism of forms, and they include two paindngs shown at Tiamway Y, Auiator and An Englishman in Moscow, and the absurdist Cout and Violin-with its vertical image of a violin superimposed on a synthetic Cubist composition, over which is set a realistic rendering of a cow. The two protagonists were accompanied by Udaltsova, Popova, Kliun, Exter, Vasileva, and Morgunov. Gtlin's friend, kv Bruni, provocatively displayed a smashed barrel of cement and a pane of glass marked by a bullet-hole, in addition to a sculptural relief.57Unfortunately the press again was unappreciative, saying that the exhibition indeed resembled a storean old junk shop-and repeating their claim that the new work was passdand boring, "in and the artists the grip ofa senile and conservativestubbornness."ss The Store, however, introduced an important artist to the advanced group, Alexander Rodchenko. After seeing his work Tadin had invited Rodchenko to participate without contribudng any money-all of the other artists did so-if he would help sell tickets and hang the show. At the opening Malevich tried to lure the new-

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IN THE

ZERO OF FORM

his colleagues,Inkhuk was reorganized along Constructivist lines, in May rgzr issuing "production a declaration against easelpainting and in the next three years focusing on art." State exhibitions displayed the history ofthe Russian avant-garde, and the individual institutions organized their own shows of current research. But by this time knin was beginning to move against the independence of the avant-garde in the name of democratic centralism, and against Constructivist abstraction toward what would become Socialist Realism. Initially resisting Lenint pressure, Lunacharslcywould turn to the right by ryz4and support more rigid state control of artistic production. By r9z9 all artists were organized into a single cooperative, and within a few years every independent artists' organization was abolished and the Communist Party assumedcontrol ofartistic content.64 Through these years Malevich and Thtlin remained on Poor terms, involved in their teaching and organizational work in both Moscow and Petrograd. Commissioned by Narkompros in r9r9 to design a monument to the Third International, Thtlin conceived of an immense tower, twice as high as the Empire State Building later would rise. A dynamic abstract construction of steel and glass,its spiral lattice around an inclined cone enclosed four working structures, different geometrical forms devoted to particular levels of government activiry and each revolving at its own speed. \7ith three assistantshe built a large model, which was exhibited in Petrograd in November rgzo and reassembled the next month in Moscow at the Eighth Soviet Congress. "the Mayakovsky called it first object of October"-the first to truly exPressthe princi"the first monument without a beard."65Needlessto say, ples of the Revolution-and "ttlins Tower" received great notoriety and must have reinit remained unbuilt, but flamed Malevich's jealousy. For when Tatlin organized a commemorative Performance poet had died the previous of Khlebnikov's long work Zangezi in May ry4-the and Matiushin were teaching, Malevich Petrograd Inkhuk, where both the June-at Malwich forbade his students to aftend. Malevich lived for the rest of his life in two rooms there, and while Thtlin never spoke well of his rival, Udaltsova reported that he shed tears on learning of Malevicht death in 1935.66 In the early rgzos Berlin became a center for advanced artists who had decided to leave Russia, and Puni and Boguslavskaia emigrated there in r92o before resettling permanently in Paris in 1921.A show of Punit work was held at the Sturm gallery in February r9zr, providing the Germans with a hint of what had occurred in Russia since its isolation at the outset of the war. It took another year, however, before the Russian avant-garde could be seen in depth, when IZO sent a major exhibition to the Van Dieman gallery in Berlin. No longer would the'West think of advanced Russian art only in terms of Chagall and Kandinsky. Yet some ideas had circulated in abbreviated form in r9zo, when the nineteen-year-old Konstantin Umanskij published his book New Art In Russiar9r4-r9r9, along with an article devoted to Ta:1in in Der "the machine art of Ararat r.67 It was in Umanskij that the Berlin Dadaists read of 'STithout much Thtlin," and embraced the phrase as suitable for revolutionary use. understanding the nature of Thdint work, Berlin Dada incorporated it in their collage of anger and disgust at the First International Dada Fair.

97


NOTES "Evolution 28. Christian Brinton, not Revoludonin Art," Intemational Sndio, Aprrl r9r), p.34. 29.Brown, p. t5z. 3o. Detailson purchasesmadeat the exhibition come from Brown, pp. tzo-ryg, and. sales information from his catalogue of the show, pp. 244-128.

'World

ofArt and the SymbolistBlue Rosegroup.

6. The donkey (lolo) belongedto Fridi, proprietor ofthe lapin Agile in Montmartre, where Picsso and his friends gathered.For the lilll storymd a photo of Lolo at work, seeJohn Richardson,A Life of Piasso, vol. r (NwYork RandomHouse,r99r),p.375.

7. About halfofTltlint entrieswerecostumesketchesfor the rgrr rnno"Frederic vative production The Plzy about the Tiar Maximilian and his Anogant For Torrey the complete story seeFrmcis M. Naumann, 3r. SonAdnlf On Tatlin's designs,seeJohn Milner, Vladimir Thtlin and the C. Torrey md Duchmp! Nudz Descendinga Staircase,"in Bonnie Rusian Auant-Garla (New Haven: Yale Universiry Press,1983),pp. Clearwater,ed., \V'estCoastDuchamp (Miami Beach:GrassfieldPress, z8-32. Goncharovaincluded a seriesenrided Artistic Posibilities ofa Pear99r), pp.rr-23, which correctsmuch misinformation passedalong bv coch,wirhthe bird renderedin Chinae, EgJptian,Cubist, and Russim earlieraccounts. Embroiderystyles.For the cataloguelisting ofthe Donkey'sTail exhibi"Mabel tion, seeDonald E. Gordon, Mofum Art Exhibitiorptgoo-r9r6, z vols. Linda Dalrymple Henderson, Dodge, and Gertrude Stein, 32. (Munich: Prestel-Verlag, r974), z:562-566. Max \07eber: A Four-DimensionalTiio," lrrs, Septemberr982,p. ro6. 33.Brown, p. zo6. 34. For an accountofthis exhibition, seeSheon,pp. 9l ro-. " 'The Vorldt New Art Center': N,lodernArt 35. SeeJudith Ztlcre1 Exhibitions in New York Ciry r9r3-r9r8," Archiuesof Ameican Art Jour"Modern nal14, no.3 ft974):z-7; and An md Its Sources: Lxhibitions in New York, ryrc-r921 A SelectiveChecklist." in William lnnes Homer, ed., Auant-Garfu Painting and Smlpnre in Ameica r9r0-r92t (Wilmington:DelawareAn Museum,r9-5),pp. r66ff "The Big Shos'.The First 36.On this exhibition,seeFrancisNaummn. Exhibition of the Socier,vof Independenr Anists," Anfomm, February 1979,pp.34-39,andApril 1979,pp. 49-5t. Chapters "old r. All datescited for Russianevenrsarein the sn'le" usedbeforethe October Revolution,which can be convenedto srmdrd Wesrerndating by adding r3 days.This meansthat for thosein Pris or Munich, for "old instmce, the exhibition o-ro openedin 1916.My useof srle" dating conformsto that ofthe standardliterarureon Russianan, however, and it seemsleastconfusingto adopt this practice.On designatingthis exhibition o-ro, rather than m o.ro, a mistakenform which had established itself due to a mistake in printing the exhibirion caraloguemd postet seel:rissa A. Zhedova, Mabuich, Suprematismand Rnolution in RusianArt rgro-rgjo (London: Thamesand Hudson, r98z),pp. lz3-r25. z. Kasimir Malevich, From Cubism and Futurism to Suprematism:The New Painterly Realism,in John E. Bowlt, ed., RussiznAn of the AuantGarde, Theoryand Criticism r9o2-r9j4 (New York: Thames and Huds o n ,1 9 8 8 )p, . n 8 . 'Worlds, Kasimir Mabuich and the 3. Charloae Douglas, Swarc of Otber Origirc ofAbsnactionin RusLt(Ann.\tbor: UMI, r98o), p. y4. 'Westernprecedentsin rhis 4. The Neoprimitivists also were awareof direction. Larionov had accompmied SergeiDiaghilev to Parisfor his exhibition of thirteen elegmt rooms of Russianart at the 19o6 Salon d'Automne,wherehe had seenthe Gauguin retrospective alongwith the work of the Fauves.And most of the artists had visited rhe srear Shchukhinmd Morosov collectionsof Frenchpainting in Mo.c* Ot Diaghilev'sRussiansectionof the 19o6 Salon d'Automne, seeJohn E. Bowh, TheSiluerAge: Rusian Art ofthe Early TwentiethCenturyand the "W'orld of Art" Grazp (Newtonville, MA: Oriental ResearchPartners, 1979),pp. 169-17r.

8. Douglas,p. 7. The exhibition includedwork by David, Madimir, and Ludmilla Burliuk. 9. Ellen Proffer and Carl Proffer, eds., The Ardis Antholngl of Rusian Futurism(Ann Arbor: Ardis, r98o), p. t79. In addition to poems and essaysby the Russian Futurists, A Skp in the Face of Publit Titste included a number of prose poems from Kandinskyt Kknge, prblished without his permission.Conservativein demeanorand uncomfortable sryle of manifesto,he sent a letter to rhe Rusian with the aggressive 'lYordinMay t9r3protestinghis inclusion in the volume. ro. Both of thesesourceshad been emphasizedin Madimir Markov's "The Principlesof the New Art" with particular referencero Chinese art, pointing away from Europem precedentstoward the Emt, the ground, according to Goncharova, of all the best in Russian art. Markovt essayws published by the Union of Youth in r9rz, and is Art of theAuantGardr, pp. 4_1,8.It is inrertranslatedin Bowk, Russian estingto comparehis emphasison chance,and the generd rejectionof logic by the RussianFuturists,with the coniemporary essayby Ben"The jmin De Casseres, Renaissance of the Irrational," published by Stieglitz in his special Armory Show isste of Camera Worh, }une t9t3. "Cut That essayends: down the sacredBo-treeofsciencewith its mock orangeand stuffed nightingales!. . . The blzing consteflationsin rhe rcdiaa ofthe irrational are calling us, and up the sun-shaftofthe ages we go dancingthe lmciviousdanceof the atomslwe go like godssweating stars,chanting a Te Deum-to Chance." (p. z+) On Goncharova's rejectionof the Westfor the East,seeBowlt, pp. Sj-6o. rr. Douglm, p. 36, from the publishedreport of"The First All-Russian Congress of Poets of the Future (The Poet-futurists)," in which Kruchenyck,Matiushin, and Malevichwerethe soleparticipants. rz. Ma.levichletter to Matiushin, May r9r5, in Dougl*, p. 64. For imagesof the squarein Victoryouerthe Sun, seeJean-ClaudeMarqde, "K.S. Malevich: From Blzch Quadrilateral(r9r3) to White on Whie (r9r7); from the Eclipse of Objects to the Liberation of Space,"in StephmieBarronand Maurice Tirchman, eds.,TheAuant-Gardrin Russia, ryro-rgjo: New Perspectiua(Los Angeles: Los Angeles Counn' MuseumofArt, l98o), pp.zo-zt. r3. Milner, p. 84. 14. On Tatlin's knowledge and recitation of Khlebnikou see \iB. "'il/hat I RememberAbout Thtlin," in LarissaA. Zhadova,ed., El'konin, Thtlin(Nor York: Rizzoli,1988),p. 437.

15.In Bowlt, RusianArt oftheArant-Gardz,pp. 8o-8r. y. It hm beensuggested that the Knaveof Diamondswu namedfor the diamond-shapeddesignson the uniforms of prisoners----emphasizing 16.For Goncharova's remark, seeDouglm, p. z3; and for an accountof the anist'srole asoutcast-but this desienationalsocontrmtedwith the the Moscow event see BenediktLivshits, Ilr One and a Halffued effete titles of the more establishedar-rists'organiarions, Diaghilev's Archer,trans.lohn E. Bowlt (Newtonville,MA: Oriental ResearchPart-

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NOTES

55,Zhadova, Malzuich, pp. 44, rz3 nrr.

9. Somescholarsdatethis eventin February

56.Villims, p. rz3.

ro. RoseleeGoldberg, Perfomance Art, From Futuism to the Pretnt (New York: Harry N. Abrams,1988),p. 67. On this event a.lsosee\{el Gordon, ed., Dadz Perfomance(New York: PAJ, r98Z),p. t7, wherethe date is givenasFebruaryr8, r9r8

57.For a discussionofThe Store,seeMilner, pp. tzz-tz5; and for a partial list of worla. seeGordon. z:888. p. 59. 58.Costakis,

rr. Allen, p. 243.

written accountofThe Storeand his relationswith 59.For Rodchenko's ttlin, seeBaron md Tilchmm, pp.2.56-217.

rz. Erica Doctorow, Dadz-in Berlin (Gxden Ciry NY: Adelphi University,1978),p. 35.TheGreenCadaaerwx printedon the backofcopies of Dada Against \Y'eimar.

6o. Ccstakis,p. 56. 6. Zlndova, Mabuich, p. 66.

13.Benson,p. r3r.

62. Ibid.

r4. Seethe accountby Ben Hecht in Gordon, pp. 8o-8r. Baaderoffered to sellHecht for $35,ooohis lost two-volumecollagediary of ryt9-t9zo, the Bucherzuhandzndts Oberdzdz.which according to Grosz eventuallv wm buried behind Bmder'shouse,and miqht havebeen shown at the Dada Fair "Dadaism," in Lury R. Lip15.GeorgeGroszmd Vieland Hezfelde, pard, ed., Dadas on lrr (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,r97r), P .8 8 .

63. On Chaga.llat Vitebsk, seeSusanP Compton, Chagall(Inndon: RoyalAmdemy of fut, 1985),pp. 40-42. "Constructivism 64. For theselmt developments,seeJohn Elderfield, and the Objective World: An Essayon Productionfut and Proletarian Culture," StudioInt(mational Septemberr9-o, p. '8. 65.lodder, p. 6r. 66. M.N. Yablonskaya, WomenAnists of Rusiai New Age r900-r9jt ( N e w Y o r k :R i z z o l ir.9 9 o ) .p . r 7 : . 67. Konstantin Umanskij, Nrue Kunx in Russhnd,r9r4-r9r9 (Potsdam, Kiepenheuer,and Munich: GoIa, ryzo). -W4renAlfred Barr went to Russiain 1927,this wd the book on which he had to rely, aiong with Louis lnrcwick's slim volume, Modzm R*ssianArt (New York: Museum "Russian of Modern Art/Socidti Aronyme, r9z5). SeeAlfred Barr, Jr., Diary r9z7-28," October Fall ry78, p. 17. Umanskij would remain the best sourceuntil Barrt own presentationofthe Russianavant-grde in his atalogue for CubismandAbstactArt(r%6). On Umanskij'spiecein Der Ararat t in Janu ry r9zo, seeTimothy O. Benson, Raoul Hausmann and Berlin Dada(Ann fubor: UMI ResearchPress,t98), p. r87. Chapter6 r. RichardHuelsenbeck,En AuantDada:A HistoryofDadaism(r9zo),in Robert Mothemell, ed., TheDada Paintersand Poets:An Anthohgy, znd ed. (Cambridge,MA: HaruardUniversiryPress,r98il, p.39. z. Roy F. Allen, Literary Life in Geman Expresionismand the Berlin Cirr/zs(Ann Arbor: UMI ResearchPress,1983),p. z4z. 3. Mothemell, pp. 77-78. "magic bishop" 4. There is disagreementon the date and site of Ball's episode,which is placed on June z3 at the Cabaret Voltaire by John Elderfieldin his introduction to Hugo Bill, Flight Out of Time:A Dada Dlary (New York: Viking, 1974),p. w. 5. For accountsof this climactic eventrseeHans fuchter, Dada:Art and Anti-Art(New York: McGraw-Hill), pp.77-8o, and.Tnra in Motherwell, pp. z4o-242. 6. Technically, the members of Berlin Dada ued photocolkge,in which separatephotographsarecut and piecedtogether,tather rhanpbotlmznage,by whichimagesaresuperimposedby multiple exposure.However, in this chapterI follow the Dadaists'own nomenclatureand referto this work x photomontdge. (London; Thamesmd 7. For a discussionseeDawn Ades,Photomonta4e Hudson,r98o),pp. r9-zo. 8. Ibid.. o. Iz.

16. Dawn Ades,Dada and SunealismReaieued(lnndon: futs Council ofGreat Britain, t978),p. to6. r7. On the nvo Cologneexhibitions,seeAngelika Littlefield, TheDada Periodin Colngne(Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1988),and Ades, Dadz and SunealismRnieued, pp. ro4-ro6. 18.Groszand Hezfelde, p. 8r. "Erste Internationale Dadar9. Benson, p. r87; and Helen Adkins, (Berlin: BerlinischesGalerie, 1988),p. Messe,"StationenDer Modtme ri9. zo. On thesepoints seeAdes,Dada and SunealismRnirued" pp. 8l-8t, "Berlin Dada," in StephenC. Fosterand and Hans J. Kleinschmidt, Rudolf E. Kuenzli, eds., Dada Spectum: The Dialectics of Reuob(Iowa Ciry: Universiryof Iowa, ry79), pp. t64-t65. zr. Benson,p. 8o. "fut is in Danger,"in Lippard, p. 8r. uz. Groszand Herzfelde, 23. John Elderfield, Kurt Schwitters(London: Thames and Hudson, r985),p. 4r. For discussion ofthe Schwitters-Huelsenbeck antagonism. "Merz" can be found in Mothemell, seepp. 36-42, The full text of pp. j7-64, md in Lippard, pp. 99-ro8. 24. For discussionof Dada and Constructivism,seeJohn Elderfield. chapter 6, md Dada-Construciaism, The Janus Face of the Tu,nties (London: Annely JudaFineArt, I984). 25. Motherwell, p. 246. For an accountof Huelsenbeckand his lork. "The New Man-Armed with the V'eapons seeHans J. Kleinschmidt, ofDoubt and Defiance,"introduction to Richard Huelsenbeck.,11rzr oirsofa Dada Drummer(NewYork: Viking, 1974). 'A 26. Raoul Haumann, Dadmoph'sOpinion of V'hat Art Cnticism V i l l S a ya b o u rt h e D a d aE x h i b i r i o n .i 'n L i p p a r dp. . s 8 . Chapter7 r. Villim A. Camfield,FrancisPicabia:His Art, Life,and Times(Princeton: PrincetonUniversityPress,1979),p. rJ9. z. In Littrature, n.s., November ryzz, circd in Dax'n Ads, Dada and SunealismReuimed(London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978),p.

261


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DADA

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had been jailed for forging passports for draft dodgers. Together they approached the owner of a cafe at Spiegelgasser to found an artists' cabaret, transforming the Hollandische Meierei caft into the Cabaret Voltaire, a small place with fifteen to twenry tables and room for fifty or so patrons. Activities began on February 5, 1916with an open newspaper invitation that attracted three artists who would assistwith the festivitiesthe young Romanians Tiistan Tzara and Marcel Janco, and the Alsatian Jean (Hans) fup. They staged provocative events, primitivist dances, and radical sound poems interspersed with literary readings and songs, filling the smoky ca{? to overflowing each night. Zurichwas a center of war resistersand political refugees-Lenin lived down the street from the Cabaret Voltaire at number n-and the Dadas united in rejecting "Our the sociery that had spawned the killing. As Ball wrote in his diary on April 14, cabaret is a gesture. Every word that is spoken and sung here says at least this one thing: that this humiliating age has not succeededin winning our respect."2The horrors ofthe war were seenas the insane consequenceofbourgeois rationaliry, and absurdity and chance complemented the primitive as a means of reaching back to a purer state. Tzara, born Sami Rosenstock in Bucharest, increasingly emphasized the irrational, his r9r8 Dada manifesto proclaiming his principle of rejecting principles, his "continuous adherence to contradiction," all in the contentious tone with which he would promote the spread of Dada acrossEurope: Ghosts drunk on enerry, we dig the trident into unsuspecting fesh.'We are a downpour of maledictions as tropically abundant as vertiginous vegetation, resin and rain are our sweat, we bleed and burn with thirst, our blood is vigor. . . . On the one hand a toxering worU in f.ight, benothed to the ghchenspiel of hell, on the other hand: new men. Rough, bouncing, riding on hiccupsS Dada in Zurich centered on performance and literary innovation, aggressive use of words and verbal imagery challenging the complacent values of the European middle class. At the Cabaret Voltaire there were evenings devoted to the advanced poetry of France and Russia. Arp recited passagesfrom Alfred Jarrys Ubu Roi, and additional inspiration came from Italian Futurist sound poetry and bruitism, noise music. Emblematic of the collective, international, and disjointed spirit was the "simultaneous poern' performed at the end of March, L'amiral chercheune maison ) lnuer ("The Admiral Looks for a House to Rent"), with lines spoken concurrently by Huelsenbeck in German, Janco in English, andTzara in French. Dada manifestos were read by Ball, Huelsenbeck, and Tzara at the first Dada evening at the Zunfthaus zur \(aag on lrly ,+, where Ball also intoned his nonsense vocables in a great conelike out6t by Janco before being carried offstage overcome by the experience.aHeld in public halls, Zuricht Dada-Soirdes set the model for events that would proliferate through Europe, reaching their height in Paris in tgzo-zr, programs of poetry music, playlets, and proclamations. There were eight major Dada evenings in Zurich, spanning the history of the movement there, the last held at the Saal zur Kafeuten on April 9, r9r9 before an audience of over one thousand. That evening climaxed as \Walter Serner in formal dress read his anarchist piece Final Dissolution, provobng members of the audience to rush the stage and destroy the headless dummy to which Serner had dedicated his work.5 Due to exhaustion and increasing complaints to the owner of the cafe, the Cabaret Voltaire closed after about six months of frantic activity. ln ryr7 operations shifted to the Galerie Dada, formerly the Galerie Corray where the First Dada Exhibition opened at the end ofJanuary. On March rTzara and Ball took over the spacewith

Hugo Ball reciting his sound "Karauane" poem in a Cubist costumeby Marcel Janco, at the CabaretVobaire,Zuich, June or JuQ, ry6. The performance ended with Ball fainting dnd hauingto becarried offtage.


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bloody suppression by the Freikorps in the first week of May. The First International Dada Fair was held June 3o-August 2t, r92o, three and a half months after a failed Freikorps putsch in Berlin and renewed fighting in Dresden berween trooos and workers. Called The Great Monster Dada Show in the press,it contained reminders of the events of the previous two years, along with raging 'Walls referencesto the military. were covered from foor to ceiling with political and propagandistic material set among paintings, collages, and drawings. The suspended "Hanged officer with pigs head was marked as by the Revolution." Below stood the Grosz-Heartfield collaboration The Philistine Heartfeld Gone \Vild (Elzcno-Mechanical Thtlin Pltutic), a mannequin decorated with a war medal and rusty cudery with a light "dedicated bulb for head and pistol and electric bell for arms, to the Socialist Reichstag delegateswho voted for the war." Heartfield and Herzfelde showed the May and June r9r7 issuesof their political weekly newspaper NeueJugend,published by Malik-Verlag. Attached to Dix's large painting of the war wounded, 450/oAblebodied-his only Dada appearance-was the first published photomontage, Heartfieldt image of a fan "Open embellished with the heads of \Weimar leaders over the query competition! 'Who is the most beautiful??" Photomontage was utilized in all of the Berlin publications, and both printed and original examplesfilled the exhibition.6 Though it is generally considered the most "Dadd' important artistic innovation of Berlin Dada, like the term in Zurich its first use is a subject of dispute. Heartfield and Grosz were said to have invented the technique while putting together subversivepostcards assembledfrom advertisements and newspapers,sent to Herzfelde and others at the front in ry:6. Hausmann and Hctch claimed independent discovery while summering on the Baltic coast in r9r8, after seeing mass-produced prints onto which had been glued photographs of friends or relatives.TV4ratever the story photomontage was developed in original and diverse ways by each of these artists, and by others among the Berlin Dadas. Hausmann wrote that 'photomontage" "aversion at playing they agreedtogether on the term to expresstheir the artist, and, thinking of ourselves as engineers (hence our preference for workingmen's overalls) we meant to construct, to assemble lmontierenl our works."8 The word in German connotes a mechanical or engineering process of fitting things together, and Grosz and Heartfield often stamped mont. after their names. For all, the intent was to connect imagery more closely to the life of the times. Grosz and Heartfield did so with more explicit politics, and Heartfield would go on in the thirties to create his stunning series attacking the Nazis, using an airbrush to meld disparate photos inco continuous images. But in their different ways all of the montagists used the imagery of commercial advertising to subvert the world of commerce and attack the politicians who supported it. And in the Dada period they each displayed the social condition in disjunctive and chaotic compositions, avoiding the structure ofclassical order that governed precedents in Cubist collage. Heartfield himself was known as Monteurdada, and most of the Dadas were given titles, many fixed when he had calling cards printed for his colleagues in July t9r9. Hausmann was the Dadasoph, Mehring was Pipidada, Grosz was the Propagandada Marschall, Huelsenbeck was W'orld Dada, Gerhard Preiss (the inventor of the Dada-Tioc) was Musikdada, and Johannes Baader was the self-designated Oberdada (Superdada). Other titles were bestowed later, probably around the Dada Fair: Rudolf Schlichter became Dadameisterkoch, Max Ernst was Dadamax, and Otto Schmalhausen, Groszt brother-inlaw, the Ozdada. Hannah Hdch, the only woman in the group, seemsto have remained untitled. Dr. Otto Burchard, in whose rooms the show was mounted and who funded the exhibition with rooo marks, was designated the Finanzdada.

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,iTil-,i Installation uiew of the First InternationalDadz Fair at Ga/erie Ono Burchard,Berlin, Summer ryzo. Raoul Hausmann and Hannah Hiich stand betwrcn (lO Hijchi Cut with the Cake Knife and trigh) Hausmann\ Tatlin at Home. Photograph courtesy German lnformarion Center,New Yorh


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peripateticfup, and perhapsthe Berlin correspondentfor the ChicagoDaily News,Ben Hecht, listedin the catalogueand a friend of the Dadas.Arp wasthe most truly international,a founder of Ztrich Dada who recentlyhad beenworking in Colognewith Max Ernst and JohannesBaargeld,but he had gone to Parisby the time of the show. There was someparticipatiorifrom other parts of Germany-such as Schlichterand Georg Scholzfrom the south,Alois Erbachalong with Ernst and Baargeldfrom the Rhineland,and the gymnastHans Heinz Stuckenschmidtfrom Magdeburg,who had come by fourth-classtrain to show Groszthe five small collagesthat the older artist it wasan exhibition of the Berlin Club Dada. addedto the exhibition. But in essence Hencethe striking omissionof Kurt Schwittersfrom Hannover,whoseapplicationfor membershipin the Club Dada-supported by flxu5rnxnn-',vas rejectedby the more political membersof the group. For Huelsenbeckespecially,Schwitterstpersonaliry and his explicit rejectionof political wastoo bourgeoisand his work too aestheticized, contentin art wasan affionr. The Club Dada had beenestablished in Januaryr9r8 by Huelsenbeck,Hausmann, and Franz Jung, leaderof the Freie Strassegroup. \Vhile Huelsenbeckhad brought word of Zurich activitiesto Berlin a yearbefore,it took until Januaryzz, rgr9 for Dada to be spokenof in a public presentation, when he lecturedat I. B. Neumannt Graphisches Kabinett,emphasizingDadat useof poetryand painting for political ends and the current irrelevanceof Expressionism,Cubism, and abstraction.e\Vhen he offensivelyproclaimedthat the warwasnot bloody enough,an amputeeroseand hob. Groszrecitedhis poetryof rhymedi15ul15-"|eu-5en5bled out to audienceapplause butchers' fesh=eaters=vegetarians!!/professors, of-bitches, materialists/bread-eaters, picapprentices,pimps!/youbums!"-and pretendedto urinate on the ExPressionist turesaround him.10Neumann,one of the first dealersto exhibit the Briicke artistsin

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Berlin, barely was dissuaded from summoning the police. The next Dada event was held on April rz at the hall of the Ne ue Sezession,where Huelsenbeck and Grosz were joined by bthers from the Cafe des'W'estens,including Hausmann, Gerhard Preiss,and Jung, who two years later would commandeer a steamer and present it to the Bolsheviksin Murmansk. Huelsenbeck read the first Berlin Dada manifesto-also signed in "new new realiry . ' . a absenria6y Tzara-claiming that only Dada can Portray the simultaneous confusion of noises, colors, and spiritual rhy'thms. . . with all the sensational screamsand passionsof its audacious quotidian psyche and in all its brutal realiry."r1 Grosz presentedmore poetic insults, and Else Hadwiger read a Marinetti text extolling war to the accompaniment of toy trumpet and rattle, unfortunately interrupted by a soldier falling to the floor in epileptic seizure.The evening ended when the "The New management, fearing trouble, turned on the lights, as Hausmannt talk on "powerful Mateiials in fut" was greeted by the audience, in a reviewer's words, with nature noises." Thus were initiated the seriesof performancesthat members of the group would hold over the n€xt two years. Bv summer they had been joined by Hausmann's friend Johannes Baader, who appeared ivith him at the Cafe Austria on June 6' where Hausmann firsr read his sound poems consrructed abstractly from letters alone. That "NVMVNAUR," which year Hausmann printed four poster poems s'ith lines such as Baaderwould incorporate into the baseof his monumental construction in the second room of the Dada Fair, The Great Plasto-Dio-Dada Drama. This huge fivelevel work contained mousetraps,a powder keg, an advertisingdummy, minert lamps, newspa"GERMANY'S GREAINESS AND pers, and mixed ephemera to tell the ston' of DEMISE Through TeacherHagendorf." According to the catalogue,Baader showed about fifteen other works, the same number as Hausmann. Only Grosz would display more worl$ in the Dada Fair, nvenW-eight of his orvn and ten collaborations with Heartfield. Luggage of the Oberdada at the The text of Baader'svisiting card-"The Time of His Escapefrom the Insane Asvlum"-suggests something of his personaliry. Older than his fellows and a trained architect, Baader rvas the most outrageous of the Berlin Dadas. By rgoo he had come to seehimsel|as the successorof Christ, and he was completely uninhibited in his public behavior.In 1916he wrote to Prince Wilhelm Friedrich and insisted that the war be stopped immediately on his authoriq' as the "Commander of the Empire of the Soul." Baaderdemanded a Nobel Prize during the r9r8, and that November he rushed into the pulpit at the Berlin Cathedral summer of shouting that Christ was a sausageand indifferent to the world's ills. Arrested for blasphemy, he was acquitted on grounds of mental incompetence. In February r9r9, recently having been proclaimed President of the Earth in the manifesro Dada Against Veimar published by the Central Dadaist Council for World Revolution, he got the movement into the international pressby disrupting the first meeting of the National fusembly at W'eimar. Demanding that the government be handed ov€r to the Dadas, he showered delegateswith a fictional broadside, The Green Cadauer,which reported "Johannes Baader rides into the National Assembly on the white horse of the Apocalypse. He declares it after the opening of the Seventh Seal as the offering of Dadaism."l2 Wild and unpredictable,he obtained much publiciry for the group, but in early r9r9 Huelsenbeck and even Baader'sfriend Hausmann warned TLara that he did not repr€sent the Club Dada in any way.lr Despite their distrust of Baader, in early rgzo Huelsenbeck and Hausmann took him along on their performance tour through Germany and Czechoslovakia.The evenings generally began with Huelsenbeck reading some of his Phantastiche Gebete ("Fantastic Prayers"), nonsense sound poems. Then Hausmann would continue with

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Raoul Hausmann,Dada-Photo, ryr9. This double portrait of Baader, HausmannandJohannes showingBaadersmokinga rosein his pipe, waspublished in Der Dada z, Decemberrgr9.

opposite: GeorgScholz.Industrial Farmerc, 1920.Oil on plywood,38% x z7% in. Von der Hq,dt Museum, rX/uppertal


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"Fabrication des Thbleaux Garantis Gazomdtriques"), and the show included gaga (for a relief and two drawings of his. Ernst was already building his relations with Paris, and the exhibition contained the Picabia drawing Oeil rondwhich they published in their review Die Schammade,said to be financed by Baargeldt rich father in hopes of moving his son away from radical politics. Both these abstract biomorphic works of Arp and Picabiat quasimechanical drawing reappeared in Berlin at the Dada Fair, where "Hans Arp'ache." In all probabiliry the catalogue listed Arps drawings as the work of the eight piecesby Ernst and three by Baargeld in Berlin had come from the Cologne show as well. Awarenessof the international Dada movement also found expression in the Ernst-Baargeld collaboration Simubanniprychon,which included the names of the Paris Lixlraturegrotp, W'alterfuensberg, Duchamp,Tzara, and Serner,and the Berlin "vulgar dilemante," Villy Frick, so called Dadas. Lastly, there were wooden reliefs by a becausehis name sounded obsceneand he had a full-time iob.17 Ernst's sculpture with attached axe representsan attitude also seen throughout the Berlin Dada Fair, the attack on aft as sacrosanct.Fine art to the Dadas was a "the head-in-the-clouds tendenry . . . means of ignoring political and social realities, whose disciples brooded over cubes and Gothic art while the generalswere painting in blood."t8 The antiaesthetic thus was the other side of the explicitly political, debunk"Down ing art to redirect attention to politics. Placards at the Dada Fair announced "Art is Dead. Long live the new with art, down with bourgeois intellectualisrn'and "conquering materialisrn' machine art of Thtlin." Here Thtlin represented the described by Umanskij, the enemy of the Expressionism that Herzfelde cdled in the "an exhibition catalogue attempt to deny the real."le Every aspect of the exhibition repudiated the fine art tradition-the aggressiveand the ugly replacing the refined and the beautiful, collaboration as important as individual achievement, mechanical reproduction standing equal to the unique creation. The purported puriry of the masterpiece was mocked throughout the show in photocollages utilizing elements of known works-Baadert image of his face over the bust of the Wnus dr Milo, Schlichtert Improued Paintings ofAntiquitywith modern heads on rhe Apolln Beluederear.d, again, the Wnus dt Mib, Hatsmann's doctoring of Rubenst Bacchanal and Groszt attack on Botticellit Primauera. Heartfield and Grosz "corrected masterpieces," both reproduced in the catalogue: collaborated on two Dadaist lettering and phoros over a PicassoCubist collage,and a RousseauselF-porirait with Hausmann replacing the Douanier. Even Beethoven was slurred in Otto Schmalhausen'saltered death mask, with bizarre painted eyes,moustache, and wild hair, chosen by Huelsenbeck for the cover of his Dadn Almanach published just after the exhibition closed. In his introduction to the catalogue, Herzfelde spoke of the exhibition actually presenting things themselves,instead of merely representing them in paint in the manner of high art. Newspaper texts and commercial images were given to the public in photomontage, and actual political materials plastered the walls. In addition to the pile of objects constructed by Baader, Hausmann showed what he called the first Concretisation-Sculpture-,4ssernblage,entiied Industrial Reuolution in the Year rgrg-^ drawing board backed on a piece of wood painted black, to which were affixed slats from an umbrella stand and a blue faience plate. the whole littered with razor blades. And in his collage The Art Critic, Hausmann presented the collective Dada stance "President toward what art had become in their time. Incorporating the calling card of of the Sun, The Moon, and the Little Eanh . . . Dadasoph, Dadaraoul, Director of the Dada Circus," against the background of a phonetic poem poster and marked with Groszt signature stamp, the critic stood ready with sharpened pencil to spear the aesthete and the fine artist alike.

