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APRIL 2014

2014 CVSA OUT-OFSERVICE CRITERIA Keep your trucks on the road page 63


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Next-gen mobility keeps drivers, fleets connected


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journal leADing newS, TRuCking MARkeT COnDiTiOnS AnD inDuSTRy AnAlySiS


News FMCSA proposes electronic logging device


mandate … Speed


limiter rule could

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When the wheels stop, drivers can use their personal devices to stay connected to family and friends, use social media and even control their home’s security system, lighting, thermostat and appliances. Drivers soon will be able to use apps to reserve parking spots and check the wait time for shower facilities at truck stops, among other conveniences. Some commercial platforms allow drivers to do this today.

come this year… DOT audit points out more CSA shortcomings … Trucking companies join industry alliance against interstate tolling … Report: Twothirds of port truckers misclassified as independent contractors … Overdrive, TCA


2014 Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance Out-OfService Criteria

Out-of-service orders can mean lost productivity, service failures, poor safety scores and fines. Understand the updated basics of the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance’s Out-Of-Service Criteria to keep your trucks moving.

name top truckers … CARB proposes delaying, changing more emissions mandates

10 InBrief

commercial carrier journal

| april 2014 3




Research pins driver turnover on dispatcher dissatisfaction

36 InBrief 21 22 24 24

Proprietary data still a roadblock to timely repairs Cummins, Eaton expand SmartAdvantage powertrain options

24 InBrief 26 Cummins Westport recalling 25,000 NG engines

26 28 30

800 Paccar trucks recalled due to potential fire risks Mack announces ‘rebranding,’ renewed on-highway initiative


Editor: Jeff Crissey Executive Editor, Trucking: Jack Roberts Senior Editor: Aaron Huff Managing Editor: Dean Smallwood Trucking News Editor: James Jaillet Contributing Editors: Carolyn Magner Mason

Design & Production

Art Director: David Watson Graphic Designer: Kenneth Stubbs Quality Assurance: Timothy Smith Advertising Production Manager: Anne Marie Horton

Allison introduces fuel-efficient transmission package Navistar to consolidate North American engine production


38 38 38

PeopleNet adds new features for energy service fleets

Trucking Media Velociti adds maintenance service for aftermarket technology

Vice President of Sales, Trucking Media: Brad Holthaus

Motorola releases TC55 touch computer


40 InFocus:

Critical event monitoring

ATDynamics compiles aero packages for new truck regs

32 InFocus:

Chairman/CEO: Mike Reilly President: Brent Reilly Chief Process Officer: Shane Elmore Chief Administration Officer: David Wright Senior Vice President, Sales: Scott Miller Senior Vice President, Editorial and Research: Linda Longton Senior Vice President, Acquisitions & Business Development: Robert Lake Vice President, Events: Alan Sims Vice President, Audience Development: Stacy McCants Vice President, Digital Services: Nick Reid Vice President, Marketing: Julie Arsenault

Coolants and additives



Upfront Love ‘em or hate ‘em, ELDs soon will be a reality



John Doe didn’t notice an overhead door had been lowered partially before he began to exit the dock area and damaged both the door and his exhaust stack. Was this a preventable accident?

Products Perrin’s small APU, Clore’s jump starter, more



Preventable or Not?

| APRIL 2014


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FMCSA proposes electronic logging device mandate

Speed limiter rule could come this year

he Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration last month announced a long-awaited Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking to mandate electronic logging devices. It’s likely the rule, which estimates the annualized cost of compliance to be between $165 and $832 per truck, will go into effect in late 2016. The proposal says it will go into effect two years after the final rule is issued, which could happen later this year. The American Trucking Associations welcomed the proposal, while the OwnerOperator Independent Drivers Association said it will study it more closely during the comment period. The SNPRM follows an FMCSA rule from 2010 that mandated the use of electronic onboard recorders, but that rule was vacated in August 2011 by a federal court over concerns the devices could be used to harass drivers. The latest rule consists of four parts: The ELD requirement itself, protections against driver harassment, hardware specifications and hours-of-service-related supporting documents drivers must carry. ELD mandate. The mandate will apply to all drivers currently required to keep paper records of duty status. Drivers required to keep records in eight or more days out of every 30 days must use an ELD, replacing the 2011 rule’s requirement that drivers

Associations, the Federal Motor


purred partly by a petition from the American Trucking


Carrier Safety Administration indicated plans for a rule this year that would require the use of speed limiters in heavy trucks. According to the U.S. Department The ELD rule, likely to go into effect in late 2016, estimates the annualized cost of compliance to be between $165 and $832 per truck.

who keep records two or more days out of every seven use a logging device. Carriers and drivers would not be required to install or use a logging device until two years after the effective date of the final rule. Carriers that used what the agency calls “automatic onboard recording devices” prior to the ELD mandate have two more years on top of that to comply. Driver harassment. The agency says its two “primary focuses” regarding driver harassment involving the devices were to prevent pressures on drivers to exceed hours-of-service limits and “inappropriate communications that affect drivers’ rest periods.” Proposed safeguards include expanded drivers’ access to records, explicit wording about carriers harassing drivers, implementing a complaint procedure, stiffening penalties for those who do harass drivers, “edit rights” for drivers, limitations on location tracking, mute functionality for the devices and preserving driver confidentiality in enforcement proceedings. Hardware specifications. The devices required by the Scan the QR code with your smartphone or visit rule are more techletters to sign up for the CCJ Daily Report, a nologically advanced than daily e-mail newsletter filled with news, analythose required by the April sis, blogs and market condition articles. Continued on page 60

of Transportation’s March report on significant rulemakings, the rule is set to be sent May 21 to U.S. Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx for approval and then be forwarded June 26 to the White House Office of Management and Budget. The DOT report said the proposed rule could be published Oct. 1. The rulemaking process is a joint effort with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and would apply to trucks with a GVWR of more than 26,000 pounds. In addition to ATA petitioning FMCSA, Roadsafe America petitioned NHTSA, and DOT requested public comment on both petitions. DOT’s report said it received thousands of comments supporting the petitions’ requests, propelling the agencies to act on them. FMCSA Associate Administrator for Policy Larry Minor said at the Motor Carrier Safety Advisory Committee in February that the speed limiter rule could be “retroactive” and that the agency would explore whether the requirement would apply to new trucks only or all trucks, meaning retrofitting older equipment. In a 2012 legal case, a judge ruled speed limiters were unsafe and a violation of rights.

commercial carrier journal

– CCJ staff

| april 2014 9


INBRIEF 4/14 • President Obama last month announced a four-year $302 billion highway funding plan proposal, calling on Congress to enact tax reform as a means of finding money to fund the Highway Trust Fund and increase federal spending on the country’s ailing roadways. Obama also announced the beginning of a new round of TIGER grants, opening up $600 million in federal money to states and cities for “transformative” infrastructure projects. The president also pressed Congress to pass a new highway funding act. • California carriers can use footage from in-cab driver-filming cameras for disciplinary purposes, the state’s attorney general concluded, saying trucking companies have not violated any of the state’s codes by using the data to take action against a driver. Attorney General Kamala Harris’ opinion deals with companies contracted by carriers to provide the footage. Harris said carriers can use the third-party services to film drivers and inspect the video. • FTR said its monthly Trucking Conditions Index was “in very positive territory” in January as capacity remained tight and would remain favorable in the coming months due to “regulatory drag.” The January TCI rose 2.8 points from December to 8.82, indicating improvement in rates that began with implementation of the latest hours-of-service rule last summer, FTR said. • Class 8 orders were up roughly 30 percent in February from the same month in 2013, according to research firms FTR and ACT. FTR’s preliminary February data showed 28,876 net orders, making December, January and February the best three-month period since 2006. ACT pegged February’s order total at 29,200 orders – the fifth-strongest month since the first half of 2006. • Trailer orders in January grew 28 percent from the same month last year, according to ACT Research. Year over year, reefer orders climbed 80 percent, tank trailers enjoyed triple-digit growth, and lowbeds saw double-digit gains. Continued on page 60 10


| APRIL 2014

DOT audit points out more CSA shortcomings


U.S. Department of Transportation audit has determined that the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration must be more careful about its collection, management and analysis of data, or the federal trucking regulator “will be hindered in its ability to effectively implement CSA nationwide and address the key concerns of industry stakeholders.” So far, only 10 states In its report last month, the DOT’s Office of have fully implemented the Inspector General gave the agency some Compliance Safety Accredit for strengthened quality controls for state- countability enforcement reported data, but “more action is needed in key interventions. areas.” Among those key areas, OIG determined that FMCSA has not fully implemented planned improvements to its processes for reviewing data correction requests and has taken “limited action” to address inaccurate and incomplete data reported by carriers – despite similar recommendations dating back to 2006. So far, only 10 states have fully implemented Compliance Safety Accountability enforcement interventions, and FMCSA provided auditors no date when it expects to complete implementation in all states. The agency did say it expects a nationwide release of software critical to state intervention efforts by May 2015. The report noted that OIG “coordinated” with the Government Accountability Office – whose own CSA report was released in February – “to avoid duplicating work.” In the earlier analysis, GAO determined that the FMCSA system to score and compare motor carrier safety records is flawed and particularly unfair to small carriers. “The Inspector General’s report confirms what industry stakeholders, independent researchers and other government watchdogs have found – there continue to be significant flaws in the data FMCSA is using to evaluate and score carriers under CSA,” said Dave Osiecki, American Trucking Associations executive vice president. “ATA continues to support the oversight mission and safety goals of CSA, but FMCSA must acknowledge the program’s many problems – and commit to addressing them.” The report also said “FMCSA lacked documentation demonstrating that it followed information technology system best practices and federal guidance” while developing and testing the Safety Measurement System, the heart of the data-driven package. In its response, FMCSA concurred with all six of report’s recommendations and provided “appropriate planned actions and timeframes.” ATA expressed disappointment in IG’s report for its face-value acceptance of FMCSA’s self-assessment of its State Safety Data Quality system, which scores states’ ability to upload timely and accurate data. ATA said IG failed to examine under what circumstances a state might obtain a “good rating.” – Kevin Jones

