MS PaperCut 2021-22 Edition 2

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Be what you are. This is the first step toward becoming better than you are. -Julius Charles Hare

We hope you enjoy the second edition!

Second Edition Feb. 28th 2022

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Tied to Another By: Madigan Kacmar ’26 the one you love isn’t destined to be yours and the worst part is you know it tied to another with a single thread where the stars align and the fates decide not being able to put your pain on someone instead you must suffer in silence because your world is just out of reach gripping to the string in hopes that the feelings vanish with another’s touch having no power to stop your heart from sinking in its own tears it’s tied to one’s hand so the unconditional love starts to fade for no reason it’s no one’s fault so the pain of destiny must be bared alone

Supreme Court by Nisha Rajan ’26 President Biden has pledged to nominate a Black woman for the new position on the Supreme Court. There have only ever been 5 women and 2 people of color with this title. This is prominent in today’s society, because Biden has given an opportunity for a different perspective to have a place on the Supreme Court, which can result in many different consequences. However, there has been a great amount of backlash against Biden’s decision and the way he released it. Many believe that Biden only nominated a Black woman for the sake of nominating a Black woman, and not because he believed that she was best to fit the position. Although this has caused a lot of opposing reactions, many would also argue that Biden is offering this high-ranked position to a member of a minority group, and one that has not been fairly considered for this role. Currently, the Supreme Court consists of 3 female Associate Justices - Sonia Sotomayor, Elena Kagan, and Amy Coney Barrett. They have been on the Supreme Court for 12 years, 11 years, and 1 year respectively. There are also 6 men on the Supreme Court, Associate Justices Clarence Thomas, Stephen G. Breyer, Samuel A. Alito Jr., Neil M. Gorsuch, Brett M. Kavanaugh, and Chief Justice, John G. Roberts Jr. Nominating a Black woman would contribute heavily to the diversity of the Supreme Court. 1


This would also add a new perspective to represent minority groups and to help balance the final verdicts made. Despite his good intentions, many people are very frustrated at the amount of time that Biden is taking to nominate someone to the court. After nomination, the Senate will vote to appoint or not appoint the candidate to the court. The problem lots of Democrats have currently is that the court is at a 50-50 split between Republicans and Democrats. A Democrat from New Mexico, Ben Ray Luján, recently had a stroke and is in a rehab facility as of February 13, 2022. He states, “I’m proud to report, [that] I’ll be back on the floor of the United States Senate in just a few short weeks to vote on important legislation and to consider a Supreme Court nominee,” However, this startling event raises the concern that if the number of Republicans outweigh the number of Democrats in the senate, the likelihood of Biden actually appointing a democratic justice decreases.

Russia Ukraine Conflict: Explained

by Alex Kim ’26 Russia has recently gathered 130,000 troops along the Ukrainian border, and although Russia has denied all claims of an imminent invasion, many believe that “an invasion could begin at any time”. Why would Russia do this? Because ever since the collapse of the USSR after the end of the cold war, NATO has been slowly moving closer to Russia’s borders. Russia put out a list of demands they wanted in exchange for peace with Ukraine. Those demands included NATO returning to its state during 1997, undoing decades of geopolitical progress. Russia has been worried about Ukraine joining NATO since President Bush suggested it in 2008, which would put European influence right at their borders. Russia feels the need to act now because as time goes on, the possibility of Ukraine joining NATO becomes larger and higher. The US has stated that whether Russia chooses to negotiate or invade Ukraine, America is ready to respond. There has been a lot of history between Russia and Ukraine in the past. For decades, Russia had control over Ukraine. But following the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukrainians voted for their independence. Russia has claimed that the two are “joined at the hip”, both culturally and geographically. Tension between the two has been building for years, and peaked in 2014 when Ukraine’s president decided to hold out on a pact with the EU. Millions of Ukrainians took to the streets in protest, something that gravely upset Russia. A peace deal was finally reached in 2015 with the help of France and Germany, but the border is still very tense. Russia has begun to mount its troops on the border, and they are also putting out propaganda negatively portraying NATO. Vladimir Putin was worried, especially since NATO has begun to supply weapons and training to the Ukrainian military. President Biden has had a diplomatic relationship with Ukraine even since before he was president. He has spent numerous hours meeting with Putin for negotiation, although it appears they haven’t gotten very far. 2


