Introduction 4 Theory 5 context 9 Project 29 References 57
This project is my diploma work about post-soviet military town Paldiski in Estonia. I chose Paldiski because I wanted to work with the site that had social, economical and ecological problems. My aim was to help a declining society. The strategy for revitalization was searched from point of view sustainable urban development. The traditional urban planning seemed not to suit because site had already lots of unused buildings and dwellings. My approach to solving the problem was working with landscape instead of planning new buildings. I tried to use the old buildings for new purposes. My aim was make a future vision for Paldiski as an new-thinkning town. I supposed to practicing agriculture in town environment as an alternative way to improve the life in Paldiski. The project is visionary. Some practical solutions will be illustrated.
Background In the past 16 years Eastern European countries have undergone rapid economical changes and became a part of the globalized world. In Estonia several small towns and hinterlands have become economically depressed, that in turn have resulted with degradation of built environment and social problems. Post military industry towns such as Paldiski, Kiviõli and Sillamäe are Estonian “problem towns” that need extra attention and help. In Paldiski the transformation of the urban habitat has been dramatic. Being once an important military town, Paldiski today is a society that is struggling with social problems and degraded environment. The traditional planning methods seem not enough to solve the problems. The different approach is searched for the urban planning.
Method Strategic urban landscaping is used in project. The agricultural landscape is existing in urban environment. The strucutre of agricultural landscape is supposed to support the future development of town. 4
Paldiski was a closed military town under Soviet Union era. In 1994, when Russian military left, the town appeared in very bad condition. Many buildings were abandoned, the environment was polluted by military waste and the urban infrastructure was demolished. In addition the social issues such as, emigration, unemployment and poverty weekend a stable society. For the last years this situation have become better. Many of the dwellings have been repaired and re-habited by some young Estonian families who have moved to Paldiski. Nevertheless there are still need for some social, economical and environmental improvements. Unemployment and poverty are still problems. Some of the inhabitants of Paldiski want to move away for different reasons such as few possibilities for work and for recreational activities as well as unattracitve living milieu.
Urban development strategies
Settlements over the world are experiencing transformations. Many cities are experiencing an unwanted growth of population, while the small town lose inhabitants. The urban landscape is changing. The cities become more and more scattered and fragmented.
Architects and industrial designers often see their designs as a final products while the landscape architects have learnt to design an environment as a continuously transforming system. Landscapes like cities are loose structures thereby hardly controlled.
The demands of food, water and energy supplies are growing. The cities as major consumers and distributors of goods and services. As the city grows it uses more supplies and generates more waste. As a result of increasing consumption of resources, and growing dependencies on trade, the ecological impact of cities extends beyond their geographic locations. Sustainable development can not be based on a model that advocates increased consumption, trade and transportation.1
A different approach for planning is supposed by James Corner and Charles Waldheim. The term “Landscape Urbanism” describes a developing set of approaches to urban planning and urban design. The interaction of natural and built systems is taken as the basis for decisions about urban form. Instead of taking built volume as the determining characteristic of the city, landscape urbanism looks at a wider range of variables to develop a dynamic approach to planning within constantly evolving urban landscapes.5 It means that the traditional practice of urban design is turned inside out. The process starts with planning of open spaces and natural systems to structure urban form, instead of buildings and infrastructure systems. 6
As the cities grow it is natural to question the sustainability of urban life, but also reflect upon the future development of cities and their relationship with nature. The key question in the future planning is how to creatively connect nature, built environment and human society to reach more harmonious and efficient patterns of habitability. 2 Urban development is a part of economic, social and political development: a city is the expression of the society that built it. Spatial organization reflects social organization. As the latter undergoes transformations, the city will find new ways to recreate itself as paradigm of its time. Architects and planners shall ultimately bear the burden of harmonizing our spatial needs with available energy sources, ecological and demographic demands. 3 A city can be seen as an organic system that lives, grows, evolves and maybe disappears over time. Like many creatures, a city evolves and develops even more complex survival mechanisms. A small village requires a simple social organization. It can be naturally self-sufficient in input production and waste management.4
....................................... 1 Turner, T (1996). City as Landscape: A post-postmodern view of design and planning. Oxford: Alden Press 2 Spellman, C. (ed) (2002). Re-Envisioning Landscape/Architecture. Barcelona: Actar-D 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid.
Planning is a dynamic process, not a final “master plan”. It gives opportunities for changes over time. Urban places are shaped by interactions of economical, ecological and social systems. The natural and built up spaces are in interaction. Natural processes in built-up environment affecting the future of cities and well-being of their inhabitants. Landscape urbanism encourages a new approach to regional and metropolitan systems and search for new urban design strategies that go beyond traditional. 7 ....................................... 5 Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative.[online] Shrinking Cities : About Landscape Urbanism. http://www.cudc.kent.edu/d-Service-Learning/Shrinking/landurb.html (date accessed 10.12.2007) 6 Durack, R . Shrinking Smart: The Promise of Landscape Urbanism. CUDC Quarterly 3:3/4 - Winter 2004 7 Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative [online]. Shrinking Cities : About Landscape Urbanism.