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Trucking companies join industry alliance against interstate tolling


everal trucking companies and trade groups last month joined a band of other business and consumer organizations to form an anti-tolling group that says its mission is to keep

12 Untitled-32 1

existing interstates toll-free. The Alliance for Toll-Free Interstates includes UPS (CCJ Top 250, No. 1), FedEx (No. 2), Old Dominion (No. 12), the American Trucking Associations, all 50 state trucking associations, the Truckload Carriers Association, Quality Transport, H&J Trucking, NATSO and others. ATFI, a lobbying group, said it wants to show both the public and members of government the effects implementing tolls on interstates would have on business, the economy and consumers alike. The group said it formed in response to three states implementing pilot programs to allow tolls on existing interstate lanes, even though federal law prohibits tolling on existing interstates. “The tolling industry is pressuring lawmakers” to change the law and allow tolling on existing lanes, ATFI said. Also, as the next highway bill looms and Congress searches for a solution to keep the Highway Trust Fund solvent, ATFI said it hopes to show tolls as “unreliable, expensive and inefficient” as a mechanism for generating infrastructure funding. Old Dominion representative Bill Cranfill said that while his company supports better highway funding, tolls aren’t the route to take. “Tolls are an inefficient method of funding, would increase the cost of moving goods, and would decrease efficiency by pushing interstate traffic onto less safe and slower local roads,” Cranfill said. “[The] concept of unrestricted movement is a pillar of the modern economy.” Jay Perron, vice president of government affairs and public policy for the International Franchise Association, said unrestricted commerce “revolutionized” American business and that tolling the existing system would undo those economic gains. – James Jaillet

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Report: Two-thirds of port truckers misclassified as independent contractors

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orker advocacy groups issued a report asserting 49,331 of the nation’s roughly 75,000 port truckers are misclassified as independent contractors. The misclassification represents a significant tax dollar loss to federal and state coffers, states “The Big Rig: Poverty, Pollution and the Misclassification of Truck Drivers at America’s Ports.” The National Employment Law Project, Los Angeles Alliance for a New Economy and Change to Win Strategic Organizing Center sponsored the report. The researchers calculated the total number of U.S. port truckers through U.S. Department of Homeland Security surveys, port truck registries and other data. They consulted Internal Revenue Service literature for definitions of employee and IC. The authors reanalyzed several 2010 surveys they conducted on 2,183 port drivers, of which 82 percent were classified as ICs. They reviewed those surveys, industry information and work arrangements before concluding 80 percent of IC respondents from the 2010 surveys were misclassified. The writers noted a 2009 Government Accountability Office report on employee misclassification that examined data from 1984 – the most recent tax year the IRS conducted a comprehensive estimation of misclassification. “For 84 percent of the workers misclassified as independent contractors in tax year 1984, employers reported the workers’ compensation to IRS and the workers, as required, on the IRS Form Continued on page 17

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journal news Continued from page 14 1099-MISC information return,” the government researchers had written. The same workers had reported only 77 percent of their income on their returns that year. The IRS will not conduct the next extended review on misclassification until it completes work

on the 2013 tax year at the earliest, GAO said. The American Trucking Associations’ Sean McNally described the report as a union attempt to rally support. “They have been very, very unsuccessful in convincing independent truckers to become 1 HowesCCJS14_HalfPageIsland.pdf employees, so they are making up facts

and figures,” the ATA press secretary said. “This is an ongoing battle that shows the desperation of the union.” The report concluded remedies include changes to federal labor laws and more effective state and federal enforcement against misclassification. 2/12/14 4:25 PM – Jill Dunn

Overdrive, TCA name year’s top truckers


wo Canadian drivers took top honors at last month’s Truckload Carriers Association annual meeting, each winning a 2013 Ram 2500, sponsored by Chevron Delo and Cummins. The competition is managed by TCA and Overdrive magazine, a sister publication of CCJ. Terrance Smith was named 2013 Owner-Operator of the Year. He lives in Miramichi, New Brunswick, and is leased to SLH Transport, based in Kingston, Ontario. Jack Fielding was named 2013 Company Driver of the Year. He lives in McKellar, Ontario, and drives for Bison Transport, based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In addition to the Cummins-powered trucks, the winners will receive a year’s supply of Chevron Delo oil. The three finalists for each award attended TCA’s meeting in Grapevine, Texas, just outside of Dallas. The other owner-operator finalists were Thomas Miller of Bunker Hill, Ill., who hauls for Springfield, Mo.-based Prime Inc., and Bryan Smith of Asbury, Iowa, who’s leased to Dubuque, Iowabased Art Pape Transfer. The other company driver finalists were Reuben Dupsky of Fremont, Neb., who drives for Fremont Contract Carriers, and Allan Raffay of Hawley, Pa., who drives for Springfield, Mo.based Prime Inc. – CCJ staff C








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CARB proposes delaying, changing more emissions mandates


alifornia’s Air Resources Board last month proposed more “good faith” changes to its Truck & Bus Rule emissions regulations that required truck owners with pre-2007 model trucks to either update their equipment or install

particulate matter filters by Jan. 1. The proposals build on the state’s prior extensions for owner-operators and small fleets and the CARB meetings held in October, where officials heard public comment on flexibility options for com-

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pliance, said Beth White, CARB manager. The proposed changes include: • Delaying the filter retrofit deadline for trucks running exclusively in NOx exempt counties in the state until Jan. 1, 2015. These are areas where the amount of NOx is below federal requirements. • Extending until 2018 a deadline for truck owners who were denied a loan to install a retrofit PM filter or for a compliant truck if they make a commitment to replace the noncompliant truck with a truck with a 2010 or later engine by 2018. Truck owners would not have to install a filter. This change would apply to owners with three trucks or fewer. • Changing the low-use exemption requirements to include trucks that travel 5,000 miles or fewer in a year in addition to those that run 1,000 miles or fewer within California. The 5,000 miles would be total mileage on the truck for the year, not 5,000 miles within California borders. • Allowing owners with three trucks or less an extended phase-in period to install retrofit filters. Instead of requiring that the first truck be retrofitted by 2014, the second by 2015 and the third by 2016, the proposal would require the trucks be retrofitted by 2014, 2016 and 2018. • Pushing back the date that truck owners must replace an older truck with one with a 2010 or later-year model engine to 2023 (from 2020) if they installed a PM filter on a 2006 year model or older truck by Jan. 1, 2014. • Adding a provision that would not require truck owners to replace more than 25 percent of their fleet, if noncompliant, in a year. CARB is accepting public comment on the proposals until April 24, and then the board will meet the same day to discuss the changes and consider public comments before either voting to approve them or making changes and then having another 15-day comment period. – James Jaillet

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Proprietary data still a roadblock to timely repairs


An independent repair shop owner’s hands may be tied dealing with OEMs and trying to get a clear answer on what work he can carry out, and what work is covered by the vehicle warranty.

Remote RepaiRs: Fleet managers still feel their assets are being tied up too long.

pRopRietaRy data: oeMs won’t share ‘secret recipes’ with independent shops.

fter a good night’s sleep following the Technology and Maintenance escalating conceRn: nontraditional Council’s spring meeting in Nashville, Tenn., I found myself considering service providers are getting into the game. the various themes and threads that emerged from the conference. One subject that ran like an undercurrent throughout the entire meeting was remote repairs for trucks that break down far away from home. This has become work based on TMC Recommended a big issue for the industry, and it will be interesting to see how it plays out over the Practices.” coming months and years. Just as important, Stockton says, is The irony is that with today’s technology, this doesn’t have to be a big deal. We live the data component of the Truck Care in an age of increasingly intelligent trucks with communication capabilities that are network, which interfaces directly with a expanding at a phenomenal rate. OEMs like Freightliner and Volvo have introduced fleet’s asset management system to protelematics systems designed to prioritize – or even self-diagnose and avert – failures and vide seamless and consistent VRMS-codremove real or perceived dealer favoritism from the equation. ed data to eliminate paperwork while But even now when a remote breakdown occurs, fleet managers still feel their assets updating fleet managers on repair times are being tied up too long. This widespread belief led to a spirited debate at the Fleet and vehicle history. Talk Session in which a fleet manager whose truck sat idle at a dealer’s shop for eight Stockton says Michelin’s eventual days decried getting the runaround from the dealer. An independent repair shop owner goal is to have 300 Truck Care centers argued that such bottlenecks at his shop aren’t his fault; his hands usually are tied nationwide that will provide both emerdealing with OEMs and trying to get a clear answer on what work he can carry out, and gency and outsourced fleet maintenance what work is covered by the vehicle warranty. solutions for Class 5-8 trucks. The Truck Care centers will incorporate and expand All of this takes us back to the ongoing “Right to Repair” battle: What’s a fleet owner to do if his truck is broken down far from home and he doesn’t feel the dealer is making on Michelin’s existing OnCall Roadside his truck a priority? What about the local independent repair shop that would love to Support program to help fleets quickly have the work and has the time, but might not be able to fix the truck because the OEM deal with breakdowns, out-of-service has declined to share its proprietary ECM data? citations and overflow shop work during OEMs, for their part, believe that simply giving up that information is not an option. peak periods at home. The market is responding As Dave McKenna at Mack Trucks likes to say, those engine codes are the industry equivalent to the formula for Coca-Cola or KFC’s sacred herbs and to the demand for additional spices; there’s no way either of those companies are giving their competitors a vehicle support for remote look. The sense of frustration from all sides is palpable. heavy-duty trucks – another The concern over timely remote truck repairs has reached the point interesting component to an where nontraditional service providers are getting into the game. At evolving story with high stakes TMC, Michelin launched its new nationwide Truck Care repair network for fleets, OEMs and service led by Bruce Stockton, whose maintenance pedigree includes a stint as providers alike. fleet manager for less-than-truckload heavyweight Con-Way Freight. Stockton says Truck Care’s goal is to “provide a consistent network at JACK ROBERTS is Executive Editor of Commercial Carrier Journal. E-mail or call (205) 248-1358. each of its 42 existing locations in terms of parts, price and quality of commercial carrier journal


