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DiXiao Portfolio Architectural works 2018 Summer Intern

Contents 01 02 03

Occupy the Negative

An Installation in Negative Space under Viaduct

We eat, therefore we exist

A Reinventing Courtyard in Baitasi Area

Minimal & Maximal

A Flowing Office Space with Minimal Surface


Other Works


Floating Courtyards


Terminal for Machines

Other Design Works and Photographic Works

An Intangible Heritage Exhibition Hall in QianMen

A Machine-centered Future Airport Terminal

Occupy the Negative Installation Design under Viaduct Date: October 2016 Individual Work Modern city is built on mobility. Since Chinese cities keep sprawling, the impact from existing transport infrastructure construction on urban space has been far beyond the commitment to carry the traffic flow. Urban Viaducts not only occupy an increasing number of urban spaces, but also continuously create and influence urban environment. This project provide an creative way to re-use the negative space underneath urban viaducts effectively.

Urban Viaduct Space

Generation & Problems

With the development of the city and traffic, more and more viaducts were built to meet mass rapid transit. The presence of vast-scale viaducts break the continuity urban landscape, and the noisy on the viaduct lower the life quality of people living around. The space should have been used as public space become the place where no one want to approach.

Viaducts are transformed from basic initial prototype of crossing. The viaducts lifted up to guarantee the cross under bridge, but have limited lightnessďźŒwhich may cause crimes and sanitation problems.

Viaduct Location

Initial Path










Viaduct Forms

Prototype 1

Prototype 4

1 Plus 2




Prototype 2

Prototype 5

5 Times 4

Strsight Across



Prototype 3

Prototype 6














View limitation

Public Hygiene

Dark & Crime

Negative Spaces

Ways to Occupy

Explosion Diagram

There are many ways that we can use the negative spaces under the viaducts. However, people just focus on the benefits it brings to the on-bridge people anf ignore the influence it may cause to people under the bridge. I choose a radical way to occupy the space for revolt.

The installation is consist of three parts which are enclosure construction, walking Tunnel and fluorescent tubes. The first part could reduce the noisy influence on residence. People could walk through the tunnel feeling the twisted city. The tubes would provide light for activities at night and decrease the crime rate.


c Van




Park ket Poc Walkable Tunnels

Enclosure construction

Fluorescent Tubes


i Park




En tro Me










r nte c Ce

Flowing Ground


f Traf

Viaduct Bridge

Functional Parts Noise Reduction The Enclosure construction on the viaducts is to decrease the influence of noisy on people around

Spacial Scale The twisted tunnels decrease the space scale under viaducts and reflect the pathological city Illumination A great number of white fluorescent tubes are designed to provide lighting for activities at night

Structure Line

Light & Shadow

The enclosure construction is like silk ribbon floating on the bridge. The chaotic on the bridge is isolated from public activities under the bridge. The soft form is much more better than stiff gobos, which become a scenery in the city.

The wings wrap the viaduct closely and would not cause dark void for its translucent material. The tunnel can also reflect sunlight by day, which would make the space become more actively.

Minimal & Maximal High-rise Office Building Collaborator: Zhiheng Wu Date: August 2016 Team Work In such a rapid-developing city, working pressure increased and more intense market competition is almost unavoidable. Traditional box-type work environment is limited by the horizontal floor and vertical partitions making depressive space. In addition, it is difficult for people to achieve success by personal activity in the age of cooperation, so we tried to find a way to break space limits by geometric change and create maximal communication with minimal surface.

Concept Generation

Formation Diagram

Minimal surface whose curvature is zero everywhere features constantly and the vagaries of form inspired the field of mathematical and architectural research since 1960s. Through the extensive research of geometry combined with the purpose of breaking space limits, eventually filter out the surface prototype meeting continuity and function.

Through considering the structure, the scale of vertical circulation and function, we made a series of transformation based on the prototype. By stretching the minimal surface into different scale, the prototype fit the function space to accommodate recreational and Office communication.



