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- Colourless - Clear fluid - So, I guess ‌ -VE TEST for Vitamin A

• Based on the fact that concentrated sulphuric acid • Takes up H20 from retinol and yields colored product (blue) Since it is a fat soluble vitamin, we shall dissolve it with chloroform.

Vitamin A • Vitamin A exist in 3 biological active forms ;  Retinol  Retinal  Retinoic acid

• Vitamin A is derived from the provitamin carotenes by carotenase enzymes which occur in the interstinal mucosa and liver.

Vitamin A • Carotenes = dark green yellow vegetables and fruits ; carrots, sweet potatoes ,spinach, apricots and green leafy vegetables • Performed vitamin A from animal sources ; liver, egg yolk, butter, whole milk and fish liver oil

Vitamin A

UricAcid It is the result of purine catabolism. Principle : •Uric acid + O2 + 2 H2O ------> Allantoine + H2O2 + CO2 •2 H2O2 + DCPS + 4- Amino phenazone ------> Red Quinonimine + 4 H2O

UricAcid Procedure : 1.Prepare two test tube labelled sample and standard 2.Add 1.0ml of the reagent into both tubes 3.Add 50 ul of standard (uric acid) in test tube labelled standard and 50 ul of sample in test tube labelled sample. 4.Shake both test tube and leave it for 10 minutes in room temperature. 5.Calculate the absorbance of sample and standard.

Don’t Forget to do several wash …

Calculate the absorbance of sample and standard

Jangan Lupa bawak kalkulator (susah nak pinjam2 member) - Pak kura

• Increase consumption of meat • Malignancy and chemotherapy • Kidney diseases, decrease uric acid excretion

Abnormalities in purine catabolism • Mutant forms of PRPP synthetase • Partial HGPRtase deficiency Abnormalities in other metabolic pathway • Deficiency in G6-phosphatase ( Von Gerk's disease) • Elevation of glutathione reductase activity

Decrease Uric Acid Production

Inhibit Xanthine Oxidase

Uricosuric Drugs


                Maka, apabila kamu telah selesai (dari sauatu urusan),kerjakanlah dengan sungguh-sungguh (urusan) yang lain. Hanya kepada Tuhanmu hendaknya kamu berharap. ( Alam Nasyrah – ayat 7-8 )