april 2014


Cummins, Eaton expand SmartAdvantage powertrain options


ummins and Eaton have expanded their integrated powertrain partnership introduced last year that included the Cummins ISX15 diesel engine and the Eaton Fuller Advantage automated manual transmission. Cummins’s Lori Thompson, vice president of truck and bus OEM business, said the ISX12 diesel engine soon will be available with the SmartAdvantage powertrain and provide a 2 to 4 percent fuel economy savings. It will be offered as a small-ratio-step overdrive model with two new Cummins ISX12 SmartTorque2 ratings: the ISX12 370ST2, with torque of 1,150 lb.-ft. to 1,450 lb.-ft., and the ISX12 425ST2, with torque of 1,350 lb.-ft. to 1,650 lb.-ft. “The latest SmartAdvantage Powertrain offerings are a natural extension of the initial product and will provide customers with the fuel economy and productivity improve-


Taking Command of Maintenance Costs Requires Prestone Command® Premium Antifreeze/Coolant

ments they desire, along with a broad range of applications to meet their specific hauling needs,” Thompson said. John Beering, senior vice president and general manager of Eaton’s commercial vehicle transmission business, said the ISX15 SmartAdvantage will be available for 110,000-lb. GVW applications later this year, primarily to serve heavy-haul customers in Canada. In other news, the companies announced an integrated powertrain package for the Cummins Westport ISX12 G natural gas engine and Eaton UltraShift Plus automated transmission in the North American market. The new pairing initially will be available in regional and linehaul applications midyear. – Jeff Crissey Cummins and Eaton have expanded their integrated SmartAdvantage powertrain partnership for Cummins engines and Eaton transmissions introduced last year.

With patented anticorrosion formulas, Prestone Command® offers improved engine protection for any heavy duty engine and is compatible with any heavy duty coolant. Frost & Sullivan has recognized Prestone Command® as a true innovator, with its advanced technologies that offer increased value and ROI through decreased truck maintenance costs. “Prestone Command® line of heavy-duty antifreeze offers an innovative solution to fleet owner-operators looking to improve their ROI for maintenance expenses by providing several advanced formulations to meet a variety of needs.” — Frost & Sullivan* 2013 NORTH AMERICAN HEAVY-DUTY VEHICLE CHEMICAL AFTERMARKET NEW PRODUCT INNOVATION AWARD

Prestone also offers Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) for your Heavy Duty Vehicles.

PRESTONE PRODUCTS CORPORATION, 1900 West Field Court, Lake Forest, IL 60045 ©2014 Prestone Products Corporation *Frost & Sullivan provides market research and analysis to global industry leaders from key industries, including Automotive and Transportation.


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Allison introduces fuel-efficient transmission package

Navistar International added new Diamond Logic feature bundles specific for the vocational truck market that are categorized by usage and body integration such as dry van, dump and utility, as well as features relevant to operations of the particular application.

Volvo Trucks made in-cab LED lighting standard across its product line. The company also announced that it has placed its 25,000th truck in service with its Remote Diagnostics tool in less than a year and a half since first introducing the proactive diagnostics and repair planning assistance feature, which also now is standard across Volvo’s product line.

Kenworth Truck Co. made factory-installed Bendix ADB22X front and rear air disc brakes available on its T370 medium-duty conventional trucks.

Dana introduced Spicer S140 Series Drive Axles for Class 6 and 7 vehicles with GAWRs from 21,000 pounds and GCWRs up to 46,000 pounds. The axles are available with ratios from 3.31:1 to 6.50:1 and feature a high-capacity gearing and bearing system for added durability and reliability in ratings with high-torque/ high-horsepower engines.

Meritor extended the warranty eligibility for Permalube RPL drivelines on 2015 model-year linehaul vehicles to 5 years/500,000 miles from 4 years/400,000 miles. The company also increased the warranty coverage for its RideSentry MPA38 and MPA40 suspensions to include accidental damage to the slider box caused by a sudden impact with a curb or a similar fixed object.

Mack Trucks made its Body Builder Manuals available as free downloads from The documents, found under the“Parts and Services” tab, offer general chassis information for Pinnacle, Granite and TerraPro models built from 2010 through the present, with additional electrical and programming documents for 2013 and beyond. TireStamp added IntellAlerting, a higher level of intelligence, to its TireVigil tire pressure monitoring systems to provide added visibility of tire problems when they are occurring as well as when they are being corrected, and to send tire alerts only to personnel who actually can take action based on a vehicle’s location.


commercial carrier journal


llison Transmission introduced a new fuel-efficiency package that the company said can deliver up to 20 percent fuel savings when compared to its fourth-generation models. FuelSense features a mixture of hardware and software designed to adapt shift schedules and torque automatically while maximizing transmission efficiency based on load, grade and duty cycle. “Fuel prices have nearly doubled since the mid-2000s,” said Michael Headly, senior vice president of global marketing, sales and service for Allison Transmission. “Fleet owners want fuel economy without compromising fleet performance and productivity. With FuelSense, Allison delivers the best of both worlds.” Allison said FuelSense features the company’s 5th Generation smart controls, acceleration management and a precision inclinometer; EcoCal shift technology to keep engine speed at the most efficient level; Dynamic Shift Sensing to sense

automatically when low-engine speed shifts can be made; and Neutral at Stop to save fuel and reduce emissions when the vehicle is stationary. FuelSense has been integrated into Allison’s TC10 for tractors. Also, Freightliner said it would be the first OEM to offer FuelSense in the North American medium-duty market. FuelSense will be available in late 2014 on M2 chassis equipped with Allison 2000 and 3000 series transmissions paired with the Cummins ISB6.7. FuelSense is available in three phases – Standard, Plus and Max – and Freightliner will offer only the Max version. – Jason Cannon

Navistar to consolidate North American engine production


avistar International Corp. announced that it would consolidate its midrange engine manufacturing as another step in its financial turnaround efforts. The company is moving its midrange engine production at its plant in Huntsville, Ala., to Melrose Park, Ill. Navistar will continue to build its 13-liter engine at its Huntsville big bore engine plant. “We have too much excess engine manufacturing capacity in North America, and we must take action to reduce our costs and improve the business,” said Jack Allen, Navistar chief operating officer. “The consolidation will further lower the company’s breakeven point, strengthen our competitiveness in the marketplace and help position Navistar for a return to profitability.”

| april 2014

Navistar will continue to build its 13-liter engine at its big bore engine plant in Huntsville, Ala.

When completed later this summer, the consolidation is expected to eliminate about 280 Huntsville jobs and reduce Navistar’s operating costs by about $22 million annually. “We understand that these decisions have an impact on our employees and the community, and we will treat our people with dignity and respect throughout this process,” Allen said. – CCJ staff

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Cummins Westport recalling 25,000 NG engines

ExxonMobil Fuels & Lubricants announced that Daimler Trucks North America selected Mobil Delvac-branded heavy-duty diesel engine oils for factory-fill in its Freightliner and Western Star tractors.

Ingersoll Axle selected the Meritor Tire Inflation System by Pressure Systems International as its preferred automatic tire inflation system on its trailer axles.

Phillips Industries entered the trailer LED lighting market via an exclusive distribution partnership to package Innotec’s LED trailer lights with its Sta-Dry trailer harnesses. Innotec’s BoardFree LED lights currently are available in the trailer OEM market.

Webb Wheel debuted its LifeShield technology, a heat treatment process that creates an invisible protective layer across disc brake rotors to help protect against corrosion from roads treated with salt and other anti-icing compounds, helping to extend product life and replacement intervals.

Lite Check released its Verifier 1010 trailer diagnostic system designed to allow fleet managers to organically develop apps based on trailer OEM model and type for a customized maintenance and preventive check program for all major trailer operating systems, including air brakes, lights, ABS and rollover stability systems.

Hogebuilt is relocating to a new 43,000-square-foot facility in Goodlettsville, Tenn., that the company said will provide both greater manufacturing efficiencies and ample space for market rate inventory to decrease lead times for customers.

Utility Trailer Manufacturing Co. commemorated its 100th anniversary with an event for its customers, dealers and vendors from throughout the Americas in La Quinta, Calif.