Standard Unit 1





Rotate &Mirror Standard Unit 2 Trim

Mezzanine platforms

Standard Group Prototype 1

Prototype 2

Prototype 3

Prototype 4

Prototype 5


The continuity ensure the unit could be arrayed for many times without interception. The terraces with plants would provide people more chances to get connection with the city. Minimal surface creates Maximal communication space.

Skin Analysis We use the small and variable structure unit to form the gable facade. The users can decide the light incoming or constitute a certain pattern by controlling each unit through the opening and closing. Minimal surfaces constitute the structure throughout the building, and become the core of communication.



interference curve



Final skin

Unit Function In each unit, we try to leave more open space for co-working and freedom space. People can wander in the space without limitation. The minimal surface is also a platform for creative idea and fantastic performance. People could also have a rest here which like a public square in the city.

office open space

Decomposition Diagram We change the scale of the prototype to transform it into larger space like shopping mall, theater and cinema, which could provide more entertainment for officers and people around the building. The surface is also adjusted into suitable gradients for audiences' sight.

Core tube


Office Unit

Outer Terrace

Cinema Theater Frame

Curtain Wall

Shopping Mall

Vertical Circulation

Section Analysis Vertical changes of minimal surfaces breaking the original boring space, crossed the boundary between floors. Large areas of space meet the functions of exhibition, communications and entertainment. People in the flowing space would share and create greater value.

The unit is like a community. People from different fields come and change their ideas here without caring about what others might judge. Whatever fields they are in would find their own position in this micro-city and make some difference.

The flowing minimal surface create a freedom space for people to communicate and learn. The space is open and fair, in which people could do anything like talking, discussing and running. The relaxing atmosphere would improve their creativity and efficiency.

We eat, therefore we exist BAITASI Courtyard Reinventing Competition Instructor: Wen Ouyang Team: Yuefei Lin, Dong Liu, Shuo Ding Site: QingTa Hutong No.42, Beijing Date: July 2016 Nowadays, higher population density, limited resource and lack of communication, cause the contradiction between native and floating people in Beijing become more serious than ever before. Since ancient times, the ruler of Beijing changed for many times. The integration of different ethnic culture continued until now where more than one third of population are migrants. Food, as foundation of life, plays an indispensable role of medium in these processes. Therefore, to relieve the problem and create more opportunities for communication, food sharing, with its substantial function of communication in Chinese culture, becomes an effective strategy.

Conception Origin With the renovation of historic district like NanLuoGuXiang and QianMen, as another preserved district, BaiTaSi neighborhood is also confronted with reconstruction. Witnessed many times of renovation with strategy of commercial and exhibition, I've been thought about whether bring these activities could boost the vitality of the area or just bring some interesting strangers. The requirement of the competition advised to reconstruct the courtyard into a space for international exhibition. Considering comprehensively about the existing conditions and integration with residences, we believed that only the thing which residences can be involved in and attract people out of the district can achieve the purpose of regeneration. Therefore, profound and delicious Chinese food may be the most proper and effective way to stimulate the community.

Baitasi district resources & Demography graphic BaiTaSi neighborhood is one of the oldest reserved district in Beijing, therefore, there are plenty of historical sites and LuXun used to live here for several years. The area close to the Financial Street. The coexistence of traditional courtyards and modern building contrast sharply, which also cause high density and diversity of people working and living there. 25767 23953

Others Traditional craft Entertainment


unit: people per sq km




Shopping mall Retail store

Fusuijing Building

LuXun Museum

Population Density



Site Location

Financial Street

Miaoying Temple

Low-income population

Aged population Hebei 11.1% Henan 6.9% Shandong 4.3% Anhui 3.1% Others 2.4%

Residents demand Others




Floating population


Public space

Land use situation


Communication Network

Historical Evolution

食 People




The courtyard locates in BaiTaSi district where distinguished by the white tower in the Miaoying Temple. The simultaneous development of the temple and the capital since Liao Dynasty demonstrates the importance and sensitive of this district. People from different ethnic, belief and class living there not only maximize the clash, but also the opportunities of exchange and combination.


