Devry BIOS255 Anatomy and Physiology with Lab III – Entire Course
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Devry BIOS255 Anatomy and Physiology with Lab III – Entire Course Question The Heart (graded) The human heart is a four-chambered hydraulic pump. A hydraulic pump uses differences in pressure to move material from areas of higher pressures to areas of lower pressures. The pressure differences created by the heart move blood between the chambers and the circulatory systems. Let’s begin our discussion by identifying the chambers of the heart and their functions, the associated valves, and the names and general route of their associated great vessels. The Contraction Cycle (graded) The contraction cycle of the heart is the series of events that occurs during one heartbeat. Each beat of the heart includes the contraction (systole) and relaxation (diastole) of the atria and then the ventricles. Let’s begin the examination of this cycle by discussing electrical conduction through the heart. BIOS 255 week 2 Blood Vessel Structure (graded) Let’s start by discussing the structure of our blood vessels. Let’s each take a characteristic of (1) arteries, (2) veins, or (3) capillaries. Build upon what your classmates say to enable us to have a more full understanding of these vessels that are essential for our existence.
Blood Flow Dynamics (graded) Cardiac output is the amount of blood ejected from the left or right ventricle in any given minute. Cardiac output must be maintained in order to keep sufficient blood flow through the capillaries. Identify the factors that directly affect blood flow in the circulatory system. BIOS 255 week 3 Whole Blood (graded)
Describe the composition, physical characteristics, and functions of whole blood. Explain why it is classified as a connective tissue. Liquid Connective Tissue (graded) Explain the similarities and differences among serum, lymph, and plasma. Each student should take one characteristic of the fluid, extracellular component of this connective tissue and explain how it relates to the other liquids. BIOS 255 week4 The Lymphatic System (graded) How do the various components of the lymphatic system operate? We have talked about many organ systems. In what ways are components of the lymphatic system involved in many other organ systems? Try to focus on one element of this system and provide an in-depth view of its contribution to our overall health. Nonspecific Immunity (graded) How do the various elements of the nonspecific immune system function in providing daily protection against a variety of pathogens? Each student should provide a unique aspect of the nonspecific immune system and educate the rest of us concerning its function and how effective (or ineffective) it is against one class of pathogens. BIOS 255 week 5 B and T Cells (graded) Our knowledge and understanding of the various forms of lymphocytes continue to expand. Our initial discussion this week will be on the various forms of B and T cells — each of us should take one class of lymphocytes and explain it’s role in the adaptive immune process. As you comment on other students’ postings be sure to add additional insight into the mechanisms of the subclass of cell and its interactions with both components of the innate and other aspects of the adaptive immune system. Vaccinations – Friend or Foe (graded) Recently a number of individuals have claimed that adjuvants, such as thymersol in vaccines, lead to the development of a variety of disorders, such as autism. Although these initial claims have not been substantiated and have since been withdrawn from the scientific literature, the concern continues today. How would you counsel parents concerning vaccination? Discuss the issue of herd immunity and the risks in our modern society related to refusal to provide vaccinations. BIOS 255 week 6
Respiratory Anatomy (graded) Describe the anatomy and histology of the respiratory system and how each of the functions are related. Breathing (graded) Describe the events that cause inhalation and exhalation and how Boyle’s law relates to the events. BIOS 255 week 7 Transport of Gases (graded)
Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are transported in the blood, and explain how their loading and unloading is affected by temperature, pH, BPG, and PCO2. Respiratory Diseases (graded) Compare the causes and consequences of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. Once we have made these comparisons then we should follow up on other disorders that affect either the upper or lower respiratory systems. Be sure to comment on others postings in terms of new information that can contribute to a more complete understanding of the diseases you pick. Devry BIOS255N Week 4 Midterm Exam Answers Question 1. Question : (TCO3) Which of the following is a major function of blood? Student Answer: production of enzymes production of neurotransmitters transduction of pressure transportation of heat contractility Question 2. Question : (TCO3) Which of the following blood types is a person whose blood cells were agglutinated by anti-A serum but not by anti-B serum nor by anti-Rh serum B positive O negative O positive A negative Question 3. Question : (TCO3) Which of the following formed elements in blood only temporarily move through the blood before they become fixed in the tissues as macrophages? thrombocytes monocytes basophils eosinophils Question 4. Question : (TCO3) Reduced vitamin B12 absorption from the small intestine due to reduced intrinsic factor production from the stomach results in a condition called aplastic anemia megaloblastic anemia pernicious anemia iron deficiency anemia Question 5. Question : (TCO3) Serum is plasma without the clotting factors the same as lymph formed during the first step in blood clotting pulmonary interstitial fluid Question 6. Question : (TCO3) Which of the following precursor cells give rise to T-cells? meyloblasts lymphoid stem cells proerythroblast megakaryoblast
Question 7. Question : (TCO3) Which of the following opposes the action of thromboxane A2 by inhibiting platelet adhesion and release? fibrinogen plasmin antithrombin prostacyclin Question 8. Question : (TCO3) Myeloid stem cells reside in the yellow marrow the thymus gland the red marrow the spleen Question 9. Question : (TCO1) The tough, inelastic dense connective tissue that surrounds the heart is called the pleura serous pericardium fibrous pericardium epicardium Question 10. Question : (TCO1) During heart transplants, the ______ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant cardiac accelerator vagus phrenic cervical spinal Question 11. Question : (TCO1) Which of the following factors lead to depressed cardiac output? alkalosis hypoxia all of the above none of the above have any depressive effects on the heart Question 12. Question : (TCO1) If a personâ€™s resting heart rate is 70 and their resting stroke volume is 60 ml of blood, then their cardiac output is _______ L/min 4200 4.2 130 1.3 Question 13. Question : (TCO1) The purpose of the foramen ovale during fetal life is to have the blood bypass the liver have the blood bypass the lungs have the blood bypass the placenta have the blood bypass the brain Question 14. Question : (TCO1) Heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the ____ of the heart. myocardium SA node AV node endocardium
Question 15. Question : (TCO1) Which of the following electrocardiogram (ECG) waves represents ventricular repolarization? Q wave P wave S wave T wave Question 16. Question : (TCO1) Which part of the brain contains the cardiovascular center that regulated heart rate? cerebrum medullar oblongata cerebellum thalamus Question 17. Question : (TCO1) Which layer of the heart is comprised of epithelial cells? epicardium endocardium pericardium serous pericardium Question 18. Question : (TCO2) Which of the following categories of hypertensive drugs lower blood pressure by blocking the formation of angtiotensin II, which results in vasodilation and decreased aldosterone secretion? ACE inhibitors Beta blockers calcium channel blockers anabolic steroids Question 19. Question : (TCO2) Which of the following categories would an individual with a blood pressure of 145/95 be placed in? high normal prehypertension stage 1 hypertension stage 2 hypertension Question 20. Question : (TCO2) Which of the following effectors would NOT be activated as described below in response to hypovolemic shock? kidneys conserve salt and water heart rate increases systemic arterioles vasodilate heart contractility increases Question 21. Question : (TCO2) Which of the following blood vessels have high pulsing blood pressure? internal jugular vein median cubital vein inferior vena cava none of the above Question 22. Question : (TCO2) During fetal development, the blood from the pulmonary veins are shunted into the pulmonary arteries by the foramen ovale ductus venosus placenta ligamentum arteriosum