Want more equipment neWs? Scan the barcode to sign up for the CCJ Equipment Weekly e-mail newsletter or go to 26

commercial carrier journal

| april 2014


bout 25,000 Cummins Westport ISL G and ISX12 G engine models were recalled by Cummins Inc. and its joint venture Cummins Westport for a potential defect that could raise exhaust temperatures and possibly shoot flames out of the exhaust pipe, causing fire risk. Affected engines include Cummins Westport ISL G engines manufactured between Jan. 3, 2013, and Feb. 2, 2014, and Cummins Westport ISX12 G engines built between Feb. 19, 2013, and Feb. 2, 2014. Also, Cummins Westport ISL G engines built between Sept. 12, 2007, and Jan. 2, 2013, are being recalled if they were recalibrated during service between January 2013 and February 2014.

Cummins and Cummins Westport say in the recall that on the affected engines, ice in below-freezing temperatures could form in or near the intake manifold’s temperature and pressure sensor, and that the ice could cause the sensor not to work properly. In some instances, the engine’s ECM might fuel the engine improperly, causing increased exhaust temperatures and the potential for flames coming out of the exhaust pipe. Cummins and Cummins Westport will notify owners, and dealers can upload a new ECM calibration for free. The recall number is C1462 for ISL G engines and C1461 for ISX12 G engines. – James Jaillet

800 Paccar trucks recalled due to potential fire risks


accar is recalling more than 800 2012 and 2014 model-year Kenworth K300 and Peterbilt 210 and 220 cabover chassis equipped with Sure Power battery equalizers or DC converters containing a particular epoxy potting compound. The company said the specific potting compound used for electrical insulation was found capable of conducting electricity after being exposed to heat, resulting in an increased risk of a vehicle fire. Paccar said it will notify owners and that dealers will replace the defective component with a new battery equalizer or DC converter for free. The recall numbers are Kenworth, 14KWD; and Peterbilt, 114-C. – Jason Cannon

The potting compound used for electrical insulation in certain Peterbilt 210 and 220 and Kenworth K300 cabover chassis was found capable of conducting electricity after being exposed to heat.

Š 2013 Exxon Mobil Corporation. All trademarks used herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation or one of its subsidiaries unless indicated otherwise. This Proof of Performance is based on the experience of a single customer. Actual results can vary depending upon the type of equipment used and its maintenance, operating conditions and environment, and any prior lubricant used.

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A key part of Mack’s push in 2014 will be an increased emphasis on boosting sales to both fleets and the on-highway/over-the-road markets.

Mack announces ‘rebranding,’ renewed on-highway initiative


ack Trucks held a roundtable meeting in Allentown, Pa., where incoming sales and marketing president Stephen Roy laid out plans for the company’s immediate future, which included a high-profile “rebranding” effort at the ConExpo construction show in Las Vegas last month and plans to increase sales and market share in longhaul and over-the-road trucking applications. Roy said Mack also will continue to develop new technologically advanced products, including enhancements to its Guard Dog telematics system, thanks to new relationships with Telogis and PeopleNet. Roy said Mack has been investing continually in its dealer network, pouring in more than $300 million in investments since 2010 and driving a 50 percent increase in its dealers’ technician force. “That investment has included an educational boost,” he said. “One in every four Mack technicians on the job today is certified as a Master Technician.” Roy said that in terms of overall perfor28

commercial carrier journal

mance, there was “no reason” Mack can’t be above 10 percent in North American Class 8 market share this year, adding that the company’s eventual target number is “much higher.” A key part of that push will be an increased emphasis on boosting sales to both fleets and the on-highway/ over-the-road markets. To that end, Mack used the Las Vegas event to roll out its new tagline, “Born Ready,” and a refreshed logo that brings together the company’s iconic bulldog and the block Mack typeface. “The timing is good for a major push into the highway segment of the business,” Roy said. “We need for the entire Mack network to understand that we have the products today that will allow us to compete there. We have certain dealers in areas of the country that enjoy great success in the on-highway market, and we’ll be working hard with our other dealers to help them enter those markets effectively.” Roy said that Mack’s relationship with Volvo – which acquired Mack from Renault in 2000 – is vital in terms of

| april 2014

research and development and economies of scale, but that its customers also expect a unique product and that Volvo understands the importance of that expectation. “We have unique differences between our brands today,” he said. “There will be very distinct differences from the Volvo brand at Mack in the future.” As for the next round of fuel-efficiency and emissions regulations proposed by the White House in February, Roy said Mack already is ahead of schedule on meeting pending greenhouse gas regulations and doesn’t expect the new regulations to add any increased pressure on the company’s current technological efforts. “We are already focusing on proper vehicle spec’ing to make sure that our customers see the best mpg gains possible with the GHG regulations,” he said. “We need to make certain that if we have to pass technological and development costs along to our customers that they’re getting concrete benefits in return.” – Jack Roberts


As a proud sponsor of CCJ’s Innovators Program, Love’s Travel Stops congratulates 2014 Innovator of the Year, Melton Truck Lines, for its Driver Wellness Program to promote healthy lifestyles for professional drivers. We also salute CCJ’s 2014 finalists whose inspired innovations are creating a better future for the transportation industry.

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ATDynamics compiles aero packages for new truck regs


TDynamics announced that, in response to said it also has conducted on-road SAE Type II J1321 fuel President Obama’s directive in February for tighter efficiency testing of TrailerTail and side skirt combination fuel-efficiency standards for heavy-duty trucks, it will packages and has verified reduced fuel consumption by 9 offer aerodynamic equipment combination packages to11 percent at highway speed, which aligns with the wind that have been tested at the Auto Research Center wind tunnel test results. tunnel in Indianapolis to deliver 9.6, 10.6 and 11.2 perTrailerTail technology has been incorporated into three cent fuel savings. of the U.S. Department of Energy’s SuperTruck projects as a “The technologies exist today to immediately reduce the key technology to increase the freight efficiency of a semifuel consumption and carbon emissions of the longhaul truck by 50 percent. trucking industry by over 10 percent,” said Andrew Smith, ATDynamics also said that based on current industry chief executive officer of ATDynamics. “Our customers have adoption rates, trucking fleets are expected to deploy more already successfully deployed over 20,000 combination pack- than 200,000 TrailerTails by 2017. Key factors, according to the ages of TrailerTails and side company, are manufacturing skirts on their trailers to date, economies of scale driving ahead of regulatory requirereduced equipment costs to ments.” fleets, recently expanded TrailIn tandem with its aerodyerTail product options to fit namic side skirt partners, ATboth high- and lower-mileage Dynamics has tested different fleet profiles and auto-deployside skirt configurations in ment mechanisms to ensure combination packages with TrailerTails are deployed when its TrailerTail at the ARC vehicles are at highway speed. ATDynamics has conducted on-road SAE Type II J1321 fuel-effiwind tunnel. The company ciency testing of TrailerTail and side skirt combination packages. – CCJ staff


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| april 2014

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For 100 years, Utility innovation has delivered numerous firsts. But being first means nothing unless innovation leads to trailers that will stand the test of time and endure the challenges that a trailer faces going down the road. Our next 100 years will be filled with firsts, but more importantly firsts that lead to safer, stronger, lighter and better trailers. Find out more at

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in focus: Coolants and additives

Cutting down confusion on coolants Making sense of the additives and acronyms on the market today By Jack RoBeRts


eavy-duty engine coolants perform a tough job in a tough environment, so consistently having quality cooling system protection is a no-brainer for fleets. Unfortunately, the evolution of diesel engines and the different types of coolants required for specific power units have led to some confusion as to what types of coolants and additives are needed and when to add them. According to Colin Dilley, director of technology for Prestone, coolants perform four basic functions by: • Providing efficient heat transfer to control critical metal temperatures; • Increasing the cooling index to help prevent boilover and overheating failures; • Giving freezing protection to prevent freezeups or nonstarts in low temperatures; and • Providing effective inhibition of corrosion for all cooling system metals. In addition to protecting the engine from overheating, antifreeze/coolants also help prevent the cooling system from

degrading in various other ways. Glycol – the basic chemical component of engine coolants – and water are naturally corrosive, and over time, they will erode and destroy vital cooling system components. To combat this, coolant manufacturers add different inorganic and/ or organic salts and other chemicals known as corrosion inhibitors, Dilley says. Some common ones are: • Silicate/silicone, which protects aluminum components; • Triazoles/thiazoles, which protect copper and brass components; • Sodium molybdate, which protects ferrous metals, cast iron and steel; • Nitrate, which protects against pitting and crevice attack in aluminum components; • Nitrite, which prevents cylinder-liner pitting in cast-iron components; • Organic acids that replace other inhibitors; and • Anti-foam, which minimizes foaming when coolant is mixed with water.