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Couerof Richard Huelsenbech's Dada Almanach,rgzo,showing abereddtath Oxo Schmalhauseni mask of Beethouen.Photograph courtesyEich Pollitzer

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DADA IST POLITISCH

"Vous Breton and Soupault's m'oublierez"("You will forget me"),performedat the Festiual Dada in Paris. (lefi n right) Paul Elaard (standing),Phihppe Soupauh, Andri Breton, and TheodoreFranhel. The First International Dada Fair included theprogramfor this euentat the SalleGaueau,May 26, r9zo. The Museumof Modern Art Library, SpecialCollection,New York rgzz-the next year publishing EcceHomo, his great portfolio of biting political and social caricature-by the time he left Germany for Americainrg33 he was wholly disillusioned with radical oolirics. The sort of intensiry rhat characterized Berlin Dada could not readily be maintained, and a group of such diversiry could not long hold rogerher.Activities continued-Baader even organized a Dada Ball in Berlin in January r9zr, and ofier events in Potsdam and Leipzig later in the year-but by the end of ryzo there was little unity to Berlin Dada. In his parody of what traditional art criticism would say about the Dada Fair, published in the catalogue, Hausmann sketched the scene: "'il4rile Germany is trembling and shaking in a governmental crisis of unforeseeableduration . . . these boys come along making wretched trivialities out of rags, trash, and garbage."26 "Cultural Hannah Hctch said that they were considered Bolshevists," bur some were more cultural and others more Bolshevist. And while the social and political climate that united them could nor keep them together, they created a lasring and unique group portrait in their Dada Fair. The Berlin Dadas were aware rhar Zurich innovations had taken anorher turn in France, for their exhibition included the program for the Festival Dada one month before at the Salle Gaveau in Paris. There Dada would take hold in a more literary context, and its subversivepossibilities would develop in a wholly different direction. Eighteen years later, the exhibition that would sum up that movement could not have been more different in spirit from the First International Dada Fair.

II'


NOTES

55,Zhadova, Malzuich, pp. 44, rz3 nrr.

9. Somescholarsdatethis eventin February

56.Villims, p. rz3.

ro. RoseleeGoldberg, Perfomance Art, From Futuism to the Pretnt (New York: Harry N. Abrams,1988),p. 67. On this event a.lsosee\{el Gordon, ed., Dadz Perfomance(New York: PAJ, r98Z),p. t7, wherethe date is givenasFebruaryr8, r9r8

57.For a discussionofThe Store,seeMilner, pp. tzz-tz5; and for a partial list of worla. seeGordon. z:888. p. 59. 58.Costakis,

rr. Allen, p. 243.

written accountofThe Storeand his relationswith 59.For Rodchenko's ttlin, seeBaron md Tilchmm, pp.2.56-217.

rz. Erica Doctorow, Dadz-in Berlin (Gxden Ciry NY: Adelphi University,1978),p. 35.TheGreenCadaaerwx printedon the backofcopies of Dada Against \Y'eimar.

6o. Ccstakis,p. 56. 6. Zlndova, Mabuich, p. 66.

13.Benson,p. r3r.

62. Ibid.

r4. Seethe accountby Ben Hecht in Gordon, pp. 8o-8r. Baaderoffered to sellHecht for $35,ooohis lost two-volumecollagediary of ryt9-t9zo, the Bucherzuhandzndts Oberdzdz.which according to Grosz eventuallv wm buried behind Bmder'shouse,and miqht havebeen shown at the Dada Fair "Dadaism," in Lury R. Lip15.GeorgeGroszmd Vieland Hezfelde, pard, ed., Dadas on lrr (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,r97r), P .8 8 .

63. On Chaga.llat Vitebsk, seeSusanP Compton, Chagall(Inndon: RoyalAmdemy of fut, 1985),pp. 40-42. "Constructivism 64. For theselmt developments,seeJohn Elderfield, and the Objective World: An Essayon Productionfut and Proletarian Culture," StudioInt(mational Septemberr9-o, p. '8. 65.lodder, p. 6r. 66. M.N. Yablonskaya, WomenAnists of Rusiai New Age r900-r9jt ( N e w Y o r k :R i z z o l ir.9 9 o ) .p . r 7 : . 67. Konstantin Umanskij, Nrue Kunx in Russhnd,r9r4-r9r9 (Potsdam, Kiepenheuer,and Munich: GoIa, ryzo). -W4renAlfred Barr went to Russiain 1927,this wd the book on which he had to rely, aiong with Louis lnrcwick's slim volume, Modzm R*ssianArt (New York: Museum "Russian of Modern Art/Socidti Aronyme, r9z5). SeeAlfred Barr, Jr., Diary r9z7-28," October Fall ry78, p. 17. Umanskij would remain the best sourceuntil Barrt own presentationofthe Russianavant-grde in his atalogue for CubismandAbstactArt(r%6). On Umanskij'spiecein Der Ararat t in Janu ry r9zo, seeTimothy O. Benson, Raoul Hausmann and Berlin Dada(Ann fubor: UMI ResearchPress,t98), p. r87. Chapter6 r. RichardHuelsenbeck,En AuantDada:A HistoryofDadaism(r9zo),in Robert Mothemell, ed., TheDada Paintersand Poets:An Anthohgy, znd ed. (Cambridge,MA: HaruardUniversiryPress,r98il, p.39. z. Roy F. Allen, Literary Life in Geman Expresionismand the Berlin Cirr/zs(Ann Arbor: UMI ResearchPress,1983),p. z4z. 3. Mothemell, pp. 77-78. "magic bishop" 4. There is disagreementon the date and site of Ball's episode,which is placed on June z3 at the Cabaret Voltaire by John Elderfieldin his introduction to Hugo Bill, Flight Out of Time:A Dada Dlary (New York: Viking, 1974),p. w. 5. For accountsof this climactic eventrseeHans fuchter, Dada:Art and Anti-Art(New York: McGraw-Hill), pp.77-8o, and.Tnra in Motherwell, pp. z4o-242. 6. Technically, the members of Berlin Dada ued photocolkge,in which separatephotographsarecut and piecedtogether,tather rhanpbotlmznage,by whichimagesaresuperimposedby multiple exposure.However, in this chapterI follow the Dadaists'own nomenclatureand referto this work x photomontdge. (London; Thamesmd 7. For a discussionseeDawn Ades,Photomonta4e Hudson,r98o),pp. r9-zo. 8. Ibid.. o. Iz.

16. Dawn Ades,Dada and SunealismReaieued(lnndon: futs Council ofGreat Britain, t978),p. to6. r7. On the nvo Cologneexhibitions,seeAngelika Littlefield, TheDada Periodin Colngne(Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1988),and Ades, Dadz and SunealismRnieued, pp. ro4-ro6. 18.Groszand Hezfelde, p. 8r. "Erste Internationale Dadar9. Benson, p. r87; and Helen Adkins, (Berlin: BerlinischesGalerie, 1988),p. Messe,"StationenDer Modtme ri9. zo. On thesepoints seeAdes,Dada and SunealismRnirued" pp. 8l-8t, "Berlin Dada," in StephenC. Fosterand and Hans J. Kleinschmidt, Rudolf E. Kuenzli, eds., Dada Spectum: The Dialectics of Reuob(Iowa Ciry: Universiryof Iowa, ry79), pp. t64-t65. zr. Benson,p. 8o. "fut is in Danger,"in Lippard, p. 8r. uz. Groszand Herzfelde, 23. John Elderfield, Kurt Schwitters(London: Thames and Hudson, r985),p. 4r. For discussion ofthe Schwitters-Huelsenbeck antagonism. "Merz" can be found in Mothemell, seepp. 36-42, The full text of pp. j7-64, md in Lippard, pp. 99-ro8. 24. For discussionof Dada and Constructivism,seeJohn Elderfield. chapter 6, md Dada-Construciaism, The Janus Face of the Tu,nties (London: Annely JudaFineArt, I984). 25. Motherwell, p. 246. For an accountof Huelsenbeckand his lork. "The New Man-Armed with the V'eapons seeHans J. Kleinschmidt, ofDoubt and Defiance,"introduction to Richard Huelsenbeck.,11rzr oirsofa Dada Drummer(NewYork: Viking, 1974). 'A 26. Raoul Haumann, Dadmoph'sOpinion of V'hat Art Cnticism V i l l S a ya b o u rt h e D a d aE x h i b i r i o n .i 'n L i p p a r dp. . s 8 . Chapter7 r. Villim A. Camfield,FrancisPicabia:His Art, Life,and Times(Princeton: PrincetonUniversityPress,1979),p. rJ9. z. In Littrature, n.s., November ryzz, circd in Dax'n Ads, Dada and SunealismReuimed(London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978),p.

261


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They arrangedfor a retrospective exhibitofthirry-five ofhis worksfrom r9r4 to rgzr in Decemberat La Librairie Six, ownedby Soupault,with a cataloguecontainingshort statements by the artistand his new associates. Despitean excitingvernissage, the show elicitedneithersalesnor positivecriticalresponse, driving Man Ray to earna living by fashionand socieryphotography,in t}re processdevelopingconnecdonsthat would serveSurrealismwell. But it was the occasionfor his first Parisobject,the disturbing fatiron with attachedtacl<s-Ca*az ("Gift")-made on a walk back to the gallery aftera drink with Eric Satieon the night of the opening.3 "Bureau By the mid-twentiesthe movementhad established a of Surrealist Research" locatedat rt rue de Grenelleand a journal in its own name,La Rluolution sunlaliste.The first issueopenedwith Man Ray'srgzo photographof a mysterious blanket-wrappedobject, TheEnigntaof IsidoreDucasse. It alluded to a text of Ducasset pseudonym,the comtede l.autrdmont-'the chancemeetingon a dissectingtableof a sewingmachineand an umbrella'-a model for the creationof disturbingimagesby the uniting of disparateobjects,and a paradigmof Surrealism. Justasthe Berlin Dadas had distributed stickerswith short provocativeremarks,the Parisianspostedsmall "If Papillnrn("Butterfies"),sayingthingslike, you loveLove,you will love Surrealisrn' "Parentsl Tell your dreamsto your children,"alongwith phrasesof more obscure and significance.a It wasin this periodthat the writerswerejoined by painters,and many of the works to be shownat the Internationd Expositionwerecreatedwithin a few yearsof their initial contact.ln t9z3Yvestnguy decidedto becomean artisrafte.seeingr*o works by Giorgio de Chirico in the window of PaulGuillaumet gallery and teaching himself to paint, he joined the Surrealistsin 1925,developinghis signaturesryleof abstractdreamscapes by ry27. He and JacquesPrdvertshareda housewith Marcel Duhamel at ,4 rue de ChXteau,which supplementedBreton'sstudio as a centerof group activity,and in May-Juner9z7 at the GalerieSurrdaliste Thnguy'spaintingswere shown along with primitive objectsfrom the Americaslent by Breton, Eluard, and Aragon. Andrd Masson began making automatic drawings during the winter of rgzj-u4, and in ry27he translatedthe visual impulseshe found difficult to express with paint and brush in sandpaintingsdone with glue spreadby his fingers.Masson had a studio next to Joan Mir6 at 4t rue Blomet, and in ry24 he introducedthe "I Spaniardto the Surrealists, moving him awayfrom Cubism.Glling Masson, shall breaktheir guitar," he createdthe poetic imagesthat he would exhibit at the Galerie Pierreon the rue BonaparteinJune ry25.5Of the paintingsshownbythese artistsat the 1938exhibition, four of the eight Tanguys,five of the eight Massons,and sevenof the welve Mir6s datefrom beforer93o. If the Mir6 showdid not adequatelvrefutePierreNavillet denialof the possibiliry of Surrealistpaintingin the Aprii r9z5issueof La RCuolution sunialiste,the case wasmadeby the first group exhibition of Surrealistpainting,Novemberr4-zi, at the GaleriePierre.Run by the important dealerPierreLoeb,the galleryheld its openings at midnight, and on this occasiontherewerefar too many peopleto fit inside,filling the streetwell into the morning hours.The cataloguetext by Bretonand Desnosused the namesof the piecesin the exhibition to describea surreallandscape,creatinga poetic analogof the show without any theoreticaldiscussionof the work. Over the "Surrealism next two yearsBreton presentedsuchan accountin a seriesofarticleson and Painting."He beganwith Picasso, who despitea reluctanceto be calleda Surrealist would appearin the 1938exhibitionwith two paintings. After Naville left the editorshio of La Rluolution sunlaliste with the third issue,he was succeeded by Breton,*ho ln the next number beganto fill the journal with art and textsaddressing it. Although literatureremainedthe heartof their enter-

II9

LoNertl'iPs'^' DlDloIs DtPU1S A' t R A N c i sP i c P ' gi

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vines ennvined the doors, and the interior was completely drenched by rain that fell from the ceiling. So popular was the piece that Dali recreatedit the next year in New York for the ry39 Worldt Fair, along with his panoramic installation Dream of Wnus. A similar reversalof inner and outer dominated the main room of the exhibition, in which the floor was coveredwith leavesand moss, and a double bed with luxurious silk sheets sat at each corner. There was a pond encircled by ferns and reeds adjacent to one of the beds, abovewhich hung Massont Opheliaand Roland Penrose's The Rcal Woman.Next to the bed above the pond was a large painting by the Vennese \folfgang Paalen, who was given credit for Water and Brushwood on the first page of the catalogue. The effect was analogous to a Magritte scene of nighttime street "systematic and daylit sky, following the Surrealist principle of displacement" that "a Ernst saw as the basis of collage, meeting of two distant realities on a plane foreign to them both."lr The installation as a whole was designedby Marcel Duchamp, marked in the catalogue as the Glnlrateur-Arbine (Producer-Referee)of the exhibition. He compounded allusions by covering the ceiling with r,zoo coal sacks 6lled, according to Man Ray, with a light, incombustible material, in deferenceto the insurance company. Masson remembered them as empry but continuing to shower coal dust on those below. There also was a glowing charcoal brazier, said to represent the friendship of those gathering around its warmth. Nearby two constructions of revolving doors were used to display graphic works, a referenceto Man Rayt well-known early seriesof collages. Oscar Dominguezt phonograph Jamais ("Never") revolved silently, naked legs protruding from the speakerhorn, a human hand suspendedover the turntable. At the foot of the bed by the pond sat Marcel Jeant Horoscope,a dressmakert dummy painted to depict its skeleton as geographic continents, Paintings were hung on the walls, and Duchamp originally wanted electric eyes to trigger their illumination whenever a viewer approached. tVhen that proved unfeasible, an alternative was arranged for the opening on January rz-as guests entered, they were handed flashlights by Man Ray, the show's Master of Lighting. Not surprisingly, many of the artists were upset to find their paintings in the dark at the

123

aboveleft: Salaadar D ali's Runy Tax| rg 8, installedin the lobbl ofthe International Expositionof Surrealism. Afer itspopukrity in Pais, Dali would recreateRainy Taxi for tbe ry39 New York Vorld's Fair. [nternational Surrealist Exposition, Galerie BeauxArts, Parisrgt aboveright: Insta/lation uiew of the main galbry ofthe International Ex?osition of Sunealism,showingthe pond and bed, and (lefi to igh ) IVolfu ng Paaleni U ntirled; RolandPenroseiThe Real Voman;Andry'MassazSThe Death of Ophelia,' and Marcel Jean's Horoscope. Here, at Dalis reqilest, dancer Helene Vanel "Tbe Unecstaticalbperformed consummatedAct" during the aernissage. International Sunealist Exposition, Galerie Beaux Arts, Parisr9j8


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lVolfg ng PaaIen'sMannequin, 1938. International Surrealist Exposition, Galerie BeauxArts, Paris rg8. Photographby Man Rtr Kurt Seligmann!Mannequin, ryj8. International Surrealist Exposition, Galerie BeauxArts, Paris tq8. Photographby Man 114J

YuesThngq,'sMannequin, r9.;i8. I nternationaI SurreaIist Exposition, Galerie Beaux Arts, Paris ryj|. Photographby Man Rny

Marcel Jeanls Mannequin, 19;18. In terna t ional SurreaI ist Exposi-

Andrl Massoni,Mannequin, ry38. Massonls fgure receiaedthe popurnostcommentamongthose lating the rue Surrialiste. Photographh1Man Ray

Marcel Duchampi Mannequrn, tq8. International Surrealist Exposition,GalerieBeauxArx, Paris rg8. Photographby Man

r27

tion, Galerie Beaux Arts, Paris

ry38.Photographfu Man Ray


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SNAILSIN A TAXI

ble ("U\tra-Ftrniture"), perhapsderived from the similarly constructed Uberstuhl exhibitedby a B. Mrihring in rgoo at the First Great Berlin Joke-fut Exhibition.2l Other furniture included GeorgesHugnet'stable with comparrmenrswhere hands foated in fluorescentliquid, and Andri Breton'sgilded antique cheststanding on femalelegs,surmountedby a glasscaseof stuffedbirds. Breton calledthis pieceLe CadaureExquis,a referencero rhe group game whosediscoveryhe datedto rgzj at the Duhamel-Thnguy-Prdvert residence in the rue de Chiteau. Initially it was a verbalgame,in which 6ve participantspasseda folded piece of paper around to the right, eachsecretlywriting a word-the first putting down a noun, the secondan adjective,the third a verb,the fourth anothernoun, and the fifth a final adjective.The senrencesaidto be first generatedby this processgave ("The exquisitecorpsewill the gameits name:Le cadaureexquisboirale uin nouueau. drink the new wine.") The procedurewasextendedvisuallyin drawingsand.collages, and collectiveworks of this kind wereshownin manygroupexhibitions.The 1938cataloguelists Cadaures Exquziasa separate categorybut doesnot specif' how manywere exhibited. The InternationalExpositionincludednumerousexamples of anothersort of chancecreation,decalcomania, discovered by OscarDominguezin 1916.Bretonintroduced this newestautomaticdevicein the June 1936issueof Minotaure,explaining the method of laying blackgouachedown on slickpaper,and pressinga secondsheer onto the first. Removingit yieldedRorschach-like imagesof suggestive shape,some"decalcotimes more fully designated"decahomaniawith no preconceived object" or maniaof desire." Decalcomaniawas one of the many terms defined in the DictionnaireAbrlgl du Surrialisme('AbridgedDictionaryof Surrealism')that waspublishedby the Galerie Beaux-Artsin conjunctionwith the exhibition.Compiled by Breton and Eluard,the DictionnaireAbrlgy'containedentriesprovidedby manyof the Surrealists, or excerpred "defined": "rhe from their writings. The artiststhemselves were Duchampwas mosr intelligentand (foi many) the most troublesomeman of rhis first part of the rwentieth "the "the century";Breton, glassof waterin the storni'; Dali, princeof Catalanintelli"the gence,colossallyrich'; Ernst, superiorof the birds" (in his incarnationasLoplop); "the "the "the Arp, dune-eel";Mir6, sardine-tree"; Masson, man-feather";Magritte, 'the "the cuckoot egg";Thnguy, guidefrom the ageof mistletoedruids"; and of Man "He Rayit wassaidthat paintsto be loved."22 But mosrof rhewordslistedwereSurrealist termsof art, often definedby quotationfrom one or more membersof the group and Fromits appropriated literarure. In a way, the DictionnaireAbrigi servedas the illustrated caraloguefor the InternationalExposition,complementingthe printed list of piecesin the show.Some of the exhibitedworks are reproduced,but more often it illustratesothersof similar date.This is usefulin giving a senseof rhe more obscureartisrs,and what it showsof painterslike Remedios,ElsaThoresen,V/ilhelm Bjerke-Petersen, PaulNash,and Freddie suggests that the exhibitionwasfilled with dreamlikeimagesin the mannerof Dali and Magritte,with an admixtureof HieronymusBosch.For a well-knownfiguresuch asGiacometti,whosecatalogueentry listsonly sculptures,it illustrateshis gameboardlike On nejoueplus ("No more play') and a studiophotographshowingthe primirivist Inuisible Object,which Roland Penroserecalledbeing shown. Like the exhibition itselfl the DictionnaireAbrigi wasa repriseof a maturemovemenr,recapitulatingthe past and consolidatingan ethos.Its textsfeaturedrheunlikelyjtxtapositionand poericresonancefor which Surrealismwasknown, and double-pages illustratedsuchthemesas 'W'omen the surrealobjectand the erotic of Surrealism, alongwith groupphotographs ofthe artistsoverthe years.

r29

Max Ernx. Au Rendezvousdes Amis,r93t. Photomontage, rg% x r31/zin. Collection,Museum of Modern Art, New Yorh


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Max Ernst.La Joie de vivre, z83l x 361/a ry6. Oil on cAnuas, in. Colleoion of Sir Roland Penrose,London

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SNAILS IN

A TAXI

had been living in Paris, and Bellmer was to move there later in 1938,escapingan intolerable situation under the Nazi regime. Surrealism itself, and modern art in general, had been vilified the previous year in the Exhibition of Degenerate Art in Munich. 'ff/hile the International Exposition might have been viewed by disaffected Parisian poets as too bourgeois, and by some members of socieryx drmodz and somewhat boring-Life reported the former, and Voguethe latter-in Germany such art still seemed advanced and threatening. A few hundred miles to the east lay a different world, one soon to encroach on the Parisianswho had mounted their last prewar extravaganza. The Galerie Beaux-Arts showwas the last of the three great international Surrealist exhibitions of the r91os, and it is striking to find that many paintings and objects appeared in them all. There almost was a packageof worfts, first assembledfor the New Burlington Galleries in June ry36, with many of the objects coming right from Charles Ratton the month before. Quite a few of these pieces were sent five months later to New York, to be presentedwith Dada by Alfred Barr, Jr. in terms of an historical tradition of Fantastic Art and related cultural artifacts.2TtVhen Breton and Eluard organized the Paris exhibition, they reassembledmuch that had appeared in one or both of the ry16 shows, setting it amidst their installations as the record of a mature movement, a view by now familiar throughout the world. Among the worl<s that appeared in all three exhibitions are de Chirico's Child's Brain, Dtrch^mp's Pharmacie, Erleen Agar's painting of abstracted horse heads, Qadriga, Victor Brauner's Knbiline in Mouement, Oelzds Daily Torments,the Oppenheim fur teacup, and Man Rat's ObseruatoryTime-The Louers.Other specificworks by Duchamp, Mesens, Thnguy, Masson, and Man Ray appearedat MOMA and the Galerie Beaux-Arts, with the 1938Paris exhibition sharing additional piecesfrom London by fup, Thnguy, and Masson.28Certainly most works appearedin only one of the shows, but the ardsts overlap to a large extent, creatingavery similar picture of Surrealism acrossall three exhibitions. The difference in 1938was the physical setting, installations that clearly overwhelmed the works shown within them. This constituted the showt unique asDect, turning rhe exhibition itself into a work on a par with its content. To an extent thii was true of the Berlin Dada Fair, the chaotic and aggressivepresentation expressing the same messageas the piecespresented.But at the Galerie Beaux-Arts the intention was more explicit, the installation designedto evoke the disquiet of represseddesire on the verge of self-recognition, the viewer placed into a world displaying its own Surrealist interpretation. The setting was appropriately nightmarish, theatrical, and selfconscious and, more in the spirit of Duchamp and Man Ray than of Breton, entertaining. In addition to Schwitters'stransformation of his own home into a shrine to his obsessions,the Merzbau the 1938exhibidon is an important model for what would become installation art. Thus, while Surrealism by ryg had become part of a cultural establishment, fixed through great international surveysand embracedby high sociery this exhibition expanded in presentation the advancedwork that had been initiated years before. And in doing so, Surrealism moved beyond its particular theories to a new form of art making. More than this, through expauiation Surrealism would continue to develop, its roots in automatism generating anew in the fertile soil ofAmerica.

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SNAILSIN A TAXI

Giorgio de Chirico. A Child s Brain, ryr4. Oil on canuas, jrt/.2 x z5"a in. StatensKonstmuseer,Stocbholm opposite: YuesThnguy.The Sun in Irs JewelCase,rg7. Oil on cAnuas, 45Vcx 341%cin. Pegy Gugenheim Collection, Wnice, The JolomonK. Uugenhetmrouttdation, New York

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NOTES

55,Zhadova, Malzuich, pp. 44, rz3 nrr.

9. Somescholarsdatethis eventin February

56.Villims, p. rz3.

ro. RoseleeGoldberg, Perfomance Art, From Futuism to the Pretnt (New York: Harry N. Abrams,1988),p. 67. On this event a.lsosee\{el Gordon, ed., Dadz Perfomance(New York: PAJ, r98Z),p. t7, wherethe date is givenasFebruaryr8, r9r8

57.For a discussionofThe Store,seeMilner, pp. tzz-tz5; and for a partial list of worla. seeGordon. z:888. p. 59. 58.Costakis,

rr. Allen, p. 243.

written accountofThe Storeand his relationswith 59.For Rodchenko's ttlin, seeBaron md Tilchmm, pp.2.56-217.

rz. Erica Doctorow, Dadz-in Berlin (Gxden Ciry NY: Adelphi University,1978),p. 35.TheGreenCadaaerwx printedon the backofcopies of Dada Against \Y'eimar.

6o. Ccstakis,p. 56. 6. Zlndova, Mabuich, p. 66.

13.Benson,p. r3r.

62. Ibid.

r4. Seethe accountby Ben Hecht in Gordon, pp. 8o-8r. Baaderoffered to sellHecht for $35,ooohis lost two-volumecollagediary of ryt9-t9zo, the Bucherzuhandzndts Oberdzdz.which according to Grosz eventuallv wm buried behind Bmder'shouse,and miqht havebeen shown at the Dada Fair "Dadaism," in Lury R. Lip15.GeorgeGroszmd Vieland Hezfelde, pard, ed., Dadas on lrr (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,r97r), P .8 8 .

63. On Chaga.llat Vitebsk, seeSusanP Compton, Chagall(Inndon: RoyalAmdemy of fut, 1985),pp. 40-42. "Constructivism 64. For theselmt developments,seeJohn Elderfield, and the Objective World: An Essayon Productionfut and Proletarian Culture," StudioInt(mational Septemberr9-o, p. '8. 65.lodder, p. 6r. 66. M.N. Yablonskaya, WomenAnists of Rusiai New Age r900-r9jt ( N e w Y o r k :R i z z o l ir.9 9 o ) .p . r 7 : . 67. Konstantin Umanskij, Nrue Kunx in Russhnd,r9r4-r9r9 (Potsdam, Kiepenheuer,and Munich: GoIa, ryzo). -W4renAlfred Barr went to Russiain 1927,this wd the book on which he had to rely, aiong with Louis lnrcwick's slim volume, Modzm R*ssianArt (New York: Museum "Russian of Modern Art/Socidti Aronyme, r9z5). SeeAlfred Barr, Jr., Diary r9z7-28," October Fall ry78, p. 17. Umanskij would remain the best sourceuntil Barrt own presentationofthe Russianavant-grde in his atalogue for CubismandAbstactArt(r%6). On Umanskij'spiecein Der Ararat t in Janu ry r9zo, seeTimothy O. Benson, Raoul Hausmann and Berlin Dada(Ann fubor: UMI ResearchPress,t98), p. r87. Chapter6 r. RichardHuelsenbeck,En AuantDada:A HistoryofDadaism(r9zo),in Robert Mothemell, ed., TheDada Paintersand Poets:An Anthohgy, znd ed. (Cambridge,MA: HaruardUniversiryPress,r98il, p.39. z. Roy F. Allen, Literary Life in Geman Expresionismand the Berlin Cirr/zs(Ann Arbor: UMI ResearchPress,1983),p. z4z. 3. Mothemell, pp. 77-78. "magic bishop" 4. There is disagreementon the date and site of Ball's episode,which is placed on June z3 at the Cabaret Voltaire by John Elderfieldin his introduction to Hugo Bill, Flight Out of Time:A Dada Dlary (New York: Viking, 1974),p. w. 5. For accountsof this climactic eventrseeHans fuchter, Dada:Art and Anti-Art(New York: McGraw-Hill), pp.77-8o, and.Tnra in Motherwell, pp. z4o-242. 6. Technically, the members of Berlin Dada ued photocolkge,in which separatephotographsarecut and piecedtogether,tather rhanpbotlmznage,by whichimagesaresuperimposedby multiple exposure.However, in this chapterI follow the Dadaists'own nomenclatureand referto this work x photomontdge. (London; Thamesmd 7. For a discussionseeDawn Ades,Photomonta4e Hudson,r98o),pp. r9-zo. 8. Ibid.. o. Iz.

16. Dawn Ades,Dada and SunealismReaieued(lnndon: futs Council ofGreat Britain, t978),p. to6. r7. On the nvo Cologneexhibitions,seeAngelika Littlefield, TheDada Periodin Colngne(Toronto: Art Gallery of Ontario, 1988),and Ades, Dadz and SunealismRnieued, pp. ro4-ro6. 18.Groszand Hezfelde, p. 8r. "Erste Internationale Dadar9. Benson, p. r87; and Helen Adkins, (Berlin: BerlinischesGalerie, 1988),p. Messe,"StationenDer Modtme ri9. zo. On thesepoints seeAdes,Dada and SunealismRnirued" pp. 8l-8t, "Berlin Dada," in StephenC. Fosterand and Hans J. Kleinschmidt, Rudolf E. Kuenzli, eds., Dada Spectum: The Dialectics of Reuob(Iowa Ciry: Universiryof Iowa, ry79), pp. t64-t65. zr. Benson,p. 8o. "fut is in Danger,"in Lippard, p. 8r. uz. Groszand Herzfelde, 23. John Elderfield, Kurt Schwitters(London: Thames and Hudson, r985),p. 4r. For discussion ofthe Schwitters-Huelsenbeck antagonism. "Merz" can be found in Mothemell, seepp. 36-42, The full text of pp. j7-64, md in Lippard, pp. 99-ro8. 24. For discussionof Dada and Constructivism,seeJohn Elderfield. chapter 6, md Dada-Construciaism, The Janus Face of the Tu,nties (London: Annely JudaFineArt, I984). 25. Motherwell, p. 246. For an accountof Huelsenbeckand his lork. "The New Man-Armed with the V'eapons seeHans J. Kleinschmidt, ofDoubt and Defiance,"introduction to Richard Huelsenbeck.,11rzr oirsofa Dada Drummer(NewYork: Viking, 1974). 'A 26. Raoul Haumann, Dadmoph'sOpinion of V'hat Art Cnticism V i l l S a ya b o u rt h e D a d aE x h i b i r i o n .i 'n L i p p a r dp. . s 8 . Chapter7 r. Villim A. Camfield,FrancisPicabia:His Art, Life,and Times(Princeton: PrincetonUniversityPress,1979),p. rJ9. z. In Littrature, n.s., November ryzz, circd in Dax'n Ads, Dada and SunealismReuimed(London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1978),p.

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D I S P L A C E M E N TO F T H E A V A N T . G A R D E

elegant, if crowded, display. But in all galleriesthe Nazi view of modern art was clear. It was an amazing, if appalling, achievement, for the actual processof confiscation, shipping, and installation had been accomplished in lessthan two weeks. To enter the exhibition visitors climbed a flight of narrow wooden stairs, where they were met by Ludwig Giest large sculpture of Christ on the cross, removed in rgzz from Liibeck Cathedral after public protest. This 6rst gallery was devoted to religious imagery and was dominated by the work of Max Beckmann and Emil Nolde. Featuring Nolde's nine-painting cycle The Ltft "f Christ taken from the Folkwang "lnsolent mockery of the Divine under Centrist rule."lo Museum, the room illuptrated Nolde, who had been a member of the Nazi party since r9zo, objected strenuously to being included in the exhibition, writing to Goebbels of his loyalry and of the Germanic spirit of his painting. Yet despite his strong anti-Semitism and committed parry affiliation, the Gestapo closed one of his exhibitions and vast numbers of his works were removed from museums. Similar objections by Oscar Schlemmer also went unheeded, and his nine works remained in the exhibition. More touchy for the authorities were the five or six paintings by Franz Marc, since Marc had earned an Iron Cross and died in service to the Fatherland near Verdun. The German Ofiicers' Federation protested, and the Tbwn of Blue Horseswx removed from Room 6. But Marck other work were left on display Anti-Semitism, of course, was a major theme of the exhibition, despite the fact that just 6 of the rr2 artists were Jewish. Only Jewish ardsts were shown in the second smaller gallery which included Chagall's Rabbi rhar had been pilloried in Mannheim. Throughout the show walls were covered with anti-Semitic comments, often applied to works by non-Jewish artists. In the next gallery paintings by Kirchner, "German farmers-a Yiddish view," and, more Mueller, and other Aryans were labeled "The reveals itself-in Germany the negro longing for the wilderness oddly, Jewish becomesthe racial ideal ofa degenerateart." This third gallery was the most outrageous in the exhibition. On walls devoted to Dada and abstraction the paintings were hung askew with offensive slogans written around them, though after the Fiihrer's initial visit they seem to have been

I4I

Hitler and Goebbekin Roomj of Att, the Exhibition of Degenerate Munich, J"b tCSZ.Art worhs, fom lefi to right are by Rudolf Belling, EugenHoffmann, Belling Heinrich Campendonh, Paul Klee; (aboue)Campendonh;and (below) ConradFelixmiillzr. The panel on the back uall quotes Hitler from a ryj4 speech.It be'All the artistic and cubural gins: blarher of Cubisrs. Fururists, Dadaisu, and the like is neither soundin racia/termsnor tolerablein nationalterms.h. . .ftrb admits that the dissolutionof all existingideas,all nationsand all races,their mixing and aduheration, is the lofiiestgoal."