UNSUSTAINABLE CITY OUTPUT
WASTE POLLUTION WASTE WATER
ENERGY MATERIALS WATER INPUT
SUSTAINABLE CITY 6
Urban Agriculture (UA) is agriculture which occurs within the city involving productive market gardens for fruit and vegetable growing. UA is found on the ground, on roofs, facades, fences and boundaries. If economic conditions are difficult UA can include small animals and fish production. 8
UA is about urban food growing and local consumption. Cities that use this concept of organic local farming will never be fully selfsufficient in food production and will be supported by hinterlands. 11
Agricultural activities within city limits have existed since the first urban populations were established thousands years ago. Cities survived mainly on providing services, trading, producing hand-made goods in addition to producing food within the city walls. Chickens, cows and pigs roamed the streets and horticultural activities were commonly practiced adjacent to the walls. In 19th century urban and rural sectors were separated not only by distance, also by their functions. Agriculture was guided out from city because of sanitary problems and it was reformed to large-scale rational production. 9 The return of agriculture to the urban scene can be an important factor in future process of urbanization. The rapid increase in urban population and the challenge of urban food security in developing countries has made UA part of the city planning. Nevertheless agriculture is not only for food production, but also for landscape, social value and economic infrastructure. UA could be an integrated part of the urban economical and ecological system. UA is regional solution against transporting of food country around herewith can reduce harmful environmental impacts. 10 There are already several cities around the world practicing UA such us Harare in Zimbabwe, Kampala in Uganda, Havana in Cuba, St. Petersburg in Russia and many others. 10
....................................... 8 Viljoen, A (ed) (2005). Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing Urban agriculture for Sustainable Cities. Oxford: Architectural Press Isan imprint of Elsevier . 9 Brebbia C.A, Martin-Duque J.F, Wadhwa, L.C (eds.) (2002) The Sustainable City II: Urban Regeneration and sustainability. Southampton: WIT Press 10 RUAF Resource Centres of Urban Agriculture and Food Security [online]. What is urban agriculture? http://www.ruaf.org/node/512 (date accessed 14.11.2007)
UA can result in environmental, social and economic benefits. There are three primary benefits from organic food production:
Environmental benefits: UA diminishes green house gases (CO2) as food transportation diminishes and . UA improves air quality and air humidity, filters noise and improves biodiversity.
Sociological benefits: UA concept will involve, amongst others, cultural, leisure activities, shopping habits or diet and health concerns.
Economical benefits: UA provokes new strategic socio-economic thinking and changes local employment and product-cash flow patterns. 12 Estonia being an agricultural country for long time, has traditions in practicing agriculture. Additionally many people have practiced mushroom hunting and berry picking. Allotments in the town environments were used to grow own fresh vegetables. Today those traditions have almost disappeared, although a part of the older generation still practicing UA. This can be explained as a part of the culture and the leisure time hobby, but also as an aid to keep food costs low. Since there are long agricultural traditions in Estonia, using UA in Paldiski can be considered.
....................................... 11 Viljoen, A (ed) (2005). Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing Urban agriculture for Sustainable Cities. Oxford.: Architectural Press Isan imprint of Elsevier 12
(Re)discover paldiski Paldiski is neither a traditional nor a classical town. The town is full of unexpectedness, surprises and conflicts. To understand Paldiski, one have to read its layers. The layers tell us a story about a unique natural site spiced with Soviet Military heritage. The fact that town was abandoned and ruined by Soviet milatary made Paldiski unpopular by Estonian habitants. Today it seems that Paldiski has become an interesting place to visit and to re-discover .
Facts COUNTRY: Estonia COUNTY: Harju County TOTAL AREA OF PALDISKI: 101,8 km² of which 24,47 km²
are Pakri Islands
PALDISKI’S TOWN AREA: 33,44 km² SITUATION: on the North Cost of on Estonia, in Finish Gulf CLOSE CITIES: Keila, Saue, Tallinn (43 km) POPULATION: 4312, 1764 Estonians, 2548 other nation, mostly Russians ....................................... 13 Paldiski linn (2007) [online] Linna üldinfo [General information about the town] http://www.paldiski.ee/?id=607 (date accessed: 14.11.2207)
PAKRI PENINSULA PALDISKI PAKRI ISLANDS
natural patterns: geology The Pakri Peninsula and Paldiski town are situated between The Lahepere and Pakri bays on the limestone plateau, that is part of the North Estonian and Baltic Klint. The Pakri Klint enables to study the rocks formed more than 500 million years ago, because the klint is open to sea erosion. The klint displays Cambrian and Ordovician sandstones. The highest point of the klint is 24,8 m.14
The lahepere bay
Alvar Sand, clay sand Break-stone soddy Boulder clay Bog sediment Mechanically changed area Town area The paldiski bay
...................................... 14 Kink, H (ed) (2000). LoodusmĂ¤lestised. 5. osa. Paldiski, Pakri poolsaar ja saared. [Natural Heritage of Estonia. Part 5. Harjumaa. Paldiski, Pakri peninsula and islands]. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publicer Map from Paldiskiâ€™s Landscape Project from Estonian Academy of Arts (2006).