Know your coolants the technology and Maintenance council’s definition of the different heavy-duty coolant types and their basic characteristics: Antifreeze/coolAnt type

tMc spec

suggested color code

tMc a, conventional low silicate

RP 302a


tMc B, fully formulated ethylene glycol

RP 329

Purple or Pink

tMc c, fully formulated propylene glycol

RP 330


tMc D, organic acid technology (oat)

Per oeM specs


Source: Technology and Maintenance Council


commercial carrier journal

| april 2014

All coolants aren’t alike Most conventional low-silicate antifreeze/ coolants come preformulated with a precharge of additives to protect cooling systems against corrosion, cavitation, liner pitting, freezing and boilover, among other problems. Dilley says these coolants and their premixed additive packages are designed for extended service intervals and generally do not require replenishing until the vehicle’s first maintenance interval – typically about 25,000 miles – although fleets should refer to specific OEM guidelines to ensure warranty requirements. Complicating matters is that additional coolant types are required by engine manufacturers to ensure warranty compliance. These include hybrid organic acid technology (HOAT) blends and extended life coolants using nitrited organic acid technology (NOAT), which do not require refortifying until 300,000 miles or 6,000 engine hours to achieve their full 600,000 miles or 12,000 engine hours of service life. Mixing different coolant types never is recommended, as the offsetting chemical makeups of each type will cancel each other out, leading to severely degraded protection, Dilley says. Over time, the additives in both conventional and HOAT coolants

are consumed during the vehicle’s operation, and they must be refortified periodically with supplemental coolant additives (SCA) to maintain effective corrosion protection. Adding to the confusion, OAT and NOAT coolants do not require SCAs. Also, the inhibitor package is responsible for corrosion protection only and does not determine the coolant’s level of freeze or boilover protection.

longer carry the factory fill of ELC due to service or repairs that may have replaced the original fill with conventional coolant.” The key, then, for good cooling system life is periodic testing to HowesCCJUSL_HalfPageIsland.pdf evaluate the coolant and fortify it as needed. “With conventional coolant,


you have to use additives and perform maintenance checks fairly frequently,” Muth says. “By doing this, conventional coolants are highly tolerant of contamination and ‘abuse’ since they are boosted back to original strength quite 12/11/13 2:40 PM the use of additives frequently through and supplements.”

Exciting News!

When to use what and why To curb the confusion surrounding various coolant types and their proper use, the Technology and Maintenance Council issued Recommended Practice 313C on Cooling System Maintenance. Among its recommendations: • Use an antifreeze/coolant that satisfies industry standards and performance requirements. • Maintain proper additive levels, and regularly top off coolants at regular service intervals. This can be done quickly with dipsticks that provide quick color-coded updates on the strength of a coolant’s various additives. Technicians must make sure the selected dipstick is formulated for the coolant type. • Test the coolant regularly for proper additive levels and freeze protection. This should be done every time a vehicle hood is opened as a routine procedure, as well as during scheduled maintenance intervals. Steve Muth, chief chemist for Penray, says that while extended-life coolants (ELCs) offer certain benefits compared with conventional formulations, their life is not forever. “Many ELCs require supplements after 300,000 miles in order to fortify original chemical components and restore them to original specifications,” Muth says. “Furthermore, many trucks no

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technology Making the latest technology developMents work for your fleet by AAron Huff

Sizing up dispatchers Research pins driver turnover on dispatcher dissatisfaction


research team led by Notre Dame Professor Timothy Judge recently studied responses from a satisfaction survey completed by nearly 2,000 drivers from more than a dozen carriers. When determining why drivers change jobs, the team’s interest was piqued by responses to a question about dispatcher satisfaction. First, some background is in order to understand why the data caught the researchers’ attention. Stay Metrics conducts this survey annually on behalf of its fleet customers. The company offers research, analytics and insights into driver retention to its customers in addition to administering the Drive for Gold online driver rewards and loyalty program. With the Drive for Gold platform, Stay Metrics has created a conduit to gather firsthand data from SatiSfied driverS: Stay Metrics drivers who fill out conducts a driver satisfaction suronline surveys in exvey annually on behalf of its fleet change for points that customers. they also build up diSpatcher departureS: Drivfrom other activities, ers who indicated dissatisfaction such as completing with their dispatcher had a higher logbooks on time. turnover rate. Drivers redeem the cauSing churn: Clients can points for consumer identify dispatchers who are more goods. prone to contributing to driver Stay Metrics also turnover. collects driver retention data by conducting exit interviews on behalf of its customers, acting as a neutral third party. With the online rewards program, Stay Metrics automatically can keep track of turnover data and contact drivers for an exit interview when fleets remove them from the program. Judge, who leads a Stay Metrics research team, looked at responses to a question about dispatcher satisfaction and was able to correlate the results with turnover data collected from exit interviews. He found that drivers who indicated dissatisfaction with their dispatcher had a 57 percent higher turnover rate than drivers who did not indicate dissatisfaction. Judge, a professor of business management and specialist in

Stay Metrics studied responses to a question about dispatcher satisfaction and was able to correlate the results with driver turnover data collected from exit interviews.

employee retention, concluded that dispatcher satisfaction is a key variable in a driver’s decision to leave. His conclusion is supported by data that indicates drivers have strong differences in how they perceive dispatchers across multiple carriers. Tim Hindes, chief executive officer of Stay Metrics, had used results from previous studies to hypothesize that dispatcher satisfaction matters only when drivers really like their dispatchers. But Judge found that the results of this most recent survey told a different story. Drivers who indicated they were “very happy” with their dispatchers were no more likely to stay than those who were “neutral.” “Better” dispatchers did not impact retention any more than “average” dispatchers. However dispatchers who scored highest in dissatisfaction were nearly twice as likely to cause turnover. Stay Metrics says that its clients will be able to use their own survey results to identify dispatchers within their companies who are more prone to contributing to driver churn. The company provides carriers with data that shows how each dispatcher ranks in the community for satisfaction. Those on the bottom may not be suited for the position or might need training, while those with higher ranks could be encouraged to share their techniques with other dispatchers to improve overall quality. Hines says Stay Metrics will continue to compile data to build a profile of the type of dispatcher that most satisfies drivers. With its online rewards program for drivers, Stay Metrics has a platform to collect driver data and a team of experts to deliver insights to its customers. aaron huff is senior editor of Commercial Carrier Journal. e-mail or call (801) 754-4296. commercial carrier journal | april 2014




Noregon Systems rolled out First Step Service Advisor, a tablet-based diagnostics solution designed to provide service writers and shop foremen the ability to connect to a truck in less than a minute and receive a complete health report on the vehicle’s electronically controlled components. GE Capital Fleet Services unveiled GE Monitor Asset Tracking, a telematics solution designed to allow fleet managers to track, in real time, powered and nonpowered assets such as trailers, forklifts, key equipment and generators by using GPSequipped battery-operated hardware. Pegasus TransTech enhanced its Transflo Mobile application that allows smartphone users to capture and send high-quality images of proof-of-delivery documents, logs, invoices and receipts. Transflo Mobile 2.2’s in-motion restriction is designed to detect when the device is in motion and will not permit usage and exchange of information while moving. A passenger option allows usage for team drivers. Spireon and Sprint formed a1relationship 7mmWinches_7x5.pdf 2/25/14

to provide Spireon’s FleetLocate-branded mobile resource management systems to fleet operators using the Sprint network. •


C2Logix Inc., a provider of route optimization software, and WIH Resource Group – a provider of waste management, recycling and business systems – formed a partnership to provide FleetRoute by C2Logix, a high-density single-platform routing system for the solid waste and recycling, street sweeping and snowplowing industries. Rand McNally’s mobile fleet management systems –TPC 7600, TND 760, HD 100 and IntelliRoute TND 720 – now include electronic logs compliant with hours-of-service regulations specific to passenger carriers. Lytx Inc., a provider of driver safety and compliance systems, signed an agreement with Wisconsin-based Sentry Insurance to provide Sentry’s transportation clients with the DriveCam powered by Lytx driver safety management system. Drive Safe Systems announced that Con-way Freight is deploying its suite of advanced onboard technologies to enhance the overall safety performance and operating efficiency of the Ann Arbor, Mich.-based company’s 15,000 professionAM

al drivers operating 8,600 trucks. •

FleetRisk Advisors announced that Green Bay, Wis.-based Schneider is adopting its Driver Safety and Driver Retention models across its entire fleet in 22 states and 42 cities, consisting of more than 13,500 drivers.

Accellos, a provider of supply chain execution software systems, and Rand McNally announced that Michigan-based full-service provider GSA International deployed Rand McNally’s TND 760 mobile fleet management system in tandem with Accellos’ Prophesy Transportation Management software across its 40-truck fleet.

SmartDrive Systems announced that Millis Transfer, a Wisconsin-based dry-van truckload carrier, deployed its video and data capture systems across its fleet to improve safety and manage CSA compliance.