Knight Media Forum, Featuring Cooper by Sianne Kim ’26 and Anna Ibarguen ’26 The Knight Media Forum is an annual conference event held by the Knight Foundation. The 2022 Forum is the 15th occurrence, and it is a gathering of leaders in topics such as journalism, policy, and education. It is intended to be a platform for the experts to share their knowledge and opinions, and introduce new ideas and offer other perspectives. The topics talked about are meant to be current and relevant, including Funding Local Journalism in Large Cities, How to Partner with Television and Radio to Inform Communities, and Addressing Disinformation Targeted at Communities of Color. There are to be an estimated 3,000 virtual attendees, who, after the introduction, will split into smaller breakout sessions to hear the panels on the more specific topics. Cooper Carragher-Haim, an 8th grader here at D-E has been selected out of the Media Studies class to be a panelist in the room discussing who is informing Millennials and Generation Z. We sat down with Cooper to get a sense of how he’s feeling about this opportunity. Q: What is the Knight Media Forum, in your eyes? A: It’s a media conference where new ideas unravel. Q: How did you get this opportunity? A: Alberto Ibarguen spoke to our Media Studies class and he picked the top 4 people he thought would do best on the panel, based on his experience. Mr. Aitken then drew straws as to who actually would talk, and I was chosen! Q: We were informed that you were going to be the youngest speaker by about a decade. How does this make you feel? A: Like I should quit. No, it makes me feel happy to have the opportunity as the youngest, I’m thankful to be the youngest. It’s a really cool thing to have done. Q: Do you have any clue on what you are going to be talking about? A: I was going to prepare this weekend, but I know I’m going to be talking about how people rely a lot on social media for their information. Q: We heard that you are to speak to an estimated 200 people, primarily adults, are you nervous? A: No, I am joyful. Although there are going to be a lot of adults, I need to settle the nerve. Q: Why did you decide to say yes? A: Because I’m happy about the opportunity and I’m prideful and I wouldn’t turn down this offer, even if I am scared. Q: How do you think this experience can help you in the future? A: I think this will help me be more prepared speaking in public and when I’m talking in front of a lot of people. During our interview, some of Cooper’s friends came over and expressed their feelings about Cooper’s big opportunity. Noah Saphier ’26 said, “Congrats”, and Jay Tikoo ’26 said, “Yeah I’m so proud of you because you’re such a great speaker.” We have great faith in Cooper’s ability to represent our school, and we all hope he does well!

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Friends by Diya Daryanani ’27 Friends is one of the most popular TV shows in the world. In fact, around 43% of the population has watched the show. Given the amount of people who watch Friends, a common question one may have is “Who’s your favorite character?” This is a really good question considering each character is different in their own ways and your favorite character in a show can tell a lot about your character. So, I did an experiment. I sent out a survey to the middle and upper school students asking, “Who’s your favorite character in Friends?” I wanted to see who the most popular character amongst these students was. Here are the results: As you can see, the most popular character was Joey. The order from most to least popular was, Joey, Chandler, Phoebe, Rachel, and Monica and Ross were tied. Four other people had then picked Gunther and Janice in “other.” After giving out a survey to the students, I decided to give the same survey to the MS and US staff. It was interesting to see their opinions. Results: In this survey, Phoebe was the most popular, it then came to Joey, then Rachel and Chandler tied while Monica and Ross tied as well. It was interesting to see the common trends within people. Amongst the staff and students, Joey, Phoebe, and Chandler seem to be the most liked. Although I tried to make this experiment as accurate as possible, there were some factors which I could not control. For instance, I could not control how many people responded to my form. Also, If more teachers had responded, that probably would have affected the results. Overall, Friends is a really good show and a lot of people would recommend it.

Lunar New Year Art

By Caroline Sung ’27 Each animal is one of the twelve zodiacs in the Lunar New Year. Every animal has their own unique color. The reason why I chose these specific colors is because each of the zodiacs have lucky colors. Making a chart, I saw what colors were not shared and shared with other zodiacs, and chose the ones that suited the specific zodiac. Tiger: Orange, Dog: purple, Rat: blue, Goat: green, Ox: white, Snake: red, Dragon: silver, Pig; gray, Rabbit: pink, Horse: yellow, Rooster: brown, and Monkey: gold.

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Valentine’s Day: A Love Ridden (and Story Ridden) Holiday by: Oriana Huang ’26

Although Valentine’s Day is past and some of us are looking forward to spending time with leprechauns and hidden pots of gold coins, there are still many, many stories surrounding the love-ridden ’holiday’! Here is my selection of the top 6 stories about Valentine’s Day!