natural patterns: Plant communities The most unique and valued plant communities are alvar grasslands and alvar forests. Those areas are rare in Estonia and need extra attention and protection. The damage have been made to this plant communities under Soviet occupation. The military actions and diminished agricultural activities decreased the areas of grassland. There is a risk that soon the meadows will totally covered with copse. The treatment is needed to recover the meadows. 4 species of amphibians, 138 species of birds and 32 species of mammals have been recorded on The Pakri Peninsula. 15
Alvar grasslands Boreo nemoral grasslands Alvar forest and shrublands Dry boreal forests Fresh boreo-nemoral forests Fresh boreal forests Paludified forests Peatland forests Bogs ...................................... 15 Kink, H (ed) (2000). LoodusmĂ¤lestised. 5. osa. Paldiski, Pakri poolsaar ja saared. [Natural Heritage of Estonia. Part 5. Harjumaa. Paldiski, Pakri peninsula and islands]. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publicer Map from Paldiskiâ€™s Landscape Project from Estonian Academy of Arts (2006).Scale 1:32500
natural patterns: Protected Nature PAKERORDI BANK
The Pakri Landscape Reserve (1451 ha) is located on Lilla-Rågö and Stora Rågö and The Pakri Peninsula. The aim of the reserve is to protect rare and scientifically valuable geological objects such as klints, waterfalls, bird species and natural communities.16
The Pakri Landscape Reserve Limestone bank Beautiful view
Glacial boulders ...................................... 16 Kink, H (ed) (2000). Loodusmälestised. 5. osa. Paldiski, Pakri poolsaar ja saared. [Natural Heritage of Estonia. Part 5. Harjumaa. Paldiski, Pakri peninsula and islands]. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publicer Map from Paldiski’s Landscape Project from Estonian Academy of Arts (2006).Scale 1:32500
natural patterns: water The site is surrounded by the sea from two sides. Inland waters does not exist, but there are some little waterfalls and wells by the coast. The waterfalls are dry during summer season.17
The lahepere bay
The paldiski bay
Springs ...................................... 17 Kink, H (ed) (2000). LoodusmĂ¤lestised. 5. osa. Paldiski, Pakri poolsaar ja saared. [Natural Heritage of Estonia. Part 5. Harjumaa. Paldiski, Pakri peninsula and islands]. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publicer Map from Paldiskiâ€™s Landscape Project from Estonian Academy of Arts (2006).Scale 1:32500
the wind energy park
post military control center
klint of pakri
15 pakri lighthouse
post military coast guard
post military control center
Climate conditions The climate in Paldiski is relatively warm, sunny, windy and dry. Cool summers and warm winters are typical for The North Estonian coastal climate.
Average temperature 5 C (Estonian average 4,3-6,5 C) January -4,5 C February -4,8 C March -1,8 C April 3 C May 8,7 C June 13,8 C July 16,3 C August 15,7 C September 11,5 C October 7,1 C November 2,1 C December -1,8 18
North-Western summer winds
1800 h/year (Estonian average 1600-1900 h/year) 290-310 h/June
559 mm/year (Estonian average 550-800mm/year)
Western summer winds
South-Eastern winter winds
5-6m/s during spring (inland 3-4 m/s) 4-5 m/s during summer (2,5-3,5 m/s) 6-7 m/s during autumn (3-4 m/s)
Southern winter winds 180-195 vegetation days in year
...................................... 18 Paldiski Maastikuprojekt [Paldsikiâ€™s Landscape Project] [CD] (2006). Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Arts 19 Estonica [online] Loodus: Kliima [Nature: Climate] http://www.estonica.org/index_est.html (date accessed: 21.02.2
HUMAN MADE patterns: historical AGRICULTURE Practicing agriculture on The Pakri Peninsula and The Pakri Island have long traditions. The Swedes inhabited The Pakri Island in 1345. They were engaged with growing rye and fishing. the Swedes called the islands Rågöarna because of mellow soils for growing rye.20
On the map from 1936 we can see that The Pakri Peninsula have been covered with small villages surrounded by agriculture land.
Arable village land Meadows/pasture land Wooded meadows/pasture land Forest ...................................... 20
Entec AS (2004) [online] Paldiski linna üldplaneering. [The General Plan of Paldiski].
http://www.paldiski.ee/failid/161_seletuskiri.pdf (date accessed: 14.11.2007) Paldiski map: Draught by Koik, A. (1936).