Interested In truckIng technology? Scan the barcode or go to to subscribe to the CCJ Technology Weekly e-mail newsletter.










commercial carrier journal | april 2014

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PeopleNet adds new features for energy service fleets


leet mobility technology provider PeopleNet launched new mapping and navigation features for its Energy Services suite that serves U.S. fleets in the upstream and midstream sectors. The new features are based on exclusive, detailed maps of private and leased oilfield roads to and from well sites. PeopleNet said fleets can use the applications to coordinate disparate workforces to promote efficiency and monitor equipment location to ensure vehicles are on the correct route for least-cost routing. The Oil and Gas Map Portal, a Web-based application, is used by back-office dispatch personnel to manage the navigation needs of vehicles and includes reporting, dashboards and scorecards to manage compliance with producer-landowner road-usage agreements. CoPilot Oil and Gas Navigation is an in-cab application that uses oil and gas field mapping to provide turn-by-turn directions to the driver to enable on-time arrivals and scheduling. Location data, including wells, is installed onto the

Velociti adds maintenance service for aftermarket technology


elociti Inc. announced that it is expanding its technology deployment services to include post-installation support and maintenance service of aftermarket transportation technologies. Velociti said it serves as an extension of a fleet’s maintenance department and focuses on technology to include maintaining an inventory of replacement components, staging and configuring components and managing integrations with other enterprise management systems. To date, the company has focused on transportation technology installation and implementation. The latest offering is designed to streamline the management and maintenance of the growing number of aftermarket technology deployments in trucking operations. “Fleets know that effective maintenance of their assets can improve productivity and 38

commercial carrier journal | april 2014

Motorola releases TC55 touch computer


in-cab device and is accessible in the points of interest menu. When a location is selected, the application provides turn-by-turn directions. The new services are based on two-way messaging and GPS and are supported by tri-mode communications – cellular, satellite and WiFi. They are being added to previous Energy Services offerings, which include Crude Workflow for improving driver efficiency, eDriverLogs HOS with oil field regulations, Speed Gauge speed monitoring and Automated Fuel Tax reporting for eliminating manual trip sheets. – Aaron Huff

efficiency and lower costs,” said Deryk Powell, president of Velociti. “Using an expert to support the rapidly growing number of transportation technologies in fleet operations such as onboard communications, telematics and tracking systems, as well as facility-based information management solutions, means that company technicians can focus on keeping today’s complex equipment operating properly.” Velociti said it has post-installation support service experts trained to troubleshoot and resolve technology system issues remotely by phone and on site. The company said it also works regularly with dozens of technology providers on behalf of fleet customers and can bring them online to help resolve issues quicker and more effectively. Velociti’s new support offering is provided for a monthly per-vehicle fee and is managed through Velogic, the company’s Web-based project management portal where fleets can track the status of support cases in real time through live reports and dashboards. – Aaron Huff

otorola Solutions announced the TC55 touch computer designed for the field service, merchandising and direct-store delivery (DSD) markets. The company said the handheld device capitalizes on the appeal of consumer-grade devices while also offering integrated enterprise-class data-capture capabilities and a design that can withstand the wear and tear of industrial environments. Motorola said the TC55 device features: • High-performance data-capture features that include barcode scanning, signature capture, documents, photos and videos; • IP67 sealing and long battery life; and • A speakerphone louder than traditional smartphones and dual microphones with noise-cancelling technology to deliver added clarity at both ends of a call. – Aaron Huff

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The moment of truth Critical event data helps fleets, drivers eliminate mistakes BY AARON HUFF


nxiety. It’s that deepening, defenseless feeling that motorists get when the large truck in the rearview mirror appears larger than life. It’s also the feeling that keeps fleet owners and managers awake at night, wondering what the next accident could be. One of the most costly and life-threatening crashes is the rear-end collision; it also is one of the most frequent. According to 2011 crash statistics, 43 percent of large truck crashes involved another vehicle; of these, 23 percent were rear-end collisions, or about 10 percent of the total truck crashes. One way to safeguard against rear-end collisions and other major events is to use technology to identify high-risk behaviors in time to intervene and eliminate repeat offenses. Mobile fleet management systems can provide instant alerts for speeding and rapid deceleration or “hard braking” events, some of the leading indicators for preventable accidents. The 2011 truck crash figures published by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration in October 2013 show that speeding is a leading cause of 23 percent of truck accidents. Also making the list are aggressive driving (6 percent) and following too closely (5 percent). Dry van carrier Christenson Transportation is using Rand McNally’s TPC 7600 system to monitor its 100-truck fleet. Whenever speeding or hard-braking events occur, drivers receive an in-cab message on their TPC 7600 display. An e-mail alert also is sent to operations, meaning those drivers can expect a phone call. “We immediately contact the driver and discuss that event,” says Barry McGowen, vice president of the Stafford, 40

Mo.-based company. McGowen estimates that about 80 percent of the fleet’s hard-braking events occur in low-speed situations in parking lots when drivers are bobtailing. The alerts show the vehicle’s speed at the time the driver hits the brakes. Low-speed and low-risk situations still merit a phone call, McGowen says. “We want them to know that we see everything,” he says. “Basically, after about two events, they know we are on top of the situation, and they will quit doing whatever they were doing.” Hard braking at highway speeds is a more serious matter. At Christenson, the first event serves as a warning; the second offense can cost the driver his job. Since Christenson started using the Rand McNally technology, it has seen hard-braking events decline by about 75 percent. Today, about 90 percent of its drivers do not have any events on their records, and those with one event are unlikely to make the same mistake twice, McGowen says. Expanding the view Besides providing instant alerts of risky events, mobile fleet management systems capture detailed second-by-second information of what happened leading up to and following the moment of truth. These details are useful both for coaching drivers and for legal defense. The XRS mobile fleet management system reports speeding and rapid acceleration and deceleration events. For each event, XRS captures the time, location and a range of vehicle data that includes speed, throttle, clutch, cruise control and brake pressure. Continued on page 43


The Omnitracs mobile fleet management system can alert managers to areas of risky driving behavior.

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technology Continued from page 40 This information is recorded in 0.2-second intervals to provide a detailed picture of the event, says Ryan Barnett, director of market development for XRS Corp. By clicking on the hyperlink in the e-mail alert, managers can view the event details on a map display within FleetView, XRS’ Web-based management portal. PeopleNet’s Onboard Event Recorder feature captures hard-braking events automatically. OER also allows drivers to trigger an event manually by pressing a button on the in-cab display; this manual option can be useful as a legal defense record for situations where a driver is in close proximity of an accident but not involved directly. OER captures a detailed data record starting 170 seconds before the event and 30 seconds after a sudden acceleration or deceleration. PeopleNet also can capture event data from other vehicle safety systems, including collision avoidance and roll stability; the event data, such as a driver following too closely, triggers an OER recording. OER events also can be pulled into Vusion, PeopleNet’s analytics division, to help customers gain more understanding of factors such as certain road intersections that may contribute to risky events. Through Vusion, the location-specific OER data can be turned into “hotspot” warnings and notifications for fleets and drivers. PeopleNet gathers the OER information collectively from more than 200,000 vehicles, says Rich Ochsendorf, senior vice president of operations. Bendix has SafetyDirect, a Web portal that provides videos of severe events and feedback on fleets and their drivers. The system wirelessly transmits real-time driver performance data and event-based information to the fleet’s back office. Real-time warnings, alerts and event records make it possible to identify risky behaviors and take action to eliminate them before they can cause costly and preventable accidents.

Stafford, Mo.-based dry van carrier Christenson Transportation is using Rand McNally’s TPC 7600 system to monitor its 100-truck fleet.

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commercial carrier journal | april 2014

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43 12/18/13 9:29 AM

Do you have questions for your suppliers? The 2014 CCJ Spring Symposium provides you with opportunities to meet one-on-one with top industry suppliers to ask questions or make comments regarding their products and hear about new or enhanced products that will impact your business strategies for 2014 and beyond.

Comdata Taking Advantage of Comdata’s FleetAdvanceTM You know that smarter fuel decisions could mean significant savings for your fleet. But how do you encourage drivers to make these smarter decisions? With real-time data from Comdata’s FleetAdvance, you have a simple, actionable tool to manage driver behavior to control costs. We introduced you to FleetAdvance last year. Join us this year to explore the enhancements designed to maximize the value of your data, including the Analyzer, a dashboard of your average transaction score, and the Advisor tool to help identify low-cost fueling locations along your planned route. Learn how FleetAdvance can help you control your fuel costs, increase your savings and achieve your business goals.

Cummins Inc. You can depend on Cummins to deliver leading diesel and natural gas engine technology. In fact, Cummins is the only engine manufacturer that designs, develops and supports a totally integrated package from the air handling to the exhaust after-treatment.

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Dish Business The Three R’s in OTR — Recruit, Retain and Reward Join DISH’s David Behrens, National Sales Manager of Commercial Services, as he shares insights on using In-Truck Television to attract new drivers and retain existing drivers through a reward-based program designed to improve performance metrics. DISH has created a costeffective and simple solution for fleets to provide satellite TV for drivers. Learn how fleets are leveraging our latest technological advancements to differentiate and elevate their driver amenities and incentives. Those who join this session will be entered into a drawing for a complete mobile television solution.


DriveCam powered by Lytx™ As a carrier today, you’re faced with a unique set of industry challenges, including narrowing profit margins, increasing CSA and regulatory compliance pressures and an aggressive litigious environment. Imagine a system that could help you hold onto your profits, reduce noncompliance exposure and provide legal protection to your company and drivers. Lytx, Inc. (formerly DriveCam, Inc.) is that system. Please join us to hear how the DriveCam® Program, complemented by RAIRTM Compliance Services, has helped our clients realize tremendous ROI by lowering operating and collision-related costs while achieving greater efficiency and compliance. The DriveCam Program captures, prioritizes and tracks the results of driving behaviors to identify improvement opportunities for increased safety and efficiency. And RAIR offers a suite of online tools to ensure compliance with DOT safety regulations and help improve your scores in each CSA BASIC. All while providing protection in the case of a collision that was not your driver’s fault. Please join us to learn more.

Eaton Eaton, the leader in heavy duty transmissions, welcomes you to discuss the best transmission and clutch product solutions for your fleet. From our long-standing, reliable manual product to the newest automated technology, Eaton is both the right choice for your fleet and the preferred choice for your drivers. We are excited to present our highly efficient Fuller Advantage Series Transmission line, available in both automated and manual models. The automated version is available as a part of the SmartAdvantage Powertrain, specifically tailored to the Cummins ISX12 and ISX15 ST2 engines. The combination provides one of the most

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Bring your questions and learn what’s new in the world of trailer technology from Great Dane, a leader in the transportation industry for more than 100 years. In this informative session, company experts will provide updates on the latest innovations in trailer manufacturing including money-saving technologies such as Great Dane’s patented ThermoGuard® liner system.