1. Valentine’s Day was NOT created by card making companies. This sounds kind of unbelievable, but many people do believe it! Since giving Valentine’s Day cards is commonly spread during the unofficial holiday, many people believe that card making companies created the holiday due to the fact that many people will buy cards. An amazing 145 million cards were exchanged almost every year, according to Hallmark!

2. The first valentine was written by the French Duke Charles of Orleans to his wife. In 1415, medieval duke Charles wrote a love poem to his lover. He was only 21 years old and the poem was written from his time imprisoned in the Tower of London. It goes, My very gentle Valentine/since for me you were born too soon/and I for you was born too late/God forgives him who has estranged/Me from you for the whole year/I am already sick of love/My very gentle Valentine.

3. The inspiration of Valentine’s Day has 2 likelihoods. Historians believe that there could be 2 inspirations for Valentine’s Day. The first is that February 14th is the death date of St. Valentine, whose identity is still unknown. He could’ve been a group of people, or he could’ve been one of many people named Valentine. The second explanation is the ancient Pagan festival Lupercalia, where the people sacrificed animals and smacked women with raw animal hides in order to encourage fertility. This holiday was celebrated on February 15th in Ancient Rome.

4. Valentine’s Day became a love-ridden holiday in the 14th century. Roman Pope Gelasio declared February 14th as ’St. Valentine’s Day’ during the 5th century. However, during the 14th century, the widespread belief shared by people in France and England that the mating season of birds started on February 14th started getting associated with love and romance.

5. Countries around the world celebrate Valentine’s Day differently. Denmark gives pressed white flowers, called snowdrops, to friends and lovers. South Korea celebrates Valentine’s Day on February 14th and March 14th, while singles mourn their single status by eating black bean noodles, jjajangmyeon, on April 14th. China’s Valentine’s Day is called Qixi. The legend of Niulang and Zhinu serves as the inspiration for the holiday, where people believe the separated lovers are reunited once a year, when birds create a bridge between the Milky Way that separates them. I highly recommend reading the legend as well as finding out how other countries celebrate this love-ridden holiday!

6. Valentine’s Day will not be miserable for singles. Yes, there is a counterpart of Valentine’s Day! International Quirkyalone Day is also celebrated on February 14th, by singles! It was first celebrated globally in 2003. It is a moment for people to celebrate self love and platonic relationships. Even though Valentine’s Day is past already, can you find any other interesting facts about this holiday? Feel free to find some about the upcoming St. Patrick’s Day as well!

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February Themed Words by Alex Kim ’26

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Extra extra read about it! Annie in D-E by Jesse Lucy ’27 As many of you might know, this year’s spring musical is Annie and, as a member of the cast myself, I can say that this year is gonna be great!. As a treat for PaperCut, I interviewed Ms. Stephanie Anderson, the middle school drama teacher, and the musical’s director. Here’s how it went: Q: Why was Annie chosen? A: “This is my first show at D-E that I’m directing, and it’s the first show that any of our actors are gonna be in at D-E because of the pandemic so I wanted to choose something that was manageable, and by that I mean Annie is pretty low-key as far as like set or costumes. It’s no Shrek the Musical and I was like ’we need to start simple’, but I also love it because there are so many parts for women. Tons of roles, and only like two main guy roles. And I didn’t have a lot of guys I knew of, and I knew like ’you know what? I know we have the people to really rock Annie, I think I can do this well’. And it’s just like hopeful, and I think we can use a bit of hopeful right about now, so yeah that’s why I chose Annie.” Q: If you could do any other musical this year, what would it be? A: “It is no secret that I do love Shrek The Musical, I show it to all my 7th graders, and there is a junior version. So that is one I would hope to do once I feel like we have the people, and we have the tech crews. Oh and I loved Newsies but they did it right before I got here, so I was bummed about that.” Q: How do you feel about how the cast turned out? A: “I am so grateful for the cast, like when you pick a musical and you put it out there I stressed for like 3 months like ’I hope people audition, and I hope good people’. So I was just loving, just the energy we had at callbacks, and when I heard everyone sing together for the first time I was like ’okay we have a show’ and just in general everyone’s attitudes and energy is really lovely and it’s so fun working with a group of students who all want to be there. So I’m very happy and I think other students and staff will be delighted by a few surprise performances.” Q: Anything else you want to mention to the audience? A: “Oh, I guess I just want to shout out all of the people that make a show happen that the audience will never see, like I have 6 crew heads and a slew of people on each crew, including my backstage crew who all make it all happen and it’s just a colossal amount of work so just props to them. And also I’m excited to work with the art department this year. Ms. Scrivanich is doing a project, a secret project with her art students to make our musical even better, so I’m excited to collaborate.” Before I wrap up, I just want to say a huge thank you to Ms. Anderson for this interview. I hope this might have encouraged you to see the school musical Annie in May 2022.