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DISPLACEMENTOF THE AVANT.GARDE

straightened.lr The most striking panel was decorated with a simplified version of Kandinskyt abstraction, The Blach Spot, on which were hung some Dada broadsides and works by Schwitters and Klee. Scrawledabovewere Groszt words from the Berlin "Thke Dada seriouslyl itt worth it." Dada Fair poster, now used as Nazi admonition: "An insult to German womanAcross the room Expressionist nudes were displayed as "The hood" and ideal-cretin and whore." Farther along the same wall were rwo of Otto Dixt twenry-six works-the painting from the Dada Fair, now called War Cripples, and his vision of wartime horror, The Tiench.Borh had provoked public outcry "An insult to during the twenties and did so again in Munich, where they were marked "Deliberate sabotageof national defense."l2 the German heroes of the Great'W'ar" and Since the exhibition was intended to show the degree to which things had degeneratedduring the yearsof the \Teimar Republic, it highlighted works of German Expressionism, which had become popular with progressivecurators during the rgzos and were abundant in museum collections. Schmidt-Rottluff led the group with twenfy-seven paintings and twenry-four prints-in Room 5 his still lifes were labeled "Nature as seen by sick minds"-followed by Kirchner's thirry-rwo works and Noldes Nventy-seven.There were rwenty-one Beckmanns,and ten or more works by Kokoschka, Pechstein,Mueller, and Heckel. Despite the prominence given to Dada in the wall decoration, it was much lesswell represented,but the show did include rwenry works Karl Schmidt-RottluffYxe with by Grosz and four by Schwitters. Fiom rhe Blaue Reiter came fifteen Klees, fourteen Kandinskys, thirteen Feiningers, and less than ten each by Campendonk, Jawlensky, Dahlias, r9rz. Oil on cAnuAt and Marc. Most of the sculpture was figurative-Ernst Barlacht reunion of Christ and 3i% x 3ot/ain. Kunsthalle,Biek"Nature "nvo as monkeys in nightshirts." But there was some abstract sculp- feld. Undzrthe uords St. John was seen as ture such as Rudolf Belltng's Tiiad which had to be removed by embarrassedofficials seenby sick minds" in Room5, this painting was hung along after discovering that his bronze of the boxer Max Schmeling was on display in the with otherExpresioniststill lifes Great German fut Exhibition. There also was a large animal-like form by Richard and landscapesby Schmidr Haizmann, compared in the exhibition guide to a cat modeled by a mental patient. Rottkff Ern* Luduig Kirchner The comparison beween avant-gardeart and mental illness was natural to Emil Nolde, Erich Nagel, and the Nazi perspective on cukure, reinforcing the connection between modernism and degenerary in all its forms. The guide to the exhibition juxtaposed works by Klee, HeinrichDauringhausen. Kokoschka, and Eugen Hoffrnann with piecesfrom the Prinzhorn collection of art of the insane, and the seventh group of works demarcatedin the text were said to repre"the sent idiot, the cretin, and the cripple."tt Advanced art was charged with presenting images of Africa and Oceania as the racial ideal, as it was said to portray the prosdtute as a moral one. To represent degeneracyin all its forms, the cover of the guide showed "the a primitivistic sculpture installed in the ground floor lobby-The New Man by Jew" Otto Freundlich, who would die in the Lublin-Maidanek concentration camp after being captured by the Gestapo trying to escapefrom occupied France. Bolshevism itself was viewed as the epitome of degeneration,a debasementof politics to anarchy. The guide stressedthe political endi served by mo groups of degenerate arworks, those depicting social misery and classexploitation, and others attacking the German military. Yet it was not only that advanced art served political ends, bu"t that the destructive anarchy of aestheticfor^ *", an expressionof the sa-e degeneracyof spirit that issuedin leftist politics. Modern aft was seenas an expression of what had happened to sociery during the modern period, a time of political, moral, and psychological dissolution, a condition that in Germany had led to the disastrous 'Weimar. yearsof For Nazi theorists, it was no coincidence that much of the degenerate art had entered museums at just this time. One alleged manifestation of this situation was the arnount of money that the state museums had spent on degenerateworks. At the exhibition most works were listed by artist, title, museum from which confiscated,date of acquisition, and price of

r41


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Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. SelfPortrait as Soldier, r9r5. Oil on canuas, z71Z x z4 in. Allen Memoial Art Museurn, Oberlin College,Oberlin, Ohio, Charles E Olney Fund, 50.29.Exhibited as Soldier with Vhore with rither Kirchnersin Roomj, this painting washung next to a quotation meant to be mochedahng "dtmouith theart-a remarhbT cratic" curator Edwin Redslob, art cornmissionerof the W'eimar Republic, extolling the artist as comparableto Diirer. Ouerhead "Deliberate werethe words sabo'An uge of national defense"and insub to the Gerzan heroesof tbe GreatrVar"

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First, however, high officials appropriated particular pieces, with Hermann Gciring adding to his personal collection a number of Impressionist pictures along with Gaugiris Ri&rs on the Sand. Foreign dealersvied for the right to sell the other works, but four German dealerswere given priority. However, Iz5 of the outstanding pieces were reservedfor an auction to be held in Lucerne on June i'o, 1919at the Galerie Fischer. Among others, paintings by Corinth, Marc, Kokoschka, Braque, Derain, Chagall, Kee, Beckmann, Pascin, Gauguin, van Gogh, Picasso,Marc, Modigliani, Nolde, and Ensor were put on the block. Despite aftempts at a boycott, the auction attracted dealers, museum representatives,and collectors from around the world. Many works would make their way to the United States, including some of the most important paintings now in American museums.IT International sale saved relatively few of the confiscated works, for most met the fate that Goebbels intended. Three months before the Lucerne auction, on March 20, the art deemed unsalable was burned in the yard of the Berlin Fire Brigade in the Kcipernickerstrasse.That day r,oo4 oil paintings and y8z5 works on paper were incinerated.l8 Like the mass book burnings of May 1933,this acr points to the deep fear of art and intellect that was built into National Socialism-fear of the madnessof political protest, fear of degeneration to the weaknessof compassion, fear of moral decline to a state of human decenry. Before sale and destruction, however, two additional traveling shows of degenerateart were organized inlate 1937,the Great Anti-Bolshevist Exhibition, and The Eternal Jew.leAnd Entartete Kunst itself went on tour, adding over r.2 million people to its total attendance. In Berlin, the exhibition opened at the Haus der Kunst in February 1938. It then traveled to eleven other cities around the Reich through the

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DISPLACEMENTOF THE AVANT.GARDE Hamburg'Frankfurtam Main, Salzburg, springof r94r, including Leipzig,Di.isseldorf, manwaitedin line to seeworla_by a young inHamb,rrg, and fie.rna.ro On a grayday he disold friendswho hadvisited his parents'CologneaPartmentyearsbefore,and 'Woman"Insults to German covereda painting by his father in the sectionentitled hung beweenworksby Kirchner and hood." Max Ernst'sTheBeautifulGardznerwas line manytimesthat day.After waiting rejoin the Dix, and to seeit Jimmy Ernstwould his last viewing a man approachedto askwhy he wasso interestedin the exhibition, Germanyat any cost.2l and in fearand confusionhe resolvedto escapâ&#x201A;Ź of his flight from Europe,Jimmy Ernst becamea central As a consequence activiryfrom the old world to the witnessto the shift in critical massof avant-garde spentwith his fatherin Surrelater time Dada and in Cologne new From a childhood alist Paris,he movedto a New York fastbecomingthe centralrefugefor the advanced to PegryGuggenheim,he would-parartistsof Europe.As a young artist and assistant in Hamburg Fromhis exPerience ticipatein the birth of the first postwaravant-garde. world art watched Ernst This Century to his time tending the deskat Art of Jimmy entera new pnase. More than any other institution, PeggyGuggenheimtmuseum-galleryfut this transition.Her openingexhibitionin Octoberr94z of This Century encapsulates and in the next fiveyearsshewould displayedmasterpieceiof the prewaravant-garde, to gi ri their first one-personexhibitions JacksonPollock,Hans Hofmann, \flilliam Baziotes,RobertMotherwell,Mark Rothko,Clyfford Still,and RichardPousette-Dart. painting had begunin I-ondonat the oursetof rg38,with Her supportof progressive the opining of her hrst gallery GuggenheimJeune.Theresheexhibitedwork by the majoi Surrialistsalong with advancedabstraction,and thereshedecidedto createa museumof nonrealistLtwentieth-cenuryart. rVhile Guggenheimhad lured Herbert Readawayfrom the BurlingtonMagazinewitha6ve-yearconuact,the Europeanpolitical situationwaslessthan propitiousfor the foundingof a new museum,and the plan was abandoned.But shekept Readt list of what sucha museumshouldcontain,and a collectionbased in France,as the Germansapproached,shecontinuedto assemble on his suggestions. PegryGuggenheimarrivedbackin New Yorkon July 14,r94r,raveling with Max Ernst,io *horn shewould be marriedin December.Shealsoarrangedtravelfor Andri Breton,whoseVilla Air-Bel outsideof Marseilleshad beenhost to many of the artistsgatheredin the south awaitingexit visasfrom VarianFry and his Emergency Rescu. Committee. By diverseroutesmany membersof the Europeanavant-garde could not but signi6in New York during the war, and their presence would assemble candy affect the indigenousartists.New York, of course,was not unfamiliar with advancedEuropeanart, having seenits full rangeand depth at the galleriesand in Alfred Barr,Jr.'sexhibitionsat the Museum of Modern Art. EvenPicassotlegendary Guernicahad been shown at Kun Valentine'sgallery in 1919.But actually to seeand speakwith such artistsas Mondrian, llger, Ernst, and Duchampwasc-riticalto the of the Americans,and much of this interacdevelopmentand growingself-confidence tion occurredwithin the orbit of PegglrGuggenheim. her museumin San Although Guggenheimseriouslyconsideredestablishing Franciscoor New Orleansratherthan NewYork, by earlyry42shehad decidedto con\West vert to her purposestwo former tailor shopson the 7th foor of z8-3o 57thStreet. Pegry had introduced who California dealer a former Putzel, of Howard On the advice shehired Frederto Max Ernst while showingher aroundParisianstudiosin 1918-19, ick Kieslerto designher new space.It wasa brilliant selection,for Kieslertinnovative plan brought immediatenotoriety to Art of This Century and set a tone of radical experimentationsurroundingthe new gallerytacdvity.

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DISPLACEMENTOF THE AVANT-GARDE

Pages4o-r font Andre Bretons s1'5rr' camhgueof FirstP,lppr5 "com peusati on reaIism, shotui ng portraits" of Mana and of ,)Ia,: Ernst. Two workspainted that 'bf' lear are reproduced: .llono The Earth is a Nlan; (right) frzsr. Surrealism and Painting (t942). TheErnst wasmarkedbt, "centra/ canuas" Newsweekasthe of the exhibition.New York,Coordinating Council of French ReliefSocieties, Inc., 1942.Offet, printed in bkch, eachpage:rot/: x 7% in. TheMuseumof Modern Arr Library, SpecialCollection. New Yorh timed to go on and offevery fwo seconds,illuminating one side of the gallery and then "like your blood."2' -While certainly surreal, the the other, pulsating, as Kiesler said, for most, and Putzel later convinced Peggr to allow continueffect was too disruptive ous illumination. The last space-devoted to changing exhibitions-faced 57th Street, and was illumined by daylight diffused through a screenof ninon, a chiffonlike material commonly used for lingerie. It also firnctioned as a room for browsing among minor works from thecollection, where visitors could sit on folding stools and look through open storage bins of framed pieces. Another sort of seating was provided in the Abstract and Surrealist galleries, a feature welcomed by reviewers. Kiesler had designed a biomorphic muldfunctional piece that could sâ&#x201A;Źrve as a chair, lectern, coffee "correalist tools" table, pedestal, sofa, and hat rack. Variously oriented, one of these could be found supporting a tired visitor, while Giacometti's Woman with Her Throat Cut crawled acrossanother.23 Altogether, the design of Art of This Century exemplified Kieslert developing conception of architectural space as fuid and organically related to the activiry within, ideas that achieved their visionary height in his EndlessHouseof ry49-59']Virh sculpture and framelesspaintings on variable supports to be adjusted for optimal viewing, and rooms designed to evoke the mood of the work displayed, Kieslert goal, as "dissolve the barrier and stated in his unpublished notes on the gallery design, was to 'environment,' 'realiry,' 'image' . . . fwhere] there and artificial dualiry of vision and are no frames or borders between art, space,life. In eliminating the frame, the sPectator recognizeshis act ofseeing, or receiving, as a particiPation in the creative processno lessessentialand direct than the artistt own."2a It was natural for Kiesler to evoke his friend Duchampt notion of the viewer completing the work, for Duchamp arrived in New York in the midst of the project in June ry42, and stayed with the Kieslers until October. Peggy hoped to have the opening of fut of This Century coincide with the publication of the catalogue of her collection designed by Breton, but planning and

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D I S P L A C E M E N TO F T H E A V A N T - G A R D E

Installztion uiew ofFira Papersof Sunealism,IVhitekw ReidMansion, 45r Madison Auenue,New York, October-Nouemberr942, with hanging by Andrl Breton and twine hy Marcel Duchamp. The challengeto clear uiewing wastahenhy Haniet and Sidney Janis n representthe dfficuby of understandingmodernart, but critic Robert Coatessaw ir rc embodyonce-feshidzasndiously wound bach and forth. Photograph hyJohn Schiff

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DISPLACEMENT

OF THE

AVANT.GARDE

drawings.36 'With

some knowledge of Surrealism and its automatic techniques, then, American artists found themselvesfrequenting Art of This Century.37Howard Putzel succeededJimmy Ernst as Peggys assistantin ry41, and he worked hard to interest her in the young Americans. After Matta brought Guggenheim to Pollockt studio, Putzel encouraged her reluctant acceptanceof his work, eventuating in the large mural commission for Peggy's apartment and his first exhibition at Art of This Century in November r94?,. Amerlcan artists-including Hare, Baziotes, Pollock, Motherwell, and Ad Reinhardt-began to be shown in force earlier that year, in Peggyt collage show and in her Spring Salon, and they soon dominated the specialexhibitions at the gallery. The spring after Pollockt first show, Peggy mounted Hans Hofmann's initial American exhibition, and in the gre t r944-4j seasonshe held the first exhibitions of Baziotes, Motherwell, and Mark Rothko.38 Against a backdrop of the achievements of European Modernism, Peggy presented to the public some of the most important members of the future New York School. Although the inertia of avant-garde activity had shifted acrossthe Atlantic, more than a few exhibitions were needed to create a viable center of advanced aft. A community of artists was constituting itselfl and along with postwar prosperiry a germinal market was forming. The late forties in New York witnessedmore shows by the young American abstract painters and less by the Surrealists,whose last hurrah was the undulating Kiesler installation of Nicholas Cal,as'st947 group exhibition, Bloodfames. That year PeggyclosedArt of This Century and Pollock was taken on by Betry Parsons,in whose gallery he introduced his poured paintings in January 1948. Four 'Willem months later the long-awaited first exhibition of de Kooning was held at the Egan Gallery. But it would take a few more yearsfor the extendedNew York School to show itselfin exhibition, at an old storefront on 9th Street.

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NOTES " tichau, EntarteteKuul Munich, 1937: A Reconstrucdon,"in Barron, pp. 4t-8r. This mrterful piece of reserch includes complete photographicdocumentation,and a painting-by-painting/text-by-text reconstructionof the exhibition. rr. Seecontrastingphotographsofthe Dada wall in Barron,p. y5. rz. For an account of the controversies,focusing on The Tiench,see "The 'Golden Dennis Crockett, Most FamousPainting of the Twenties'?"Art Joumal"Spring1992,pp. 7z-8o. ry. Bzrron, p. 376. r4. Von Ltittichau, p. 45. r5.Barron,pp. 386-388. 16. Reviewin Der Riihr-Arbeiter,luly zo, 1937,cited in Dunlop, p. 253. t7.To cite just two examples:Van Gogh's1988self-portraitnow in the FoggMuseum at Haruard wasacquiredby Alfred Frmkfurter, publisher of Art Neus, for New York collectorMaurice Venheim, and Matisset Bathersuith a Tilrtle now in the St. Louis fut Museum wm purchmed by PierreMatissefor JosephPulitrer,Jr. For accountsof the activity of German dealersin disposingofconfiscatedart, and ofthe GalerieFis"On cher auction, seeAndreasHiineke, the Tiail of Missing Masterpieces:Modern Art from German Galleries,"and StephanieBarron, "The GalerieFischerAuction," both in Barron, pp. tzr-t69. "'Degenerate 18.Georg Bussman, fui-A look at a Useful Myth," in C.M. Joachimides,N. Rosentha.l,and \Wi Schmied, GerrnanArt in the 2oth Century:Paining and SculptureryoS-t985(Munich md London: PrestelVerlagand the RoyalAademy ofArts, 1985),p. rzr, nises doubts about whetherthe confiscatedart actuallvwasburned. but most sources 6sert this s unequivocalfact. "t917: 19. StephanieBxron, Modern Art and Politics in PrewarGermany," in Barron,p. r5. "An zo. For detailson the exhibitiont travels,seeChristoph Zuschlag, 'Educational " Exhibition,' in Barron, pp. 9c_+)j,roz-ro3. z,r.Jimmy Ernst, ,4 Not-So-StillZry' (New York: St. Martin's/Marek, t98Q, pp. 94-96. "The zz. Cynthia Goodman, Art of Revolutionary Display Techniques," in Lisa Phillips, ed., FrederickKiesler(New York 'Vhitney Museum ofAmerimn Art, ry8), p. 65. 23.In a Septemberry39 articlein ArchiteauralRecord,Kieslerdefinedhis "correalism' "an conceptof m investigationinto the laws of the interrelationshipsof natura.l and man-made organisms." Cited in Lisa "fuchitect Phillips, of EndlessInnovation," in Phillips,p. 24. "Notes 24. FrederickKiesler, on Designingthe Gallery', 1942,cited in "Environmental Lisa Phillips, Artist," in Phillips,p. rr4. 25.PeggyGuggenheim, Out of this Century: Confesionsof an Art Addict (London: Andrd Deutsch, ry7il, p. 273. In addition to Guggenheim and Schiaparelli,the cataloguelisted m sponsorsof the exhibition Sidney Janis,Mr and Mrs. rValterArensberg,Mr. and Mrs. Robert Allerton Parker, Marian Villard, Katherine Dreier, Mrs. George Henry 'Warren, PierreMatisse,PrincessGourielli, Thomas F. Howard, Mr. and Mrs. John Latouche, Mary Jane Gold, Bernard Reis, James John Sweeney, John Barrett,and IsabelleKent. 26. Rudi Blesh, Mofurn Art U.S.A.: Men, Rebellion,Conquest,r900-r9t0 (New York: Alfred A. fnopf, 1116),p. zoo. 'Vriting only thrce ycars after the exhibition, Harriet and SidneyJanis,who werecloselyinvolved

in its preparation,saythat threemiles ofstring wereused.Perhaps.srnce therewerethreerooms,a mile wx usedin each.SeeHarrier md Sidner' "Marcel Duchamp: Anti-Artist," in Roben Motheruell. ed.. I/,r Janis, Dadz Paintersand Poets(Cmbridge, MA: Harvrd Universin' Press. 1988),p. 3o7. 27. Mxrel Jeen, The Autobiograpltltof Sunealism(New York: \'ikinq. "The .\n ry8o),p. 4o3.Harriet and SidneyJmis, p. 3o7.Robert Coates, Galleries,SixteenMiles of String," TheNew Yorker,October lr, r942. p. the opening ofArt ofThis Century and Tz.Here Coatesalsodiscusses in both installationsprefersthe older,more clmsicwork. In eachexhibition he singlesout earlyde Chiricosfor praise,though he alsolikesmore "lmdmark recentworls by Matta, Mmson, and Ernst. Among the of the teensmd twenties"at Art of This Century he mentionsMezingcr s The Cyclist,Gris's Boxle of Martinique Rum, and Piabia's Infant Carburetor,In a recentessay, BenjaminBuchloh hm suggested that Duchamps room of coal sacls at the 1938Parisexhibition md his installation of First Papersare commentarieson the obsoletenature both of painting itself and of the retosoectivex an exhibition form. SeeA.A. Bronson and PeggyGa.le,eds.,Mu:eumsbyArdsrs(Toronto:Art Metropole,1983), p'46' ,g."AvgoniredHumor," Neusweeh, October 26, ry42, p.76. 29. Interviewwith Carroll Janis,Decemberzr, I99o. 3o. Ernst, p. 234. 3t. Neu Yorh TimesMagazine, November y t94z; Newsweek,November z, 1942,p. 66. \Weld, 12.New York Times,October 25,1942,p. x9; JacquelineBograd Pegy, The W'aywad Gugnhdz (New York E.P Dunon, ry86), p. z9o. For somecontext,this issueof the New YorhTimesbegan with the head"Allies line Gain in Big North African Offensive," and included an accountof a protest by the Municipal Arts Societyover the Brooklyn Museum'ssymbolic deaccession of two doren Japmeseswords,scabbards,and hand guardsfor scrapmetal to help the war effort. 33.Interuiewwith John Cage, November29, r99o. "The Cycloptic Eye, Pataphysicsand the Possible: 34. Martiu Sawin, Tiansformationsof Surrealism,"in Paul Schimmel, ed. TheInterpreriue Linh: AbstractSunealisminto Abstact Expresionism(Newport Beach. CA: Newport Harbor Art Museum, 1986),pp. 39-40. 35.Dore Ashton,

"Crisis

and PerpetualResolution,"in Schimmel,p. rr.

36. On the lecture series,see Sawin, pp. 37-j8, and Ining Sandler. "Dada, Surreaiismand Their Heritage: z. The SurrealistEmigres in New York," in Anfomm, May t968, pp. z5-26. On the exhibitions.see "Howard Melvin P Lader, Putrel: Proponent of Surrealismand L-arll AbstractExpressionism in America,"Arts, March 1982,p. 89. 37, Their experimentationsince r94o involved dripping and ssirlins quick-drying lacquer, including sessionsin the bxemenr oi Pees\. uncle Solomont Museum of Non-ObjectiveArt, whereartisr-emplolecs dissolvedthe clssical recordsthat Hilda Rebayplaved in the sallerics. "'The Third Man,' or Automatism .{nreritan See Martica Sawin, Style,"ArtJoumal a7,Fill 1988,pp. r8r-r84,for theseearlvexpenmenrs of Pollock,Kamrowski,Baziotes,Jimm1.Ernst.and orhers. 38.For a completelist of exhibitionsat An of This Centun. see\lehin P lader md Fred Licht, PeggltGugenheim'sOther Legdo t\err \brk: SolomonR GuggenheimMuseum,1987),p. l-. ,{lthough Purzelleh the ga1lerybefore the showsof Bziotes, Motheniell, and Rorhko. he wm instrumental in bringing on the anists, and he reponedlv oilered

265


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rzln8er egr Sunuau8ne arnt?rrtrT pue (qdosopqd 'orsnru uor; sra4eadsqrrr\ 'sargg eqr Sur.rnp Ar.anoe len]Jallrtur {ro1 .neN Jo rrtuef, E aurmaq stuale rsar{J 'reqrurur e dq parraur uerq per{ ar{ reqt perurelo oqr* auolue ol uado pue '1561lrrun er,re4lq pa8urr:r 'qaued ro salnllel JoJpa Jese:era.u s8urue,re&prrg 'rq8ru eqt olur re33unse1 suorssnf,srprpl.ra.'oâ&#x201A;Ź:6 s8urua,ralepsaupal6 uo tJru sregruJru,qn13 's:asoduroc puz te 'srJtu.iv\'slnuf, 'sJaIEJp {oog pue tr? pJpnpur pue olr ot esolJ se.rtrdrqs.raquaur praua8 z56r trg'rellery sepaf,rel,^{pue Suruoo) ep eur"lg Jo uor}rpp? aqr qtrld IpJ alnr ter{l os ro;ead e urpr.r"r q8noqr 'dlqsregruaru ruo{ ueruo/d apnpxe ot aperu serrrldtuele ue 'sorun ogtJo pr1dl1 ('auo,ira,relsur?8?pelo^ unr.la.e'Isepue esntreq pe8ueg: sel'rsrql I rnq 'drqs.ragtuJtuperuep eto,r a.ree8auauo lluo rsJg ly) 'parce(qo sJegruaruSunorr or"rl u?ql aroru ou uor{.,lrsateprpu?Jpasodo;d ruog pelnupe srJqurJru preue8 qll&{ 'gnl:) aqr paura,ro8 grrqr* luo; or lrrrgr 3o raltrruruof, Suuoa r ot papuedxa sertr.dno.r8 pu 'salqt] pue srr?r.{tr -1ul eI{J u'stseqSunetor E uo sanllqlsuodsa; Surrr:ado patelolle pue 8qp1oj paserlcrnd 'alrq^\ uroor er{r peturcd 'suorlrlred Suusxa palo{uer sreqtueru rel


DO\rNTO\rN

"The

lrascibles,"1950.In Li[e, -lanuary rt, rgtr. (fom top lefi) IVillem de Kooning, Adolph Gottlieb, Ad Reinhardt, Hedda Sterne, Richard Pousette-Dart, IVilliam Baziotes,JacksonPolloch, Clyffird Still, RobertMotherwell, Bradley WhlherTomlin, TheodorosStamol Jimmy Ernst, Barnett Newman,JamesBrooks, and Marh Rotbho. The photographshowsffieen ofthe eighteen artists who refusedto submit paintings to the Metropolitan MuseumofArts exhibitionAmerican Painting Tbday-r950. TheT boycoxedthe showbecause ofthe jury that wasto select c7nseruatiue the worh. covering expenses,and ii th. selection ofartists, câ&#x201A;Źrtainly Castelli was actively involved in many facetsof the exhibition. And in hanging the show he was a crucial figure, since he exhibited nothing. For no single artist could have organized the installation without major problems, and Milton Resnick seemsto have approached Castelli for just this reason. It is easyto understand the reluctance with which he agreed.e Castellis position as impartial installer was a taxing one, for with about seventy artists and relatively limited space, discontent was inevitable. On the day of the hanging, Castelli and a group of artists set to work. Marca-Relli, who wanted the installation to be done by the artist organizers, remembers that Franz Kline started the process, picking up his large black-and-white picture and putting it on the wall. But Castelli soon began to give directions, and Marca-Relli left in a huff. In the end Castelli seemsto have coordinated things, also taking the brunt of anger from artists "Hung the show! . . . I unhappy with the location of their pieces.As he said in ry56: hung it twenry times. Each time it was done, an artist would come in and raise hell about the placing of his painting."to Et en after the exhibition opened some artists insisted on changes,as Pearl Fine did in switching her painting with that of Alcopley, moving his next to ke Krasner's.At least every anist selectedhis or her own work and delivered it to the show Most paintings were just walked through the streets-Castelli and Joan Mitchell carried her large canvasacross9th Street from her studio on the west side-for the majority of artists lived within the downtown area bordered by Sth and r2th sueets between First and Sixth avenues.rr

r59


D O\TNTO\TN

This larger artists' communiry was the one that the exhibition sought to present, something less parochial than even the broad-based membership of the Club. Significant here in his absencewas Phillip Pavia, who did not initially exhibit in the show despite his help with planning and construction. At the insistence of Frederick "Mr. Kiesler, who referred to him as Club," Pavia was dissuaded from exhibiting. Kiesler argued that the show should display the achievements of the New York School asa whole and that efforts should be made to disassociateit from the Club. His view fit with a long-standing prejudice within the Club against anything that might suggest self-promotion or partisanship; even members fortunate enough to have shows could not post exhibition announcements on its premises, and no paintings were hung there. Pavia agreed to drop out, though during the show he placed a figurative sculpture in "uptown boys," inviting the exhibition. Kiesler himself sought conuibutions from the artists like Gottlieb and Motherwell by telegram.12 In a sensethe vanguard New York art world was relatively homogeneous in r95r, living downtown and united by poverty and a lack of commercial interest in their work. For the vast majority of these artists, their only public was thâ&#x201A;Ź community of other artists, and studio visits were the sole means of exposure. For them, the Ninth Street Show was as unique in prospect as it is historically important in retrospect. But for a small group of artists there were exhibitions and a germinal public, and Peggy Guggenheim! work with the founders of the new painting was carried on in the uptown galleries of Betry Parsons,Charles Egan, Samuel Kootz, Marian \7illard, and Sidney Janis. Saleswere slow, yet there was growing recognition that a body of American painting was challenging European hegemony, and that there were masters of the new genre. In fact, Kieslert invitation to exhibit with the many unknowns from downtown struck Sam Kootz as insulting, and he prohibited his artists from showing there. Gottlieb and Baziotes concurred, but Motherwell broke ranks and was applauded at the Club for so doing. Betry Parsonswas willing to include her artists, but Rothko, Still, and Newman refirsed. Bradley \Talker Tomlin and Jaclson Pollock agreed,however. Pollock told her to send something down, and Parsons chose a Iarge painting, Number r, rg4g, from hjs third show at her gallery. The horizontal work mistakenly w4s hung on its side, but the artist allowed Castelli to leave it that way since wall space Also exhibiting from the more well-known members of the first generwas so scarce.13 ation were the sculptor David Smith, and the painters Philip Guston and Hans Hofmann, whose ..hool *as a rraining ground Foi .o -rny ofihe younger arrists in the show. Among the successfulpainters, there was no question about the involvement 'Willem of de Kooning. He was the central figure of the downtown scene, an artist whose purity of purpose and commitment to the painterly processbecame a model for the generation of the fifties. De Kooning's inabiliry to finish a picture was legendary and it often was told how he had wiped many a masterpieceoffthe canvas.Most noto.Wbman rious, perhaps, was his nvo years' work on { completed and painted out literally hundreds of times before the art historian Meyer Shapiro encouraged him to return to the canvas and finish it. This work, purchased by MOMA and one of the most widely reproduced pictures of the decade,was begun just after de Kooning let his great abstraction Excauation leave the studio for the Venice Biennale in June r95o. There it hung alongside the work of Pollock and Gor\y, stunning the Europeans with what had been accomplished in New York.ra During the Ninth Street Show, Excauation dominated MOMAs exhibition Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America. For the gallery and museum public de Kooning was an abstract painteq his reputation establishedby black-and-white abstractions shown at the Charles Egan Gallery in 1948 and by the colored abstractions exhibited in Venice, at the \ilfhitney Museum, and at

T6I

\Y'illemde Kooning.'Woman, r94g-to. Oil on canuas, 64%x 4o in. Weatherspoon Gallery Greensboro,North Carolina


z9r .uedJaluno)q)uarCE qlvrr s:alured lSelertsrroqt 'ztoo) pnuresJo p€eleqr Surru.olyog Iref,rraruvuaaugJo qceaSuuredftrl1rD ree:r5qrl,( ssluefre regor]O ul srueflauprg pur IIIetsE) oe-I lq pazlue8ro.,*or{sE sE\ uorsurroeqJ .slr"d Sulssed:ns srllestuaql rcs sratured{ro1 ,&\aNegr o!6r lq pw .Sunuledq)uar{ Jo qretullerl ar{t ara.aetsel puz lrneag JoJ'sf,rlJrltseE uprF eJor.u JeD?ruE sElr\JtsBl uourele.laq1 Jo 3o rou'qrnJrJo _r{.'JtsEt spunor8aqt uo areSurrumdJossacordaqt ur suorsrleprofeu er{J . . . .le]luJf,seruof,Jq 'parcedxeun aorl rel?ru ou ,se,\uef, er{t pue Jleseuouaa \taq srntrf,ol?r{ ^ ot &qaprC,, t"qt urr€paqr qlp q1r11lpa,rag ul Surrurzdlro,1 ^\aNJo uonrqrqxeo!6r e pa:npo:rur Ilr,ll;arpo/{ Iryorserlyaruardnsrqt ue E,,.acuarradxepu? uon?suesrorretur slsure aqtJo af,ualetnba ro uorletuasa;dar rt?rnf,f,?u?-en[ ]nq ,lrynn"og og or pasoddns ra8uolou ser"rarnlcld oqr :slrqteot struaqlsee tuo{ Uqs ?, sp \ stsureasaqrdq pauors -ef,f,ouon?ruroJsueJt aqt 'looqtrS>lro1./€N agr 3o ue8ro osnoqaqr Dlrl Surqteuros olt.;rsmaNuV pa1,D^uo),:otrpa SulSeuEuJ se ,oq { sseH .g seruor{I JoC

,rr'ruril'i;Hi*::ffi;J; lffi,l,Tt;Hff:lJ -,urcd rrer{,ro pa*Eoq sra,urcd

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D O\TN TO\7N

Cedar Street Thuern,New York, ry50s. (lefi n right) Nicholas Carone,Franz Kline, Christopher IOAb. Cedar Street Thuern,New Yorh, ry50s. (lefi to righ) Norman Bluhm, Joan Mitchell, Franz Kline.