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TravelCenters of America TA® and Petro Stopping Centers® brands, operated by TravelCenters of America, are the largest full-service truck stops and repeatedly Voted Best by drivers. With new services such as RoadSquad™ On-Site and ReserveIt™ Parking, TA and Petro help drivers gain efficiency and add more roll time during their hours of service, generating more revenue for fleets. Come see how TA can help you gain efficiencies and more roll time, especially given the changes in changes in hours of service, as well as our plans for natural gas.

May 19-21, 2014 | Franklin Marriott Cool Springs Hotel | Nashville, Tennessee $395 registration fee includes all sessions, accommodations, meals and golf or spa activities. Partial registration includes all of the above (excluding hotel accommodations) and spouse rates are also available. To register or for more information, call 888-349-4287 or visit

A Randall-Reilly Event

CCJ Spring Symposium

Ready. Set. Learn. CCJ and its CCJ Innovators partners are proud to highlight the achievements of the industry’s most innovative fleets. The CCJ Innovators program profiles fleets that have shown initiative in addressing critical areas in their businesses: • • • • • •

Operational efficiency Use of information technology Customer relations Maintenance practices Employee recruiting and retention Safety Scan the QR code to directly link to the CCJ Innovators website for the complete rules and criteria along with the nomination form as well as browse archives of past Innovator articles, webinars and podcasts.

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Keeping driverS

connected By aaron huff

The nexT generaTion of fleeT mobiliTy


taying connected” is more than a modern convenience. It is a way of life, a habit, an expectation for people who own a smartphone or tablet device. In the transportation industry, connectivity traditionally has been limited strictly to business purposes. Commercial and private fleets installed systems in vehicles specifically to send and receive messages, track location and capture performance and maintenance information from engine electronics. Today, the possibilities for drivers to be connected on the road for business and entertainment virtually are endless. For those behind the wheel, everything has converged to make life more convenient – at least technologically speaking. Staying connected is less complicated for consumers since they can decide how, when and where to be connected. “In the commercial space, many new issues come into play, like security, compensation, personal vs. consumer devices, support and reliability of dealing with many devices,” says Eric Witty, vice president of product management for Cadec, which provides the PowerVue mobile fleet management system. Cadec’s fleet applications automate logbooks and structure workflow for drivers from pickup to delivery, including turn-by-turn navigation. Electronic toll and bypass systems also can communicate wirelessly with devices in the vehicle to keep the wheels rolling. “Fleets and vendors seem to be working through these issues to find the right solutions for them,” Witty says. When the wheels stop, drivers can use their personal

devices to stay connected to family and friends, use social media and even control their home’s security system, lighting, thermostat and appliances. Drivers soon will be able to use apps to reserve parking spots and check the wait time for shower facilities at truck stops, among other conveniences. Some commercial platforms allow drivers to do this today. Also in the near future, some fleets will use these same systems to connect to drivers’ wearable devices to capture heart rate and sleep information to predict driver fatigue, says Christian Schenk, founder of CLS LLC, a technology consultant for the transportation industry. Again, the possibilities seem endless. Featured are some of the latest commercial in-cab platforms that fleets can use to keep drivers safely connected to their corporate network. Many of these platforms have crossover appeal to the consumer side for expanded connectivity options to improve the user experience for drivers.

Fleets and vendors seem to be working through these issues to find the right solutions for them. – Eric Witty, VP, product management, Cadec

commercial carrier journal


april 2014


technology: next-generation fleet mobility Rand McNally’s HD 100 allows drivers to connect the navigation device to the fleet office for integrated messaging, workflow and HOS information.

Bring your own device Companies such as uDrove, Rand McNally, J.J. Keller & Associates and XRS now provide mobile fleet management systems that are hardware-agnostic, meaning their software is cloud-based and compatible with devices that fleets and drivers purchase from a variety of suppliers. Some fleets use technology that allows them to deploy their mission-critical applications, such as electronic logging, on devices that drivers already own. Consumer devices that use the Android or Apple operating systems cost less than industrial-strength devices and are easier to replace to stay current with technology trends and user preferences. They also are fully capable of running applications for electronic logging, proof of delivery and integrated driver messaging.

J.J. Keller & Associates offers the Compliance Tablet, a 7-inch Samsung Galaxy Tab 2 preloaded with J.J. Keller Mobile applications.

XRS’ all-mobile platform offers DVIR, HOS and GPS capabilities used by fleets for seamless workflow while providing drivers with consumer apps.

Drivewyze PreClear’s weigh station bypass application has nationwide Weigh Station Heads Up notifications and a bypass service subscription option.

To help drivers overcome resistance to uDrove’s all-mobile e-log platform, some fleets are giving drivers a tablet that includes Skype and a Netflix subscription.

The connecTed vehicle Much of the innovation for mobile connectivity can be found in new vehicle designs. Manufacturers are building connected vehicles to make driving a better experience. The concept of a connected vehicle is being applied on three fronts: connectivity to personal devices, to other vehicles and to infrastructure. Mobile fleet management applications from companies such as Drivewyze and systems from providers such as PeopleNet, as well as those from heavy-duty truck manufacturers, are geared toward the same goal of creating a central in-vehicle communications hub that expands connectivity beyond the cab. Predictive analytics from PeopleNet’s Vusion division will become more integrated with the daily flow of information to its Precision Mobility Platform.


commercial carrier journal

| april 2014

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TECHNOLOGY: NEXT-GENERATION FLEET MOBILITY PERSONALLY-ENABLED DEVICES A hybrid approach has emerged over the past few years that combines the benefits of consumer devices with the

Cadec’s PowerVue mobile system is used primarily by private fleets with shorter hauls where Web browsing is not as critical for drivers.

durability and security of corporate devices. This approach from companies such as Zonar and Cadec is called “corporate owned, personally enabled” (COPE).

Zonar 2020’s Android-based platform allows third-party apps. Text-to-speech capability and audible turn-by-turn directions help lower driver distraction.

VIRTUAL FLEETS The near-ubiquitous presence of connected vehicles, drivers and cloud-based software makes it possible for smaller transportation companies such as Sylectus to compete with larger firms on the basis of coverage and customer service.

The Alliance Network’s secure loadboard integrates with the Web-based Sylectus TMS from Omnitracs. Members can share visibility of trucks, drivers and loads.

THERE’S AN APP FOR THAT With thousands of trucking-related apps available for download from the Google Play and Apple App Store, deploying new software and training drivers to use it can be a fairly quick and easy process. Coastal Courier Inc., an Orlando, Fla.-based dedicated logistics provider that operates 400 vehicles in the Southeast, requires driver contractors to have smartphones. The company recently implemented the JumpTrack app for a paperless proof-of-delivery process. Bruce Scattergood, CCI director, says that by using JumpTrack, the most time-consuming aspect of the business has vanished: having to look for proof-of-delivery documents if customers had a discrepancy with an invoice. ACS offers TripPak Mobile, an app that drivers download for free onto their personal devices. TripPak Mobile’s functionality 58


| APRIL 2014

and applications for fleets and drivers include document capture and submission, location tracking, fuel network directories, settlement history, driver intranet/portal viewing and any Web application that can be linked through a mobile device. J.B. Hunt, an industry pioneer of intermodal services, operates the largest fleet of company-owned 53-foot containers in North America and one of the largest private drayage fleets across a nationwide network of rail partners. Nearly 6,000 drivers are in the Lowell, Ark.-based company’s Intermodal segment that consists of local and regional drayage operations. In January 2013, Pat Wheeley, manager of J.B. Hunt’s imaging department, decided to increase the use of Transflo Mobile to provide drivers a convenient, fast and secure method to submit documents from any location. In the Intermodal segment, Transflo Mobile now is 100 percent of the volume with 1,200 scans per day.

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INBRIEF 4/14 Continued from page 10 • A used Class 8 truck sold for an average of more than $44,000 in January, a 15 percent year-overyear gain and a record price, ACT Research said. ACT’s Steve Tam said prices are expected to cool slightly later this year, ranging from flat to a 5 percent decline, due to less “pent-up” demand. • The turnover rate at large truckload carriers fell six percentage points to 91 percent in the fourth quarter of 2013, the second straight decline for the measure of churn in the driver pool, but held above 90 percent for the eighth consecutive quarter. Turnover at small truckload fleets rose five points to 79 percent, while less-than-truckload turnover fell two points to 11 percent. • Following two years of overall decline, the amount of traffic congestion in 2013 grew 6 percent from 2012, outpacing the U.S. economy’s growth by about three times, according to traffic data firm Inrix. Traffic congestion in recent years had eased due to the 2008-09 recession, but economic growth and an uptick in employment and hiring in 2013 pushed congestion upward, Inrix said, and the prospects in 2014 could be even worse – or better – as further economic expansion continues to drive congestion. • The number of cargo thefts recorded in 2013 tied 2012’s all-time high of 951, according to FreightWatch International, which also said that better organization and innovation by thieves continues to push the threat of cargo theft higher. An average of 79.25 cargo thefts occurred each month in the United States – 2.6 per day. Of the 951 total thefts in 2013, 692 were full-truckload or container thefts, FreightWatch reported, and 65 were less-than-truckload thefts. • Xtra Lease, a provider of semi-trailer rentals and leases, is ordering about 5,000 new trailers for 2014, including dry vans, liftgate vans and reefers equipped with fuel-saving Thermo King Precedent reefer units. Most of the trailers also will have corrosion-fighting galvanized steel components.