HUMAN MADE patterns: Military Patterns Paldiski’s military history started under the Peter the First time (17181768) when he grounded the naval fortress and port, which later was connected with railway. After The Second World War Paldiski became one of the Soviet Unions military base. At the beginning the town was partly accessible for the local people, but in 1962 when the Russian military established The Soviet Navy Nuclear Submarine Training Centre with two nuclear reactors, the locals were deported. The Pakri Islands were transformed into a bombing polygon. During next 30 years Paldiski was so called “closed town”. The Russian army left Paldiski 1994. On the map from 1960 we can see that the area of the meadows have been decreased because diminished agricultural activities, while the land was used for military purposes.21
i j k l m n o p q r s
Forest The Fortress of Peter, bastion The Radar Station The Coast Guards The Navy and Aviation Control Centers The Military training Center The Military Barracks The Mine and Torpedo Storehouses The Missile Bases The Nuclear Reactors The Guard Posts The Punishment Battalion
...................................... 21 Kink, H (ed) (2000). Loodusmälestised. 5. osa. Paldiski, Pakri poolsaar ja saared. [Natural Heritage of Estonia. Part 5. Harjumaa. Paldiski, Pakri peninsula and islands]. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publicer Topographical map of Paldiski from Ministry of Geodesy and Topography CCCP (1968-1987).
HUMAN MADE patterns: Built Areas The settlement is concentrated on the west coast of the peninsula. The site was historically chosen, because ideal conditions for port. The seaside area belongs to North and South ports. The big part of seaside area belongs to the South and North Ports, which are considered very important to Paldiski’s development. Some parts are covered by dilapidated military structures such as old soldiers barracks, bunkers and etc. Agricultural activities are still practiced in Russian datšas. Datšas are summer and leisure houses surrounded by vegetable gardens, orchards and greenhouses. Those summerhouses were given to Russian military families which they could use for spend their leisure time. Today some of the datšas are used as the permanent and semipermanent residents.
Dwelling area Port area Datšas area Industrial area Dilapidated structures Other built areas
HUMAN MADE patterns: impact factors Significant factors for development of Paldiskiâ€™s is The South and The North Port. Paldiski Northern Port is a rapidly developing private-owned port which specializes in handling general cargo, dry bulk, rolling cargo, containers etc. In the nearest future conditions for passenger transport will be created. Strategically is Paldiski a naval town that might be attractive for foreign investors. The sea connection is established with Sweden, Finland, Germany and Russia.22
The Wind Energy Park
The ports are connected with railway linked to Tallinn, capital of Estonia. The Electrical Rail Line are used both for travellers and for goods transport. The image of Paldiski as a environmental friendly town is given by The Wind Energy Park that produces alternative energy. The Reactors Sarcophagus The negative option of Paldiski comes from The Reactors Sarcophagus and the landfill which is connected with contamination. The North Port
Streets and Roads Railway ...................................... 22
Entec AS (2004) [online] Paldiski linna Ăźldplaneering. [The General Plan of Paldiski]. http://
The South Port 20
border between the town and port area oil tanks at alexela terminal
old garage area
the north port
old storages by railway historical storages by railway
21 tanks behind the heating central
alexela terminal at south port
an old military storage
international Impacts TRANSIT
Short distance 43 km
oil coa produ l c
Estonia is one of the important trading bridge between The East and The West. Paldiski is one of the ports that Russia used for transit of oil to West. As the Russia have only sea connection to the Baltic sea by the St Petersburg, the ports in the Baltic lands are attractive to Russia to transit oil to west. 23
Investments to production
Possible development scenarios DEPENDENCE
LESS DEPENDENCE Withdrawal of transit and Investments
Transit and Investments
Using of own Resources
Foreign investment has played a key role in Estonia’s economical success. International companies have started knowledge based daughter enterprises that are using skilled workforce. At the same time there has investments made in production. In the age of globalization when companies searching for maximum low expense for production probably the low-cost fabrics is moved away from Estonia. The weakness of Estonia is its dependence on relations with Russia and forgein investments that makes country’s economy vulnerable. It is impossible to not depend on worlds economy, but new ideas for future strategies is needed.24 ...................................... 23 Estonica [online] Economy. http://www.estonica.org/eng/lugu.html?menyy_id=1117&kateg=40&nimi=&alam=81&tekst_id=1118 (date accessed: 21.02.2008 24 Ibid.
Employment Culture Education
Low rents Closeness to nature Little town milieu
Paldiski’s location close to capital Tallinn has both positive and negative influences for its development. Paldiski is one of the small towns close to capital. It has good transports (railway, ports) and there is daily train and bus connection with Tallinn. The good scenario is possible investments. Production industries might move from main capital to the smaller towns. It means new working places for people of Paldiski. The bad scenario is that all the work will be concentrated in Tallinn and people have to move from Paldiski, though the working commute from Paldiski to Tallinn is possible. Some people might whish to live close to nature in little town milieu and move from Tallinn to Paldiski.
The town is often connected with social problems and degraded milieu. The permanent habitants in Paldiski are military pensioners and their descendants. The newer group are young Estonian families. The characterizing for the habitants of Paldiski is weakened civic identity and unwillingness make deeper roots in Paldiski.
social groups in paldisk25
Paldiski’s negative imago have mostly created by media who described Paldiski at the beginning of 90ties as an ghost town there people with social problems lived. Paldiski’s inheritance and heredity is military, but today’s Paldiski is rather a port town than a military town. Where are many positive sides with living in Paldiski such as good location by the sea shore, lots of green areas and small town quietness. From objective point of view the living milieu is partly degenerated and needs renewing. The problems are social issues such as unemployment and poverty.