6l


v9r 'g ugof ueq,u ^aeuaql te tuasardarol stsnrt Sunol rnogr af,l^p?srg rg8noss.ral141 puy rz'lllawJargaof pue 'ur8rrreg af,?rD'erls{l pegry 'Suruooy ep eurBIE'q8nou 'orrN aP ueqod sEr.lf,ns'^ oqs learrs qturN ar{t ur -Pooc ueqou 'segnzc laParrc :alty real e rraddeppon oq.r,rduerupepnpur sraluredaarqr-lrua,ureqr 'lra1p3 aooy etlt roJ orrdeggralalAl pue 3:equaar3lg parernr uonrgrgxerueIEI .reN lueuodrur aqt 'stslu?asaqrJoregunu a3re1e3o rnqapo!6r Suudsaqr u1 ,.'Suruoo;qepJo sraaol 'olqro1 pu" 'ueruaaN 'lllls 1o3raSunol ar{rol ruaruaSernof,ur lernrrr a,re8osp er{ Jo uonf,errpprnts:8uou aqt ol {rollod ruou pa otu rrntry or{lrogadoqlreurlrd srgellqr'r puv 'sarygeqr Suunp ef,roJlrrpurruopE ag or penunuof,aq 'saruoJaql ur uorruraua8 tsrg aqtJo altf,o^pt ue seuouztndersrr{paqsrlqetsa p?q Sraguaa.rS q8norpry 'uoneSltsar'ul er{rJo,/rcp"qs pruro3 q8nolp uorrerl-J]as ol stsrlre-qtuog pournt rl{r raPun ile-ell'ueqog Proru rrar{r urou ssarf,nslPrf,raruluof, Jo arnl agr ;urf,g 'Ef,ueuryre,tusodtsnuJoJuollpurseanur up pue rusrunruruo3r{roq uro{ pareuerlv 'el?3J, ot erarn laql ^ JoJ uonE^Doru e uoDrsod r?q pezrpurSreru (stsDJE lJoI .&eN eqr ur punoJSraquaa.rS spstoorrreql pue SreguesoXqrog 'sanrrr{lar{rJos1ent)alletur p ot pel stsru?tsrualJoued ar{ruo urIEtS ot an[ zz'sf,naqlsae otur srnqod ruog lEaJ]eJ qlv( uorsnllrsrpqll{ a ur 'polrad eqt Suunp sof,uetsrunf,rrr prrrrlod qtv'nuoncouuo:) stl Jo ere./d? se./dosp Sroguaa.rg'ursrurepouJo or3o1aqr tuo;3SumssrsEurrruof,-Jles Sulsearcur r{f,ns.tteser{ rllrL{\ ('.noqglaelg qlurN orlt ur pepnlcursp.r r{f,rr{./rr3o auo 'sodmspuelprp eg 'lleoruorr ral 'parurcdosp SraquaarS)'uorroury leuor]eluoserdor Jo puH lue uo ssalprr-rroddns reg uo rured sEeJnteustr uo-suonrpuof, lerrer -tru slr uo eJotupue erotu sn)oJot lueetuse,u. SunuledpJJuEp? ter{tSunurelf,'seruoJ dyreaput senrrr{trtel rr{r ur uortrsodsrg padola,rapSrequaarg'looqrs lrol .!\aN dyrraaqr Jo lro./'r'egr go Surpeerrsrleru]o;srr{qtr^{ pera as peg Sraquaerstuarual3 yo'1' maN 'artn.tasatWttrl attT 'fua1 or perdwerreSrequasoA erag l"ql plrol( aqt qrv( uonreuuor or{rqsrlq?rsaar

til -l?g suost?(If,aag f,sal"mo3'tu1 zat1 /,/,6r'6tfu g auua8aa ay't uee\reguorrlulrslp fta,rau.r^op ue{oJg seq8u'uled^\auor{J'rr"rrrr,.iti;:'rjlJil ef,uelsgnsprrslgdelaur atues ar{rJo sl SuDuled-roe rqJ,, :slerraterusrq qtr,r ratunof,ua 'u?umeN noury tq qda"L8ont14 r uf,E rr? g8no:qr eluosse srq peteerf,tsru? er{t 'uorsryuor prnqod pu? Ieroru Jo plro,,t\ '6t6r 'g tmSny 'eJt-l uJ ,,isai?is e Sulruorguo3 ,,'tuele uftnq arnrld e tou selr{sE uef, erlt uo oB ot se/r\reqrh\ ' ' ' 'ltrE ?alun eW ur uluryd Sumq or rp]r{.,'t ur euare rrc se Jer{touE raSr rerured uef,rreurv auo ol readde or ue8eq se ratvatS aqt aq sJ'Tnllod uos4trt[,, 'reg repe3 eqr r? pue gnlf, erp l? uauo -u?r ar{r [uaq,ra.]rueuorrr ureuec r,, Surqrnsep os pJEeI{peq aq ler{.4asruJat 'pue:8 leqrrraurosJr 'lf,urJJns ur tnd Sraguasog 'plJolt\ u? aqt ut Suluaddeq sE^ ter{,r\ pu?tsJapun ot snorxrr?ll8urseanur rqqnd e roJ elf,rr{a llerurrd E eur?req lr tnq (stsnre aql dq lln ler.l/deurospue Surpealsru rq8noqr sE& 'alf,nJpsrH 'slsnJe ar{l puarg arurr8uol pue :e1n8a: ,.'srtturpd uonrv u"trrJaurv ar{J,, Jo qn13 e 'Sraquesog ploreH trg z56r reqruaf,aq w smaN$tV ur parprlgnd senasnf,rsself, snlol er{J ')rrolar{r tsr1enuersrxEJopuDI E ur punor8 Tetrreroer{tpuno3 '&nnuaqrne ol rurplf, eqt uor3 rrcde suoltrurldxa arr,r8or psryar E 'auol Fnlf,ellerur-nrl? srr{J sr uosBed,,PUE,.' ' 'luqr l,uoP L, ,,'ilu 02..'alqBuosEarun sturcd Sunured ,\4,, ,,'trell'tue sacardratseruftu dnq aseeld ' ' ' Surop tu,I ttrl.4 ^\oDI ' ' ' a.,tnlruud ? ru,l,, sE $pnlnle lreldtuaxa qf,ns satrl (,.s:luod aqr aloq uoa8rd luop I or ' ' ' adoq Sulcea tsere'I er{J,,) ,ru.rog Sulcrg tunasntrAl,,156r srg 'plro,.'l,tr? er{l tnoq? sf,Iruof,lef,IJnesur ef,uets./daueqt pelloul tpJ"r{ulag py'dureo apreS-rue,reaqr urqtrlrt ue A 6r,, ,'spu?q ou iEW 'loo'L-uoos pue 'uonlsoduror ou 'nafqns ou 'lepour ou,, rlll^'\ auq llqurasse JDsnJeuB pprl ppor'r enbtuqrar prnrsaS3o ,fialseur lpear rrqr per?al sE^\lr .&\oqsraans rfurN ar{tJo arurr aqr lg dseaoot sEsf,nrrr dueur pnns ':n -uaqtne ar{lJo af,r^resaql ul lpn eqr Surrdaccete^a.la'oq'arserpooS urnds oI '{ro5 aprs8uop prrery pue 'Suruoo;4 op ,,'uosr.rrdruoc lg pa.regnsqluerC eqt lq auo ol lxau ueruo./i4. reJnqnq letuatunuour e ruog uedv 'Surrured urado.rng 3o JnTE aqr patdaf,f,Elleclrr.rrun teqr rrlgnd E eJoJeqstJoJa rrcf,rJeurv atzrurtr8al ot se.,r,r


DO\7NTO\7N

i

r"*

J,tcKSot\ POTLOCK Is he the-greatest

living painter in rhe lJnited States? Rmently a femidably high'bro* Net Yorl marr rritie hailed the braoding, gual*l'loling rhowa ahevt m I mejor ertiat of out time an l "thc gt&letst imer' to kcomâ&#x201A;Ź n 6ne sldidets Othcrs be of the ?Oth thlur}-" i{:a6 }*iat$ nothir4; lieve thrt Jaclson lfollock prulut* ,locortrnorc than ilrlerstirlg, if ilcrplieble, pictutes ai dF hie othery wftlm. tioat, Srill m yes' gRneruft a&l fnd lhem ec tapahtable ien:lsy's mssruni. Even m. Pcllml, et the age of 3?, hes bursr lorth u tho rhining ncw phe' Btt. trof,onas of ABcrisn Pollort vm rirtuelly unLao*n ir 1944. N o*' his wintin*! hanfl in five l-.S' nrus"ums an,i {t privrte colirti,rlu. f,xhibiting in New Y,'rli last winrcr, he cold l9 out +f 18 pictute. Moreover hie *ode hs* stirrerl sp a fust ir llsly, and this *utumn he it slatol ftrr e onoman 5h' 'w in.rtdn! gnr,fe llarig, *h*re hc is i*et leoming thc nrrrst anrroverrial U.S. poilter. He hns t*lhsl'tfand ako wcn a lolluwilg tnong his owl neiShlx'rs in the villnge ofSpdlge, N.Y., uho amuse them' ellvs by trtkl* t* d{Eide what his paintings are alxuri. lli* grocer hrug|t one xhich he irlenti' lie frrr lr"ihlernl viriling *lmnren as art neri. or n erpluna. al vir* of lilrt ria, For l\,lkrl's titt tl xhy h; pints as he rl,ts, turtr the P$ge.

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D O\TNTO\7N "The Irascible providedthe groupwith a namein its editorialcriticizingthe dissenters, Eighteen."HaIf of the protestingartistswould be shownon 9th Street.2e Although FranzKline createda striking black-on-whiteposterfor the Ninth StreetShow,its list of sixry-oneparticipantswascomposedbeforethe exhibition was hung and is not entirely accurate.At leastone artist listed on the announcement, RichardPousette-Dart,did not exhibit.A memberof the first generationwho showed with Betry Parsons,Pousette-Darthad movedout of the ciry to RocklandCounry in I95o, and perhapstherewasdifficulry gettinga picture to an exhibition that was consideredrelativelyunimportant uptown.3oAlso in RocklandCounty during the show was Michael Goldberg,who legallyhad changedhis name for a yearor so, and thus appearson the posteras(Michael)Stuart.Goldbergdid not seethe exhibition,sincehe had committed himself to RocklandStateHospital for a while, but his painting was chosenand deliveredby his then girlfriend,JoanMitchell.3t More significantthan misleadinginclusionswere the omissions,for about Somewereneglectedthrough inadvertence, thirteen artistswere left off the poster.32 such as Ludwig Sander,but most failed to be includedbecausethey were late additions. There was a photographby Aaron Siskind,the only one in the show,whose abstractimageswerecomparedwith the paintingsof FranzKline. Siskindoften photo-graphedothir artists'work, and he took installationshotsofthe exhibition. In one of thesewe can seea particularlyodd addition, hangingbenveenthe worla of Cavallon and Pollock-a box by JosephCornell.Although the showalsoincludeda painting by during the forties and affiliatedwith Enrico Donati, closeassociate of the Surrealists Betty Parsons,this backwardglanceis strikingin the muscularworld of gesturalpainting, where such work was consideredrather effete.The most interestingomission lookstowardthe future, for the exhibitioncontaineda smallwhite paintingby a young artistwho laterthat yearwould be invited to join the Club, RobertRauschenberg. Rauschenberg removedthe painting from his first exhibition in order to it show on 9th Street,and its incisedpatternof numbersand words,drawn in a childlike manner,wasa peculiaranomalyin the midst of de Kooning protdgds.His showat Betty Parsgnshad openedon May 14,and alertedby JackThorkov, Castelliand a few other Ninth Streetorganizers wenr up to takea look. Within the weektheir invitation brought them a work now calledzz TheLily W'hite,paintedin Morris Kantor'sclassat the Art StudentsLeague,and namedfor the inscribedwordsfrom a songthat the artist rememberedfrom his Texaschildhood.In the cornerits white groundwasPunctuated to the red starswith which galleriesmarkedpaintby a smallred star,a comic reference ings assold.33Yet therewereto be no suchstarsat the Ninth StreetShow,for while a pricelist wasavailable,no one purchasedanythingfrom the exhibition. Not that the participantsactuallyexpectedsales,for it was a time before moneybecamea factorin the vanguardart world. In r95o,evenJaclconPollockbarely Survivorsof the period look back on it asa blessedtime, earnedmore than $z,5oo.3a real community was when possibleamongthoseundividedby the enly that would folThis situationlasteduntil mid-decade,with low morewidesoreadcommercialsuccess. atJanisoften menabstractions de Kooningt 1955sold-outexhibitionof landscapeJike tioned asinitiating the new age.But in r95rmost of the artistsin the showwerewithout galleries.35 Kline'spostercreditedsix galleriesfor worksin the show-Borgenicht, Egan, Peridot,\fillard, and Hugo. The newestwasthat of Tibor de Nagy,The New, Parsons, GraceBorgenicht,a painterwho had openedher gallerythat month in the samebuilding as CharlesEgan.Among the artistsin the showshewould exhibit Calvin Albert, Jimmy Ernst, Louis Shanker,and both Peterand FlorenceGrippe. Peridotjust had presented JamesBrooksin March, showinganticipationsof Frankenthalerin paintings 167


891

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D OWNTO\TN

Installation uiew of the Ninth StreerShow,6o Easrqh 9reet. New Yorb,MayJune r95r Franz Kline beganthe installation by pkcing his hrge bhck-and-white painting at the end of the room on a short wall, whereit could be seenfom a distanceuithout the distraction of surrounding pictures. Installation uiew of the Ninth StreetShou 6o East9th Sneet, New Yorh,Ma1,-Junet95r

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D O\TNTO\7N

stained from the back, and the gallery would exhibit Guston's new pink-toned abstractions the next year, one of which probably was shown on 9th Street. Coinciding with Brooks at Peridot was Cavallon at Egan, where the next month de Kooning had his second one-man exhibition. The April Art News marked de Kooning as one of the "Four Stars of the Spring Season," iong with Beckmann, Ldger, and Fantin-Latour.36 Up at Parsonsduring the Ninth Street Show, following Rauschenberg,was the new work of another participant, Ad Reinhardt. \Vhile a few of the artists of 9th Street were showing-and there were some gallery exhibitions of advanced painting-the number of painters had far outstripped availablevenues,and it was growing. So one of the artists' great thrills was to seegallery and museum people appearing at the preview of their exhibition. No one really had expected such a rurnout, despite the banner stretched across9th Street and the spotlight mounted to shine on the storefront. But after nine o'clock on the warm spring evening of May zr, shocking numbers of taxis, and even some limousines, pulled up to 6o East 9th Srreet.The opening was crowded and festive, with the artists retiring to the Club afterward for continued celebration. Speecheswere given thanking Castelli for his help and acclaiming the phenomenal turnout. It appeared as though a line had been crossed, a step into a larger art world whose future was bright with possibility. And while it seemed crazy to think that vanguard art could particiPate in the general postwar prosperity, there was a senseof something major having been achieved' For something special had happened with this assemblingof work by close to sevenry artists, something that took the artists themselves by surprise. Certainly frequent sudio visits had made them aware of each others'work, and there were few individual revelations. But once that ground floor and basement were 6lled with painting and sculpture, the whole looked remarkably coherent. Although qualiry was not uniform, and srylesand techniques were diverse, there was a sudden awarenessthac artistic activiry had achieved a critical mass. The artists celebrated not only the appearanceof dealers, collectors, and museum people on 9th Street, and the cons€quent exPosure of their work, but they celebrated the creation and the strength of a living communiry of significqpt dimension. From the small dark Reinhardt at the enrance, past Tomlint abstract calligraphy and Klinet slashing black forms, to the slew of worls by lesserknown painters such as Theodore Brenson, Al Kotin, John Stephan, and Robert Richenberg, visitors were surrounded by manifestations of what looked like a wideranging movement. Such a movement seemed to cdl for a nalne, though de Kooning had con"It is disastrous cluded the discussion of this topic at Studio 35 with the assertion that show of the first for their September name Eight months earlier, to ourselves."37 ry49 generation, Kootz and Rosenberg had proposed The Intrasubjectives, from an essayby Ortega y Gasset.'Vhen Castelli again assistedJanis to assemblean exhibition of twenry artists, most of whom had shown on 9th Street, for exhibition in Paris inJanuary 1952, they were referred to only as the American Vanguard.38By the time of a seriesof eight panel discussionsorganized by Pavia at the Club later that year, earlier suggestionssuch as Abstract Symbolists and Abstract Objectionists had been eliminated in favor of Abstract Expressionists,a term used in America since r9z9 by Nfred Barr, Jr. to charac"[i]t is terize Kandinskyt early abstraction.3eSince among these artists, as Ferren said, practically law . . . that everybody agreesto disagreewith everybody about everFhing," many remained unhappy with the name.4oBut despite its procrustean effect, it did fit the gestural sryle of de Kooning, which dominated downtown painting. During the two and a half weeks of the Ninth Street Show, however, Kline's identified poster the group by a street narne at the heart of an artists' community. The exhibition stayed open until ten or eleven o'clock, a volunteer sitting by the door to

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D O\TN T O\TN

close to ten cooperative galleries around East roth Street between Third and Fourth avenues forming the heart of an active downtown scene.45In that world, generically known as Tenth Street, a primary concern was whether the advancesseenon 9th Street had calcified into a new academy. In his 1955Stable review, Ferren concluded that they had not, but doubts proliferated as the decadeprogressed.In 1958and 1959the Club debated the issue,with "Has "V/hat Is the New Acadsuch panels as the Situation Changed?" and the series emy?"46With artist statements reproduced in Art News,the discussionwent more public. Tom Hess led the defense, but many of the 9th Street artists mourned the loss of vigor and originaliry the lack of authentic statement grounding energetic gesture. "\X4ry None expressedit with more verve than Friedel Dzubas: is it after an evening of openings on Tenth Street I come away feeling exhausted from the spectacleof boredom and the seemingly endless repetition of safe sameness?. . . The finished product rubber-stamped with the imitable fick of the wrist of the masters."47Perhapsequally worrisome to a group that had grown-up cultural outcilsts, in 1959Life wotld do a "abstract rlvo-part feature on the expressionists,worldt dominant artists today."a8 By then, of course, vanguard New York painting was being displayed around the globe, from Paris to Tokyo. It was promoted as a triumph of American culture, an expressionof the personal freedom available to those living in the Free W'orld. Central to these effbrts was New Yorkt Museum of Modern fut, which in 1958organized a vast traveling show of The New American Painting for circulation throughout Europe. Before this grand presentation, however, smaller bodies of New York School painting had been sent abroad, sometimes with surprising consequences.One of the most interesting developments, and certainly one of the least known, was the formation of the Gutai fut Association in Osaka, Japan.

171


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NOTES "Avant-Garde zz. In his often-reprinted essay and Kitscli' (Partisan " 'anti-Stalinisrn ... Reuieu,Fall r%9, pp.34-49), Greenbergwrote that turned into aft for art's sake,and thereby clearedthe way, heroically, for what wm to come." In a 1944talk at Mount Holyoke College,published by Volfgarg Paalen in D7z, Motherwell had seen the issue in related ^the "The middle artist's problem is with what to identifi himself terms: clms is decaying,md m a consciousentiry the working classdoesnot exist.Hence the tendencyofmodern paintersto paint for eachother." "The Modern Painter'sWorld," seeDore Ashton, The On this lecture, New YorkSchool:A Cubural Reckoning(New York: Viking, 1973),pp. fit-t63. 23.\X/hileGreenbergis usuallyviewedm championingPollock (and the 6eld painting of Still, Newmm, and Rothko) overde Kooning, who wm supportedby Hess md Rosenberg,m late c 1953he introduced a de Kooning retrospectivein Washingtonwith the highest of praise.See Hess, Willtm dz Kooning pp. r38-r39nrr. 24. Sandler,TheNew YorhSchool.p. 259.In his reviewof the exhibition, Tom Hesssoundedthe Existentialnote in describinsthe curators'visiting the studiosofimpoverishedartisrsin searchofwork for their show: "Rickety stairsand cold-waterflats are not figuresofspeech;they exist. and in the deepestSartresense,m do all the grey discomfort,bleakness, "Seeing the economicinsecuritythar go with them." Thomas B. Hess, YoungNewYorkers,"Art Neu1 Mav r95o,p. 23.

his work there. 3r. Interuiewwith Michael Goldberg,December7, r99o. 32.A copy of the posterin the Museum of Modern Art Library hasthe following additional iltists written in by hmd: Karoly, Dienes,Albert, Nichols, Florence Grippe, Anita, Cornell, Rauschenberg,Siskind, Finkelstein,Farber,L. Sander,andA. Kent. 33. For this painting and its inclusion in the Ninth Street Show, see and theArt Worldof Calvin Tomkins, Wrhe Vall: RobertRauschenberg Our Time(New York: Penguin,r98r),pp. SL,6r-6zi and Roni Feinstein, "The The Betty ParsonsExhibition of Unknown Early Rauschenberg: t95r," Arts, January ry85, pp . rz6-t1t . Castelli has said in m interuiew on Dec. 5, r99o, and in Ann Hindry p. 86, that he chosethis painting for rhe exhibition. \Yy'hileon most accountsthe utists are said to have selectedtheir own work, Thomas Hesst review in Art Neus (Summer "Some pictureswerechosenby the artisthimself;others t95t,p. 46)says, picked by a small delegationofcolleagues."Alcopley,intewiew ofFeb. camewith zz, r99r, saysthat he wm at 6o E. 9th St. when Rauschenberg his picture, md that both Crotelli md Vicente wanted to re.jectit, but were persuadedby Alcopley to hang the painting. Mcente does not wasunavailablefor comment. rememberthis, and Rauschenberg 34. Ellen G. Landau, JachsonPolhch (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1989),p. 264nr9.

zt. Sandler,TheNew YorhSchoo l" p. 17. M\€rs wasintroducedto Greenberg at the Pollocls' house in The Springs,where [.ee Krmner had advisedhim to representonly voungeriltists. ril/hen Myers mked Tony Smith for suggestions,he secondedGreenberg'srecommendations. (Leslie,Goodnough,and fuvershad beenhis studentsat NYu.)

in interviewswith Marca-Relli,Vicente, 35.This attitude wm expressed Goldberg,Alcopley,and Sanders.For the objectiveground ofthe situa"The Market for Abstract tion in the art market, seeDeidre Robson, The Time L€ Beween Critical and CommercialAccepExpressionism: tance,"ArchiuesofAmeican ArtJouma[vol.25, no. 3, r98t, pp.19-21.

26. Intervim with Joop Sanders,March 4, r99r. "Pollock 27. Robert Goodnough, Paintsa Picture,"Art New1 May r9yI, p.39'

36. Hess compareshim to van Gogh and Soudne, md describesde Kooning'spainting in a manner rypical of his promotion of the arrist: ". . . when the picture finally emergeslrom the thousandsof notations that have appearedand disappearedon its surface,it bearsa living, human statement,sometimes fragmented, often mysterious, always m a complexof culture (insteadof the usualsimplificationof expressed Pzris)."Att News, April r9jr, p. t2. A year earlier Hesshad compared Pollock'sentry unfavorablywith de Kooningt Attitinhis reviewofthe "8 \X,/hitneyAnnual, excellent,zo good, rlJ others,"Art Neut Jantary 1950'pp. 14-35-fhe topic of naming wm pressedby Alfred Barq and 37.Gibson,p. 344. Motherwell had just mentionedthreepossibilities:Abstract-Expressionand Abstract-Objectionist. ist, Abstract-Symbolist,

"Words," Time, Febrrary 7, 1949, p. 5r. (Thar same da,v,Emily 28. Genauer in the New Yorh lVorld-Tebgramcomparedhis painrings ar "a Becy Parsonsto mop of tmgled hair I have an irresistibleurge to "Jackson Pollock Is He The GreatestLiving Painterin the comb out."); "fuch Txrcs," Time, Unired States?"Life, Argust 8, 1949, pp.4z-43; "Jaclson August 27, r95t, p. 78;' Pollock'sAbstractions," Vogue,March r95r, p. rS9.For the contrmt betweenthe Luce publictions and more 'Jaclson Pollock: Amerisn upscalemagazines,seeMary Lee Corlett, Culture, the Media md the MJ'th," RutgersArt Reuieu 8, 1987,pp. 92-93. "The 29. on Irrcibles" protest, see Iruing Sandler, The Tiiumph of Ameican Painting(New York: Praeger,r97o),p. zrl; and B.H. f,rieJl man,Jacksonpoihrk, E nglt Madz visibh (New york lr.c."*-uiir, r97z):pp. r5z-r53.The Surrimer ry5oArt Neus containedan .ai,.riJif Alln.a ro*nri.r agreeingwith-tire artists'criticism, but objecting ro their strategyofrefusal. The artistssigning the original letter were th€ following, with participants in the Ninth Street Show starred: _ Painters-Jimmy Ernst*, Gottlieb, Motherwell*, Baziotes,Hof_ma.n1-' Newman, Stamos*,Still, Pousette-Dart,Reinhardt*,Pollock*, Rothko' Tomlin*, $Tillem de Kooning*, Hedda Sterne,JamesBrools*, Weldon Kees,and Fritz Bultmann;Sculptors-Ferber*,David Smith*, lssaw. Mary Callery Day Schnabel+,Lipton*, Grippe*, Rosak, Hare, and lnuise Bourgeois.

Amongthose intheexhibitionwerede n'l*''*'rrra|t952'p'43 1: Kooning Pollock' Goodnough' Gorky' Brools'-Mothemell' Mana' Tobey' Tomlin' vicente' Hofmann' Bziotes' Kline' Reinhardt' md Ir wm shown at Janisin Decemberr95I' and in Parisat the P:fut; Galeriede Francein Januaryr9;z'

"Richard Pousette-Dart:ExpressioninPaint," Joumal 3o. BarbaraRose, of Art, March r99r, p. 5o. Pousette-Dartis listed among others in the NmYorhTimesnoriceoftheshowonMayzj,rgtr,p.33,butthewriter might well havetakenhis name from the mnouncement without seeing

40' f€tren' p 24'

39. The term first seemsto have been used in Germanv in r9r9-l9zo, ,"a *^ adopted by Barr in his r9z9 lecture at Velleslev College "Kandinslcy "nd Ab.,r"., Expresionism in Germany," and'in subsiqr..r *.irirg, in Museum of Mod.r.Art cataloguesthrough the thirri.r. S.e perei Selz,Geman Erpresionistpainrlrl(BerkeleviUni'erin, ofCaliforniapress,rgr),p.34in4g.OntheClulpanelsandthisterm, -iitl.,,, ,,Tie 111s,Spring196o,pp. 8-rr. Unwanted seephillip paria.

4t. Nm YorhTimes,May 4, r9ir, p.33. The piecelists as the familiar namesin the show Broola, Cavallon,the de Koonings,Guston,Hofmann, Lippold, Ernst, Ferber,Lipton, Margo, Fine, Mothemell, Pol-

267


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T O C H A L L E N G ET H E S U N

efforts of the Gutai group, it was largely ignored by the Japanesecritical establishment. One person who was impressed by the exhibition, however, was the Ikebana master Houn Ohara, who offered the Tokyo hall of his flower-arranging school to the Gutai fut Association for its first indoor exhibition. This mo-floor installadon of about sixry works, The First Gutai Exhibition, consolidated the radical moves taken in the Ashiya pines. And for the first time the artists performed before the public, extending to the creative act the status ofarrwork. "actions," They called these events the same term that Joseph Beuys would use in the sixties, and they were shocking in their violence and aggressivetreatment of materials. Perhaps unaware of the analory, Kazuo Shiraga and Saburo Murakami enacted ferocious versions of Pollockt physical entry into his work. At a gathering of the press on opening day, October ry, ry1r, Shiraga thrashed around for twenry minutes in a ton of clay that he had piled in tle courryard, wearing nothing but his shorts. As he attacked the material it began to rain, and the wet, muddy artist emerged from the processcut and bruised. Murakami had spent night and day stretching layers of packing paper over three large frames, which he set one in front of the other. Before the startled reporters he smashedhis upper body through the structure six times, creating his Mahing Six Holes in One Momenr. Evoking birth trauma and the notion of artistic rebirth, "I the last foray was followed by an emotional experience in which, he recounted, became a new man." The piece would be displayed in the center of the first room of the exhibition, which visitors entered throueh another frame over which Murakami

177

aboveleft: Tiuruko Yamazaki\ Danger (metal plates and wire) in the ExperirnentalOutdoor Modern Art Exhibition to Challenge the Burning Midsummer Sun, Ashiya, July t955. Photograpl: courtes! Sinichiro Osaki, Hyogo Pre/ictural Museum of .llode,t Art, Kobe aboveright: SadatnaaMotonaga.\ils. t 9r:. lVoodzn paint. uiL. tt . t posrs. g in. Collectionofthe a,rr;t. r ,catedfor thefrst Gurai ourrioo, exhibitionin Asbi.t'a. Jul.t rq;: Photograp h, coune1 o.t'5tnti ht ra Osaki, Hyogo Pre.fet'rural.lluseumof Modcrn An, Kobe


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SaburoMurahanl. Making Six Holes in One Moment, r9y. IVood, paching paper. Photograph. courresyof Sinichiro Osaki, HyogoPrefecnral Museum of "acModern Art, Kobe. In this tion" petformedbeforethepres at Ohara Kaikan, Tokyo,October 19, r9tt, Murakami createdthe work that he would install in the initial gallery of the Firx Gutai Indoor Exhibition. SadamasaMotonaga.Stones.Installed at the First Gutai Indoor Erhibition, Ohara Knikan, Tbkyo,Octoberryy. Photograph, courtes! of Sinichiro OsakL Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Modem Art, Kobe

179


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T O C H A L L E N G ET H E S U N

Instalhtion by SadamasaMotonaga of tubesof coloredwater in the pine treesof Ashiya, during the SecondOutdoor Exhibition mounted by the Gutai Art '4ssociation, July 1956.Photograph, courtes! of Sinichiro Osaki, Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Modtrn Art, Kobe

cube in which a ray of sunlight traversedthe wall as the day passed.And Murakami put up a greatcylindricd tent, surmountedby an open metal cone.Entitled Shy,rhe pieceisolateda sectionof the heavensfor personalview inside the pink interior. As "a Yoshiharacommented,it was trap to catch. . . natureitself."r0 Murakami madethe point againby suspendingan empty framein the trees, and many artists took advantageof the setting to hang work in the air. Nobora Sukamitsuhung a row of white glovesfrom strings,and TakeshiShibataput up a large YasushiMurano madea convoluted six-corneredkite and an arrayof geometricshapes. consuuctionof wire netting, and in the treesKimiko Ono suspendeda long line of woodenslatsresemblingthegoheiarShinto shrines. Akira Kanayamatied the show togetherwith about loo feet of white vinyl. Imprinted with blackfootprints,it meanderedthrough the exhibitionuntil finally running up a pine tree.He alsoconnectedthings through light and sound,borrowinga signallight and bell from the railroad,which he set to fash and clang continuously through the duration of the show These coincidedwith the sequenceof lights in "bones" weretimed to resemble Thnakatsevengiant human figures,whosefluorescent fowing blood. Her other illuminated piece,a largecrossof light bulbs,slowlyturned on and off.

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Shota Obayashi'sinstallation of gildzd boxes,in the SecondOutdnor Exhibition of the Gutai Art Association,Ashiya, July ry56. Photograph,courtesyof Sinichiro Osahi, Hyogo Prefectural Museamof Modern Art, Kobe Installation uiew of the Second Outdoor Exhibition, '4shiya,July 1956.In theforegroundarefloating lanternsby SadamasaMotonaga, and in the backgroundis Axuko Thnaha's illuminated cross. Photograph, courtesy of Sinichiro Osakl Hyogo Prqfectural Museum of Modern Art, Kobe opposite: Akira Kanayamaifootprints on approximatelyno yardsofplatir, ending up a tree afier snahing through the SecondOutdoor Exhibiion of the Gutai Arr 'Association, Ashiya, July ryy6. In the bachgroundis ShozoShimamoto's painting done by fring paint fom a small cannon. Photograph, courtesyof Sinichiro Osahi, HyogoPrefecturalMuseum of Modrrn Art, Kobe


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#i *"# There were quite a few nonstandard smaller paintings in the show, including 'W'orks Yamasakit piecesof foil and tin. by Yasushi Murano and Kimiko Ohara were of distressedpaper, and Miyuko Hara showed just a sheet of paper partially rolled up on the wall. The stratery of using distressedmaterial, however, was most impressively displayed at the third indoor exhibition, held in their native Kansai at the Kyoto Municipal Museum in April 1957. At this first Gutai museum show, Murakami abandoned his paper crashing and exhibited a large work ofpaint already peeling offthe surface, revealing the connection between time and material as no stable painting could.r3 Shiraga continued his foot painting, which he had begun to rework with layers of podiatric gesture. The most striking innovation, however, was made by Kanayama, who Yoshihara felt now "went even firrther down the road marked out by Pollock." His work resulted from experiments he had made with children! mechanical cars and tanla. It was painterless painting, done by a remote-contrclled model car rigged with a can of quick-drying paint. The device made all-over compositions, substituting mechanism for the effects ff atip and spatter, and looking forward to Jean Tin[uelys meta-matic drawing machines of ry59. After nvo years of Gutai exhibitions, Jiro Yoshihara began to articulate for the public some theoretical issuesraised by the groupt activities. His account of the second indoor exhibition emphasized the way that Gutai worls question their own artistic sta"it was the frame of the concept of art that he tore tus, noting that with Murakami through so bravely." Such Duchampian lessons,howevet were suppressedin the manifesto that he published two months later, in the art journal Geijutsu Shincho.la Here Yoshihara focuseson mateial, on its murder by traditional art and its renewal by more direct and honest presentation. Crashing through pap€r, throwing paint, displaying water alone-these serve to bring the spirit of material to life, rather than dominating it with brush or chisel. He extols the various automatic methods used by the Gutai artists as strategies in this quest, from Kinoshita's chemical reactions to Shimamoto's cannon fire. But he distances their work from Dada. His model, of course, is Pollock, yet Yoshihara also mentions a group he has only recently learned of-the art informel

r87

Akira Kanayama hanging his painring done with a remotecontro/mechanicalcar on uin1l, during the Firsr Gutai Indoor Erhibition, Ouoberr9s5,Ohara Kaikan, TbkJo. Viewed fu his colleagues as druelopingthe work of JacksonPollock, Kanayma anticipates by two years Jean Tinguelyi mechanicaldrawing machinel Photograph,courtesyof Sinichiro Osaki, Hyogo Prefectural Museum of Modern Art, Kobe.I(yoto Municipal Museum, April 1957


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of Michel Tapid and Georges Mathieu. \flithin a year he would know much more , and the direction of the Gutai would irrevocably change. In the course of his manifesto Yoshihara speala of things that had not vet appeared in public, such as Shimamotot Gutai music and Motonaga's work with smoke. Since the 6rst outdoor exhibition, he had been thinking of a new forum for display, one that would focus on the temporal. So after confronting the Ashiya forest and the midsummer sun, the group adopted the theatrical stage as a new challenge. The results were presented two years later, a product of studio experimentation and the experience of the intervening exhibitions. At Osaka'sSankei Hall on May 29, 1957repeating the program in Tolcyo on July z9-the Gutai introduced their works for stage exhibition. Along with the earlier actions, these would be marked by Allan Kaprow as the first Happenings.15More than this, the stageevent itself was an exhibition ofworking process,the elevation ofcreative activity to the level ofthe objects that it produced.'Withour the existential anguish, Rosenbergt painterly drama had literally moved onto the stage,to be exhibited alongside its issue. The program consisted of twelve works, beginning with a highly stylized performance in which Kazuo Shiraga and his friends attacked the back wall of the stage with arrows and a spear.There was Gutai music by Shimamoto, described by Ray Falk "It in the New York Times, sounds like the screeching of tires, the tearing of a bolt of cotton, the grinding of metd against metal and most often the distorted recordings of ultra-high frequenry radar and radio signals."r6 Shimamoto also violently destroyed a seriesofthree objects lowered from the ceiling, sending debris out onto the audience. In other pieces paint was thrown toward the viewers from behind clear plastic, and a giant balloon was inflated and deflated to more monotonous sounds by Shimamoto. Jiro Yoshihara displayed an empty stage, and his son gave a slide show whose abstract images mixed and melted from the heat of the projector. Among the other worl<s was Saburo Murakami beating through huge stretched paper panels, to great amplified crashes.Atsuko Thnaka removed costume after costume, some electrified, and the exhibidon closed with SadamasaMotonaga presenting his smoke work, which had been developed earlier but saved for the stage. Colored lights played on drifting smoke, and large smoke rings were directed toward the audience. Unfortunately, things were a bit more smoky than anticipated, and the audience fled the theater choking and coughing. At the second stage-art presentation, Motonaga aimed his smoke cannon suaight up. Art on the Stagewas the last in the seriesofchallenges that Yoshihara had set the Gutai artists, provocations to create art in and for new contexts. Many of them had come to the group already experimenting with novel forms of picture making, their interests focused on new means and materials. Yoshihara set these efforts in the context of European avant-gardism, the tradition of trying to be rid of the weight of the past, layers ofobsolete culture distancing the artist from the sources,and goals, ofcreativiry. "Do only what never has been done," and his exhortation to the new His motto was prompted the artists to fix on the novel materials and techniques that they displayed indoors and out. But the very notion of an artwork was also up for revision, and the Gutai experiments led them to display working processesas substantial entities. For the Gutai, not only was a picture an arwork, but so was the processof its creation. In the Ashiya pines their focus on matter had led to a concern with physical change and perceptual process, naturally developing through their actions to a theater of artistic production. But all of the Gutai exhibitions contained paintings, and most of the artists showed worls of conventional media alongside their more radical pieces.Events soon conspired to bring them to the fore. The crucial occasion was the arrival in Tapan of the French critic Michel

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Jiro Yoshiharaperforming for photographers fom Life during the One Day Oudoor Exhibirion stagedin their bonor April r956. For this work he useda fooded fuel storagetank, in the abandonedshipyardbetweenKobeand Osahawheretlte euentuas beU. Photograph,courteryof Sinichiro Osakl Hyogo Prefectural Mu' seumof Modern Art, Kobe


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Osakat Asahi Hall. Thpii continued to promote the Gutai group. He arranged for an exhibition of their paintings at the Martha Jaclson Gallery in New York that fall, where Yoshihara showed a film of the Gutai stage actions. It was a year before the first HappeningAllan Kaprowt 18 Happenings in 6 Parts at the Reuben Gallery in October r959-but early work had been done in John Caget classat the New School for Social Research, and the new art form was already germinating. He also introduced the Gutai to Italy, rhe Arte Nuouo evhibition during May, and where they showed nvice in Tirrin-in with an exhibition of their own in June at the Galleria futi Figurativi. The April 1959 issue of the Italian journal Notiziewas devoted to their work, presenting the first long texts other than those they had published themselves,and paralleling the radical work being done in Europe by such artists as Piero Manzoni and Yves Kein. From the beginning Yoshihara and Shimamoto had sent ou GUTAI to members of the international art communiry but it took the efforts of a promotor like Thpid to get them broad notice. His last project with the Gutai was the strangest of all, the International Sky Festival held above the roof of the Thkashimaya Department Store in Osaka in April 196o. Collecting drawings from a group of international artists, including Alfred Leslie, Claire Falkenstein, and Sam Francis, the Gutai artists enlarged the images and senr them aloft attached to balloons. In form a radical exhibition concept, its transfer of standard media to larger format failed to engagethe substantial concerns of the early shows. But it maintained the element of humor that from the outset characterized the exhibitions of the Gutai. By this time, however, the Gutai group had done its work. Ironically, as it was assimilated by Thpid as a mode of gesture painting, the most advanced international artists were embracing the kind of thing that the Gutai had done in the midfifties. For in Europe and America the avant-garde was in revolt against such painting, concerned more with the new consumer sociery than with existential expression. Reversing the direction of the Gutai, they moved offthe canvasinto assemblage,installation, and performance. Their general route embraced a junk aesthetic, which in the United Stateswould be cleaned up for middle-class consumption as Pop. Yet the most outrageous ofthese artists grounded his project in a spiritual quest not unlike that of Yoshihara. For Yves Klein, this enterprise led into the void.