良 Production


Smooth Communication






Nanjing, Yong'an Temple Kitan






Liao Dynasty 907-1125


Middle Capital, Yong'an Temple ruined by war, only the pagoda survived Jurchen








Jin Dynasty 1115-1234


Great Capital,

Mongolian Central Asian










Yuan Dynasty 1206-1368

Rebuild the White Pagoda and extend the temple, ruined by fire

Beijing, Rebuilt the temple and named it Miaoying Temple, built the Chaotian Palace







Ming Dynasty 1368-1644



Hans MongolianC-Asian Tibetan Western




Literature Immigration



Qing Dynasty 1616-1911

Repaired for many times and held feasts frequently

Food, as the basic demand of human, also undertake the mission of communication in Chinese culture, which indicated by the division of character " 食 " into "人" and " 良 " which means people and smooth communication in English. Beijing, occupied by several different rulers of different ethnic, experienced lots of conflicts caused by diversity in culture and policy. Food, involved in almost every aspects of life including production mode, ethic, religion, trade and etc, become an indispensable carrier and lubricant to enhance fusion and relieve intense contradiction.

Republic of China 1912-1949

Beijing, Used to held temple fair six days per month

Strategy Through improvement and reorganization of space, the courtyard could not only meet the basic demand of resident, but also provide area for exhibition. After the renovation, the host may invite neighbors and professional chef to cook and create together which may attract people outside BaiTaSi district to get involved into the process and enjoy food.

Show window & Skylight


Dark Room

Function The building on the east side of the courtyard effect indoor daylighting





The skylights transform the kitchen into a platform


Through reorganizing, ensure the privacy of resident.


Deformable furniture enable for multi-functional demand


Remove the wall and reinforce the structure


Remove the blocks and rebuild the open space of the courtyard

Show Window

Neighbors could peep into the kitchen through the window

Existed Windows





Two windows of the existed building should be covered Privacy



Floating people

Host of residence

Local resident

Professional chef

Site analysis

The entrance on one side of branch road enhance privacy Structure

After investigation, we figured out that the existing condition effect the life quality of residents and could not meet the new function. To improve the basic condition of the courtyard and add exhibition function, we proposed several solutions.

The present wood structure is unique and available Existed Building


Two illegal buildings are occupying the yard space Obstacle

Several telephone poles locate on the west side of the courtyard

Physical Model Renovated courtyard releases the occupied yard to meet the function of exhibition and activities. But the most critic purpose is to bring back harmonious life of old Beijing like the old saying goes, "Canopy, aquarium and pomegranate trees. Sir, fat girl and fat dog."

Axonometric Drawing

Function Diagram



Co u


g& nin

in Liv


Be d

Re ad ing

ro om


Kit ch



ard Ga




Dining & Living Room

Reading room

Renderings Trellis, as a basic element in old Beijing courtyard, has become a luxury in this high-density area. The new trellis can regulate micro-climate, provide comfortable gray space and also provide fresh vegetable for cooking.

The position choice of show window and skylight is to create a theatrical culinary environment, which provide opportunities for residents and diners to appreciate superb cooking skills and fantastic food culture.


Layout Pattern

Couple's Breakfast

Chef's show time


Party time With a great variety of layout patterns, the courtyard would attract residences who come from different provinces living in or around BaiTaSi district. The platform can provide opportunities for people who have unique capability of cooking to show and share their food with people who love eating using the space, device and organic vegetables of the yard. With a great variety of layout patterns, the courtyard would attract residences who come from different provinces living in or around BaiTaSi district. The platform can provide opportunities for people who have unique capability of cooking to show and share their food with people who love eating using the space, device and organic vegetables of the yard.