SILENT SMALL TOWN PALDISKI
Workforce in paldiski26
UNEMPLOYED 7,1% MILITARY TOWN
44,6% 48,3% EMPLOYED IN PALDISKI
EMPLOYED OUTSIDE PALDISKI
Entec AS (2004) [online] Paldiski linna üldplaneering. [The General Plan of Paldiski]. http://www.paldiski.
ee/failid/161_seletuskiri.pdf (date accessed: 14.11.2007) 26
The town plan with city quarters and broad streets is from Peter the First time. Older parts of the town were demolished to give place for modern houses at. The newer parts with blocks from 60ties, 70ties and 80ties are typical to Soviet Union suburb planning. The space between the blocks are not developed. There are not any playgrounds, or any place to for common activities.
School The Bastion Ruins Kindergarten
Shop Seaside area belongs to North and south ports. Buildings are combined historical and modern storages. The area are enclosed.
Shop The possibilities for intellectual and cultural activities are not so many. The public events are carried out in churches or schools. The public places are an open-air market, a playground and a park.
Church The South Port
Church Hotel Bank Shop Museum Church Shop
Railway station Single houses, datšas Multifamily houses, 2-3 floors
Multifamily houses, 4-5 floors Public buildings (schools, churches, kindergarten etc.) Enterprises, production, industries Dilapidated buildings 24 The North Port
abandoned soldiers house
dwelling from from 1950
25 block from 1980
house from 1950
block from 1970
2226 abandoned officers celibrations hall
abandoned soldiers dwelling
Development limitations 1. Seaside is cut off from town by railway and port area. The area is fenced in. There is only one small passage to the seaside. Paldiskiâ€™s municipality have made prognoses that the ports are growing togheter in few years and maybe even take over parts of town area.27
2. The east side of town is bordered with forest. The railway is not used active at the moment.
Railway track Town area Fysical border Port area Forest area ...................................... 27
Paldiski [CD] (2006/1007). Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Arts)
Development possibilities 1. Inherent concentration. The town plan is sparse. From the point of view of sustainabilty it is natural to fill the empty places in the town structure with buildings. 2. Expansion towards The South-East and The North West. The town are historically developed along the cost. The seaside area are considered as an attractive place for living. The ruins of Bastion are heritage and should be conserved. DEVELOPMENT AREA The project is limited to town area and its closest surroundings. The port area is leaved out of the project as it today is sold to private company and are counted as important economical development factor for Paldiski.
Project area Town area Area for possible expansion Town area that can be made more dense. 28
P ro j ect
Practicing agriculture in town environment
2 enabling a landscape structure for different future scenarios
3 Linking the town area with nature through productive landscape
Town environment will exists in juxtaposition with agricultural landscape. Paldiskiâ€™s vacant lots will transformed to the productive landscape consisting public vegetable gardens, orchards and fields.
Possible development scenarios for progress and regression are considered. The allotments distribution and size can be adapted for city quarters or structure of village.
The UA fields are running through the town creating a continuous space. Agricultural fields run out from town connecting the cultural landscape with nature. The town will integrated with the landscape.
v i s i on
The hole Paldiski is sustainable Big Green Garden, which lives, grows, evolves and changes over time. The Green Garden encourages whole community to participation . 30
Linking the sea with the town
Proposal to assign a part of the port area to town will be made. The public place and walking path will be created.
Linking the datšas with the town area
The town will reflect the datšas area through using the idea of leisure on productive landscape. Some connecting green corridors will be created.
Re-using old structures and buildings
The abandoned buildings and structures should be seen as source of inspiration instead as an obstacle. Vacant buildings can be transformed and mixed with modern ones and used for new functions.
v i s i on
dditional SOIL Mutual helping between Paldiski and Kiviõli would help Kiviõli get rid of the negative environmental load and Paldiski would have use for soil improvement of Kivõli’s ash mountains. The experiments have been made mixing semicoke with sludge and manure that have shown good results on soil fertility. 28
QUALITY The dominating soil type in The Pakri peninsula is limestone rendzina which is humus rich and coarse-textured. The soil layer can be 1-2 m deep. On some places the soil thickness can only be 30 cm. The soil improvement is on required on the mechanically changed areas. The need of extra soil layer have to be taken in count. During dry summers there can be risk for draught.
Kiviõli ash mountains
ROTATION To keep the soil fertile, repeated growth on the same ground should to be avoided.
CONTAMINATION The other issue is soil contamination caused by traffic and industries. There is acknowledgement about the contaminated soils by the rail tracks and the heating central. Growth of edible plants on those areas and by the car roads should be avoided.
....................................... Semicoke is a by-product of oil shale production in Kiviõli – harmless, but load for environment. Semi coke-based compost mixture is agricultural soil improvement substance, a mixture of semi coke and pig manure or sewage sludge.