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POP TRIUMPHANT:

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accessthrough a small door off the interior lobby. He painted blue the outside of the gallery window and door, denying a view to passersbyand creating a monochrome advertisement for the show. A blue cloth covered the gallery door in the lobby. Once one entered, all was white. Using pure white pigment mixed with the medium he had developed for his monochromes, applied with a house paintert roller, Klein made the gallery his own. Leaving untouched only the metal frame on a display case,the ceiling, and Irist new gray carpet, he covered the inside ofthe front window and the glass of "stathe outside door along with the walls. With mental effort, the artist affempted to bilize" the same sort of pictorial space within the gallery as he had realized in front of his blue monochromes. \X4ile the room might appear wholly white, it actually "the immaterialization of Blue."8 enclosed, the artist wrote. rVith the purification and transformation of the gallery enhanced by his "an individual, autonomous, stabilized picmeditative exercises,Klein sought to create "literally impregtorid climate" within those four white walls. Valking into this space nated by the sensitive pictorial state," receptive visitors were to experience the essence "radiance" of of what could be felt before any great painting. Klein would display the painting without the mediation of gross matter. It was an enterprise requiring spiritual power, and before its commencement he embarked on a specialjourney. In early April, the artist made the first of four pilgrimages to Umbria, to the shrine of Saint Rita of Cascia. The Italian saint had many devotees in the south of France, and from his childhood the artist had held her in specialesteem.Known as the patron saint of lost causes,Saint Rita would receivegifts from Klein on each of his visits. And once he emerged from preparing the gallery Klein was confident that his request for spiritual strength had been granted, as years later museums and the mar"the blue may be accepted ket would answer his additional prayer to Saint Rita, that everywhere."e A formal announcement had been engraved in blue script, with Pierre Restany inviting recipients to witness, between nine and midnight on April z8th, a "demonstration of perceptive synthesis sanction[ing] . . . the pictorial quest for an ecstatic and immediately communicable emotion."l0 Sent with blue stamps, of course, the 1,5oo invitations included cards each admitting two people to the gallery that evening. Those without cards would be charged r,5oo francs, about $3. \7ith all but yoo of the invitations sent to Paris addresses,and with the public billboards and general word-of-mouth, close to J,ooo people thronged the rue des Beatx-futs that night. Expecting a great crowd, as well as possible trouble from the unreceptive and the skeptical, Klein had brought four ofhis advancedjudo students as personal guards. His plan was to station two of them with the ornamental Republican Guards at the lobby entrance, and two more at the gallery door allowing only ten people to enter at a time.ll The artist himself was to remain in the gallery in formal dress,explaining the exhibition and encouraging visitors to stay only a few minutes so that others could come in. But the crowd was so great that the system soon collapsed. Klein found his void filled with people, whom he repeatedly implored to leave more quickly. Before the first hour was out, he discovered someone drawing on the blank wall and, to a suddenly hushed crowd, led him to the door to be expelled by his guards. At around ten o'clock three vans of police and a fire truck arrived, but they could not get near the gallery becauseof the mass of people in the street.Attempts were made to clear the area, and the police investigated complaints from some who had paid admission only to find an empry gallery. By ten-thirry the irate Republican Guards abandoned their post, having been sufficiently tormented by mocking art students. With the stock of blue cocktails replenished at about eleven, the gallery remained open until a half-hour past midnight, when the principals retired to La Coupole. There, at a table of forry set

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POP TRIUMPHANT:

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in the back, the artist delivered a speechwritten that afternoon, announcing a new age for the human spirit, the age of sensibiliry. The next day Iris Clert was called to the headquarters of the Republican til/hile nothing came of the charge, even Guard, accusedof demeaning the elite corps. critics sympathetic to Kein found the Republican Guards objectionable, detractingas did the blue cocktails-from the seriousnessof his enterprise. As Michel Ragon' who had shown a red Klein monochrome in the 1956Marseilles Festival of the Avant"It is up to Yvesto choose berween Dadaism and Zen, which Garde, wrote in Cimaise, are two radically opposed states of mind."r2 But Restany defended the use of the Republican Guards as a reference to the revolutionary character of Kleint work, and they suggestmuch else. Like the aristocratic bearing of the Knights of Saint Sebastian, which Klein himself joined in ry56 and who would provide the pomp at his wedding in196z, the Republican Guards signify the elite character of avant-garde art, its general inaccessibiliry to the uninitiated.r3 Klein wvisted this point back on itself, for he was not unaware ofhow such figures would appear to the crowd on the evening ofApril 28. "puppets" (the term is Ragon's) into a He would turn the derision accorded these mockery of those who scoffed, transposing their ridicule into a critique of avant-garde snobbery-for The Void was open to anyone sufficientiy receptive to senseits content. This is part of the richness of Le Vide, an opennessto interpretation symbolizedby the very form of its emptiness. An occult enterprise mounted by a Rosicrucian initiate, in displaying a gallery itself as art it also tells a Duchampian tale emphasizing the creation of art by social context. An egotistical expression of individual power, anorherstepinthecreationofKleintpersonalmythology,formanytheshowpointed to Zeis annulment of self And while the product of an esoteric avant-garde project, these invisible pictorial srares were to be perceptible to those without any artistic sophistication. Klein reported that the exhibition was extended one week to accommodate the great public interest, and that every day brought more than two hundred peo"rush[ing] to the interior of the century."ra He says that some visitors cried, and ple others remained for hours. ApparentlyJean Tinguely came many times, and, while the two had known each other since 1955,Le Vide led to their collaborative exhibition Pure Speed and Monochrome Stability at Iris Clert the following November. There, Tinguelyt machines would rotate Kleint monochrome disls at speeds ranging from 4to to ro,ooo f.P.m. The most suiking exhibition to come out of Le Vide took place wvo and a half yearslater, when Arman filled the galerie Iris Clert to the ceiling with garbage.The concept of the show emerged from the same group discussion as Le Vide, after Klein had explained his idea. Arman, who at that time was impressing objects dipped in paint onto canvas,saw his focus on physical things to provide the perfect complement "You know, Iris, Yves is working at immaterialization, and to Kleint flight from matter: I am always working with something that is very much material, so why dont I fill up the gallery with objects, and call it Le Plein, Full-Up?"'i He proposed to completely fill the gallery with discarded objects and with refuse, so that immediately after emptiness would come plenitude. One aspect of realiry would supplant another, urban detritus replacing Rosicrucian spirit. Her responsewas immediate and unequivocal-too dirry, and too smelly. The void was one thing, but rank garbagewas another. Instead of trash, the month after Le Vide Arman exhibited his Cachets,all-over paintings made with rubber stamps. It took two yearsfor Clert to relent, years in which Arman moved from pressing and throwing paint-covered objects against Grnvas, to accumulating messes of objects and presenting them in boxes or on a support. He had begun to make his Poubelbs,heaps of trash dumped into glassvitrines, some taking the form of portraits

197

Inxallation uiewsof YuesKleini Le Vide at galerie lris Clert, Paris, April z8-May n, ry58. r and z: walh; 3: uindow; 4: curtntn. canopland entrance


POP TRIUMPHANT: A NE\7 REALISM

Iris Ckrt atop the exhibition Le Plein in her galbry Paris, October t960. Photograph by Harry Shunh

oPPoslre: YuesKlein. Portrait-Relief of Arman, ry62. Paint, plaster goU haf, 68%x 37% x n% in. Musle National dArt Modeme, Centre Pompidou,Pais Georges

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POP TRIUMPHANT: A NE\7 REALISM

shamefulto hold suchan exhibition so closeto the F,coledesBeaux-Arts.But Arman's friendsreceivedit well. Tinguely wasespeciallypositive,reactingto Le Plein asrevelatory in its rich juxtapositionwith Le Mde. For theseexhibitionsstood ascontrarypathsto a similar end, oppositepracticesof negationundercuttingfundamentaltenetsof middle-classart and its appreciation.rs The nvo artistsdisplayedthe empty and the full, the pure and the sullied,but they wereunited in their antagonismto the acceptedart of the time. Klein! rejection of matter complementedArman'srejectionof the elegantart object. Consigningthe paintingsof the Microsalon to the junkheap,Arman negatedthe painterly as effectively as did Kleint displayof the immaterial.And in their differentways,eachshow commentedon the galleryspaceitself,asa containerthat, through a suangeinversion, had becomemore important than the art that it wassupposedto serve. YvesKlein, of course,had his own view on how the exhibitioncompletedthe "After my Void, Armant Full-Up. The universalmemoryof art significanceof Le Vide: at last, all of nature lackedthis definitive mummification of quantitavism.Reassured will from this moment begin,asof old, to addressus directly and with clarity."teThis talk of naturewith referenceto a pile of industrialand domesticrefuseseemscrazy,bw PierreRestanysawboth Klein and Arman to be engagedin a movementredefiningthe natural.For the group of artistswhosework he promoted,Restanybelievedthat nature wasthe ciry,a landscapeof human activirystructuredby the consumercultureof postwar Europe.Sincethey engagedthis new kind of naturalworld, he calledtheir work NouueauMalisme,New Realism. Restanysought to show that there was a viable alternativeto the lyricd abstractionof the Parisianmainstream,and two daysafterthe openingof Full-Up, on October 27, he gatheredeight artists in Klein's apartment.There were the three ffichisteswho exhibitedpostersripped from the city walls-Raymond Hains,Jacques de la Villegli, and FrangoisDufrâ&#x201A;Źne. From Nice, alongwith Klein and Arman, came Martial Raysse,who constructedsculpturesfrom plastic bottles and other pristine

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aboveleft: Meeting ananged by critic Piene Restarytat YaesKlein'sapartment, 4 rae CampagnePremiire, Paris on Ocrcber27, 196ofor the signing of theNoaueauRealistedzckration: (bfi n ight) Arman, Jean Tinguely Rotraat UecherDaniel SpoerrL Jacquesde la Villegll, Pierre Restany. Photograph by Harry Shunh aboveright: Christo wrapping the statue of Minerua in Paris, February4, ry6r. Photographby Harry Shunh


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Installation of underwear by Claes Oldenburg in the front window of t9 tVesr57th Smet, New Yorh,for rhe exhibition New Rcalists.

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POP TRIUMPHANT: A NE!7 REALISM "a similarsensibiliryat work on both sidesof the Atlantic, new senseof our contemporary industrial, mechanicaland urban naatre."22He saw his French artistsworking tradition that alongsidewhat was called Neo-Dada in New York, the assemblage focusedon the funky remainsof massconsumption.Yetwhen Restanyhad occasionto transporthis vision to New York, timeshad changedand a new mode of cultural commentaryhad emerged. It was natural for Restanyto associateNouueauRlalismewith American for he had seenmuch in Paris-Stankiewicz,in fact, was showingat the assemblage, GalerieNeufrille the month that Restanygatheredhis group at Kleint-and he had learnedin detail from Tinguely about what was going on in New York the previous year, when Tinguely had created his self-destructing Homage to New Yorh at the Museum of Modern fut. Klein waslured to New York for a monochromeshowwith Leo Castelliin April 196r,an abortiveeffort in which neitherhis personnor his work was receivedwell by either artistsor public. But when he accompaniedhis exhibition to Virginia Dwan'sgalleryin Los Angeles-where Arman, Raysse,Tinguely,and Niki de Saint-Phdlealsowould show-Klein found the atmosphereand the artistsmore congenial.It was from Los Angelesthat Kein wrote an angry letter to Restany,after readinghis statementfor 4o' au-dzssus dz Dadn associatingthe NouueauxMalisteswith the Dadaists.At home, however,RestanytcomparisonsbetweenNouueauRialisme and Neo-Dadawere reinforcedby \Tilliam Seitzwhen the Museum of Modern fut curatorcalneto Parisduring that first GalerieJ exhibition.In searchof materialfor his exhibition to be held in the fall, the Art of Assemblage,Seitz visited Restanyand his artists,and he decidedto includein the MOMA showeveryonefrom 40" au-dessus dz Dada exceotKlein. A year later Restanyreceivedanothervisitor, SidneyJanis.The renowned dealerof modern and contemoorarvmastershad decidedto mount an exhibition exploringin more detail the.on,.-po.".y territory of Seitzsmassivehistoricalsurvey. He askedRestanyshelp with selectingthe Frenchartistsand commissionedan essay for the catalogue.Togetheathey decidedthat the exhibition would be called New Realists.Naturally, the French critic believedthat the NouueauxRialisteswould be shownalongsideRauschenberg, Johns,Stankiewicz,Chamberlain,et al. In this he, and his artists,would be sorelydisappointed. The Neo-Dadaand assemblage that Restanywas expectinghad beengiven its classicexpositionat the MarthaJaclsonGalleryin196o.In a wvo-partexhibition in June and September-Octobe!New Media-New Forms,the gallerydisplayedalmost r5o objectsby 7r artists.Moving what had largelybeena downtown phenomenonto a classyuptown spaceon East69th Street,the showelicitedmuch public afiention and, anticipating things to come, was coveredby CBS television.In the catalogueAllan "as Kaprow sketcheda new conceptionofthe arrwork a situation,an action,an environment or an event."Kaprowsawsuchephemeraliryin political terms,subvertingthe financialground and divisiveethosof traditional art, but in the New YorkTimesJohn Canadayrailed againstthe political evasionof gluing tacks to a mirror or stuffing nylonswith trash.Having just pushedhis way toward the secondof the Martha Jackat the son exhibitionsthrough demonstratorsgatheringfor Khrushchevtappearance United Nations,wherethe RussianleaderattackedAmericaand demandedthe admis"art "baloney'' to call this an of sion of Communist China, Canadayfelt that it was Pfotest."23

Jaclson'scataloguecoverwas done by ClaesOldenburg;it was a funlcycollageof old newspapers with the artists'namesscrawledin dripping black ink, evoking instalthe rough urban imageryof his recentenvironment,The Street.This aggressive lation of cardboardsilhouettesand gritty refusehad beeninstalledin the basementof


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POP TRIUMPHANT: A NE\7 REAt,ISM


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POP TRIUMPHANT: A NE\T REALISM 'W'esselmann, 'Warhol, and Rosenquistclearlypointed in a new direcIndiana, stein, "The point of the Janisshow . . . wasan implicit proclation. As Tom Hessreported: mation that the New had arrivedand that it wastime for the old fogiesto pack.. . . the New Realists were eyeing the old abstractionists like Khrushchev used to eyeDisneyland-'\fle will bury you wastheir motto." And Janiststableof Abstract Expressionistmastersdid not take the challengelighdy. After the exhibition, as the gallery continued to take on Pop artists,a protest meeting was held and Guston, Motherwell, Gottlieb, and Rothko left the gallery.Only de Kooning remained.35 In the catalogueJanis identified three themesexemplifiedby work in the exhibition-the everydayobject,the massmedia,and repetitiveimageryevokingmass production-but the two installationsmadelittle attemptto group the piecesby these through the intercategories. The senseof an internationd movementwasemphasized mingling of Europeanand Americanwork, and most artistsappearedin both gallery spaces.Certainly therewere sometelling jutapositions of a thematic kind. Just past the Oldenburgunderweardisplayin the window of the storefrontsPace,Arman'srows of faucetshung next to W'arholtpainting of zoo Campbell'sSoupcans,the antiquated look of the Europeanhardwarecontrastingwith the slick reproductionof American packaging.Further along, pastJamesRosenquistthuge painting of a cargrill over a massof spaghetti,I Loue Youwith My Ford, the EAT of Robert Indiana'sBkck DiamondAmericanDream #z-which would be acquiredby the presidentof MOMA for his personalcollection-sat behind Oldenburg'slusciouspastrydisplaycase,acrossthe room from the enlargedslicedwhite bread,Lipton soup mix, Del Monte catsupand cannedfruit, and Schmidtsbeerof Tom'WesselmanntStill Life tug.Towardthe end of the spacesat GeorgeSegal'seeriegroup of six plasterfiguresaround the dinner table, life castsencasinginterior likenesses of their models.Positionednext to a refrigerator by JeanTinguely,they bore mute witnessto the shockof thosewho openedthe fridge door to a screamingsiren.Appropriatelyenough,the theme was introduced at the front door, asone passedLichtensteintcomic book close-upof a woman cleaningthe "snare-picture" inside of her refrigerator,below Spoerri'sfunky Le Parcdz Marcelle,a comprisedof a chair and folding table,to which weregluedbeerbottles,a coffeecup, and a full ashtray. The displaywas more elegantin the SidneyJanisGallery at r5 East 57th, without the ad hoc lighting and exposedsprinklerpipesof the temporaryspacedown the street.In the smallerroomsof the gallerythe largeAmericanpaintingswereeven more striking, completelyoverwhelmingthe intimately scaledwork of most of the Europeanartists.Here suchcleanand bright paintingsasLichtenstein'sBhm, Rosen' and W'arhol's quist'sSiluer Shies,Vayne Thiebaudt Salals, Sandwiches,and Desserts, away from Yourself, took all affention irises, Do h and paint-by-numbersdaffodils works like Tinguelys relief of radio parts, Christot wrapped burlap package,Yves Kleins pink and blue sponge sculptures,and the Italian Gianfranco Baruchellot 1I Of course,someEuropeanpiecesacquitted mounted pile of newspapers, Awareness with fumant accumulationof sabresmore in scale and power, themselves well termsof than holding its own acrossa doorwayfrom Jim Dinet painting with attachedlawncartoon imagerybearmower,and the SwedeOlwind Fahlstromtsurreal-psychedelic ing up acrossfrom W'arholtunfinishedflowers. In both spacesthe overallimpressionwas that the Europeanwork was oldfashioned,akin to earlierNew York Neo-Dadain its useof discardedand rough materials,and in painterly feel closerto the legacyof Abstract Expressionismthan to might paint the clean lines of American media images.The Italian Mario Schifano 'W'arholt souPcans. the Coca-Colalogo, but his messydrips looked dated alongside ripped but their posters, actual advertising Raymond Hains used Mimmo Rotellaand

215


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POPTRIUMPHANT:A NEW REALISM

Installaion uiew of New Realisx exhibition at Sidnel Janis Gallery, New York. r962, showing Iefi n righr) Roy Lichtensteini Blam; Arman'sAccumulationof Sabres;(throughdaorway)works by YuesKlein and Alberto Giacometti; and Jim Dine'sLawnmower.

ffiffir',*.T***

Installation uiew of Neu Realisx 'Vest exhibition at ry 57th Street, Neu Yorh,1962.On the lefiaboue AndT W'arhol's dance diagram, Fox Tiot-ls Black Diamond AmericanDream #z by Robert Indiana, with British artist Petel Phillips's Vall Machine next to ClaesOldznburg's pastry dispky case.In the right foreground is GeorgeSegal'sThe Dinner Thble. Instalktion uiew of New Realisx exhibition at ry Vest57th Srreer. Neu Yorh, ry62. On the lef Daniel Spoeni's Le Parcde Marcelle hangsaboueRo1 Lichtenstein'sRefrigerator. On the ight zi Five Feetof Colorful TooIshy Jim Dine.

zr7


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POP TRIUMPHANT:

A NE!T REALISM

in strategy, a move from attacking the bourgeoisie to embracing its values with a vengeance.For Geldzahler the point was that advanced afi now had its own establishment, one that had been educated to expect and to desire the new, and thus one that no longer could be shocked. The avant-garde had triumphed, and in its successit had eliminated the ground of its own existence. "Collectors, uncertain of their own A few monthslarcr, Time reported that taste, find pop art paintings ideal for their chalk-walled, low-ceilinged, $rz5,ooo co-op apartments in new buildings on ParkAvenue. . . . [S]ince the avant-garde public is so hungry for more and more avant, the pop artists are in the chips."43And certainly it was these chips that inspired much of the resentment toward the Pop artists. Members of the Club had slaved for years before selling a painting, and here young ardsts were finding financial success with their first shows. The grapevine and the journds 'wild reported buying," and Pop artists socialized with wealthy collectors who, the "as frequently collecdng artists as art."aaThe fifties critic Barbara Rose remarked, were had brought America into a different world, and the sixties had brought it a different kind of art world. "If the artist was in hell in 1946, now As Allan Kaprow would note in ry64, he is in business."a5The growing university system had hired artists trained on the G.I. Bill, and for the first time large numbers of artists could expect to earn a decent living. \Tidespread universiry education had expanded general cultural awareness,and an enlarged middle class was able to support what they were being taught to value. Museum activiry grew, popular media gave more coverageto the new art scene,gallery 'S7ith Pop the pattern that would recur salesand prices of successfulartists increased. throughout the seventies and eighties was formed-new art providing new status to those of new wealth. Not only had Pop packaged the imagery of the American dream, it had wrapped itself up in the same bundle. For the rest of the decade advanced art would attempt to untie the nvine.

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NOTES

Klzira p. to8.

zr. Interuiw with Armm, October rr, I99I.

y. Rosenthal,pp. ro9-rro. Noting that their proportion of 5/4 wm the sameil that of most of Klein'sblue monochromepaintings,Rosenthal views thesestmps s original monochromesbelonging to a very large senes.

"Modern AuantGardt Nature," in Breahthroughs: zz. Pierre Restany, Artisx in EuropeandAmeica, ry50-r990(NewYork: fuzmli, r99r),p. $. For a detailedchronology of eventsin Parismd New York involving these artists from 1957 to 1953, see Nouueaw Rlallsres (New York: ZabriskieGallery 1988),pp.t6-zt.

6. Interuiry with Armm, June19,r99r. "Yves Klein: Conquistador,"p. 27. 7. McEvilley, 8. Quoted phrasesin this and the next paragraph are from Klein's own "Preparation and Presentationof accountofthe exhibition. YvesKlein, Kbin, pp. zzi-227. the Exhibition ofz8 April 1958,"in Yaes containing 9. On another trip Klein would leavean elaborateex-voto "zones ofimmathe gold that he obtainedfrom the first four salesofhis terial sensibiliry."For Kein and his devotionto Saint Rita, including an Klzin, pp. 22-21,2jS-257,zT. accountof this ex-voto,seeYues ro. Klein, p. zz5. "Yves Klein: Conquistador," p. 86 n7, notes that Iris rr. McEvilley, Clert rememberedpeopleenteringin threes,and that ClaudePascal,the third memberof the trio who met at the Nice judo clms,recalledgroups offive. Kbin (New o. Cimaise,May-June, 1958,quoted in PierreRestany,Yues York Harry N. Abrams,r98z),p. 5o. r3. For the aristocraticcharacterofthe historicalavmt-garde,seeRenato Poggio\i, The Theory of the Auant-Gardz (Cmbridge, MA: Harvard UniversityPress,1968),p.39. r4. Klein, p. zz8. 15.Interviw with fuman, Juner9, r99r. 'le " 16. Inside the sardine can: Iris Cbn uorcprie de uenir contemPbrdans phin' nute h force du rlel condmsl n une massecitique." The complete " text of Restanyt typed messagereads: Un eainementcapiml chezIris 'PLEIN' dr k Galzrie,AR.lv[AN danne au CLERT n 1960.En fdhant le noaueaurlalisme sa totalz dimensionarchiteaonique.Dans un tel cadre,le ex d'importance:Jasqu'hprlsmt, un ge*e d'appropriation h lbntipodt fait 'Vidt'n'auait du ceml d'ausi prls lhuthentique organicitl du riel contin' gent." For the uanslation of Restanythat appearsin the text, I thmk Anthony Davenport. 17. The entire list is printed in Henry Martin, Arman, or Four and TwentyBkckbirds Baked in a Pie, or lVhy Settbfor More lYhen You Can Sexbfor Les (New York Harry N. Abrems, 1973),pp. z6-29. 18.For the notion of"practicesofnegation" m essentialto the modernist "Clement Greenberg'sTheory of Art," in avant-garde,seeTJ. Clark, Polbch and Aftr: The Citical Debate (New York: Francis Frascina, ed., Harper and Row, r98t, p. tt. 19. Interuiewwith fuman, June 19, r99r. fuman also remembersKlein "Hail fuman, who mummifies qumtity." sending him a note saying, "Apris mon Vi.dt,Le Pbin dArman. Il Kleint statementin the book wx: manEuit i h mimoire uniuerselbdt lhrt cexe momif.cation dzcisiuedu quantitatiuisme.La nature totLtentiire enfn rassurieaa commencel,comme dzrc lzs tempsanciens,) norc parlcr en direct et auecclartl dls d Prlsent." Otto Hahn, Aman (Paris:FernandHaan, ry72),p. rz. For the English translationin the text, I thank Anthony Davenport. "Refusing 'The ImpeccableTiajectory of Dualiry. zo. Martial Raysse, YvesKlein."' ,4rrs,Februaryt967.p.3s.

Media I (Ncn' York; 23. Martha Jackson Gallery New Fom-Nm "The Blind Artisr-ln a Martha Jaclson Gallery 196o).John Canaday, Crucial Time He Playsat Games,"Mu York Timel October z, t96o, "At a time when the front pageis filled secdon2, p. zr. He remarked, with the kind of news it is just now, a show like this one is downright "Khrushchev Wuns embarrmsing."The paper'sheadlinethat day read U.N. of War Peril of China Issue,"and the traffic of which Canadav ofthe police complainedin his reviewseemsto havebeena consequence bomb squadinvestigatinga suspiciou applepie sentto Khrushchevasa cift. "The lrgac,v of 24. For Kaprow'sgroundbreakingPerspective,seehis Jaclaon Pollock," Art Neus, October 1958,pp. z4-26,55-57. The best overall sourceon Happeningsis Michael Kirby, Happening:An lllustratedAnthohgl (Nry York E.P Dutton and Co., t96), which includes scripts for many of the clmsic performances.Kaprow's own '4ssembltge, (Nw York Harry N. Abrams,1966)conand Happenings Enuironments tainsimportant theoredcalexpositionand is a powerfulevocationof the period. For interuiewswith important 6gures,seefuchard Kostelaneu, The Theatre of Mixed-Means (New York RK Editions, I98o). For an overviewof the period in all its variery including a full chronolory of exhibitionsand performances,seeBarbaraHxkell, BIAM! The Exph' sion of Pop,Minimalism, and Perfomancerg58-rgd4 (New York Whitney Museum ofAmerican Art, 1964). 25.BarbaraRose,Ckes Oldznburg(NewYork The Museum of Modern Art, t96). Also seethe artistt 196rnotebook remarksin ClaesOldenburg md Emmett Williams, StoreDay (Nw York: Something Else Press, 1967),pp. 8,49, 8r. 26. For the firll inventory ofThe Store,with prices,seeOldenburg and 'Williams, pp. 1r-34. "Month in Review,",4rrs,Febrwry 1962,p. 36. 27. SidneyTillim, 28. Oldenburgand Williams, p. r5o. 29. John 1M McCoubrey, RobertIndiaru (Philadelphia:Universiry of Institute ofContemporary Art, 1968),p. 54. Pennsylvania, 3o. John Rublowsky, Pop Art. Photography by Ken Heyman. (New York: Bmic Books,1965).In addition to photographsofthe Sculls,the book showedthe home of Leon Kraushar,whosewidow would sell his Pop worls through Munich dealerHeiner Friedrichin 1968to Cerman collectorHans Stroher,who would circulatethem throughout Germanr before their installation in the HessischenLandesmuseumin Darm"Ameriqn fut in Germany:The Histon' of a stadt. Phyllis Tirchman, Phenomenon,"lrtforam,November ry7o, p. 59. 3r.

"You

Bought lt-Now

Live withIt," Life,July 6,196t, p. 59.

32. Actually, this wm the first group show in Nm lorA ro featurethe nwly emergedform of Pop. The previousApril md Mav, the Dallx Museum for Contemporary Art had presentedthe exhibition 196r' whose 36 rtists included Dine, Lichtenstein,Oldenburg, md Rosenquist. There The Store was partially re-created,and Oldenburg presenteda secondversionofhis Htppening, Iiun. "The Art Galleries:The Game of Illusion," Ila 9. Hxold Rosenberg,

269


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THEORY ON THE FLOOR

Anne Tiuitt, in his programmaticstatementshere and elsewhere,Judd sketcheda tighter view.Along with the writings of RobertMorris, Juddt remarlcpresenteda tfieoreticalbasisfor the most radicalart in PrimarySuuctures.After beingcalledby many names-ABC Art, Cool fut, Low-BoredomArt, Idiot Art, Know-Nothing Nihil"Minimalism." ism-this art ultimatelywould be denominated Coined by the English philosopherRichard'Wollheimto characterize such artistsas Duchamp and Warhol, "minimal" whosework had artisticcontentof a traditionalkind, the term wasadopted for very differentuse.And while Judd and Morris resentedtalk of their *ork asredu.tive and minimal-Judd, in fact, devotedhis catdoguestatementto a repudiationof theseterms- minimalwasthe word by which their art would be known.6 Taking off from the rejectionof standardcompositionalpracticesby Frank Stella,whosefriend Carl Andre would createone of the outstandingpiecesin Primary Structures,Judd and Morris soughtan escapefrom the Europeanartistictradition. As "It Judd saidin a joint 1964radiointerviewwith Stella, suitsme fine if thatt all down the drain. . . . I'm totally uninterestedin Europeanart and I think itt all overwith."7 In a move combining, ironically, the Europeanavant-gardesearchfor purity with an American denial of Old Vorld values,they eliminatedcomplexiryof image for the sakeof phenomenologicalenrichment.For Judd, whosephilosophicaleducationat Columbia had alliedhim to the honestyof Humeanempiricism,the point wasto confront directlywhat is experienced, abolishingillusionism,emotionalism,and other dissemblingof the old order. For Morris, whoseroots in the world of new danceand performancewere infirsed with the infuence of Cage and Duchamp, reduction of detail openedthe viewerto fundamentdsotherwiseobscuredby complexcomposition and expressive intent. W'ith lessto interpret,the focusbecamethe basicsculpturalfacts of shape,size, mass,illumination, and spatial orientation. More imponantly, the viewerwould come to seehimself as part of the picture, a being whosephysicaland experientialrelationswith thesesimple elementswere essentialto the sculptureitself. Often mentionedin the contemporaryliterature,the philosophersLudwig Wittgensteinand Maurice Merleau-Pontyjoined Duchamp to mark the viewerasconstitutive of the art object. Morris, in fact, had describedhis first minimal sculpturein a Duchampian proposalwritten in ry6o-6t for the essays and avant-gardeperformancescriptscompiled by La Monte Young,JacksonMac Low, and GeorgeMaciunas and calledAn "Blank Antholog'. Under the headingof Form Sculpture"he describedthree simple objectsto which viewerswould responddifferentlyaccordingto whether or not they "art." were called \Vhile he refusedto havethe pieceincluded in An Anthologyafter becomingdisaffectedwith Maciunast Fluxusactivities,Morris constructedone of the objectsfor a performanceat The Living Theater in January196z-"A column with perfectlysmooth,rectangularsurfaces,zfeetby z feetby 8 feet,paintedgray."After the column satverticallyon stagefor threeand a half minutes,Morris pulled it to the floor whereit lay on its sidefor anotherthreeand a half minutes.Not only did a falling pillar becometheaterbecauseit wassaidto be such,but the objectitselfchangedits perceivedcharacterwhen its spatialrelationto the viewershifted.8 In Primary StructuresMorris made this latter point in an even more dramatic way,when he exhibitedtwo largewooden Ls. Substitutedfor the z4-footJong gray beam listed in the catalogue,a work from Morrist important 1964exhibition at the Green Gallery the two righcangled forms were from a group of three that had beenshown at Castelliin ry65.Despitebeing identicd in shapeand size,they looked Iike two completelydifferent objects.Yet their soledistinction lay in spatialorientation-one restedon its endsto form an inverseV and the other stood on one arm with the secondarm stickingstraightup in the air. The fact that theseobjectslooked

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THEORY ON THE FLOOR

Iwtallation of RobertMorri exhibition at the Green Gallery, Netu York, December1964. The hrgefnor beamfom this exhibition wasto beshownin Primary Structures but was replaced b1 Monis's two hrge Lls. so dissimilar exemplified an approach that he said was shared by much of the new "takes relationships out of the work and makes them a function of sculpture, which space,light, and the viewert field of vision."e Characteristic of the r96os, with its call to personal responsibility, this focus on situation and context would broaden from perceptual to institutional concerns as the decade progressed.\iVhat began as phenomenology would end as social critique.l0 The emphasis on viewing situation was part of an investigation of the "Kantian' basic facts of sculpture qua sculptwe, an extension of Clement Greenbergt project. As Greenberg took progress in painting to involve those features unique to painting as a medium, so in a way Judd and Morris sought to isolate and emphasize sculptural essentials.ll For both artists, these featureswere revealed most plainly when internal detail was removed and overall form simplified. While they differed on particulars-for instance, Judd believed that color was critical, and Morris that it should be neutralized-together they presented a theoretical stance able to encompass great sculptural diversiry. Yet for those used to the personal touch of gestural painting and assemblage, or to the brashnessof Pop, much of this sculpture seemed uniform and dry. Many, no doubt, came away from Primary Structures as did Hilton Kramer, who felt that he "had not so much encountered worls of art as taken a course in them." Barbara Rose, in fact, remarked that the work of Judd and of Morris looked like illustrations of 'lfittgenstein. Inthe'Wall StreetJournal,JohnJ. O'Connor also noted that many pieces "visual in the show were presentations of ideas; the activity is more conceptual than aesthetic." But he emphasized that the issueswere firndamental ones-"The question soon becomes, \Vhat is space?And ultimately becomes,tVhat is art?"r2 Ironically, this study of sculptural essentialsdenied itself the use of the term, preferring three-dimensional objecthood allied with neither of the traditional art forms. The point was made by Judds rwo nearly identical works in the exhibition,