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Club Spotlight: The Art Club

by Sianne Kim ’26

“It’s always inspiring to see all of the creative ideas from my students from 6th - 8th grade in all different materials.” The Art Club is held on Thursdays in Swartley with Ms. Brusky. With participants throughout middle school, the Art Club is a fun environment where students are encouraged to express their creativity and emotions. Swartley has almost all the materials one could want to use, and the students are welcome to use or do whatever they want related to art. “In art clubs there are a variety of things you can participate in. For example, clay, watercolor, scrapbooking/collaging, and basically anything that your heart desires,” (Keiryn Felix, 8th grade). Many students enjoy being in this class because of the freedom, and also being able to converse with the people around you. “I like how it’s very relaxing and therapeutic to talk to your friends while doing something creative that you enjoy.” (Ella Siew, 8th Grade). During the club, after a quick introduction or announcement from Ms. Brusky, the students are free to get materials and either continue their past work or start something new. Stanley Ma, a sixth grader says, “It’s just fun to make art.” With music playing in the background and also some chatter amongst the students, the art club gives off a very comfortable and homely atmosphere that is very fun to be a part of.

Black History Month

by Ella Siew ’26 Black History Month is a time to celebrate the achievements made by black people and their role in history. People celebrate the accomplishments and efforts of these activists, civil rights pioneers, and leaders. The celebration came from “Negro History Week” which began in 1926. From 1976 when Gerald Ford was president, every US president designated the month of February as Black History Month. It is celebrated in February to line up with the birthday of Abraham Lincoln, the president who abolished slavery and Fredrick Douglass, an enslaved man who became a prominent leader in the abolitionist movement. People such as Martin Luther King Jr, Harriet Tubman, Rosa Parks, Muhammad Ali, Jackie Robinson, and more are some historical figures who made a strong impact on our society today.

In Our Middle School Community

Ms. Tazelaar from the 8th grade science class says “I have been sharing a slide at the beginning of class every day with a “person of the day,” a Black American involved in a STEM field. I have also invited my students to do some research and create their own slides to share with me and their classmates”. In the 7th grade history classes, Ms. Patel and Mr. Schade are highlighting important black people who have contributed to the world’s history “by sharing important and valuable quotes that are connectd to conecpts in historyl We then do a brief overview of who the person is and their contributions. We are trying to focus on the individuals who many may not be aware of ”. Mr. Larrowe, the 6th grade science teacher says “We are researching, presenting, and celebrating African American scientists who have made tremendous contributions to the science community and the world. We do these presentations in 6th Grade because these magnificent scientists go unrecognized in today’s world”.