Family's reunion

Floating Courtyards QianMen Intangible Heritage Exhibition Hall Instructor: Ying Ma Site: QianMen, Beijing Date: September 2015 Individual Work The organization of courtyard and Hutong in Beijing used to provide a comfortable and independent living environment at every house. However, as the population increased, the occupied courtyard lost its public function. The narrow Hutong used only for pavement become public space, which cause messy environment and security problem. To evoke the impression of old Beijing courtyard and complete public space for the neighborhood, as while as in meeting the requirement, I use a walking bridge to connect these exhibition courtyard blocks and enclose outdoor space for public activities and outdoor exhibition.

Site Location

Courtyard Density

With the special location near the entrance of the inner city, the QianMen area where the site locates in used to be the most critical business and traffic center. However, the abandon of the railway station and migration of commercial to other areas caused the decline of this district and increasing population density even made a worse condition.

Courtyard originating from Yuan Dynasty, flourished in Qing Dynasty as a superior residence pattern. But, with the increasing population and limited economic during the early days of New China, people build additional room in the central yard to provide more living space. As a result, the comfortable courtyard transferred into DaZaYuan and the communications used to happen in the yard disappeared.


Figure Ground Analysis With radical construction and increasing population, residents built lots of additional room to meet the requirement of living and store space, which erodes the central yard. More and more traditional courtyard replaced by messy warrens. The impression of pleasant life in SiHeYuan disappeared displaced by narrow passageway and cluttered debris

Courtyard Space

Courtyard Density

Central Axis




Area & Scale



2005 2005

2006 2006

2007 2007

2008 2008

2009 2009

2010 2010

2011 2011

2012 2012

2013 2013

2014 2014


















Watchtower 35.37m 400

Qianmen 43.65m 5000

Memorial Hall 33.65m 20000

Railway Museum 28.74m 1200

Chairman Mao Memorial Hall Eastern Area 5.69m 26000

QianMen QianMen Watchtower Railway Museum

People per day Landmarks Site Landmark

Qianmen Street 140000


Exhibition Hall

Grand Theatre

Grassland Trees

Site Analysis The unique location and tourism resources attract numerous tourists to Qianmen district every year. However, the site is located in northeast corner of this area and next to a one-way street, which cause nearly nobody arriving there. To enhance its public function, I reserved large area for outdoor exhibition and activities. I considered courtyard as a special kind of intangible heritage, therefore the space for exhibition is abstracted from SiHeYuan pattern to awake memory of harmonious life in courtyard. And the bridge is to relate different courtyards on the site.

Limited Height

Preserved Street

Preserved Building



QianMen Street Hutong


Traffic Maximum Height


Preserved Street


Residential Area Public Space

Preserved Building


Minor Flow Main Flow

Subway Station One Way Street Courtyard



Subway Motorway Subway Station

Public Space The unique location and tourism resources attract numerous tourists to Qianmen district every year. However, the site is located in northeast corner of this area and next to a one-way street, which cause nearly nobody arriving there. To enhance its public function, I reserved large area for outdoor exhibition and activities. I considered courtyard as a special kind of intangible heritage, therefore the space for exhibition is abstracted from SiHeYuan pattern to awake memory of harmonious life in courtyard. And the bridge is transferred from Hutong in Beijing to relate different courtyards on the site.

6 a.m. Country Fair

9 a.m. Sports Ground

6 p.m. Open Air Theate

8 p.m. Square Dance

9 p.m. Live Concert

Walking Bridge Nowadays, everyone living in the megalopolis Beijing pursue the highest efficient to achieve higher benefits, which lead to the lack of time to enjoy and appreciate their life. I prefer to use curve abstract from naturally growing Hutong rather than line to connect each courtyard. The bridge not only link two land blocks but also maintain visual connection with scenery spot around the site. People can do some sports and intangible cultural heritage performers may provide show on the bridge.

The lifting platform ensure the accessible of preserved street. The rounded platform provide a stage for performers, on which the intangible cultural heritage is exhibited to the visitors on the bridge and also people passing by.

People could catch sight of the central axis of Beijing through the bridge. Present is connected with the history through the interaction between exhibition in the site and environment around the site.