225


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THEORY ON

THE

FLOOR

The use of the floor was important for most of the artists in the show, a repudiation of the basebeing essentialto the many aestheticprograms representedhere. For no one was this more critical than Carl Andre. In the summer of ry65 Andre had a revelation while canoeing on a lake in New Hampshire. Rather than the vertical constructions that he had made by geometrically piling uniform timbers or blocks of sryrofoam, he decided that henceforth his sculpture would be as flat as the surface of the water. This decision resulted in the first of his worla to cause public controversy, the piece that he created for Primary Structures. It was called Leuer,a title punning on "raise." Beginning at a the name for the simplest of all tools and the French word for wall and extending 74/, feet along the floor, Leuer consisted of ry7 firebricks stacked horizontally side-to-side. Andre had been heavily infuenced by Brancusi early on, and here he sought to transposehis mentort most monumental image, adding his own sex'All I'm doing is putting Brancusit EndlzssColumn ual take on the sculptural tradition: on the ground instead of in the sky. Most sculpture is priapic with the male organ in the air. In my work, Priapus is down on the foor. The engagedposition is to run along the earth."l5 Originally installed through a doorway, reinforcing the sexual allusion, Leuer wx moved after that location proved a problem for crowd flow. More aesthetically disruptive was Andret use of uniform manufactured objects merely set side-by: side on the floor, his total rejection of craft and of the traditional notion of what "had sculpture should be. For Time, it the look of an old-fashioned surrealist leg pull," and certainly it evoked the Duchampian ready-made.r6 But more importantly, Leuer epitomizes the new sculpturet use of unaltered industrial materials, as well as Andret own investigation of the horizontal site. Another sculpture designed for the exhibition was Dan Flavin's czrner monument 4 for those who haue been hilled in ambush (for The Jewish Museum) (to PK. who reminded me about dzath). Like Andre , Flavin used readily available, repeatableunits as material components of his work-in his case,fuorescent lighting tubes. His first fuorescent piece had been an 8-foot gold bulb set at a 4j-degree angle on the wall, done in May 1963,which the artist also compared with Brancusi'sEndlzssColumn.tTThe Primary Strucrures work was his first to span a corner, and consisted of four red fluores66n11uf6s-twe lines running along the walls from the corner at a height of 66 inches, another bulb cutting acrossas hlpotenuse to form a triangle by intersecting the first rwo, and a fourth coming straight out from the corner. The construction was 16 feet across, and its red illumination affected the color of everything nearby, especially the clear blue of Ellsworth Kellys sheet aluminum disk sitting dongside. The use of color was a prominent feature of Primary Structures, and the exhibition title, in fact, was in part a pun on'primary colors."l8 This was nowhere truer than with the younger English artists. Behind the blue Caro in the outside court sat David Annesleys Swing Low, a rtbbonlike form painted bright blue and sea green, sandwiched between two luminous yellow geometric frames. Striped ribbon shapes also were used by Peter Phillips inhis Tiicuruular, each one flowing through a Plexiglas triangle set before a triangular background. Phillip King cut a great fiberglasscone into nine sections, arranging them on a series of ascending steps, and paindng the whole red and green. Tim Scott showed an assembly of two peach-colored wheels-and-axles positioned on either side of a sheet of clear Plexiglas, and Isaac Vi&in's Nagas consisted of two vertical snakelike forms in fiberglass,one purple and the other yellow. Yellow also was the orominent color of Villiam Tirckert three variations on an oDen pyramid of curvilinear forms, Meru I, II, and III. Michael Bolus and Gerald laing similarly used polychromed, wacky, curvaceous imagery though the two other Englishmen, David Hall and Derrick W'oodharn, were more geometric. For them all, Anthony Carot infuence was clear in the concern with the relation betvv'eensculpture and the

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THEORY ON THE FLOOR

Installation uiew of Primarl Smtcturesat theJewishMuseum, New York, April z7-June rz, ry66, showing(lzfi) RobertMorris'swo L's and (right) Robert Grosuenor i Tr ansoxiana timental, unbiographical and not open to interpretation. If you dont like it at first glance, chances are you never will, becausethere is no more in it than what you have alreadyseen."21 The casewith the new sculpture, then, was similar to that of Pop art, where a great deal of published commentary appeared before any significant group exhibition.22 With Minimalism, howeve! there was extensive theoretical writing by the artists themselves, who no longer left public explication to the critics. At the time, "hip, sophisticated, Kynaston McShine characterized the artists in his exhibition as articulatâ&#x201A;Ź. Most are university-bred. Theyve read philosophy, have a keen senseof history and know what theyie supposed to be reacting to." Less than a year later, with Minimalism fully ascendent, Harold Rosenberg marked the social import of this cir"[I]t refects the new situation of art as an activiry that. . . has become a cumstance: profession taught at universities, supported by a public, discussed in the press, and encouraged by the government." In this regard, despite its oppositional rhetoric, "post-vanguard," completing a processthat had begun Rosenberg saw Minimalism as with Pop. Reporting to the English about the work that had bested their own at Pri"To be avant-garde now is to be mary Structures, critic Brian O'Doherry concurred: old-fashioned."23 \,X4rilemuch of the work in Primary Structures came verbally articulated, for one group of artists the theoretical reticence and expressive intention of gestural abstraction remained an emotional model, if not a formal one. And their sculpture included the most visually powerful in the show. Suspended from the ceiling, in counterpoint to Morrist neighboring inverted L, was Robert Grosvenort 3r-foot-wide Tiansoxiana.It was an immense Y, rc/z feet deep, and the ambition and structure of the piece owed something to thâ&#x201A;Ź artistt experience in naval engineering. Previously installed downtown at the Park Place Gallery it hung overhead with powerful effect in the great space of the Jewish Museum, a long black form with one facet painted red.

229


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THEORY ON THE FLOOR

Richard Artschwager Thble with Pink Tablecloth. t964. Formica on wood, z5tlz x 44 x 44 in. Santchi Collection, London

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Installation uiew of Primary Stuvcturesat theJewishMuseum, Neu Yorh, April z7-June rz, ry66, showing(lef to righr) Peter ForakisiJFK: SaluatoreRomanoi Zeno lI; FonestMyersi Zigarat & \(/. & \7.\W.\7.; Dauid uon SchlegalliWave; Elkworth Kelfii Blue Diskr and trighr foreground) lVilliam Tucker\Meru I, Meru II, andMeruIII tion at the 1965 Slo Paulo Bienal. Bell showed three glass cubes, each with a tinted high-tech coating that allowed it to appear both reflective and transparent. The multiple reflections and prismatic efFectswere enhanced by the only basesused in the exhibition, clear plastic supports permitting light to enter the bottom of each piece. The open feel of Bellt closed forms was reinforced by rwo works exhibited nearby, W'alter De Mariat Cage andSol Le !7ittt large gridded cube. McShine had seen a wooden version of Cagein De Maria's studio, but for the show the piece was fabricated in stainlesssteel with financial help from Robert Scull, who had expanded with Richard Bellamy and the Green Gallery from Pop to Minimalism. Like Morris, De Maria had made simple geometric sculpture in connection with the reductive aesthetic of early Fluxus performance, and he had shown an unpainted 8 x 4 x 4 foot plyrvood box in July 196r when he delivered a lecture at Maciunas's AG Gallery.3t But in his CageDe Maria used the new sculptural idiom to more disturbing psychological effect, moving toward the threatening presenceof his Bedsof Spikesshown rwo years later at the Dwan Gallery which required visitors to sign a releaseof liabiliry before entering the exhibition. The contained soaceof Sol Le!7itt was more cerebral than that of De Maria, and its use of simplified form was more aestheticized. Exhibite das [lntitled, this was LerVittt first moiular cube, created during the previous winter. At 6 feet, it was 'S7ith approximately of human scale,but there all anthropomorphic association ended. the pristine structure of a pedagogical Euclidean model, it consisted of white wooden bars displaying the geometrical analysis of a 6-foot cube into twenty-sevâ&#x201A;Źn 2-foot cubes. Le'Wittt first show at Dan Graham's Daniels Gallery in May ry65had occurred 'ABC Art," but its intellectual rigor too late for Barbara Rose to discuss his work in and puriry of form soon would be seen as a paradigm of Minimalist sculpture. LeWitt was lessinterested than were Morris and Judd in the experiential aspect-though after Primary Structures at the Park Place Gallery he did place a 6o-inch version of this cube about rz feet away from another of 58 inches, creating a visual illusion of identity.

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THEORY ON THE FLOOR "a rhar-agreatdealo[rhe showwas species.of progeny,and Hilton lGamersuggested The British work actually "Uri"., painting aspiringto theiindition of architecture."3a Caro'sstudio in the sumhad visited in an odd way,for he de.cendedfrorn"Greenberg that fall and his embrace States United to the trip mer of 1959,leadingto the-sculptort Louis. On the Americanside, Morris and Noland Kenneth of p.o-g."aestLeti. of the the new work wasL -uch a reacrionto the felt limitations of painting asa development within sculpture.Further progresscould come only by-m.oving.{t1v: onto the floor, wherethe sort of abstractobjectsplacedon the wall by Stellaand Noland would escapethe illusionismendemicto painting' to takeoverthe New FollowingPrimaryStruciuresthe new sculpture.seemed york art world. Tliat fall ii was the subjectof the annualArt in Processexhibition at the Finch College Museum, and in the galleriesartists from Primary Structures appearedev.ry*f,.r.. In SepremberRicharJ Feigenexhibitedthe EnglishmenDavid rtat ""a Derrick w'oodham,their colleagueMichael Bolus showingat Kornblee in October. That month Betry Parsonsmounted Modular, featuringher artist Lyman Kipp whoseT:shapedbeamshad sat alongsideAndret Leuerar the JewishMuseum' ani'Virginia Dwans exhibition of ten artiits formalizedthe classicMinimalist_group. In NovJmberTony De Lap showedwith Robert Elkon, and at cordier Er El'strom 'W'alter De Maria irad his hrst one-manexhibition. And Decemberbrought Robert Smithsont initial one-manshow to the Dwan Gallery.By the springJohn Perreault would report in Arts thar New York gallerieswere refi,rsingto take on anlthing nonminimal.35 of course,things were hardly thar homogeneous,and the seedsof what would come were being Jo*.t "r the reductiveform settledinto commercialsuccess. The Septemberafter Pr"imarySrructuresthe critic who had coinedthe title curateda showoi anothersort of abstractionat the FischbachGallery.Lury Lippards Eccentric Abstractiongarhâ&#x201A;Źredrogetherartistsworking in new materialsaswell, but their forms were soft, flJppy, attd inpredictable.36Vtile formally powerful, much of the work " r."n"l dimenslonfar from the world of the primary structure'evokedby suggested th!?o* and fexibility of materialand process.In works like Keith Sonniert inflating and deflating clear vinyl forms, Louisi Bourgeoiskflesh-coloredlatex molds, Gary Kuehns melled fiberglassrectangles,Eva Hessetstructureof tangledstring and geometric blocks,Lindsa! Deckert flastic extrusions,andAliceAdamst hangingwomb of "not-r.ulptural style"ableto constitutea new firture chainlink fencing,Lippard ,"* i for sculpture. Such works, howevet soon would seem very sculptural comparedwith and traditional media anorhâ&#x201A;Źralternativearisingout of the breakdownof categories_ tVhile the sourcesof what would be known as that wasextolledin Primiry Structures. "conceptart," in beenpreconceptual Art werewide-ranging-a notion of 9-, \"{ inspiration much and Anthologlt, in An published in an eiray Flynt sented^byHenry of manifestoappeared ."-. fro- Fluxus event ,.or., "rri projects-in 1967a l<nd "Paragraphs on Conceptual from the heartof the new reductivesculpture.Sol LeWitt's concePtsas unrealized viewing even ideasoverphysicalinstantiations, Art" emphasized of Minifor much foundations the theoreticd tt" "llo*.d worLsin their own right.37 malistart to assumepti-".y, turning what had beena point of hostile.criticism into a positionof strength.To view works now asrealizationsof ideaswasno longeran attack t.r, "n ",r.rru. oi aestheticrenewal.And asconceptsbecamefocal their linguisricpresenrationmoved to centerstage.futworks could be embodiedby.statements,and a collectionof statementscould Eecomean exhibition.It wasa radicaltransformationof the exhibition format, and in its questioningof both work and context' the catalogue asexhibitionwould culminxl6-xnd encapsulate-thespirit of the sixties. 235


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NOTES

ofArt and Design,r97y),pp. r8r-r88. "Minimal

skerch,"Artforum, December ry6r, p. 24. In another similariw with Andre on Lns,Flavin referredto the angle of this first neon pieceu 'the diagonalof personalecstmy."SeeAnna C. Chave, "Minimalism and the Rlretoricof Power,"Arts, Jtnvery rg9o,p. 4j.

6. fuchard Vollheim, Att," Ans, Januaryry61 reprinted in Battcock.Judd wrote in the otalogue, "l dont think that myone'swork is reductive.The most the term cm mean is that nm work doesnthave what the old work had." Kynaston McShine, Primary Stractures:Younger r8. Interviewwith KynastonMcShine,Februaryr8, 1992. Ameican and British Sculptors(New York: The JewishMuseum, 1966), r9. Bryan Robertson, The New Generation: ry65 (Iandon: The n.p. Morris made the essentialpoint clearlya few months before:"Simplicity of shapedoes not necessarilyequatewith simplicity of experi- \ThitechapelGallery,ry6). For contemporaryaccountsofthis group of "Britain's "Notes Baro, New Sctlpt:ure," Art Intemaional, June ence."RoberrMorris, on Sculpture,PartI," Artforum, February artists, seeGene "Britain's :nd, Young Sculptors,"Arts, Deceml>er1965;Andrew ry65, ry66, reprintedin Battcock,p. zz8. "Some Forge, New British Sculptors,"Artforum, May r96y; Norbert "Latest 7. The interuiewby BruceGlaserwm broadcaston $7BAl in New York Lynton, Developmentsin British Sculpture,"Art and Liftrature, "New "Color in February1964,and wm entitled Nihilism or New Art?" Edited Summer 1964; and JaisaReichardt, in Sculpture," Quadrtm "Ques by Lury Lippard, it was printed under the more minimal title X\{III, 1965,which includescolor photographsofmany pieces. tions to Stellamd Jtdd" in Art News,September1966,and reprintedin zo. Robins, p. 36. Andrew Hudson, "English SculptorsOutdo AmeriBattcock,whereJuddt quoted remarlc areon pp. ryo md r54. cans," WashingtonPox, May 8, 1966, p. G7. A.lthough Hilton Kramer 8. Barbara Hxkell, BI-4M! The Explnsionof Pop, Minimalism, and Per- markedCaro asthe most impressiveartist in the show,he did not think 'X/hitney (New r9t8-r964 York: Museum of American Art, fomance Titan a partictlarly strong piece and wm not interesred in the other 1984, pp. roo-ror. For an illuminating comparisonof the new dance Englishartists.Kramer,p. Du3. and the new sculpture,see the list of malogous elemenrsdrawn by zr. The following threeessays YvonneRainerin'A Quroi Suney of some'Minimalisr tndencies in wereprompted by the lfhitney Sculpture "The Annual: Iruing Sandler, New Cool Art," Art in Arnerica February the Qumtitadvely Minimal Dance Activiw Midst the Plethora,or an "The r961tMax Kozloff, Analysisof Tiio A," Bancock,p. zo3. Further Adventuresof American Sculpture," Arts, Februaryry6; BarbaraRose,"lnoking at Amerimn Sculprure,' "Notes on Sculpture, Part ll," Artfomm, October Arforum, February1965.For sympatheticdeailed expositionfocusing 9. Robert Morris, "The 1966,reprintedin Bancock,p. z3z. on Judd and Morris, see Lury Lippard, Third Stream-ConstructedPaintingsand PaintedStructures,"ArtVoices,Springt965.Phylro. For this perspectiveon Minimalism, seeKenneth Baker,Minimal"lengthy lis Tirchman emphmires the way in which discoursereally ism: An of Circumstane(Nw York: Abbeville, 1988),especialtypp. precededprolongedobservatiori'ofsuch sculpturein her "Minimalism 2.r-zz, 7r, md 89. Also seeHal Foster,"The Cru of Minimalism," in Artforum, May ry77, p. 26. For quoted remarls, Indiuiduak: A SelzctedHistory of Contemporary lrr ([os Angeles: ard Critica.lResponse," "An seeHilton Kramer, Art of Boredom?"New YorkTimes,June5,t966, Museum of ContemporaryAn, ry86), pp. t77-r78. "Engineer's p. Dz3; Esthetic," Time,June3, t966, pp. 54- 67. rr. Notwithstanding this Greenbergianmotivation, the mosr sustained criticism of Minimalist sculpturewas marshalledbv Greenbergacolr.te zz. There werea few group showsinvolving Minimalist sculpturebefore Primary Structures, most notably Black, White, and Grey at the Michael Fried in his "fut and Objecthood" (Arforun, June r9o7; 'Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, Connecticut, Jan.-Feb. ry64, atd reprinted in BaccocQ, who arguedrhat in its inclusion of the viewer Shapeand Structureat Tibor de Nagr in 1965.A more underground within the sculptural field Minimalism was essentially"theatrical,"a earlyexhibition wx organizedby Dan Flavin at the Kaymar Gallery on repudiationofModernism by denyingself-sufiiciencyro rhe work itsell \7est Broadwayin March 1964,in which he placedwork of his friends, "Exploring rz. Kramer,p. Dz3. Rose,p. u9r.JohnJ. O'Connor, Space," including Judd, Stella,kVitt, and Robert Ryman. On this show,see Wall StreetJournal Jtne 6, 1956,p. t8. Lury R. Lippard in Alicia Legg, ed,.,SolLe\Yitt (New York: Museum of Modern fut, t978),p.25. r3. The two works by Judd differedonly in the crossbar of the hanging piecebeing painted blue. At the symposiumheld in conjunction with 23.McShineis quoted in GraceGlueck'sarticleappearingjust beforethe Primary Structures,Frank StellamkedJudd whetherhe experiencedthe exhibition opened,which announcedthat already"it's being hailed m volumesof the nvo worls differenrly.He repliedthat the work seemed This Yea's landmrk Show." "Anti-Collector, Anti-Museum," New lager on the floor, since one couli obseruerhe back along with the York Times,April 24, 1966,p. xz4. Harold Rosenberg,"Defining An," front, sides,and top, whererothe wall piece appearedsomi*hat fatTheNeu Yorher,Febrtary25,t967, reprinted in Battcock,p. 3o3.Brian "Minus tened. But Judd saysthat the work can be displayedany way, "on the O'Doherry Plato,"lrt andArtists,September1966,reprintedin "The ceiling,wall, or floor." Ns Sculpture,"symposiumheld May z, Baccock,p. 254.A number ofthe artistsconcurredwirh this view ofthe "The 'avanr-garde' 1966at the JewishMuseum, transcriptin the Archivesof AmericanArt, avant-grde. lil/itnessDan Flavin; term ought to be n.P. restoredto the French Army where its manic senseof futiliry propinot apply to any Americal art that I knou' r4. Robert Hobbs, RobertSmithson:Smlpnre (Ithrce: Cornell Universiry tiously belongs.It does "Some about." Dan Flavin, Remarks,"Artforum,Deceml:ert966, p.27. Press, r98r),p. 55. "Comments A similar view is expressed by Sol kWitt in on an Adver"The ry. David Bourdon, tisementPublishe d,in Fltxh Art, Aprrl ry7," in lcgg, p. r74. RazedSitesofCarl Andre: A Sculotor laid low by the Brancui Syndrome,"Artforun, Ocrober 1966,reprinted in 24.Robins,pp.34-35.McShine,n.p. Battcock,p. ro4. a "Engineer's 16. futhetic," Time, Jtne 3, t966, p. 64. The issue'scover 25.Interuiewwirh Corinne Robinsmd SalvatoreRomano,Februaryr4, "Viet r99z- For Romano,thesehuge, inexpensivelofts provided artistswith a storyw6 Nm md the Clas of '66." "Americar truly spaa." For Robins, the lofts supplied them wirh a "'. 17. Dan Flavin, . . in daylight or cool white.'an autobiographical "machospace."

27r


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DEMATERIALIZA"fION:

THE

VOICE

OF THE

SIXTIES

January 51l 1969 was not the first indoor exhibition that Siegelaub had done since closing his gallery for in February 1968 he had organized a show ofAndre, Barry and lVeiner at Bradford Junior College in Massachusetts,where Huebler was teaching.5Through one of his students Huebler had obtained a grant from the'Weyerhauser Corporation for a program of new art, independent funding that allowed him to bring the most radical of artists to this conservative New England academy.At the time Robert Barry was working to incorporate emptiness in painting, positioning four z-inch square canvasesat the corners of a large €xpanseof wall. Soon he would further reduce visibiliry with single strands of wire or nylon monofilament stretched berween walls or from floor to ceiling, before embracing complete invisibiliry by working with forms of energy and imperceptible gases.\Vhen Siegelaub came with the participants to hold a symposium on the exhibition, he brought another artist to whom'Wiener had introduced him, Joseph Kosuth. \[ith the addition of Barry and Kosuth, what "Siegelaub Mafia" was complete, a group that dealer John Gibson referred to as the would debut the next year in an empry office building on 5znd Street. \X4rat has come to be called the January Show is just one of Siegelaub'smany 1968-69 activities, but in retrospect it stands as the classicgroup exhibition of conceptual art. Of course, the emphasis on ideas from which physical worls were generated was fundamental to the Minimalists concentrated at the Dwan Gallery and Virginia Dwan had mounted rwo important shows focusing on language in the summers of ry67 and 1968.6And Joseph Kosuth and Christine Kozlov had established the Lannis Gallery in ry66,later dubbed the Museum of Normal fut, where a number of group shows displayed work of conceptual intent, including an exhibition of the favorite books of fifteen artists. But Siegelaub'sJanuary 54, t969 explicitly presented these four varieties of conceptualism as a new afi form, and it did so while denying the primary of the standard exhibition format. As he insisted in the information sheet accom"The panying the show, exhibition consists of (the ideas communicated in) the catalogue; the physical presence(of the work) is supplementary to the catalogue."T "consisted" That the show of ideas governed the format of the exhibition itself, In line with the fact that the artists' ideas could be instantiated either in orinted or in more direct material form, the exhibition was divided into two parts: a receprion "receptionist" room where catalogues could be perused, with a available to answer quesdons, and a gallery spacewhere two worls by each artist were to be installed. The receptionist was Adrian Piper, a young artist who had been recommended for the job by Sol LeWitt. Vith an acute analytic mind, Piper was highly qualified to play the role of expositor-her ry67 Drawings about Paper and Writing about Words,for instance, explored the self-reflexive properties of these representational forms, and she would go on to earn a doctorate in philosophy from Harvard.8 The reception area contained a desk with a telephone, and a couch alongside the coffee table on which sat a pile of catalogues and the visitors book. Open from rr:oo to j:3o, Tiresday through Saturday, the exhibition attracted from swen to thirry visitors a day. By the end of the month it had been seen by 488 people, and the names in the visitors book suggest the increasingly international character of the vanguard art world.e Siegelaubbegan looking for a spacefor the show in the fall, and as late as the end of November he was expecting the exhibition to be somewhere in the viciniry of Madison Avenue and 79rh Street. But in December he was offered the use of an office in the otherwise vacant McClendon Building at 44 Eart 5znd Street, a small brownstone berween Madison and Park. He rented the space for the month of January for $llo. The place had come through a client of fellow dealer Manny Greer, who also introduced Siegelaubto collectors who would purchase enough work to fund the exhibition and the catalogue. This midtown office suited his purposes perfectly, for Siege-

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in the catalogue, this time using nuclear decay rather than electromagnetic transmission-half a microcurie of barium-r33 buried in Central Park. Less than three months later he would have Siegelaub place a similar amount of another radioactive isotope, uranyl nitrate, on the roofofthe Kunsthalle in Bern. l,awrence \Teiner showed the most physically intrusive work in the office: ,4 36" x j6" remoual to the kthing or support wall of plxter or wallboard fom the wall" located around a corner on the right as you entered the room. A kind of negative painting, it suggestedthe paradox ofcreation through destruction, a notion that he "exhibition' had addressednine years earlier with his Mill Valley, California of a hole made by explosives. \fleiner would travel to Bern in March to raise the issue in the stairwell of the Kunsthalle. An ironic comment on the assumpdon that art must produce substantial objects of positive form, it was a kind of indoor transformation of early earthworl<s,such as Claes Oldenburg's Placid Ciyi6 1,.1[6nu7nsns-a deep rectangular hole dug and refilled by union grave diggers behind the Metropolitan Museum of Art-and Michael Heizert trenches in the Nevada desert.12W'einer'ssecond work was more visually elusive,An amount of bleachpoured upon a rug and allnutedto blzach.Slbtly marking the carpet in front of the window it is the least clearly remembered piece in the exhibition. But this seemsappropriare given the artistt attitude toward the construction of works that are essentially concepts. In his interview with the fictitious Arthur R. Rose, published in Arts Magazine the month after the exhibition-----one of four interviews in which each of Siegelaub'sartists asked and answered his own questions-Ifeiner denied any concern with making objects. Since these works are ideas encapsulated in verbal statements, it just does not matter whether they ever are physically realized.rr In Kosuth's interview he claimed that the only role for an artist in 1969 was to investigate critically the nature of art itself One cannot do this through painting and sculpture, he argued, because as particular forms of art they assume the validiry of a general conception ofart. Instead, Kosuth was engaged in a seriesofworks enti:led Art "art-as-art," as ldca as ldza" a referenceto Ad Reinhardt's purist focus on with the dou"idea' ble use of meant to avoid the reification of the art object as a thing, even if an

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re* Installation uiew of tbeJanuary 5-3r, 1969exhibition at 44 East Sznd Street,New Yorh.showing documentation fom Douglas Huebler'sHaverhill-WindhamNew York Marker Piece (1968), which werephotographstaken nery fftT milesahng a 650-mile routeconnecling thesethreecities. the hallway at eleven in the morning on the opening Saturday. Adrian Piper was assignedto photograph the sawdust every thirry minutes for the next six hours. After taking each picture she taped it within an area that Huebler had indicated on the wall, making sure not to position the images in temporal order. At the end of the wellattended afternoon there were thirteen Polaroids, and after sweeping up the sawdust the piecewas complete.15 The energy and high spirits at the opening, and the attendance of such respected figures as Claes Oldenburg, suggestedthat interest in conceptual work was widespread. And while critics like Dore Ashton thought that Siegelaub'sartists were "bored with art," across the international vanguard there was broad experimentation with such nonstandard forms.t6 One factor encouraging internationalization was the format of the work, documents easily mailed and ideas fully describable in letters or over rhe telephone. And Siegelaubt next two projects involved the sort ofinternational mix last seen in the intermedia activity of the early sixties, itself a phenomenon essentially dependent on texts and publications.lT Before the end of the January Show he solicited contributions for the first group exhibition to exist in catalogue form alone, March r34 ry69, in which thirry-one international artists each was assigneda different day on which ro execute a work. Siegelaubdisuibuted the exhibition/publication without charge around the world, as well as in New York at the artists' hangout of Max's Kansas Ciry and at the \Tittenborn Book Shop. For the summer he produced a fully international exhibition, July August, Septemberry69, presenting projects by eleven artists installed in Europe and the Americas during these months. As an exhibition, the work existed together only in catalogue form, and in line with the international character both of participants and audience, all information was printed in English, French, and German.18 One person following Siegelaubt activity with interest was a museum director from Switzerland, Harald Szeemann, who visited the dealer and his artists in New York just as the the Xerox Book appeared.Szeemann had done a number of experimentd shows at the Kunsthalle in Bern, and in the summer of ry68 he began formulating plans for a comprehensive international presentation of the new art. Guided by the

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DEMATERIALIZATION: THE VOICE OF THE SIXTIES

like Anti-Form, Arte Povera,Concept Art, and Earth Art. This was the primacy of processand activity,an emphasisfundamentallyrooted in the salienceof the artists' "inner were the works, variously attitudes."For Szeemann,theseattitudesessendally realizedin materialand immaterialform. !7hile the attiudes of artistslike Mondrian and Pollock, of course,had generatedtheir worls, their goal was the creation of autonomousart objects.But without a persistingproduct, attitude becameprimary. This is what grounded the aestheticsignificanceof a sentenceryped on a piece of paper,the collectingand burning of flammablematerial,a smashedsidewalk,somefat smearedin a corner,the mailing of a package,thirteensheetsof emprygraphpaper,or "atda walk in the mountains.Here the important thing wasthe act producedby an tude," not an objectmadefor consumptionby a market,evenif someof theseactions did producesalablegoods.As Szeemannpresentedit in the catalogue,the new work was meantto disrupt the basicstructureof the art world-the triad of studio, gallery and museum.It was a utopian conceptionthat would have difficulry surviving the of its birth. socialand cultural circumstances Both the exhibition and the cataloguedisplayedthis emphasison attirude and process,and the correspondingdemotion of the object. Szeemanntplan was to rurn the Kunsthalleinto a giant studio wherethe artistswould producetheir works, and from thereextendtheir activity into the staidSwisscity. He alsopresentedhis own curarorialprocessin the catalogue.It reproducedthe addresslist he had usedto visit to invitationsto artistsin New York, alongwithhany of the letterswritten in response catalogue,in fact, functionedasdid thoseof participatein the exhibition. Szeemann's for the exhibition containedmore than everwould be physicallyrealSethSiegelaub, by informaizedin Bern.Of the sixry-nineartistsin the show,fifteenwererepresented tion or documentationalluding to works elsewhere,both physicaland nonphysical, including Ed Kienholzt accountof the immaterialsensibiliryzone that he had been given by YvesKlein. The cataloguepulled this dl together,along with other worlc wasasfully instantiatedthereasit wason sheetsof paperin the Kunstwhoseexistence giving however,this one containedcritical essays halle. Unlike Siegelaubtcatalogues, In addition someaccounrof the exhibition and the developmentsthat it represented. to Szeemanntpiece,there were essays-â&#x201A;Źachpublishedin a different language-by Scott Burton, GrdgoireMuller, and TommasoTiini.. Szeemanntraveledthroughout Europeand the United Statesseekingartists for his exhibition, and twenry-eightof them went to Bern for the installation.2lThe action beganwith Michael Heizer and his family arriving on March 15,followed by Keith Sorinierthe next night. On the rTth Richaid Serrac-amito town with his friend Philip Glass,and togetherthey installedSerraspiecesof leadplate and pipe propped with the ciry and with a arrangements madenecessary againstthe wall.After Szeemann demolition company,the r8th found Heizerdirectinga wreckingball to smashpart of the sidewalknear the Kunsthalle,creatingrhe BerneDEresion. That sameday Serra threw closeto 5oopoundsof molten leadalongthe baseof the wall in an elegantskylit gallery recreatingthe Splah Piecethathad appeareda month beforeon the coverof Artforum. Meanwhile, Richard long set off on an extendedhike in the mountains abovethe ciry,his contribution to the exhibitionthat would be markedonly by a statement on the Kunsthallewall. On March I9 the Italians Giovanni Anselmo, Mario Merz, and Gilberto Zorio arrived,artistswhosework of impoverishedmaterials-Arte Povera-had beenchampionedfor someyearsby the critic GermanoCelant.Now, as "The coming and going begins.The Kunsthallebecomes Szeemann wrote in his diary a constructionsite." Over the nexrtwo daysmore and more artistsarrived,alongwith dealerslike Siegelaub,RichardBellamy,and Ileanaand Michael Sonnabend,and the Kunsthdle 245


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Installation aiew of the Arte Poueragallery in \VhenAttindzs BecomeForm, Kunsthalle, Bern, March zz-Apil 27, 1969showing Mario Merzi igho, Acqua Scivola, and, against the uall and on thefloor untitled works by Giouanni Anselmo. Photograph by Harry Shunh became as much an international meeting place and discussion center as a workshop. Naturally much talk was generated by the charismatic German artist Joseph Beuys, who viewed his primary role as that of a teacher, and who had been the professor at Diisseldorf of many of the German artists in the exhibition. There was activity throughout the entire building, in the hallways and staircasesas well as in the galleries. Beuys smeared margarine along the edge of a foor and into the corner, Jannis Kounellis filled bags with grain, Merz built a glassigloo, Barry Flanagan laid out sixry feet of thick rope, Anselmo arranged bricks in a basin of chalky water, Reiner Ruthenbeck set a network of wire and metal rods atop a great pile of ashes,'Weinerremoved a square of stairwell wall. Ger van Elk replaced a square meter of asphalt outside the building with a large photograph of the section of ground that he had removed. Robert Smithson had a mirror placed in Bern and photographed, and a geometric pattern of marks was drawn on the wall according to a plan sent by Sol LeWin. fuchard futschwager, the American speaking the best German, stuck forry of his fuzzy oval. blps onto walls

247


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lf this telephone rings, you mav answer \t. Walter De Maria is on the line and would like to talk to you. Wenn dieses Telephon ktingelt, nehmen Sie den Hiirer ab.