Winter 2022

by Della Solbaaken ’27 8


Black Music Artists by: Madison Meier

This month is Black History Month, so to tie in with my Playlist (scan QR code for the playlist), I wanted to give a shoutout to all of the black trailblazers who helped make this wonder music culture today. Bob Marley: In the 1970s Bob Marley had put Reggae and Jamaican culture on the maps for everyone to experience. He had made worldwide hits like, ’I Shot the Sheriff ’, ’No Woman, No Cry’, ’Could You Be Loved’ and ’Jamming’. The scale of Bob Marley’s success in the 70s was great for a Jamaican artist and for few rising artists who followed in his footsteps and in the future would reach Marley’s level of popularity.The release of Legend, was one best of collection, in 1984 he grew his popularity; the album would go on to sell 25 million copies globally. Eventually Bob Marley had died from fan acral lentiginous melanoma, which is a form of skin cancer. He had been diagnosed in 1977, and it had spread from under a nail of his toe. He first discovered melanoma while playing football in 1977. He also fought for social justice for everyone. He is a big legend who helped out the world today. Michael Jackson: Michael Jackson was known as the “King of Pop,” He was a best-selling American singer, songwriter and dancer. He first started out with the Jackson Five, which was a band with his brothers in the early 1960. The Jackson 5 was introduced to the music industry at a special event in August 1969, and the group later opened for the Supremes. Even though the band was successful, they split up in 1976. Then in 1971, Michael Jackson started his solo career. In his career he made 13 albums and won 13 grammys. But sadly his career had ended due to his drug addiction and he had died on June 25, 2009. He was 50 years old at that time. Did you know that Michael Jackson had released the first music video ever with his song “Thriller”? Even though he had died his legacy is still alive. Beyonce: Beyonce Knowles started her career with the R&B group Destiny’s Child. The group had Beyonce, Kelly Rowland, and two classmates. The group itself had a bunch of changes before they had finally landed a big break by getting a record deal in 1997 with Columbia Records. The group had also made the No.1 hit “Bills, Bills, Bills’’ with their second album. They made another smash called “Say My Name.” Even though she really likes the group, Beyonce wanted to try new things like acting and a solo career. Beyonce had made her first solo album in 2003 called “Dangerously in Love”. That record had become a huge success for her and had sold five million copies. The album had also won five grammys. She then started working with other artists such as Missy Elliott, Sean Paul and Jay-Z. Then Destiny’s Child released their last studio album, “Destiny Fulfilled” in 2004 and officially broke up the following year. Then she married the rapper Jay-Z and the following year she sang at the inaugural ball for Barack Obama and Michelle Obama. By 2013, Beyonce had won 16 Grammys. Beyonce and Jay-Z welcomed a baby daughter, Blue Ivy Carter, on January 7, 2012. They welcomed twins, a boy and a girl, in June 2017, Sir and Rumi. We also have to mention the beehive, Beyonce’s loyal followers that got her as much love as that she has now. We all know that Beyonce will always be Queen Bee Thank you for reading my article, I hope you learned something new from it. percussion instrument performances. (Scan QR code for the Spotify Playlist) 9


Guess Who? by: Oriana Huang ’26 Hey all! This is the ’Guess Who?’ Section of Papercut! This is a game where, you guessed it, you guess who I interviewed! After reading each student’s responses to the questions, please try to guess the name of the student in each grade based upon their responses. If you guess one student right, you can get a Jolly Rancher from Ms Roth, one of the seventh grade science teachers. Her room is MS215. I will pick the winners depending on the first email sent to me with the correct name/s. There will be 3 winners, one for each student interviewed. To guess, please email me at: ohuang26@d-e.org in the format of: Grade: name of student. For example: 8th grade: Jane Smith. If you know more than one student, email me! I’ll let Ms Roth know who got the students right first and will email the winners when to get their Jolly Ranchers from her! If you have any questions feel free to email me at: ohuang26@d-e.org.

One (lucky!) student in the EIGHTH GRADE got interviewed! Questions are in black and answers are in blue. What’s your zodiac sign? Do you think the traits of your zodiac apply to you? If so, which ones? My zodiac sign is an Aries, and uh do I conform to the traits? Yes, I do, um, I feel I am competitive and I can get angry sometimes, um, and I remember reading it somewhere and I do conform with the traits. What do you think about pineapple on pizza? That’s literally the most disgusting thing ever, if you like pineapple on pizza, don’t talk to me. Would you rather babysit a crying baby for a day or house an extremely unwanted house guest for a day and why? If this person is extremely unwanted do I have permission to feed them trash or make them starve? Like, it wasn’t implied so…or can I kill them then provide them with all that stuff? Uh my final answer would be the crying baby because at least the baby does not really have a personality so I don’t have to deal with that. Would you rather be stuck on a broken ski lift or in a broken elevator and why? Uhm definitely the broken elevator because I can ask for help, and if I’m on the ski lift I could freeze to death out there… Would you rather burn to ashes or die in a freezer and why? That’s…that’s a very deep question. But since I have to answer this, uhm, I would want to burn to ashes, it’s just…it just correlates with my zodiac sign, it’s a fire sign, so I want to stay true to that. Is cereal a soup? Why or why not? Uhh…I don’t know it just sounds wrong but when Living in Between you think about it, it is a soup, so I wanna by Madigan Kacmar ’26 say yes, but a hesitant yes. I’m living in between What’s your favorite and least favorite the moment my mind accesses the ability to feel what’s around me subject? Why? Ok, teachers please covnot living for tomorrow er your ears, uhm, my favorite subject is but having nothing to live for today probably either art or history, because being slapped out of auto pilot I’m good at then, and my least favorite no more doing without thinking subject is math, because I can’t figure out just thinking without doing anything. the only time when you are truly alive Describe yourself in one word and why witnessing time pass as you stay still you choose that word. One word…I nothing to reach for would say human, because I classify as nothing to pull you through each hour human. Is that right? Yeah that’s right. a feeling that only visits you when you seem ready to handle the truth Describe the members of your family; are if there was no tomorrow you an only child, or do you have 5 older what would you have meant to those around you today brothers? (Etc.) So I’m an only child, I Bl