Form Transformation

Terminal for Machines

Through the transformation, combination, we tried to figure out how could e prototype unit connected with each other. To create more space for machine, we extrude units and connect them at different level. We also add some pattern on the surface to make intersurface more variable

Future Airport Terminal With the development of economic, the airport will become a station of logistics. Cargo and baggage will become the core rather than people to ensure the efficiency.

Prototype Unit






Central Part Rendering Different level connected by volumes of different scale and function. Cargo and luggage travel through the layers in floors and vertical spiral chutes. Storage shelves and maintenance pipeline go through the multi -layer space. The remainder of sapce shaped by the machine system is where people can use and feel the coexisting with machines.

Form Research Through the research of Sony Center, we tried to find how the shape controled by the force and form. We simplified the form with two pure curve and connect them by cables. The balance of the frame and cable is what we want to express in design.

Glass Study Case

Structure Elements

Structure Section

Form Element

Form Prototype

Square Tube





Arrival Level Plan Not like traditional airport terminal, which have huge public spave for people. The future termial is designed for machines. The multi-layer space shape and organize the plan of terminal. People are just participants get involved into the system.

Future Airport Terminal With the development of economic, the airport will become a station of logistics. Cargo and baggage will become the core rather than people to ensure the efficiency. People will be co-existed with objects and can feel the system with the change of shape of space. Different volumes have different functions, such as vertical transport, lighting and baggage system. Lots of layers between different floors make the whole terminal become a whole continuous system.

Depar ture Level We seperate Plan the arrival and departure into two levels and connect them with the volumes, which meet the demand of skylight, vertical transportation and signt contaction. People travel through the space, hearing the sound of machines and feeling the operation of system, then become a part of the whole system.

Other Works Design and photography works Date: From Sep.2012 The project on the cover is a HOPSCA design in XiZhiMen district, which considered natural and historical condition to meet residential and commercial functions. Other works show some personal works of space and house research, through which I acquired deeper understanding of scale of space and apply them into my own design. The structure research and redesign of children library during my intern are team works . Travels and photography broaden my horizon and provide another way to experience the world around me.

Space Research

House Research

This is a research of ten ways of peeping space abstracted from classical Chinese gardens. People are the subject who experiences spaces. The goal of practice is to percept space in people's view and scale.

This is a deep research of Weisenhofseidling #13. Through learning the architectural drawings of the little house and making the physical model of it, I get a deeper understanding of how to organize spaces circulation in a dwelling to meet basic life demands.

Leave faint passage Attice window

Watch longitudinally Watch successively

Watch with more than one focuses Watch from beneath

Watch indirectly Spy aslant

Watch with perspective Cracked corner

Further train is to use these method of space organization into one space divided by two boundaries. The boundaries are not only limitation but also a way to connect the space on both sides of it. And finally the circulation must be recyclable.

In the practice of loft design, I try to use prior knowledge to combine functions of living, working and entertainment into one house with limited height. With multiple mezzanines, I divided space into different part according to activity level.

Hangzhoul South Railway Station This project is the new southern railway station in Hangzhou which reflexcts the local culture with picking up elements of traditional building in Hangzhou. During my internship, I designed and modeled different options of interior organization and details. And also created drawings for presentation with Vray and PS.

Travel & Photography Through my travel to French, Italy, Japan and many provinces of China, I not only experienced many famous architecture on textbook in person, but also have opportunities to approach different people, different culture and different beautiful scenery.

In the light of sunset, Eiffel Tower is no longer cold as before

Wujiang Children Library

A traditional house sandwiched between two modern buildings

I got involved in the interior reformation design project of WuJiang Children Library during my internship. The project is to created more active space for children of different ages in a space with limited lightness and varied story height.

A beautiful sunrise on the top of a snow mountain in Haerbin province, the vellay and trees are dyed red by the light of sun

Thank you for taking time to read my portfolio.

Portfolio dixiao intern  
Portfolio dixiao intern