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'W'aher De Maria. Arr bv Telephone, iz lVhenAttitudesBecome Form, Kunsthalle, Btn, March zz-April 27, 1969.Photograph hy Harry Shunk RobertMonisi uork using combustible materials,from \Yhen Attitudes BecomeForm, Kunsthallt, Bem, March zz-April 27, ry69. Each dny a singk item uas addedto thepib, and at the end of the exhibition the accurnulation was burned in font of the TebgraphUnion Monument. At the lefi is Allen Ruppersberg's Ti.avel Piece of four newspapers fom Decemberry68 placed on a fold.ing tabk: the Sah Lake City DesertNews,rle OmahaW'orld Herald, the Chicago Tiibune, and the Cleuelnnd Plain DeaJer. Photographby Harry Shunk

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JosephBeuyscontemplatinghis installation offat for lYhenAnitudesBecomeForm, Kunsthallz, Bern, March zz-April 27, 1969. Through the exhibition, the tape recordernext to him wouA intone -nee-neeJa-j a-ja-ja-ja, nee-nee by Harry Shunk nee."Photograph Works i nstalled in \VhenAttitades BecomeForm, Kunsthalle, Bern, March zz-April 27,t969: fun the floor lefi) Alighiero .Boetti's I \X/ho Thke the Sun in Torino, February24,1969;]efi uall and fu door) works by Mario Merz; (rear wall) RobertMorris'sFelt PieceNo. + (rC68);(on thefaor center) Barry Flanagan\ Two Space Rope Sculpnre (196); (on thefnor right) Bruce Naumani Collection of Various FlexibleMaterialsSeparatedbv Layersof Greasewith Holes the Size of My \i/aist and Wrrsts ft966); (right rear) Neon Templatesof the Left Half of Mv Body Taken at Ten Inch Intervals (1966); and (near right) Untitled (ry61. Photographb1 Harry Shunk

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DEMATERIALIZATION: THE VOICE OF THE SIXTIES

Neon Templates of the Lefi Half of My Body Tahenat TenInch Interuals.On the other sidelayAlighiero Boetti'simageof his body in ballsof concrere,I Who ThhetheSun in Tbrino,February24, 1969,and somesheetsof glasslaid againstthe wall by Mario Merz. But most of the Arte Poverawas clusteredtogether in another room, which had appearedthe most worlahopJike during the previousweek.Among other things, in addition to Merz's glassigloo, stuck together with mastic and brandishinga tree branch,therewerevariousobjectsby Anselmo,including a fenced-inelectrifiedsandwich of stone,and a Zorio hangingfrom the ceiling that actuallywas set a6rein the gallery.Ruthenbecktpile of asheswasinstalledin a skylit gallerywith mostlyAmerican work, including Sonniert neon and latexpieces,threeEva Hesses,Alan Sarett tangle of wire, RichardTuttlet irregularlyshapedpiecesof dyed cloth, Bill Bollingert curves of tapedrope, and Gary Kuehn'scut sawhorses coveredby a fiberglassblanket.There alsowasmuch that looked more cleanlyKunsthallelike, evenif nonstandard,suchas Carl Andre'ssquareof thirry-six steelplatesand a casedisplayingsix of Hanne Darboven'sbooks of obsessive numerical computation. But the generalimpressionwas that of a wild arrayspreadingthrough the entirebuilding, punctuatedby futschwagert fuzzy blpsandvariouswordsand photographsalluding to peculiarevents. One striking thing about the Americanwork was that much of it was listed in the catalogueascoming from Germangalleries.Germandealershad beguntraveling to New York during the heydayof Pop,and by the late sixtiesadvancedAmerican art could asreadilybe seenthereasin New York. The most activedealersfor the work shown by Szeemannwere Rolf Ricke in Cologne and Konrad Fischerin Diisseldorfl Ricke startedwith Gary Kuehn in ry66, with whom he beganhis practiceof inviting Artschwaartiststo producetheir showsin Germany,and by ry69 he wasrepresenting ger,Bollinger,Hesse,Serra,and Sonnier.Konrad FischeralsobroughtAmericansover to createtheir shows,working mainly with the Dwan group-in the Bern show, Andre, LeWitt, Sandback,and Smithson-as well aswith Robert Ryman.Thesedealers,alongwith Heiner Friedrichin Munich and Rudolf Zwirner in Cologne,the moving force behind that ciryt commercial^ff far, createdan atmosphereof excitement aroundcurrentAmericanwork, placingpiecesby their artistsin many Germanmuseums aswell asin privatecollecdons.By DocumentaIV in rq68-the internationalsurvey of .ona.-po."ry art that Sr..-"m was concernedto update with his Bern exhibition-forry-five of the one hundred and seventeen artistswereAmerican.25 As a resultof having beento Germanyto makework for exhibitions,some Americansalreadyknew the Germanartistsand art world figureswho cameto Bern. V/hile the variousnationalartistssocializedwith one another,Americansand Germans being the closest,the Italianslargelykept to themselves.tn M*y of the artistshad met a week beforein Amsterdam,where \flim Beerenof the StedelijkMuseum stageda concurrent show, with Szeemannt permission, taking advantageof his having brought the group of advancedAmerican artists to Europe. Entitled Op Losse "Square Pegsin Round Schroeuen: Situatiesen Cryptosnucturen(loosely translated as Holes: Situationsand Cryptostructures"),all but wvo of its thirry-four artistswould appearin Bern. Like the internationalSurrealistexhibitionsof ry76,a corecollection formed the heartof theseshows,though inry69 that coreconsistedof artistsinsteadof particularworls. Somepiecesdone by theseartistsfor Amsterdamwerethe sameasin Bern-Serra splashedhis leadon the curb outsidethe museum-yet mostwerediffer'Weiner's ent, suchasLawrence residueof a flareignited at the city iimit. In comparison with the Kunsthalle,however,the Stedelijk installation would seem sanitizedand museumJike,an exhibition seekingto tamethe transgressive spirit of its contents. Attitudes itself assumedyet other forms when it traveledto Germanyand to England.Szeemannwas not entirelyhappy with the exhibition at the Museum Haus

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DEMATERIALIZATION:

THE

VOICE

OF THE

SIXTIES

in a growing international market. By tyZl Lucy Lippard was lamenting the disap-pointed aspiiations of ry69, and over the next two decadesthe oppositional impulse of adt anced itt *at to be largely coopted by commercial and institutional expansion.3rA similar phenomenon, of course, had been seen many times before, and assimilation into the mainstream was an essentialcondition for the perpetuation of an avant-garde. Bur after the sixties the scale of things changed, and what began in a small way with Pop broadened and came to characterizea much larger world of artistic Pfactice. That world was one in which exhibitions were less able to disrupt expectation than to confirm acceptance,if only becausecollectors and the presswere moving so quickly in their hunger for the new. In 1958it was a fuke when JasperJohns'starget appiated on the cover of Art News before his first one-man exhibition, placed there at *ri t"rt momenr becausethe intended cover failed to arrive. But such events eventually became the norm. By the eighties large numbers of exhibitions would be sold out before they opened, their contents long known by many. Even artists whose work was born in oppoiitio.r could not resist the system, nof the way in which it subverted radical impulse. Robert Smithsont Spiral Jetty became a beaudful photographic object, Daniel Burent studies in cultural context became home and corPorate decoration. After working for ayear to produce an aftist's-fights contract, Seth Siegelaubdeparted the art world to found a leftist publishing house in Paris.32Soon his four artists aII would be with ko Castelli. Exhibitions still played a crucial role in the afi world, of course, and large survey and theme shows proliferated with growing institutional su?port for new art. 'Vhen Attitudes Become Form was a model for such events, and for the increasingly central role of the curator as creative participant. But the difference in spirit between ry69 and what was to come is epitomized by Jan Hoett ChambresdAmis.33Mounted in Ghent, Belgium in 1986,the exhibition consisted of installations in private homes throughout the ciry. The artists were some of the hottest on the international scene, and *ith its innovative format it is among the most significant exhibitions of the decade. But what exactly was the show? It was fifty-one artists designing work to show offhomes of the Belgian haute bourgeoisie. Nicely housed and fed, unlike their sc_ruft predecessorsrurned iway by the restaurateursof Bern, they were looking at significant prices for their art in an expanding market. For these artists, it was a very different world than that of ry69.

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rz, t992, and from documents in the Seth Siegelaubfuchives. ro. Intetriews with Seth Siegelaub,lantary rz, t992, and with Robert Barry March 28,1992. rr. Dan Grahm's Schemawx conceivedin March ry66, and first published in .AspenMagazine,1966-67,It is reproducedin Ursula Meyer, ed,., Concepnal ln (Nw York E.P Dutton, r97z), p. rz8. The announcementand ad for January5-3r, 1969can be seenon the bottom of the coverof Ans, Febrtery 1989,below Duane Michal's photograph of Siegelaub'sshadow.Michals shot the January Show m a freelancephotographer,spendinghalf an afternoon there and becomingvery interestedin the work. Interuiewwith SethSiegelaub, Janvaryrz, 1992. rz. Oldenburg'sprojectwasdone in Central Prk for the 1967exhibition "Sculpture in the Environment," and photographsare reproducedin LArt Conceptuel,Une Perspectiue, Second Edition (Paris: Musde d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris,r99o), p. zr9. Oldenburgs other proposa.ls for the exhibition werethe naming of Manhattan m an art work, and a "scream monument" broadmting a piercingcry through the city streets at z:oo A.M. It is interestingthat the exhibition jury that acceptedOldenburg'srefilledhole in the ground rejectedRobertMorris! proposalfor displayingjets ofsteam assculpture.Lucy R. Lippard and John Chand"The ler, Dematerializationof Art," Art Intemanonal"February zo, t968,p. 32.lTillim Anmtri had done an earlierwall removalof r7 x 14 inchesin threeincarnationsbeforethe Januaryshow:in 1966in his studio at r33Green Street,in John Weber'soffice at the Dwan Gallery in ry67, and in Klaus Keness'soffice at the Bykert Gallery in ry67 or ry68. Interyiewwith William Anastci, Aprrl24, t992,and ThomasMcEvilley, Villiam Anastasi(New York: Scott Hanson Gallery 1989),pp. 3z-i1. "Four Inteniews with Barry Huebler,Kosuth, and 13.Anhur R. Rose, Weiner,"Arts Magazine,Fel:ruaryt969, p. 23.Reprintedin,4rrs, February ry89,p. 4y, and in GregoryBattcock,ed.,IdtaAn: A CiticalAntholagr (New York E.P Dunon, r97i), p. r49. "An-as-fut," seeBarbaraRose,ed., Art asArt: The ra. For Reinhardtt SelectedWritings of Ad Reinhardt (Berkeley: University of California Press,1975),section2. Kosuth clarifiedhis terminolory in a r97o VBAI interviewwith JeanneSegal,reprintedin JosephKosuth, An afer Phihsoplryand Afer: Colbcted \Yritings, r966-t990 (Cmbridge, Mcs.: MIT Press,r99r), p. 48. r5. The r3 photographsand Huebler'sdocumentarystatementarereproducedin LArt Conrepnel,p. t76. "New York Commentary," Sndio Internatiotnl, 16. Dore Ashton, March 1969,p. r35. For other reactionsofthe critical press,seeGabriele "Formed in Rdsistance:Barry Huebler, Kosuth, and'Weiner Guercio, vs.The Amerien Press,"in LArt Concepnelpp.7+-8r. r7. For a senseofthe broad internadonalcharacterof intermediqa term coinedby Dick Higgins, through a full chronologyof eventmd performance, see Hanns Sohm and Harald Szeemmn, happening& fluxu (Cologne:KoelnischerKunswerien,r97o). For its rich manifestationin the Fluus publicationsof GeorgeMaciunas,seeJon Hendrils, F/zxrr Colx (New York Harry N. Abrams,1988). 18.For Siegelaub'sMarch r3L t969 md,July A*gusL SEtembert969, see Lippard, 5r Years,a docrmentary history of the period from one of its most active critia and exhibition organizers.Lippard and Siegelaub lived togetherduringtg6S-69, and therewm much mutua.linfluence. 19. For a picture ofthe political and cultural forcesaffectingthe art of the late sixties,and a senseofthe number ofpeople involvedin the conresponseto ceptualmovement,broadly construed,seeSeth Siegelaub's BenjaminBuchloh in LArt Concepnelpp. 257-258.

zo. For one responseto Morris, pointing out that everwhing hu some "The Shapeof the An Environment: sort of form, seeAllan Kaprow, How Anti Form Is'Anti-Form ?",4rtfomm, Summerr958, pp. j z y. For 'Hraid Szeemann'sproblem with this title, see Jem-Marc Poinsot. 'Quand les attitudesdeviennentforme' et quelquesprobSreemann, Idmes du musded'art contemporain," in Christian Bobarcki, Daniel Buren, Gilbert 6 George,Jannis Kounellis, Sol LeVix, Richard Long, Maio Merz (Bordeaux:Musded'art contemporain,r99o), p. 26. Sremann relatesthe titling processin the diary of his travelsmsemblingthe exhibition, publishedin StedelijkMuserm, Op Lose Schroflen;tiuatftt (Amsterdam:Stedeli.jkMuseum, t96), n.p. en cryptlsfructuren zr. Sreemann traveled to New York, San Frmcisco, Los Angeles' Chicago, and W'mhington,D.C. in Delcember1968,with stop-offs in L^ V.g* for Christmm gambling (he made $9o) and in Da.lla to see (he dissentedfrom the \!'arren the site of the Kennedy assassination Commission'sview of the singlegunman).Januarytook him to Paris, Milan, Tirrin, Genoa, Bologna, Rome, and London. Details are presentedin his diaristic accountin Op Lose Schronen For excerptsfrom "\il/hen AmiSzeemanntdiary of the installation,seeHarald Sreemann, rudes Become Form, Bern 1969," in Bernd Kliiser and Katharina Hegewisch, eds., Die Kurct dzr Ausstellung(Frankfurt am Main and with the translripzig: Insel Verlag,r99r), pp, zrCzrT. For assistance lation of this material, I would like to thank Klaus Ottmann and ReginaCherry zz. Joseph.Kosuthhas said that Robert Morris went to Veiner's studio seekingwork for the Cmtelli warehouseexhibition, where he saw the "materialist" conceptualworla to be publishedin Stdtmnts. According to Kosuth, while Morris did not put Weiner in the exhibition, he told Serraabout \0'einer'spieces,and that this gave Serrathe idea for the splashedlead.Interuiw with JosephKosuth, October 8, t99r, and t97o "lnfluences: The DifferenceBetween'How notesrecendypublishedro 'Vhy,"' in Kosuth, p. 8I. Vhile fawrence Weiner (interuiew, and March 24, r99z) denies this account, Douglas Huebler remembers 'Weiner complainingabout the matter at a planning meetingfor the January Show (interview, March zz, r99z) and Robert Barry remembers him being upsetby Serratleadpiece(interuiew,March 28, I99z). Whateyer the truth of this story clearly Serrm concerns wirh material and processwere completely different than Weiner'sand predate his splmh piece. 23.The artistsin the Cmtelli exhibidon, in which Morris showednone of his own work, were Giovmni Anselmo, Bill Bollinger, Eva Hesse, StephenKaltembach,Bruce Nauman, Alan Sret, fuchard Serra,Keith Sonnier,md Gilb errc7nrio. EvaHessecompletedtwo additionalpieces for Bern in January(SarcIII and Vinrulum 11),during a period of disability from an undiagnosedbrain tumor. During the courseofthe exhibition her illnesswas diagnosedand she undement surgery and she (New York: Neu died a yearlater in Mry r97o. Lury Lippard, Eza 11rssr York UniversityPress,1976),pp.135,r4r, t48, t54, zt6 n4. 24. For Beuys'splane crash,seeGotz Adriani, lfinfried Konnenz, and Krin Thomas, /areph Beuys:Life and lVorksfW'oodbury NY: Brront. rg7), p. t6.In an interview later in the year,Beuyssaid that his Bern pieceswereof a kind that he had beendoing for a long time, md u'hose "An Inteniew with Joseph value he now questioned.Villowby Sharp, Berys," Anforu.m,Decemberry69, p. 46. zs. For information on the German involvementwith Ameriqr m, see "American Art in Germany: The Historv of a PhePhyllis Tirchman, nomenon,"Artfozz, Novemberr97o, pp. 5849. 26. Interviewwith Gary Kuehn, March 1t, t992. 27. Letter from Harald Szeemann,May rr, ry92. For CharlesHarrison\


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lz (Xreiner), z+ "rln Anna Blme' (Schwitter), rrz, rr4 Ardemn Galleria, NsYods zz Andre, Cd, 221,,24,223,44 48, 21,9,253; Im4 zzr, zz7,215 Angn, 9ptcnbn zr, t951 (llll$4), 20t Annaley, David: Suhglna zzz,z4 Anselmo, Gimi, z41,,247,247, z1.o, Antholagt lz (Youg, Mrc low, md Mtanm),t21,211 "Anti-Fom" (Monis), q+ Arti-Fom whow ahibition (Nw Yotk, ry68),248, z5o, z5o Aphndbiu Tblcphore(Dali), rm Apollinaire, Guillame, ro, r8-r9, 24-26, 27, 22, to, t3, j6, 17, 19, 4o, 4t; Thc Cubi* Painmt, g: LlEcartbmat dr Cubiw, 19 Appel, IGrel, r9o Angon, buis, tt6, u9, tni It Payat de Parb. oz fuchipenlo, Almder, )\ 40,6t,74, 81,, 94, 116, r4o; Family lifr, 69:' Sabru,4o fueroberg lfalter, 69, 74, 77, ro9 Armo, r94, r97-ng n; 2@, 2ot, zro, zrr, x6-t8,l'.16; Anmtktim, zo4; ,4camulatbt of Sabn, x5, zr7; Cachct, r97; invitetion to FullUp ahibition, ry3; pomiendif of (Klein), ry8; Poubclta, rg7-zs6 Robot-Portzit oflrir Clat zoz Arebair(Domngw), tz8 Amory Shw, rea lntemational Exhibition of Modcrn An Arp, Jm (Hms), t8, ror, ro5, ro8j, rr4, r29, l3o, t11, t1'2;Faugaga (wth Ernm md Brugeld), ro&9 Art and Decoration, 65,7z Art a ldza a ldca (Kosuth), z4t-42, 2U Araud, Antonin, rzo An b1 Tilcphonc(De Maia} 248, 249 Art Cftic, ?"fu(Haumn), roryo (Twin,ry59),ryt Artc Nw qhibition (Finch An in PIm College, Nw York, 1966), z3y g,74,75, Art Irotitute of Chiego, 76 Artiss in Exilc qhibition (N* Yorlq r94z), r47 Aniss of Passy,39 Aniss of the Ns York Schol: Sec(|Iw ond Gmention ahibition Yo:*, 196), zza An of Asmblage ahibition (Nw York, r95r), zu An of This Crntury, Nw Yo*, 48, r4r52, r5o, r'4i, rt' An on the Stage(Omka, r9y7), r89 Arrchwagea RJ.chtd, 247, 253; 4o blps, UZ-$, z5o, 211; Tabb uith Phk Tabbcloth,4t, z7z, 214 An That Did Not Isue from Our Souls qhibition (Chemnio, rgll), rr8 An Workcn' Coalition, u54 Asahi, r74, r9o Ashbcry John, 9, zr8, zzo Ashton, Dore, zr4, zr8, 22o,243

Asciation of Amerim Painten md Scrrlptom (AASP), 6o, 62, g, g, 6 4 ,6 t , 5 7 , 7 ) , 7 4 , 7 6 , 7 7 Asiation of Revolutiomry Vriten md Artists, rlo Aryht(H*), z5z Arymt(H*), z5o, z5z Ar rendcmre da'4nir (Ers), tzg AuSu Prcil gallery Pris, u8 Annbib(Rww),91,94-9t Autunr Rlrythm (Pollo&), fi6 Atianr (MaI*icA),95 Auams II(Bnchdlo), zrS Bade6 Johma, ro3, roo, ro7, ro7-4, ro9, rr2., rr4n rt1; Tk Gmt Pfu* Dio-Dad4 Dnna w7: Tb Gffi &daw,rc7 Bangeld, Johmc, rot, r&3, 216; Faugaga (w6 ErN ad Arp), rc84; Fhidalcptil rof; Siwluntriptyhn (widrErcl, tq Buclunal (Puttrs), to9 tuch I(M^ds),6) Baj, Endo; St/c fmi*c, u6 Bdl, Hugo,98-roz" ror, u,1 BdlaGiam,33 Benm$-Rsind, Vbdimir, 83 Barlach, trnst, a3 Beeid, CoSF Cat7. haegd $L 6s, 66 Bor, Alftd" Je, 8, rzr, Dt, 4r, rto, t55,w Bery, Robdt, 2tz, zr8,2rg,2,1.o-4r, z4z; ttre bitt Ve, 219, tqo; 6ookbiaVe,49,zqo Borddnc, trcdsidq rao Beruchdlo, GimFem: II, 'hm zrt Badr6(Dcnin),15 Bauhau, 41 95, r38, r,1o, 46 Baueimr,'Willi, r$, V6: fum udt Pinh Strip III, 14 Bziota, Villim, 49, r1,\ rt+ rtt, 116,t59, r6t, t66 Beton, CaiI, r55 Beu, Alcidc lc, r8 Beudin, Niolas,19 Bcautiful Gadaa, Th (Iz kllc Jodiniln) (Emsr), ul, r+g Beckm, Ma& r4o, r4r, r4t, r47, TZLor in ryr; Christ and th Vm Afubal rtp Bedof Sp*a (DeMzn),211 Beren, !?im, 253 Bethwen, altcrcd dadr mrk, ro9, ro9 Bell,Ixry zzz, z1z-31 Bellmy, Richard, zr4 233,r45 Belb Jardintre, Iz(Tln ka*ifal Gardina) (turct),44,r49 BdIn6 Rudolf , 4t ; Triad, 43 Bellmer, Hm, rzz, r9; lz Poufa ru Benois, Alemder, 86 BCnrd, [lon,4o, rz4 Bergmn,Heri,3r,33 Berlin Dada, 97, 98, toz-r4, rt5, tt91, seeako Club Dada; First Intemational Dada Fair Berlin Natiomlgalerie, y9, r4o Berlin Sroion, f, 73, ro7

Bcm, Eugenc, r47 Barc Dqnsion (Hew), 245, 254 Bcm Kunshalle. rrr Vhen Aniruds Bome Form qhibition kuys,Joxph,r77,247, zto, 2to, z1,4 Biqc [st (F.omow), 94, 94-9, ar'd(NiadC), tr Bjcrke-Petem, rf(/ilhelm, rz9 Bhck Dizmnd Atwican Dream #z (Indim), zt5, zt7 thch on Blzck (Rodcher*o), g6 Bhc h Spot, Tk (Kndnsky), w Blah Qun (MeJai&) , 84, 86, 9o-9t Bladcn, Ronald, zzo, z3o, z3z; Three Ebmatt, zjo,4e1z Blake. Peter: Inuc Wa.lI zt5 Bhnt (Lichterctâ&#x201A;Źn), zr1, zt 7 "Blank Fom Sculpre" (Monis), zzl Bhu Rcier Almm, 44, 46-48, 48, 50, jr, 1,4,5J,,7 , 1,8,519,6c, 8o; wer (t<zndtnsky), +6, +8 Blau Reiter group, ,+r,4zJg,50,7r, 78, 8o, t41, 176; chibitiom: first (Muich, r9u), 17, 42, 42, 44, 4, 4, So-SS,5o, 5t, 53, 57-58: wnd, (hbuaz-Weis, rgrz), y8-y9; lrt (Bcrlin, r9r4), 57-y8 Bleyl, Fritz, y8 Rls,Li;l\e0,61,74, 74 Blalr, Alben, to, 1ft, 58; Head, 1;t; Tbnc Pimr,5r qhibition (Nry York, Bloodflarc 1947), rt' Bhu Dish(Kdly), zg Bluemer, Ow,51,72 Blu Nudt(Metix),6r,76 Bluhm,Nomm, r@ Breioni, Umbeno,3r,33 Bahler, Mel, zzo Bocni, Alighierc: I Vho Take thc Sun in Tbino, z5t,253 Bogulawkaia Zherua,81, 86,87, 90, 9t' 97 Boitc m Valiv (Duchanp), go Bollingea Bill,253 Bolu, Michael, zz7, z3y Bonnard, Pierre, rz, 6o Bontruu, Irc, zro Borgenicht, Gre, Gallery r57 Borglm, Gumn,5z,6y &otth, Thc(Teilin),8t Bottb and Ghs (UdaJtrcn), g+ Boudelle, Emile-Antoine, 63 Bourgrcis, lnuis, z3y Bmdford Junior College, 239 Bmcui, Comtmtin, 76, g, 72, 77, rt6, zq; Endlcs Colum4 zzTi Mlh. Pogary',67,67; Tbm,63 Bnque, Gorga, tz, 14, 16,21, 24, 26, 26' fi' t6' 4c,' 45, ,8' 60' r4o' r47; Iage Nu&,26 Bnuhau Winter, Cologne, ro8 Bramer, Vctor, r5z; I(abihne in Mouemt,81 Brwn, Theodore, r7r Breton, AndrC, u5, tt6-t9, rr9, tzo, r22, r24, r29, r3o, 42, rtl, r47, r49, rjr, rj2, rt3, r14, 256; Le (hdam kqdgtzg; Firet Paper of Surelism etalogue, r;r, r 5z;Portrait ofthc Aear A.8., t5o; A Tom Saching r5z

279

Brcton, Julo louis, 4r Brinton, Christim, T3 Bmks, Jma, ry9, 167, rV, r9o Brue, Patrick Henry 51, 73 Brticke,Die, 17,58,6o,71, roS Bmi, Ie,95 Bwls Sciety of Indcpendent Anisa *hibition (r9rr), 27, 4o Buffet, Gabrielle, 69, zz Ballrtin D.rc8 Balletin Intcrutbul d4 Sffilaliw, r32 Buchu{ Dr. Otto, no, ro3-4, rt2i gtletie, too, tot, to3, to4, ttz Bm, Daniel,254, z5y Burgs, Gelen, z3 Buliuk, David, 45, to, 1-r,78,80, 82, 84; Horc,5o Buliulq Vladimir, 4t, so, tr, 78,80, 84; PortruitSnS y Buna"Flwalj,Bz Buton, Soa, z4y,248 Bw, Peter,r54 Cabuet Volairc, Zuich, 98, ror, ror Cacbct(Arm),gz C-adam Eqais, Iz (Breton), rz9 Ctdzar (ManRry), t9 CafC Pittoraque, Moscw, 96 Cage,John, q4 r9r, zto, zz7 Cage(DeMaia), 217,234 Calas, Nicholo, r15 r2z, rrz, rt4 Calder, Almder, "Call for a Elemenury An" (Haumm et d.), rr4 CawaWuh,+6,22 Camoin, Chulq, ro , rz, 14, 19, 21 Cmpendonl Heinrich, 5o, 5r, y4 r4o, r4r, r43i laping Hom, y: W'omrand.Adiml p Camu, Alben, r9z Canaday,John, zu Carc, Anthony, zzz, 227-28,z)4,211t; Tiun, zn, zzz, zz7 Caone, Nichola, rd3, r9o CurI, Culo, r, n; Fuwal of tln AurcbttGalli,g Cmington, lonora, r3z, r;z Eroico,59 Cru, Cmclli, trc, 46, 156, t5859, t6t, t5z-44, 167, 17, zzo; gallery No Yorh rl8, 2rt, 2rz, zzJ, 2tt; rehoue, Nw York, 248, z5o, :;o Cavallon,Giorgio, r16,t67, r6t,w Ceda Stm Thvem, Nw York, 156, 16z, t6z, t6j, 164, t66 Celmt, Germmo, 245 Cendrus, Blaire, +; b hoe dt Tiareibhia a dc paitc Jclvnu & France(vithS. Delarmy), + Cdsa, zro C4amc, Paul,r.4"r8, 19,21,14 b, 6z61,6s, z+; Alliu da pawrc,74 Chagall, Mrc 8o, 8+ 96, 97, 47, r17, ryz; Rzbbt p,8, t+ Chambcdain, John, ao, zn Chambcr of Horcn shibidon Nuembury 1911),r3t Chanbrc d'Anir (Ghcnt, 1986),zJy Cbampsdllbictuc Io(Ma Rey), ra Chanler,Bob,6q


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INDEX

Sm (Ashrya, 1915), ing Midsrmer r74. r74, 176-77, r77 82, 90, 9r,95 Ener, Almdra" Fahlstrom, Oyvind, zr5 fahura spua w lsru (Nunn), 95 Falk, Ray, r89 Falk, Robert,84 Fdkerutein, Claire, r9r Fallfmn an Aaoplzrc,l (Kameroky), 85 Fmib Lifc(Archiry*o),6g FmtasticAn, Da&, Sunslism qhibition (Nw York, 1915), 8, tz2, t o, r33 Fmtin-Iatour, Henri, r7r farbcr, Mmy, r7z "Far-sighted Mmifato" (Piebia), z9 Faugaga (Ercr, Bmrgeld, md A+), ro&9 Faue, Elie, Io,6t Feigan, Richrd, Gdlery 235 Feininger, Lyonel, r43 Feliniiller, Felix, r+r Feh PieccNo. 4 (Moms), zro, ztt Fmm no t2*s, lz(Ernst), rzz FCnCon,Fdlix, ll Fnhtm, bs(Ddawy),lZ Fcren, John, Iy8, r5r, rya, r72 Ferre5 Raphd, zyo rz Fem Gdlery IoAngela, Festival Dada (Puis , tgzo), u5, tt5, tt6, I19 Fa t whntl evhlbition (SainrPhalle), 2to Figun with Pinh Stripc 11l (Bameisrcr),44 Fim I D isn lution (Sener), rcr Nry York, Finch College Muem, 215 Fine, Pal, r59 First Dada Exhibition (Zwich, ryr), IOI

Fint Exhibition of Painterly Relieft (Mosw, r9r4),81 Firet Exhibition of the Editors of the Bhu Reitcr (Mwich, rgrr), 17, 42, 42, 44, 4t, 48, '.v5l, to, tL tt, j7; Berlin version, 57-58 Firet Fumist Exhibition, rcaTimmy Fint Germ

Autumn Salon (Berlin,

ryv),57 of Firs Germm Pmt-Wu Remime the Am (Berlin, r9r9), ro8 Fimt Get Berlin JokeArt Exhibiuon \19oo), r29 First Guai lndmr Exhibition (Tokyo, r95), r77-3o, t78, t79 Firet International Dada Fair (Bedin, tgzo), 97, 98, roo, ro2, ro3, ror-j, to5, ro7, to8, rogFrz, rro, rr4, rrt, 116,rtz, rr1, r4t Firs Papen of Sunslism qhibirion (Nry York, ry42), t5t, rtzJ4, rt3, 216 235 Fischbrch Gallery NwYorl Fischer,I(onnd,253 Fircher, Ono, +8, tz Fiu Fea ofColorful Took(Dine), ztz Flmagm, Barrp Tuo Spue RopcSmlp-

tuft, 247, 2tO, 2tr Flavin, Dm: cow mnumilt 4,227, 212 Fkifu sLEti k (Bnrgeld), to8 Flww, zz7, z7g,231 Flynt, Henry 235 Esen, r4o, r4r FolhrmgMwm, Fontana" Lucio, r9o, r94 (Kxwyama), rI + Football ForaJrjs,Paer, zlz; JFK 42, z3j (Pach a al.), 76 For and Agairet Fon, Pau.l,26,39 ao blps(Artschwager), 247-4f., zto, zt) (Pris, 4o'au-daw dt Dada shibition t96r), zro, ztr 4z nd.ParalbI (Huebler), zt8 a5% Abhhodbd (Var Cnpphs) (Du), 98, too, to1, tro, t41 Fom Exhibition (Nw York, r9ro, 77 "Fomdation

of Futurmd Muifsto isrn' (Muinetti), ll Fnnain(Dudtmp),77 zz8 Fourth Dw(Goskt), Fu TmtNluhol), zt7 Fmcis, Sm, r9o, r9r rz4 Fmk,Jm-Michel, Fnnkel, Thodore, zy Fnnlenthaler, Helen, 166, 1671, t9o Froier, Paul: Pink Slit 234 Freddic, Iz9 "FrcMuic" (Kulbin),8o Fne Rtub (Smith), zn Freud, Sigrnmd, rzo, r3z Freudlich, Ono, r43; The Nru Man, r43, r44 Frick, Wilhelm, rl8 Frick" Willy, to9 Friedmm, B. H., I74 Friedrich, Heiner, zy1 Friw, Othon, 14, r5, z, TfuNru FrcmCilimnSupmtin, Painterly kalim (Malmch), 87 Fry Rogec +t,51 FryVuim, r49 Full-Up (tr Plein) qhibition (Puis, r9j, r99, 2oo, 2or ry5o), ry7a1 Rrnaal of thc Amrchi* Galli (Carl), 36 Fumrist Tour of Rusia, 8z of our frr Galerie, rce nda m galbria not listed bclou u6, rr8, tzz, tzj, Galerie Bau-Ars, r28,129,rn Galerie Bernheim-Jewe, 4, t9, y-16, 17, 61' 7t Galerie Dada, Zuich, ror, roz Galerie de la BoCtie,35 Galerie de l'An Contemponin, 33 Galerie Fischer,Lucrne, r47 Galerie Gndiw, r3z Galerie J, zro, zrr Galerie Neufrdle, zrr Galerie Pierre, u9, r3o Galerie Pierc Colle, rzz Galqie Rive Drcite, zro Galeria Dalmau, Bua)ota, 37 Galerie Sur&liste, u9, rn, rto Galleria Apollinaire, Milan, r94 zro Galleria Ani Figuntivi, Tiuin, r9r