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have my parents and I have my dog! I love my parents and I love my dog…when he’s in a good mood. Is there anyone in the other 2 grades you are close to/are acquaintances with? Don’t tell me who they are, but give a description; are they part of orchestra? Which grade? How and when did you guys meet? Etc. Hmm… uhh…oh yes! Someone in seventh grade, I knew her in preschool. If she’s watching this she probably knows who this is. Uhm, but in the sixth grade and the rest of the seventh grade, I basically ignore them.

One (LUCKY!) student in the SEVENTH GRADE got interviewed! Questions are in black and answers are in purple. What’s your zodiac sign? Do you think the traits of your zodiac apply to you? If so, which ones? I am a Libra, and I am pretty indecisive, so I think being a libra is fits me well. What do you think about pineapple on pizza? Uhhhhhh im not sure i dont really care, I just eat what I get? Would you rather babysit a crying baby for a day or house an extremely unwanted house guest for a day and why? Hmmm, those are both pretty scary choices, but I think babysitting is better for me because uhh I’m scared of unwanted houses. Would you rather be stuck on a broken ski lift or in a broken elevator and why? I have a hugeeee fear of broken elevators, so a ski lift, a ski lift is also better because you can see what’s happening Would you rather burn to ashes or die in a freezer and why? Uhhh I don’t really want to die, but my burn into ashes because I don’t like being cold? Is cereal a soup? Why or why not? Uhhhhh I realllyyyyy don’t know, but I think its nor a soup? IDK What’s your favorite and least favorite subject? Why? I hateee science, I love the teacher, but the subject is toooo hard, but i guess math is my favorite subject since uhh idk, it’s better than my other subjects Describe yourself in one word and why you choose that word. MOOD SWINGS. I get sooooo many mood swings, idk why i get them, I just always did, from when I was younger Describe the members of your family; are you an only child, or do you have 5 older brothers? (Etc.) I have one twin (twin sister), one older sister, and one older brother, and a dog Is there anyone in the other 2 grades you are close to/are acquaintances with? Don’t tell me who they are, but give a description; are they part of orchestra? Which grade? How and when did you guys meet? Etc. Ahhhh this is sooo hardddd. Well uhhhh, one is in sixth grade, I got closer to them by a sport, and the other is in eight grade, I got closer to them by talking about K-popppp (But plz don’t hate me there are more people)

One (also very lucky!) student in the SIXTH grade got interviewed! Questions are in black and answers are in orange. What’s your zodiac sign? Do you think the traits of your zodiac apply to you? If so, which ones? I am a Gemini, and I do not think those traits apply to me. What do you think about pineapple on pizza? It is not the best but I like it. Would you rather babysit a crying baby for a day or house an extremely unwanted house guest for a day and why? I would babysit a crying baby for a day because a. I get paid and b. No drama or anything dangerous will happen with a crying baby, I will only get annoyed. Would you rather be stuck on a broken ski lift or in a broken elevator and why? I would rather be stuck on a broken ski lift because if I am on a ski lift I am most likely with people I know, but in an elevator I could be stuck with some random stranger.