....................................... 28 Värnik, R, K.arp, K, Pihelgas, E, Merivee, A, Lehtsaar, J. (2006). Effect of semicoke-based compost mixtures on gross margin of horticultural crops. Oil Shale, 23(1), 39 - 52.
THE Water RAINWATER
COLLECTING Rainwater from slope roofs will be collected in water tanks and used as household and irrigation water for fields.
Practicing agriculture means taking account different seasons. The continental climate is not green all the year round. The winter season is supported by growing vegetables in green houses. Winter will be the time for marketing and labeling of food products. Different seasons give the opportunity to follow changes in landscape. Springtime is for sowing and one can follow fragile vegetation that starts to grow. The earth is fresh and green. The apple trees are in blossom. Summer is time for cultivation. The plants are growing bigger. Flowers are blooming. The fields have different structures and colors. Autumn is season of ripeness and harvesting. It is a busy season. At the end of the season the fields are emptied. The colors are different earth colors.
WASTEWATER Biologically cleaned wastewater will be used for irrigation for plants. A irrigation system with pipes will be constructed. The cleaned water is pumped from cleaning station through the pipe system to water collectors. Water collector chests functioning as elements on landscape.
Greenhouse Water Collectors
Water Cleaning Station 37
This plan has to seen as a starting point for the bigger project that the municipality of Paldiski can base on and work further. The community together will work out the plan and process of work. It can stared as smaller project that can grow bigger according to realization and needs. 2. YEAR AUTUMN 1.YEAR AUTUMN 2. YEAR SPRING
6 2 11
8 The exciting market will be moved
1 2 3 4 38
closer to sea and will get new design. As the market is an important public meeting place for people of Paldiski it should be situated on an attractive 5 Start of preparation of soil: and accessible place. As the North planting soil nursing flowers Port will in future used as passengers Creating the trajectories: planting of tree Cleaning up The Bastion Park of copse port the Sea Market will strategically saplings. 6 and planting poppy flowers. It will be located close to port to meet the Start of creating public orchards. Planting an historical park where natural and arriving passengers. apple trees in between the dwellings. man-made landscape will be displayed 9 Creation of water system. Building greenhouses. as it appears. It will be used As there is no possibilities for sport 10 Creation of The Aquaculture Park that according each individuals need and consist fish ponds for free time fishactivities, the football, basketball and fantasy. ing (cultivation) 7 Machine park tennis fields for public use is created.
Creating a sport track for running and skiing which are used as well as connection between datšas area and town. Planting and growing vegetables on fields. Planting soil nursing flowers to clean the soil. Planting trees.
There is a need for cheep and goats who will take care of landscape. They will hold the meadows clean of pushes. The idea of The City Farm is to make home for animals. At the same time it will be a place where children and families can discover farm animals.
If the project will be successful more land can gradually taken in use. 39
Future development prognosis After 20 years... Scenario 1 Growth of population The municipality of Paldiski have made prognosis of growth of the population with 3000 people. A. Economical growth. New businesses will start up and the ports will grow bigger. Need for employers will increase. B. Paldiski will be army base. The soldiers with their families move to Paldiski. Residential areas will increase on to productive fields. City blocks with different type of houses will be built. Blocks will consist two family houses, terraced houses and smaller apartment blocks.
Future development prognosis After 15 years... Scenario 2 Increased environmental awareness More and more people choose ecological lifestyle because they are aware of environmental problems. Allergies will grow and people will eat chemical free food. The population may grow as the many people from Tallinn choose to live in smaller environmental town. Ecological houses will be built by the trajectories beside the productive fields. The new type will exist side by side with existing structure.
Future development prognosis After 30 years... Scenario 3 Decreasing of population We can assume that the population will diminish with 2000 people. Economical degeneration will cause changes. Many young people and families will move away to capital, where will be better job opportunities . The area of productive fields grows and the volume of the old buildings will decrease. Most of Russian type apartment blocks from 60ties, 70ties and 80ties will be demolished. The center with important services will be kept. Lots of people live ecologically. More ecological houses will be built by the trajectories beside the productive fields that cover almost all the area. Paldiski will turn to an agricultural productive area. The area of ports can be used for green-houses.
THE VEGETABLE GARDEN u-u
Tools storage /greenhouse
Playground Dwelling garden
Excisting Paths will be kept
Existing Paths will be kept
Existing Trees will be kept
plan PRODUCTIVE FIELDS
Different trees types
Existing Sorbus trees Aucuparia
Water collector 43
THE VEGETABLE GARDEN: the Greenhouse rooftop, the scarecrow field, the playground
One part of the garden is used for vegetable growing. The existing trees will be kept. The local paths are important for local people passage flow that is way they will be kept as well. The other part is garden area is for common use. Common area consisting grass carpet with trees, playground and common sitting places.
THE Aquaculture Park v-v
Dwelling 2 fl.
Dwelling 2 fl.
A Dwelling 2 fl.