Question 23. Question : (TCO2) Most capillaries throughout the body are sinusoids portal systems vasoconstrictory throughputs continuous Question 24. Question : (TCO2) Capillaries are also referred to as vasoconstrictors vasodilators pressure reservoirs distributing vessels Question 25. Question : (TCO2) The volume of blood that circulates through the systemic blood vessels in one minute is called tidal volume cardiac output cardiac reserve total peripheral resistance Question 26. Question : (TCO3) What is the pulse pressure of a person that has a systolic pressure of 150 mm Hg with a diastolic pressure of 90 mm Hg? Question 27. Question : (TCO3) Determine the mean arterial pressure for a patient with an average systolic pressure of 120 mm Hg with a mean diastolic pressure of 60 mm Hg: Question 28. Question : (TCO3) What is the resting cardiac output (in liters) of an athlete with a stroke volume of 75 ml and a resting heart rate of 60 beats/minute? Question 29. Question : (TCO3) The same athlete during exercise has a heart rate of 180 beats/minute with an increase of stroke volume to 125 ml. What is their cardiac output during exercise? Question 30. Question : (TCO3) What is the cardiac cycle for a person with a resting heart rate of 80 beats per minute? Question 31. Question : TCO3) What is the name of the blood vessel that supplies the face and head (except the brain) with oxygenated blood? Question 32. Question : TCO3) What is the name of the blood vessel that is the distal extension of the external iliac artery as it enters the leg? Question 33. Question : (TCO3) What is the name of the blood vessel that drains deoxygenated blood from the medial aspect of the forearm? Question 34. Question : TCO3) What is the name of the vein that is found behind the kneecap on the posterior surface of the leg? Question 35. Question : (TCO3) What is the name of this blood vessel that is highlighted? Question 36. Question : (TCO3) List and briefly describe the three mechanisms used to reduce blood loss from a damaged blood vessel. Question 37. Question : (TCO1) Define arrhythmia and discuss different categories of arrhythmias. Question 38. Question : (TCO2) What is a portal vein? Describe the hepatic portal circulation and its functional significance BIOS255 Week 1 Lab Exercise 27: Heart Structure and Function
Complete the following illustrations and post it in the Week1 Dropbox. .jpg”> .jpg”> 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. .jpg”> .jpg”> 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. .jpg”> 1. 4. 7. 10. 13. 16.
BIOS255 Week 2 Lab 2 Bios 225 Week 2 Lab Exercise Review of the Arteries .jpg”>
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19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. BIOS225 Week 3 Lab Exercises Review of the Major Veins of the Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvis 1. 2. 3.4. 5. 6.7. 8. 9.10. 11. 12.13. 14. 15.16. 17. 18.19. 20. Review of Major Arteries of the Lower Limb1. 2. 3.4. 5. 6.7. 8. 9. Review of Major Veins of the Lower Limb 1. 2. 3.4. 5. 6.7. 8. 9.10. 11. BIOS 255 WEEK 5 Lab 5 – Lymphatic System & Disease Resistance 1.Describe lymphatic system functions. .jpg” alt=”LymphaticVessels2″>2. Locate each of the following lymphatic vessels: right lymphatic duct, thoracic (left lymphatic) duct, .gif”>.gif”>.gif”>right and left subclavian veins, and cisterna chyli. a b. c. d.
.gif”> . .jpg” alt=”BloodLymphMovement”> e. Determine the direction of blood and lymph movement between arterioles, blood and lymph capillaries, and venules. f. Describe the lymphatic system role with regard to lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins. 3. What are the thymus gland functions? 4. Identify each of the following in a lymph node: afferent lymphatic vessels and efferent vessels. .jpg” alt=”LymphNode”> a. .gif”>.gif”>b. c. What is the function of the macrophages within the lymph nodes? d. Identify spleen functions..jpg” alt=”Spleen”> .jpg” alt=”Cytolysis2″> 5. T Lymphocytes:Some activated cytotoxic T cells produce perforin. What is the function of perforin? .jpg” alt=”Lymphotoxin”> 6. Some activated cytotoxic T cells produce Lymphotoxin. What is the function of lymphotoxin? .jpg” alt=”Antibodies”>7. Activated B Lymphocytes are transformed into plasma cells that produce antibodies. Name five ways antibodies can destroy foreign cells and substances. Bios255n week 6 ilab Acute respiratory disorder Acute respiratory disorder BIOS 255N Week 8 Final Exam Answers – Essay Questions Question #1. Describe the feedback mechanism involved in erythropoiesis. Question #2. Describe the cardiac cycle (include conduction, contraction, heart sounds and EKG information).
Question #3. Describe the factors that increase blood pressure (negative feedback involved in blood pressure regulation). Question #4. Describe the responses involved in non-specific immunity. Question #5. Describe cell-mediated immunity (antigen presentation, antigen recognition, activation and cellular response). Include both CD8 and CD4 T cells. Question #6. Describe antibody-mediated immunity (antigen presentation, antigen recognition, activation and cellular response). Question #7. Describe the events, pressures and muscles involved in inhalation and exhalation. Question #8. Describe how breathing is regulated through the negative feedback control of PCO2, PO2 and pH.