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Citations: Kirby, Jen. “Wait, Is Russia Going to Invade Ukraine?” Vox, Vox, 8 Dec. 2021, https://www.vox.com/2021/12/8/22824015/russiaukraine-troops-tensions-putin-biden-nato. Bender, J. (2016, July 7). This one map shows the mounting tensions between NATO and Russia. Business Insider. Retrieved February 15, 2022, from https://www.businessinsider.com/map-europe-divided-nato-russia-2016-7 History.com Editors. (2010, January 14). Black history month. History.com. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.history. com/topics/black-history/black-history-month - Gittins, W. (2022, February 6). Why is black history month in February? how can I celebrate? AS.com. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://en.as.com/en/2022/02/07/latest_news/1644189949_346225.html - A&E Networks Television. (2021, January 28). Black history. Biography.com. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.biography.com/tag/black-history PICTURES: B. T., By, -, Timeshttp://www.birminghamtimes.com, B., & Times, B. (2022, February 3). Black history month: What is it and why we need it? The Birmingham Times. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.birminghamtimes.com/2022/02/black-history-month-what-is-it-and-why-we-n eed-it/ womensinitiativeedmonton.ca Mecklenburg County celebrates Black History Month. (n.d.). Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.mecknc.gov/news/Pages/Mecklenburg-County-Celebrates-Black-History-Mo nth.aspx Tully, T. (2022, February 7). N.J. governor to end school mask mandate in move to ’normalcy’. The New York Times. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.nytimes.com/2022/02/07/nyregion/nj-school-mask-mandate-murphy.html Meckler, L., & Firozi, P. (2022, February 8). School mask mandates are falling in states across the country. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2022/02/07/new-jersey-school-mask-mandate/ Donyéa, T., & Burns, P. K. (2022, February 7). N.J. parents have mixed feelings as state plans to lift school mask mandate. WHYY. Retrieved February 15, 2022, from https://whyy.org/articles/murphy-to-end-nj-school-mask-mandate/ Friends logo. Logo de Friends: la historia y el significado del logotipo, la marca y el símbolo. | png, vector. (n.d.). Retrieved February 22, 2022, from https://1000marcas.net/friends-logo/ Annie Jr.. Music Theatre International. (2021, September 8). Retrieved February 14, 2022, from https://www.mtishows.com/annie-jr A&E Networks Television. (2021, December 10). Michael Jackson. Biography.com. Retrieved February 12, 2022, from https:// www.biography.com/musician/michael-jackson A&E Networks Television. (2021, March 15). Beyoncé Knowles. Biography.com. Retrieved February 12, 2022, from https://www. biography.com/musician/beyonce-knowles Samuels, A. J. (2012, April 20). Bob Marley: Anatomy of an icon. Culture Trip. Retrieved February 12, 2022, from https://theculturetrip.com/caribbean/jamaica/articles/bob-marley-anatomy-of-an-icon/ Eames, T. (2021, May 11). How did Bob Marley Die? the wailers icon’s untimely death explained 40 years on. Smooth. Retrieved February 12, 2022, from https://www.smoothradio.com/artists/bob-marley/death-cause-explained-conspiracy/#:~:text=Marley%20 died%20from%20an%20acral,while%20playing%20football%20in%201977.&text=After%20doctors%20discovered%20it%20was,to%20have%20his%20toe%20amputated. Openverse. WordPress.org. (n.d.). Retrieved February 12, 2022, from https://wordpress.org/openverse/image/62f6fe38-9a0d-4bb8af67-a22a08d1ba03 Image: Contributor, O. (2022, February 2). Letter: Having a black woman on Supreme Court will lead to better decision making. Bangor Daily News. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://bangordailynews.com/2022/02/02/opinion/letters/letter-having-a-blackwoman-on-supreme-court-will-lead-to-better-decision-making/ Current members. Home - Supreme Court of the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.supremecourt. gov/about/biographies.aspx Recovering from a stroke, sen. Ben Ray Lujan says he’ll return within weeks to vote on Supreme Court Pick. MSN. (n.d.). Retrieved February 14, 2022, from https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/politics/recovering-from-a-stroke-sen-ben-ray-lujan-says-hell-returnwithin-weeks-to-vote-on-supreme-court-pick/ar-AATNOHW Jeon, A. H. and H., & Hannah Jeon Editorial Fellow Hannah is an editorial fellow at Good Housekeeping. (2021, December 17). 22 things you didn’t know about Valentine’s day. Good Housekeeping. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.goodhousekeeping. com/holidays/valentines-day-ideas/a26863/valentines-day-facts/ Viator, V. (2017, December 7). 10 Valentine’s Day traditions all around the world. HuffPost. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https:// www.huffpost.com/entry/10-valentines-day-traditi_b_9190888 Morgan, T. (2018, February 14). History’s oldest-known Valentine was written in prison. History.com. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www.history.com/news/historys-oldest-known-valentine-was-written-in-prison History.com Editors. (2009, December 22). History of valentine’s day. History.com. Retrieved February 8, 2022, from https://www. history.com/topics/valentines-day/history-of-valentines-day-2 Photo: https://www.freepik.com/premium-vector/draw-cute-cat-with-balloon-valentne-s-day_6418033.htm

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