Officers party hall Today abandoned green FIELDS
Miscanthus Agrostis Malepartus Tenuis
Anthemis Dianthus Tinctoria Deltoides
Trifolium Fish Ponds Arvense
Limestone Limestone Benches grit plates
trees 45 Sorbus Aucuparia
THE Aquaculture Park
The idea of The Aquaculture Park is to extend the existing town park and to give the area a function. This today abandoned place is covered with wild bushes and hey will be reintegrated with town. It will not only be an esthetic place for recreation but for the fish cultivation. The park is skewed against the general town grid structure to make it more visible whhich integrates it stronger with rest of the town.
THE CITY FARM w-w
Hens and goose
THE Goat farm
Straw on the ground
Walking area Gravel
Walking path Limestone Gravel
THE Administration THE Beds
THE Sheep farm
Product Roof Cucurbita pepo 47
THE CITY FARM
Flexible net sheds
Paldiski City Farm will be a farm-based attraction, a place where children, youth, families, students, teachers and other adults can discover and engage in practices associated with growing food, animal care. It will also be home-farm animals who will take care of landscape and help to remain unique alvar grasslands of Pakri peninsula. Abandoned garages can be rebuilt to farms and space between the farms will be used for exhibition of animals.
THE SEA MARKET x-x
New market hall
A rail track New green houses
Wisor wood deck
Red Resign Dark granite glass paving paving
Miscanthus Sinensis Gracillimus
Sorbus Aucuparia 49
THE SEA MARKET
THE MARKED ZONE Market Hall. All-year controlled climate
THE SEA CONNECTION ZONE Leisure
THE CEREMONIAL ZONE Active
THE MARKED ZONE Flexible use. The stalls are removable on rails
THE GREEN ZONE Trees - connection with park
THE CEREMONIAL ZONE Passive
THE SAND ZONE Sunbath
THE GREEN ZONE High grass - divided spaces
THE GREEN ZONE 3 Low grass - laying space
CONNECTIONS WITH NEIGHBOURHOOD
THE SAND ZONE Play 50
THE SEA MARKET: the flower lamps, open air market day, sitting benches, night ceremony
Market is a very important social encounter point for local people. The placement of present market lays a bit aside center. The market today is in bad condition and consist only of some steel stalls. The project supposes new design and location for market. The new location is closer to the sea. As the Paldiski misses a good public place the Sea market will function as a multifunctional encounter place for families, pensioners and youngsters. Diverse activities will take place during different daytimes and seasons. The project supposes as well a new location for passenger port. The North Port is good strategical location for passenger port because it is situated in the town centre thereby it is closer for incoming passengers access to -Paldiski. The people will also pass by the Sea Market that now is located beside the North Port. 51
THE ORCHARD. THE PUMPKIN GARDEN. THE APICULTURE PARK.
THE POPPY GARDEN. THE SUNFLOWER GARDEN. THE CABBAGE GARDEN. THE vegetable storage
Common Yarrow Achillea Millefolium
Garden Flower Healing plant
Field flower Used for soil improvement Source for honey Forage
Wild flower Grows on North Estonian calcareous soils Healing plant
Field flower Source for oil Forage Used for biodisel
Wild Flower Grows on sandy and calcareous soils, drought-resisting
Field flower Used for soil improvement Source for honey Forage
Field flower Used for soil improvement Grows in poor,sandy and dry soils
Bellflower Campanula Rotundifolia May-August 30-60cm Wild flower Drought-resisting tolerates bad soil Grows on meadows
Crimson Clover Trifolium Incarnatum May-July 20-50cm Field flower Used for soil improvement Source for honey Forage
Wild flower Grows on meadows
Wild flower Drought-resisting tolerates bad soil, likes sandy soils
Zigzag Clover Trifolium Medium
Field flower Used for soil improvement Source for honey Drought-resisting
Field flower Used for soil improvement Source for honey Forage
Lathyrus Vernus July- September
May-July 30-60cm 20cm Wild flower Used for soil improvement Grows on sandy soils and meadows
radish Raphanus Sativus
Currant Ribes Alpinum
mushroom Agaricus Bisporus
Wild flower Drought-resisting tolerates bad soil likes sandy soils
Field flower Used for soil improvement Forage
Wild flower Grows on riparian zone
aiden ink Dianthus Deltoides May-July
Hareâ€™s-foot Clover Trifolium Arvense June-August
10-40cm Wild flower Drought-resisting, tolerates bad soil
Phacelia Tanacetifolia May-August
20-60 cm 25 cm Wild Flower Used for soil improvement Grows on dry sandy soils, droughtresisting
iberian ris Iris sibirica June-July 0,5m-1m
lue ild upine Lupinus Perennis May-July