Gallery One, Iondon, r94 Gmcoyne, David, r3z Gauguin, Paul, rc, t6, 19, 45,6o,61, 65, t4o, t47; Noa-Noa 6, 65,76; Ndas on theSan447 Ghe lfung Dq (Thc Yclhu Sound) (Kmdinsky), y5,y7 Geldahler, Henry zr8-r9 Gereowlub, Cologne, 57 National Gdlcry Berlin, 59, Gem 140 A Wnter't Tale(Gw), too Gmry Gerowitz, Jud;c Rainbw Phka, ni Gsler, Ono, rrz Gwcy, Edwd,64 Nkno, n9, yz, zt7; Giaometti, Inviibb Objcd, rz9; Objer mobila ct muts, r22i On ne jou pl*, og: SaEmdcd BaL nz; lY'omn virt Hn Thruat Cut rto, t'r Gibson, John, 219 Gide, An&C, r8, n6 Gic, Ludwig Creifud Christ, 47, 4t Gignou, RCgis,z7 Gimbel Brcthcn,77 Girieud, 14 Glackem, I7illim Jma, 6o,62, $, 72' 74,77 Gls, Philip, +t,:to Gleia, Alben, 24,26, 27-29, ?o, t6, 37, 39, 40, 4r, 77, 8o, 83, u6; Cubin (wth Metzkrye), 19-4o, 8o,8t Harut Thrching 77; Man on thc Bahony 74; Vomn with Phlu,27, z8 Gnedov,Vroily,86 Goda, Roben, r94 God.ui* U(Grcs),uo Gcbbels, Joseph, 4o, r4r, t4t, r45, r47 Gocritz, Mathio, zo4 Gogh, Vinmt m, o, 14, 19, 48,6o, 61, 6t, r4o, r47 Goldberg, Michrel, r57, r9o Goldtn Fbre, l"Da 8o; qhibition (Morcq r9o9), z5 Golz, Hms, i8 Golyschcfi Jefim, ro8 Natalya, t8, 28, 8o, 82, 8+ Gonchm, Goodnough, Roben, 164, r55 Giiring Hemmn, r47 Gorky, fushile, I54, r5r, 164 Gomki, Dmiel:.Fazrt Dw, zz8 Gotdieb, Molph, r55, rt9, 16r,2rt GoAm b(Mevinge),29 (GerGovernmot An qhibitions mny,ry3),r78 Gnfton Gallery london,53 Grahm, Dn, zg1;Schm, z4o Gmd Palais, Ptis, ro, rz, rt, 27, 4r; reea&aSalon d'Automne Gmphischo Kabinen, Berlin, ro; Gtay,D*id,z7z Great Amican NrZr (W'ewlmmn), 212-14 Get Anti-Bolshwist Exhibidon (Gernny,9g7),t47 Grat Gemm An Exhibition (Munich, rqlZ), t16, r4o, t4r, t44, 146 Gnat Mrenrbao4 The (Dall), rzo Gmt Plan-Dio-Dada Dmna, Thc

z8r

(Fgtu),rot Glrc, El, 4; I loltr, St Gmbcrg, Ckmq & t5+ 16, z:.t, 2)4.2t5 rot Gna Cafuux Th(W), Gren Gallery Nq Yodq il2n+ xL, 22t,2)1 GnmTaryaQohrc),zn Grc4 Muny,219, z4o Gregg Frederick J., 54 6g, tz, Z6 Grippe, Florenc, 167 Gli;ppe,Ptet16T, 168 Gris, Jw, 24, j6, )7, 4o; Honagc a Picreso,a6; It lzuabo, 4o "Seing Nw York with Grisold, J. E: aCubix," 72,'7217 Grwenor, Roben, zjo, 4z; Thwi 4r4 229,22y-to Grosz, Gorge, 98, too, roz, toi, tot, ro7, ro8, Io9, rog, rro, rr2, rr4, rrt, "orrated mrterpic" r4o, I43; (with Herdeld), to9, tro; Eccc A Winmi Hom, trr; Gmryt Tale, no; God uith U, vol' Thc Philistine Heanfeld Gou VliA (with Hardcld), no, rc1; Vctim of Socittt roo, tro, ttt GuCrin, Chde, I8 Gwnia(Piwo),t+g Guggenheim, Peg1 t48, r49, Ito, Itr, t5z, t54 t15, 16r Guggenheim Jeue, Iondon, r49 Guillame, Paul, gallery n9 Guo, Elem,8o,8o Guton, Philip, I5I, 162,r7r, 2r5 GUTAI, r74, r9o, tgt Guai An Assmiation, r73, t74-9t; Art on the Stage (1957), r89; indor First (Tokyo, r95y), shibitioro: 17718, r78, t79, tE7 Srcnd (Tolq., tq:6), t84, 186-87; Third (Kyoto, r9y7), r8z; Founh (Tolqo, 1917), t9o: Internarional An of a Nry Era (Osaka, 1958), r9o; International Slqr Fatival (Osaka" rg5o), r9I; outdmr ahibitioru: Fim (Ashiyr, r95), r74, r74, 176-77, t77: One Day (t9s6), rz4, r8o, r89; *and (Ashiya, Igl5), rZ+, 18o-36, t8r, r8z, r83,'Tirrin exhibitions, r9r Haclre, Hms, zt+ Hadwiger, Else, ro7 Hains, Raymond, zoj, zro,215-16 The (hru), ts,8z, st Haidmrr Haimmn, Richad, r43 Hal| David, zz7,215 Hall, Jru-Baptistc, t6 Halpen, Smuel,73 Hmbug Kumthalle, r4o Hapgood, Hutchiro, Tz Hua, Miyrko, t87 Hre, David, r5z"r55,156 IIamnl on kint-lrc (Valtri), 19 Hmison, Charlc, zq Hmigan, Gre, 164, 156, t9o Hardaub, Guav, rlt Hanlry, Masden,7z Hm,Thoruvon, to, tt Hammg, Hm, zo4 Hzrwt Thrching (Glws), lZ


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Izdy at tlrAdurtiwt Pilhr(Malevich),8+ rad)t Colu Mrca of tk Fotr* and (Malryich), qo 9coad Dimim Ia Fmmyc, Rogu dc, 27, 3o, tr-31, +o, t8; b Caircict zz taing Gcmld, zz7 lam, Wilftcdo, r5z Iampud, Pierc,4o Izndrapc (Sany Pa*) (Mrc), yo bndrapc uith Aaituk and Rninbru (Mtc), So Innis Gallery NwYorlq 239 zro Iaede,Ja, Iagt Nu& (Bnque), z6 Iaionry, Mikhail, 58, 78, 8o, 8u, 84 86 Irow, Ibm,156 I*ham, John, zr5 Iauencin, Muie, z7, 30, 40, 60 lautrdamont, Comte de, r99, rz8 Izuabo, h (Gis), +o Izvcnda Mb t (lollock), 6 6 zt7 kmw(Dine),26, IzmeWein4 Sammt,48 lawn, Emat,5z Imping Honc (Czmpendonk), tr ken, Nina" 166 lr Fauomier, Hmri, 14, 26, 27, 1'o, tz, 4t, so,8o, 8r; Abtnfurcc, 25, 26, 27' 4I Ldger,Femd, 24, to, tt, p, 77,8o, 81, tr6, r4o, r47, t49, w; Nth in a Izndtape,27, zE; Thc Vciling 16 lrhmbruck, Vfilheln, 6z; Ihcchng Womn,6z,6g,t4o k Nmi, Guido, r94 lrcnardo &Vnci, 37 lslie, Alfred, r54, r66, t9o, rgt Im (Andte), zzr, zz7, 235 llvi-Stmm, Claude, I;z loy,Julim, Gallery rz8 lmitin,lada, r58 lrVim, Sol, 233-34, 215,48, 2119,247, 41; Opm Modulzr Cube, 273,214 Lhote, AndrC, 4o Libruie Six, Paris, u9 Lichtemtein, koy, ztz, zr4-t5, zt8, zzo,z4z; BIam,t1 zt7; R$igaamt; 217 Liebknecht, Karl, roz, ro8 Lifr of Clri*cyde (llolde),4r Lbn Dwring an Attchpc (Rorrcu), ro, r8 Itp chie, Jrqua, 81, t 47 Iippard, ltcy, zzz, zz8, 45, 48, 251 Lirsitsky,El,96, rr4, r41 Lis, Albcrt md Vera, 4z Littln*re, t8; group, to9, 116 LivingThate6 zz3 bru Sohs(Hugnet), tzo Icb, Piere, u9 Iong Richrd, zay Ilpatin, B.,95 Iotircn, Roben,58 louis, Monis, zzz, z3y Lungingundo thc Pina (Puy), 18 Im Wall(Blake),16 Liibtrk Cathednl, 116 r4r hlc, Gorge,6z Lunrchanky, Amtoly, 95, 97

brchan of tln Boating Paq (Renok), 19 Lw, It(Mans),76 lrc, cabnawlupd (Matis), rz Lwboqg Roa, roz,to8, r44 LmbourgMwm,rz Lyell, Marf md Earl, Zl Macbeth Galleric, Ns York, 6o MacChcncy, ClmT,68 McCmcken, John, z3z McCutchon, John T,, 71 MrcDryell Club, Nry York, 6z Mrcim*, Gorge, zz3,213 Macke, Augute,44,46,48, :.o,t+ st, ,7, t8, j5giIndiare on Horcbuk, 5o, ,r, 52' 54 MrcIm,Jrclaon, zz3 MrcRae,E)mer,6o,61,77 McShine, Kynoton, 2n, zz2- 229, 212,z)1,2)4-3t Mlh. Pogarl (Blllrui)' 62, 6Z Madison Gallery Nw Yodq 50 Magrinq Rcnd, rn, ot, r29, rto, rt2, r1z; la CIcffu nga,go Maillol, fuistide, 5o Mairon &bistc (Duc}mpVillon), 40' 6t Maison fu Mn Pln (Vbmind), t8 Makhg Six Hola in Orc Mmt (Mwakami), ry7-78, r 79, tb Mela, la: Marcquit tz6, rz8 Mddich, Kaimir, 4r, 58,78,8o, 8o, tz,8+ 86,86-82, 9o-9r, 9s-96, 97, 256;Alogin offons,g1,i 'h'iabsgji Bhck Squn, 81,86, 9o-9l' wr for Tlr TIru, 8o; Au ail Volin in Macou 91; An Englbhm 8r, 84 9t; hn a C*bin Supmmttum 8z; 7k ICif -Ginda, Rlbt 8z; Izd! at tlx AAntimt of th htdt 84: ItdT Gbr Mrc and hcond Dimins, Fi Pcineily Mrea, go; Painnly Rcalin of a Football Plalcr--Abt Mrc of ttr Fourtlt Dmiott 9o; Supmwist Painting z9; WorT w tlr Sut8t; Witt Squrc,9r,96 Malik-Verlag roz, roJ, rro, rrt Man and Fmlc (tlolde), r* Mmet, fdoud, r2,53,5t Muguin, Heui, ro, n 4n 19, 21, 6o: Thc Siatafi Mmifato of Surqlism (Brcton), n8, tu (DaIi; Manncquiu Dominque; Duchamp; Emst;Jm; Mdcq Mm Rala Mmn; Mir6; Paalo; Seligmm; lurguy), 16, rz4-t8, rz6, r27 Mmolo (Mmwl Mardne HuguC), 74 Man on thc Bahory(Gbiza),2+ Mm Ray, 77, tt6, rr8-t9, tn, nz, 123-2.+ r28, r29, r1o, r)2, r1.); A mw, lharcfulbbstatioFta t1o, r77; Cadcaa, u9; Ia Chanpt dllicim, tn; Marrcquh, rz6, tzt Mmni, Pierc, r9r, r94 Mrc, Flw, 4r,42, 44,4tJo, 46 rr, A, jt, t7, t8, 59, t4t, r41, r47; Dea

in tln Fortst I, 5t, y; Izndrape (Snny Pah), 5o; bndscapc uidt Ani' nab and Rzinbou 5o; Portmit of of Hai Rrcca* y, s4 5s; Tw Blu Hora, r4t; Ycllm Cou, to, tr, tt' t6 Mrc-Relli, Connd, r18, r19, rgo Marcl, Henri, ro Manh tjt t969,241 Mreuis,Iouis, +o Mre, Andr6, lr, +o Marcy, Etieme-Jula,37 M*ineni, F. T., 26, 3t, 37,8o,82, to7 Tbc lhtudy,u4 MnnL Marque, Alben, ro Marqua, Albert, ro, 12, 14, 16, rg, zt, 6o; Mativc Ptinting in Manguin:s Studio, zo Fstival of the Amt-Gude Mmills \1956), t97 Mabkw, Ilya,84 Mmn, AndrC, ug, r2t, r29, r1o, r31, t47, t1,z;Dcath of Opheli* u7, tz1: Manuqri4 rz7, rz3 Mather, F.J., Jr., 58 Mathio, Gorgc, I89, I9o Matis, Hemi, ro, nt, n, r4-t6, t8, t9, 23, 42, 45,6o, @,65,67-48, 59,72, 26, zz,8o,8z, r4o; Buh I, 5t; Blu NuL, 6t z6; b Lw, z6; Lw, caln a wfupl, rz; Thc O?a Wndou+t+ tz, 18; portmit of (Denin), zr (Marqua), zo; Thc W'mn with dr Ha,4, 15,16,t8 Matis, Pim, r5z; gallery, r4d Mativ Painting in Manguinls Sndio (Maqut), za Matiuhin, Mikhail, 78, 80, 8o,8r-42, 87,90' 9t' 97 M^t L r4Z, rtr, rt2, rS4 r51, 64 Thc furt Is aMan, r5r Marcr, Merceda, rj8, rdz Mauclair, Camille, r8, z7 MamrAlfu,6z Mayakowky, Madimir,82, 84, 96, 97 Mehring rIfdter, jr, rc), n4 Meisnier, Emot, r3o Mm ria of Nigb t (Rwlo), 15 Menkov, Mikhail, 87,9ot Painting in Fnr Dimwiorc, gs 26, ,o, 17,82, Mcrceu, Almdrq n6 Merlau-Ponty, Mauric, zz1 Merid<" L.,68 III I, Mn II, nd Mm Mn (Tucker), zz7, ztj t41, zy, z9; Acqu Mera Mrio, Sciula (r{a), 247, 247, 251 "Mep' (Schwittcn), u+ Mm.bau (Schwittere), gl Meero, E. L. T., rlz, rli Metrcpoliun Mwm of An, Nry Yorls 74, ttg, 165, zt8, z4t Metzinger, Jm, 2t, 24, 26, 27, )o, 31,, 40, 41, 77, 81, tt6, 146; Cubim (with Gleirc), )9-4o, 8o, 8t; Le GoAtut zgt 7La Tiru, jz Micrcslom, Clen gallery n4,2o5 Miller, Dorothy, rJ6 Miller,Ia, rto Miwtauft, n\ r23, 129

2;8)

Mir6, Jm, il9, rz1. r29, rp, r1z: It Corpr dc m bnrc. . ., tzt; Mt Intcrion, 4o; Mannqth, n6, nt (MMimr in *c Ccntcr of tlr Mt Ychihm), I85 Mitchell, Jm, 61 t67, t9o; Uttitlal, rt7' rtg Moderne Bu4 Der, t8 Modemen Galerie, Muich, q+ g Modiglimi,Amedo, a7 Modulu qhibition (Nw Yodc 1160, 4t Moholy-Nagr, Llsl6, ua Miihring B.: Abntahl, n9 Mofzlrn, Johmo: Tuirc, r44 Mondrim, Piei, 6o, t4o, t45, r47, t49, 24t Mona, Claude,r9,42 Monftied, Gorges-Dmiel de, I5 Morcchrcmc Prupositioro (Kein), r9z94 Monod, Fmqois, r8 Montms Gallery NwYork" 77 Moore,Henry 4z, t5z, zn Monu, Gutave, rz, r9 Morgner, l7ilhelm: &lf-Portrait, t44 Morgmov, Alelaei, 95 Moria, Chula, rz Morcw, Im,8z Monis, Robcn, zz3-2s, 22t,229, 229, 42, zrf,24,48, . t't,248, 249;Fch Pbcc No. 4, z1o, z5r Monis, Villim, z6 Mow Schml of Painting, Sculp rure, md Architecnue, 8o Mothemell, Roben, r49, rtz, rt4, rtj, 156,r59, r6t, t66, t9o, zrl Motonaga, Sadamra" 176, r8o, fir, rg, 186, rSgi Naib, q6, ry7; Snna, r78, r79 Mourcy, Gabriel, z7 Mueller, Otto, j8, r4r, r43 Muhtto, The Q'Iolde), q6 Muller, GrCgoire,z4i MuMr(Oldenbw), zt6 Much, Edrud.5o Mmicipal Archaological Irodtute , Mmich, r4o Miinter, Gabriele, 4z-44, 46, 1o, trJ4, jt, t;8, s9; Coantry Road, 5r; Darh Still Lif, 47, 5t; Mwau houe, 44, 4t; photognphq 44, to, 50,9; Still Life (Pinh), 5o Munlami, Sabuo, r74, 17, r8o, r8r, 186, r87, r89; Ma*ing Six Hola it Onc Momnt, ry7-78, r79, t8o; SQ, r8r Yruhi, r8r, r87 Mmo, Mwm Hau [:nge, Krefeld, zyl-54 Mwu of Artistic Cu.lrure, Mww, 96 An, Mwm of Contemponry Chiego, za8 Mrem of Modem An (MOMA), Nry York 74, 74, r52, r14, t56, t6r, zt8, zzo, zlzl' qhibitioro, 8, Izz, r3o, tjt, r49, r!o, 16r, 162, r7z, r7f, 2rl Mwm of Normd An, Nry York, 49 'Mwm

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INDEX

Quenau, Raymond, r3o Quinn, John, 52, 57, 72, 7j, 74, 77 Rzbbi (Chagll),48, 4 Ragon, Michel, r97 tuinbw Phka (Gercriz), zz6 Rainy Tui (Dali) , n2-zy r2t, rz4 Ranon, Chds, rzz, r33 Raurchcnberg Roben, 167, r7, uo, zrr, zzzi 22 Tln lil Witc,r67 Raynal,Mauic,37 Ralns, Mmial, :oo 20+ 2a1,,zro,2rr, zr6-t8 Read, Hcrben, rt6, r49 Thc (Penrw), 14, tz3 Real Vomt kd Hcad (Schmit-Rotduff), r++ Redon, Odilon, ro, 41,62,51,65, z+: Rrya andAngclba Q, 75 Redslob,Edwin, rrz,4y Reed,John, 7z R{rigaaor (Lichrcnstdn), zr z Reinhardt, Ad, r15, r19, 164, t7r, z4r, "Mwm 244 Rrcing Form," 164 Remedic, rz9 Renoir, PiereAugute, n; Lunchconof thc BoatingPartyry Repin, Ilya" 4z Ronick, Milton, r;6, r58, r1;9,r7z Ramy,Jmine, zro Rotmy, Piere, r94, r9s, n4, 2ot, 2ot, 2ro-il, zt4, zt6, zr8 Reubo Gallery NwYork, r9r, zrz Rbohtion nntalistc, 14 rr9, tn,9o Rlythm of the %int'Mow $alerci), t9 Richenberg, Roben, r7I Ricke, Rof,2t3 Ridcn or thc knd(Gaugun),47 Rigaut, Jacquo, u8 Rimsky-Komkw, Nikolai A, 84 fuopelle,Jm-Paul, r9o Rin, 14 29,3o Rivera, Diego, r3z Rivere,larry, 165 Robbe-Grilla, Alain, zrc Robins, Corime, zz8 Robimn, Theodore,5y Robot-Portrait of Iris Clcrt (Arm), 202 Rmkefeller, Ma. John D., III, 166 87, gS-gZ; Rodchenko, Almder, Blak m Blah,96 Rodin, Augutq 69-72: Balw, zlz Rogr anlAngelica(Redon), 53, 7y Romairo, Julo, 116 Rommo, Salwtore, z1o, z1z; Zno II, 23o,2)2, 233 Rowelt, Thodore , 67,68,59 Rosati, Jmc, rd8 Rose,Brbm, 9, urg, 2zt, 228-29,2)2, 21' r55 Rore, letria, Rorenberg, Hrold, 9, t64, r7r, r89, 2t4, n9 Rwnquist, Jma, zrz, zr4, zt5, z16, zr8; I Inw Yoa uith My Ford, zr5, z6; Silua Skia, zr1, Rotella, Mimmo, zro, z15-16 Rothko, MilL 49, rS5, 156, r19, t6r, 164,166,2r5 Rouulq Gorga, n, 14, 2J, 4t, r4oi

Pcillzn,Acan, Cltw,rS Rorcu, Heni,27, 46, .48, 5o, 5t-5a, 7y Lin Dmaing an Artlopc, to, 18; Mynlf, Po*ait-LandraPc, to9, rra; ponnit of (Mrc) , tr, tr, t4, sti htta aith Chickm, try,1 y, t3, 54 Rmnova, Olga, 8o, 8d, 94j5; Atagl, 94-95; Bitylist, l+, mbih 94-95; lViting Dak, 9j Rubero, PeterPaul Bucharul ro9 Rubinsein, Hclcna, r3o Rublmky,John, z4 Tiaucl Piccc, 248, Ruppenberg, lila: 249 Rukin, John, r8 Rudl, Morgar,53 of Luigi, 3t, 9; Mmoria Rwlo, Night,36 Ruthenbck, Reiner, 247, 253 Ryder, Alben Pinkhm, 6y Rym, Roben, z9 Sml zur Kafleuten, Zuich, ror Sabmeiw, lmnid, y5 Sackville Gallcry london, 35 y St. Gcoryr II(Kndrrcky\, St.John (HGw\, s+ St. Mmin's Schol, Iondon, zz8 St. Paenburg Union ofYouth, 8o, 8I, 82 SainpPhdle, Niki de, zro, zn, zt6: Ft d whntl shw, uo; Ttr, 186,zo7 St.Stwrh, No. r(Dclawy), t4 tr, t4 Sakhrcff,Almder, tt (fllue' Dwc* kh , S4nduich6 d betd),zts, zt6 SalleGaveu, Pris, rry, ug,16, rr9 Salmon, AndrC, 2+ 29, jo, rr, ,, J6i Thc YoungFnrch Painting ll Salonc (Arclupenla), 4o Sdon dAutome, rc, n, 2g-)o, 40, 4r, 44; G9o), rc, ,6; (r9o4), to, rz; Ggot), rezl, 13, 22, z4Faa Qgo6), fi,4i G9o7), 14, L), toi GqoS),uf; Gqos), +; Ggio), z+, z6; (tgtt), z+, 27-i.o, 33; Ggtz), 29, 30,3r, g, t9, 40 Salon de la Nationale, ro Salon do Artistq Fmsais, ro Salon de IndCpendm*, ro, 26,27, 30, 4r, 44 g9o), o; (tgoA,4t G9at, z1; Ggto),24, 8o; (r9rr), 24, 26-27' j4, )6; (tgtz), 36,,t Salon of the Scion d'Or (Puis, rgru), 24, 1o, 1t,32,14,16-19, 4o Sm,Lus,zzz Smdback Fred, ztr Smder, Ludwig, r;8, 167 Smden, Jmp, tt6, r7z; Dcatb and Enfidnc$, 170 Smdler, Iring 9, zt8, zz8, z1e7z Smkei Hall, Oeka, r89 Smseido Gallery Tokyo, 186 Sao Paulo Biend G95t), zll Sua, Alm, zy3 Smutc, Nathalie, zzo Satie, Eric, u9 "'Sawgc'of Rsia The" (D. Buliuk), 8o Schmberg Monon,77 Scbammafu,Die,rog

Schapirc, Meyer, 16r, r54 zzo Schm(GnIm),2<a Schiaparelli, Elsa rz4, rz6, tz8, rlz Schifano, Maio, zrt Sclrlcgell, David von: Vauc, z3z, 233 Schlemer, Os, rt8, r4t Sclrlichter, Rudolf, ror, ro5, tr2, rr4i Bhm, u4; The Dcart of Anu Impwd Paintingt of Anti4airy ro9; (with HanAnhangl bwian field),98, ro4 uo, rrz Weim, rl8 Scblosmwm, Schmalhauen, Ono, no, rc, ro4, rloi altered ponnit, ro9, ro9 Schmela,Alfted, galery, ry4, n4 Schmidt, Paul, rrz Schmidt-Rotduf,, KxL 58, t47; Por' tran of B. R, r44, 146; Poftrait of 4 Womn, 44; Rcd Head ry+; Vm witb Dahlia,4z Scholz, Gmrg, rol; Hinbnbury Hcad cheae,toi Indutial Famm, n6 Schiinberg,Amold, 48, 48, ,o,57, t8t &lfPortrait, 49,5o, y Schwan-W'ciss (Blrck-\7hite) qhibition (Mmich, rgrz), t8 Schwiners,Kun, ro5, rr2-r4, r3.3,r41, "Mez," 4f' Die l{zthedrab, rr4; n4; Mmbau, 93:' Unnte, tt4 Peub Wcek, zz7, zz8 San,Tn: Scriabin, Alruder, tt Scull, Roben, zr4, 233 "ScuJptom fuchitemre, A' (Pach)'5t 9a Garfun(Trwu), zl+ 'Seond of Surelism' Mmifcto (Bmon), rzo Scond Outdmr Exhibition of the (Ashiya, Guai An Awiation 1956),fie8y fit, r8z, rEi Exhibition Sond Posrlmprsionist (Iondon, rgrz),53 Congro of Anisr Seond Ruiu (St. Petenbury r9u),46 Setion dOr, tt5; seealto Safon of rhe Sation dOr 'Seeing Nw York with a Cubist" (Gnwld), zz,zt Segal, George, ztz, zr8, zzzt Thc Din' w Tablt, zt5, zr7 Segomc, Andrâ&#x201A;Ź Denoyer de, 83 Seie, \0(/illim, zrr SeIf Portmit (Morgner), t 44 SclfPowa t(Sdt'nbreryj, +9, so, y SelfPortmit u a Soldia (Kirchner), r4t Seligmmn, Km, 4 7, r5z; Manrcqarn, n8-29 tz7, rz8; Lil*amabb, Selz, Paer, zr8 (Ftrct),4o Semine de bond, Une Sernet Wdter, ror, ro9 Sern, Richud, z4t,, z9; S?lashPiece, 245,2to, 2t0,251, Sdroier, Paul,44 Semt, Georgo, ro, rz, ;4 Smeid, Eric, rz4, rz8 Severini,Gino, 3t,73; Pan-PanDance at theMonico,16 Shmker, louis, r5z Shchukin, Sergei,8u, 84 Shaler, Chulo,77 Sheffield, Carcy,68 Shibate, Takohi, r8r

28t

Shimooto, Shm, r74, 176, r78, r8o, t&z, t86, r87, t89, tgt Shining Vattr (M. Yshilan\, rf16 Shim, Everen, 6z Shinga, Fujiko, 186 Shimga, Kauo, t74 t77, t78, r7t, rb, itt, 16, t84,r86,r87,t89: Pbu w 176 Short Saruy of Srmatisn A (C* oyne), r3z Siegelaub,Seth, 236, zj6, 218-4o, 24, 241,,24j,248,2t5 Siegftied, Emot, rz Siaa The(Mngunlt8 Signac,Paul,ro, Iz, 27, )5,50,74 S/za Slrr (Rorenquist), zri Simaluntriptychon (Ernst md Bu8PlO, ro9 Siskind, Aamn, 167 Siuiley$Ioodhm), zl+ 6ookc Canier W'aac(AM) (Bmy), 49, 240 Sly(Munkami), r8r Shp in the Frce ofPublic Trcte(t9tz),8t Slom, John, 5o, 6z Smith, David, 16r Smith, Tony, r55, zzz; FrceRjdc, zzz Smithrcn, Roben, zz5, 21o,zt1t,,247, 41; Tbe Cryosphm, zz5, zz6; Spiml Jatl rss de Peinure ModSociCtCNormde erne,Rouen,33,36, 4o Society of Independent Anisa qhibition (NryYork, r9I7),77 Solomon, Nn, zzvzz, z3z Sonderbmd, ree International Exhibition of the Sonderbud Sonnabend, Ilma md Michael, za5 Sonnier,Keith, 231,244,z4j,zt.o, 2t.) Soupault,Philippe, u1 u6, u9, rzo Spue Jamp (Pinchbe&), zz8 87 Spanish IznA cape $xlw), Spira I JaE (Smithson), zSS Spirit of November:An in the Seryic of Subvbreion qhibition (Smngm,

ryv)'r78 Splah Piecc(Sern), z4t, zto, 2to Spcrri, Duiel, zo5, zto; Iz Parc & Marcelb, zr1, zr7; Thbbaa-Pilge cha Tiryrcly zo6 Sable Gallery Nry York, r7z, zrz; Annvls (t951-r957), r7z, t71 Smos, Theodorcs, r;9 Starkiryis, Richud, zIo, zn Amterdam, :;a Stedeliik Mum, L)t

Stefanelli, Joe, I54 Steffem, Linoln, 7z Steichen,Edwd,7z Stein, Genrude, 14, 16 2J,31, +2,51i rd,'"Ponnit of ponnit of (Piw), Mabel Dodge," 7z Stein,Im, t4, t6, 63 Steinberg lrc, zr8-r9 Stella,FBnl<,zzz, zz7, zz8,45 Stella Joseph,63, 77 Stephan,Jobr, r7r Sterne, Hedda, r59 SteubingJm, Iy8 Stiegliz, Al&ed, a6, 6o, 62,68, 69-72, 70,7),74,77,r72


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INDEX

qhibition GgoT), 8o \fsth \VitingDak(Romwa),93 Xcru Bnb (Siqlaub),

zl8, z+t

Ymmki, Tsuruko, r78, r7E, t86, t87; Danga,v5, r77 Ya rgry ahibition (Morcw), 84-86 Yelhw Cm (Muc), to, tt, t5, t6 Yclhw Soand Thc (Do gclbc Khn) (Kandinsky), lt, tz

Independent qhibitiom Yomiui Cfokyo), tZ+ Yqhida, Toshio, rz5, r8o, r85 Yohihm, Jirc, ry4, r75, r7&-8o, r8r' t86, t8z-39, r88, r9o, r9t Yohihare, Michio, 176, t8o, 186, t89 Yomg Ia Monte, zz3 Yung ktrch Painting The (Salmon), 39 "Yomg

Paintm, Dont Get Excited" (Apollimire),37

Yrc le Monahrome ahibition

(Pans,

ryt),rgzt4 7adltne,Osip,81, r47 Zak"Ergne,74 h.ngai (Klebnikw), 97 Zdmwich, Ilya,8z Zcno II (Romno), 40, 232,2tt ero, The lst Futurist Exhibition of Pictuc (Petrogmd, ryt5-t6), 78' 8r' 8t,g-34, 84, 86,8635; 9ryr, 94

287

7t$t,AAolf,4o Zgarut ard W 6 WV.V (l'lyss), zll 61, 77 Zonch, V\Villim :nd l'fugre, Zorio, Gilbcno, 241, z5o, zl;;; Lhti&l (Toniz), u8 Zuich Dada,9&-ror, rot, rI+ 116 Zwirne6 Rudolf,253


IVotes dz LArt,Jnutry-February 1968,p. 16.Also seeFreemm, in Freeman,p. 8i.

Introduction 'Assisted r. Quoted in Nan Rosenthal, Levitation:'The Art Of Yves Klein," in Institute for the Arrs, Rice Universiry, YuesKlein t9z8-t962: (Houston: Institute for the Arts, fuce Universiry r98z), A Renospeaiue p. roo. z. On the social character of the avant-garde, see Harold Rosenberg, "Collective, Ideological,Combative," in Thomm B. Hessand John Ashbery eds., The Auant-Gardz, Art Nms Annual XXXIY (New York: Macmillan, t968), pp. 75-78. "The Avant-Gardeand 3. On the role of the market, seeRoben Jensen, the Tiade in Art," An Journal S?inter1988,especiallypp. j6o16. "Sensibiliry of the Sixties,",4rr lz 4. BarbaraRoseand Irving Sandler, America,Janrary-Februaryry67, pp. 44-57,6o-62. The articleincludes extensiveselectionsfrom the artists'responses. 5. John Ashbery P.t3z.

"The

Invisible AvancGrde," in Hess and Ashbery

"Collective, 6. Harold Rosenberg, Ideological,Combative,"in Hessand Ashbery p. 78. For a cogentelaborationofthis view from the opposite political camp, see Hilton Krmer, The Age of the Auant-Gardz (Nw York: Farra! Strausand Giroux, r9n), pp. 3-19. Chapterr I. For Apollinaire'smockery of Jourdain, see Guillaume Apollinaire, Apollinaire on Art: Esays and Reuieusryoz-tgr9, ed. LeRoy C. Breunig (New York Y/nng, ry72),pp. 18-36. z. The story is relatedin many places.See,for instance,John Elderfield, "Wild The Beasti': Fauuism and Ix Affnities (New York: Museum of Modern Art, ry76), p. 43, and Alfred H. Bart, Jr., Matisse:His Art and His Public (New York: Museum of Modern Art, r95r), p. 56. The exact words Vauxcellesused in Gll Bltx to describethe artless look of "the "Donatello Marquet sculpturesamidst orglr of pure tones" were chezles[auves." 3. Rousseaushowed two landscapesalong with this large painring, "The which he entitled in the catalogue hungry lion throws himself on the antelope,devouringhim, the panther amiously awaitsthe moment when shetoo can hayeher shae. The canivorous birds haveeachtorn piecesof flesh from the poor animal who shedsa tear! Sun sets."See Donald E. Gordon, Modzm Art Exhibitionsryoo-r9r6,z vols. (Munich: Presrel-Verlag, ry74), z:t39. a. Ibid.. r:28. "Fauves in the l^ardscapeof Criticism: Metaphor 5. Roger Benjamin, (Ins and Ssndal at the Salon," in Judi Freeman,TheFauueLandscape Angeles:l.os AngelesCounty Museum ofArt, ry9o), p. z5z. A EIA-.A^IA

YY' )''

a)'

"Chronolosr'.-

rz. Theseroom identifiations are taken from Vaucelles'srwie* in the October 17, r9o5, supplementto Gil Blas.The identifiqtion of Louis Valtat and GeorgesRouaultwith Fauvismlargelysremsfrom their being reproducedon the Fauvepageof L'Illustrationof November4, r9o5.On their misidentificationasFauves,seeElderfield,pp. z4-29,6t-62. 13.For the atalogue list of works shown at the r9o5 Salond'Automne. seeGordon, z:t75-t4o. 14. lro Stein, Appreciation: Painting, Poeny, and Prase (New York: Crown, rg47), p. r58, and Gertrude Stein, TheAutobiographyofAlrce B Tohla (New York: Vintage, ty6, 196o),p. 35. On another accounr, Matisse sent his wife to observeand report back to him the public mockery (Crespelle,p. r5). For conflicting storiesof the purchaseof tVomanwith theHa;, SeeBarr, pp.37-j8. r5. Elderfield,p. 32. 16.Jack Flam, Matisseon Art (London: Phaidon, ryT), pp. ryz and 74. respectively. t7. Ietter to Signac, September 28, t9o5, in Pierre Schneider, Matisse (New York RjzrcI| ry84), p. zzz. "Painters r8. JamesD. Herbert, and Tourists:Matisseand Derain on the MediterraneanShore,"in Freeman,pp. t6z-t63. r9. Crespelle,p. r4. zo. Elderfield,p. 43, and Gmton Diehl, The Fauues(New York: Harn' N. Abrams,ry7), p.26. zt. Opplel p. 27. zz. G. JeanAubry quoted in Marcel Giry Fauuism:Originsand Deuelopments(NxYork: Alpine FineArts, r98z),p. to1. 23.For the reviewsof Denis and Gide, seeBarr, pp. Q-64. 24. The Fauvepageis reproducedin lbid., p. 19,md the other is shown in Cuoline lanchner and lTilliam Rubin, Heni Rouseau (New York: Museum of Modern Art, t98), p. t57. zy. Elderfield,p. 6r. 26. Crespelle,p. rrr. z7. Ibid., p, n1. "The 28. Carl R. Baldwin, Fauves:Reflectionson an Exhibition, a Catalogue,md a History" Arts,Jtnery76,p.99. 29. Maurice Maminck, DangerousComer (London: Elek Bools, 196r . P.II.

3o.Oppler,p. rn.

7. Ibid., p. 65.

3r.Diehl, p. roo.

8. Crespelle,TheFauues(Inndon: Oldbourne Press,196z),p. r5.

32. For an accountof Derain'srwo uips to London in the fall of r.t:, "Far from the Earth ofFrance: I:r and in early19o6,seeJudi Freeman, FauvesAbroad," in Freeman,pp. r85-zor.

9. Ellen C. Oppler, FauaismRe*amined(Ann Arbor: UniversiryMicro' films, r97z), p. ror. "Le ro. Mucel Giry Salon Des Inddpendmts de r9o5," L'Infomation "Docd'HistoiredeLArt, May-Jtne r97o, p. rro. Also seeJudi Freeman, umentaryChronology,r9o4-r9o8," in Freeman,pp. 57-68. Ir. Marcel Giry

"Le

SalondAutomne de r9o5," L'htfomation d'Histoire

33.Crespelle,p. rrz. 34. Elderfield,pp. 1r-1z. 'Weill, October zr-November :: 35. For the worls shown at Berthe r9o5, and at the GalerieE. Druet, October z3-November rr, r9o,. s

257

Bruce altshuler, the avant garde in exhibition new art in the 20th century, 1994 book zz  

aui

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