Lupinus Luteus May-June
Trifolium Repens June- September
Garden flower Adapts easily most of soils
iperâ€™s- ugloss Echium Vulgare May-September
Lupinus Rusell Hybrid
Trifolium Aureum May-June
Large Trefoil 20-50cm
Wild flower Grow on sandy soils Estonian national flower
Field flower Used for soil improvement Edible seeds and oil
Field flower Healing plant
Wild flower Drought-resisting, tolerates bad soil Healing plant
Helianthus AnnuuS July- September
References Brebbia, C A, Martin-Duque, J F, Wadhwa, L C (eds.) (2002) The Sustainable City II: Urban Regeneration and sustainability. Southampton: WIT Press
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Cleveland Urban Design Collaborative [online] Shrinking Cities : About Landscape Urbanism. http://www.cudc.kent.edu/d-Service-Learning/Shrinking/landurb.html (date accessed: 10.12.2007)
Paldiski linn (2007) [online] Linna üldinfo [General information about the town] http://www.paldiski.ee/?id=607 (date accessed: 14.11.2207)
Durack, R. Shrinking Smart: The Promise of Landscape Urbanism. CUDC Quarterly 3:3/4 Winter 2004 Eesti Aiaklubi [The Estonian Gardening Club] [online] (2008) Pinnase parandamine taimedega [Soil improvement with plants] http://aiaklubi.ee/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=696&Itemid=25 (date accessed: 10.12.2007)
Eesti kliimat kujundavad tegurid [The transforming factors of Estonian climate] online] http://map.gg.bg.ut.ee/Roeder/Eklim2.ppt (date accessed: 21.02.2008) Entec AS (2004) [online] Paldiski linna üldplaneering. [The General Plan of Paldiski]. http://www.paldiski.ee/failid/161_seletuskiri.pdf (date accessed: 14.11.2007) Estonica [online] Loodus: Kliima [Nature: Climate] http://www.estonica.org/index_est.html (date accessed: 21.02.2008) Estonica [online] Economy. http://www.estonica.org/eng/lugu.html?menyy_id=1117&kateg=40&nimi=&alam=81& tekst_id=1118 (date accessed: 21.02.2008) Kink, H (ed) (2000). Loodusmälestised. 5. osa. Paldiski, Pakri poolsaar ja saared. [Natural Heritage of Estonia. Part 5. Harjumaa. Paldiski, Pakri peninsula and islands]. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publicers Kriipsalu, M [online] Reoveepuhastustehnoloogia [The Waster Water Cleaning Technology] http://mi.emu.ee/orb.aw/class=file/action=preview/id=227852/ Reoveepuhastustehnoloogia.pdf (date accessed: 21.02.2008) Kärmas, K (2001) [online] Keskonnaweb: Reovee puhastamisvõimalused [Environment Web: Waste Water Cleaning possibilities] http://www.keskkonnaveeb.ee/keskkonnasober/kks.php?artk=2_2 (date accessed: 21.02.2008) Merikalju, L (ed) (1998) Eesti Geograafia Seltsi aastaraamat, 31. köide [Estonian Geographical Society, Year-book, Volume 31]. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers
Raukas, A (1995). Pinnakate [Surfacing]. Eesti Loodus [Estonian Nature] Tallinn: Valgus Estonian Encyclopaedia Publishers. 92-119. RUAF Resource Centres of Urban Agriculture and Food Security [online] What is urban agriculture? http://www.ruaf.org/node/512 (date accessed: 14.11.2007) Turner, T (1996). City as Landscape: A post-postmodern view of design and planning. Oxford: Alden Press Spellman, C (ed) (2002) Re-Envisioning Landscape/Architecture. Barcelona: Actar-D Viljoen, A (ed) (2005). Continuous Productive Urban Landscapes: Designing Urban agriculture for Sustainable Cities. Oxford: Architectural Press Isan imprint of Elsevier Värnik, R, Karp, K, Pihelgas, E, Merivee, A., Lehtsaar, J (2006). Effect of semicoke-based compost mixtures on gross margin of horticultural crops. Oil Shale, 23(1), 39 - 52.
other references Paldiski [CD] (2006/1007). Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Arts Paldiski Maastikuprojekt [Paldsiki’s Landscape Project] [CD] (2006). Tallinn: Estonian Academy of Arts [Eesti Mullakaart mõõtkavas 1:10 000] [Estonian Soil map] [Eesti maaamet] [Estonian Land Board] [online].http://www.maaamet.ee (date accessed: 21.02.2008) Paldiski [map]: Draught by Koik, A.Tallinn: Sõjavägede Staabi Topo-Hüdrograafia Osakond, 1936 : (Riigi trükikoda, 1938) [Топографическая карта СССР 1:25000]. [Эстонская ССР] [map] / Главное управление геодезии и картографии при Совете Министров СССР [Москва] : Главное управление геодезии и картографии при Совете Министров СССР, 1968-1987
Inspiration BCQ (1998): Forest Fringe planning Viladecans Barcelona Catherine Mosbach (2000): The new Bastide Garden at the Bordeaux Botanical Garden Kongjian Yu, Lin Shihong (2003): Shenyang Architectural University Campus RMP 3 Sthephan Lenzen (2000-2002): The Duck Garden Front Studio: Farmadelphia
Katrin Koov, tutor Sten Gromark Agra Univer Keiu Miisna Algo J채채ger