| APRIL 2014

Continued from page 9 2010 rule, FMCSA says. ELDs, as opposed to their EOBR and AOBRD (electronic onboard recorder and automatic onboard recording device) predecessors, sync with a truck’s engine to capture power status, motion status, miles driven and engine hours. They also automatically enter changes of duty status. The new rule requires ELDs to be integrated with the truck’s engine and to use location information; they also must be tamper-resistant. The devices can allow for annotations by both drivers and carriers “to explain or correct records,” the rule says. FMCSA is working with states to develop software to receive, analyze and display ELD data for roadside officers to use the information. The rule also stipulates that ELDs “present a graph grid of a driver’s daily duty status changes” either on the units themselves or in printouts. The rule also stipulates the connectivity methods, which include Bluetooth 2.1, email, USB 2.0 and more. Hours-of-service records. Carriers and drivers still will be required to maintain documentation that verifies drivers’ hours-ofservice records. “Supporting documents” can refer to either paper or electronic documents. Documents verifying driving time would not need to be kept, but ones that verify periods of drivers’ on-duty nondriving time would. For every 24-hour period the driver is on duty, carriers must maintain no more than 10 supporting documents from either of these categories: (1) bills of lading, itineraries, schedules or other documents that show trip origin and destination; (2) dispatch records,

trip records or similar documents; (3) expense receipts, (4) electronic mobile communication records sent through fleet management systems, or (5) payroll records, settlement sheets or similar documents that show what and how a driver was paid. Reactions varied OOIDA said it knows of no device that automatically records a driver’s duty status, which is what Congress required in MAP-21. “We will examine the proposal in detail to see how the agency has attempted to meet these requirements, especially considering that an important study on the harassment issue is still listed as ‘ongoing’ on the FMCSA website,” the association said. “Further, the issue of cost to truckers and what specific technical requirements are called for, especially when FMCSA has yet to show any direct safety benefit between ELD/EOBR use and reduced crashes, will be a critical focus of our review of the proposal. This is the first stage in the regulatory process for the agency’s latest attempt to craft a rule on this topic, and OOIDA and small business truckers will certainly be weighing in and providing comments.” ATA was a key proponent in pushing for the ELD mandate’s inclusion in the 2012 MAP-21 highway funding act. “ATA supports FMCSA’s efforts to mandate these devices in commercial vehicles as a way to improve safety and compliance in the trucking industry and to level the playing field with thousands for fleets that have already voluntarily moved to this technology,” said Bill Graves, ATA president and chief executive officer. – James Jaillet

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As an industry service, TA-Petro is proud to OUT-OF-SERVICE CRITERIA sponsor this important safety information. The Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance provides its updated Out-of-Service Criteria to Commercial Carrier Journal. CVSA has no affiliation with the advertisers within this section and does not endorse their products.



he Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) has released the revised Out-of-Service Criteria (OOSC), effective April 1, 2014, for placing vehicles Out-of-Service at roadside safety inspections. CVSA is a nonprofit organization bringing federal, state and provincial government agencies together with representatives from private industry in the United States, Canada and Mexico who are dedicated to improving commercial vehicle safety. The OOSC identifies serious violations that render a commercial vehicle or commercial vehicle operator an imminent danger to the general public. Commercial vehicles and operators placed Out-of-Service cannot operate until those items that rendered them out of service are remedied or repaired. The OOSC contains minimum standards. CVSA emphasizes that operators should maintain their equipment at a higher level than presented in the OOSC.

The following information is only a summary and is limited to OOSC relevant to property-carrying operations. This summary does not necessarily cover the OOSC in full detail, so it is strongly recommended that operators also obtain the Official 2014 CVSA North American Standard Out-of-Service Criteria. The official version includes complete details, graphics and federal regulation references. For information on obtaining the official criteria, visit or call 202-775-1623. The necessity for CVSA law enforcement members to implement and adhere to these standards is: • A matter of law; • Determined as necessary by the alliance to promote safety; and • A professional obligation. Except where state, provincial or federal laws preclude enforcement of a specific item, CVSA law enforcement members shall comply with the North American Standard Out-of-Service Criteria. commercial carrier journal | april 2014



VeHICLe OUT-OF-serVICe CrITerIa Brakes Defective brakes A vehicle or combination vehicle is Out-of-Service if 20 percent or more of its service brakes have one of the following defects: • Any steering-axle brake defect listed in next section. • Won’t actuate effectively or friction material won’t contact drum/rotor. • Audible air leak detected at chamber. • Missing brake on any axle required to have brakes. Drum air brakes • Broken or missing brake shoe, lining, return spring (shoe or chamber), anchor pin, spider, cam roller, camshaft, pushrod, yoke, clevis pin, clevis pin retainer, brake adjuster, parking brake power spring or air chamber mounting bolt. • Loose air chamber, spider or camshaft support bracket. • Lining has crack/void, observable on edge, wider than 1/16 inch. • Portion of lining is missing, to the extent that rivet/bolt is exposed. • Lining has crack, observable on edge, longer than 1-1/2 inch. • Loose lining segment, permitting about 1⁄16-inch movement. • Entire segment of lining is missing. • Evidence of oil, grease or brake fluid contamination of the friction surface of the brake drum and the brake friction material. • Lining thickness less than 1/4 inch or to wear indicator, if so marked, at shoe center. 64

Air disc brakes • Broken or missing caliper, brake pad, pad retaining component, pushrod, yoke, clevis pin, clevis pin retainer, brake adjuster, parking brake power spring or chamber return spring air chamber mounting bolt. • Loose or missing brake chamber or caliper mounting bolt. • Rotor has evidence of severe rusting or metal-to-metal contact over the rotor friction surface or on either side. • Evidence of oil or grease contamination of the friction surface of the brake rotor and the brake friction material. • Brake pad thickness is less than 1/16 inch or to wear indicator if pad is so marked. Brake adjustment limits • With engine off, reservoir at no more than 90 to 100 psi (dump excess pressure) and brakes fully applied, push rod stroke 1⁄4 inch or more beyond adjustment limit. • Counting as one defective brake, two brakes having a stroke less than 1/4 inch beyond adjustment limit. • Clamp-type chamber adjustment limit: –Type 20 (6-25⁄32-inch O.D.) = 1-3/4-inch stroke –Type 24 (7-7⁄32-inch O.D.) = 1-3/4-inch stroke –Type 30 (8-3⁄32-inch O.D.) = 2-inch stroke –Type 36 (9-inch O.D.) = 2-1⁄4-inch stroke • Long-stroke, clamp-type chamber adjustment limit: –Type 20 (6-25⁄32-inch O.D.) = 2-inch stroke –Type 24 (7-7⁄32-inch O.D.) with less than 3-inch maxi-

commercial carrier journal | april 2014

mum stroke = 2-inch stroke –Type 24 (7-7⁄32-inch O.D.) with 3-inch maximum stroke = 2-1⁄2-inch stroke –Type 30 (8-3⁄32-inch O.D.) = 2-1⁄2-inch stroke Note: Brakes found at the adjustment limit are not defective for the purposes of the 20 percent rule. In calculating the number of defective brakes, round all fractions down to the next whole number. Hydraulic and electric brakes • Missing or broken caliper, pad-retaining component, brake pad, shoe or lining. • Movement of the caliper within the anchor plate, in the direction of wheel rotation, exceeds 1/8 inch. • Rotor has evidence of severe rusting or metal-to-metal contact over the rotor friction surface on either side. • Evidence of oil, grease or brake fluid contamination of the friction surface of the brake rotor and the brake friction material. • Lining/pad thickness of 1/16 inch at the shoe center for disc or drum brakes. Front steering axle brakes • Any inoperative or missing brake on either wheel of any steering axle of any vehicle equipped or required to be equipped with steering axle brakes, including the dolly and front axle of a full trailer and tractors required to have steering axle brakes. • Defects of drum air brakes, air disc brakes and hydraulic brakes in the previous section apply to front steering axle brakes with one exception:


Brake CHarT

Must be used for vehicles with up to 20 brakes in determining when a vehicle/combination is to be placed Out-of-Service.

Total number of brakes required to be on a vehicle combination 4 1 2 6 8 2 10 2 12 3 3 14 4 16 4 18 4 20 * 5 22 Total number of defective brakes necessary to place the vehicle or combination 0ut-of-Service * For a vehicle of combination that exceeds 22 brakes, determine the number of defective brakes by using 20 percent of the total number of brakes, rounding fractions up to the next whole number.

–For drum brakes, lining with a thickness of less than 3⁄16 inch for a shoe with a continuous strip of lining, or 1/4 inch for a shoe with two lining blocks or to wear indicator, if so marked. • Mismatched air chamber sizes for drum air brakes and air disc brakes. This excludes long-stroke air chamber versus regular-stroke air chamber; and for drum brakes, differences in design type, such as type 20 clamp versus type 20 rotor chamber. A mismatch on an air disc



• Interstate (and intrastate if hauling placarded load) driver is less than 21 years old. • Not properly licensed, including lack of proper commercial driver’s license (CDL) endorsement for type of vehicle being operated. • Holds a learner’s permit but is not accompanied by the holder of a valid commercial driver’s license, does not hold a valid automobile license or is transporting regulated hazardous materials. • Lacks waiver of physical disqualification or equivalent exemption. • No skill performance evaluation certificate in driver’s possession, when required. • Lacks hearing aid or corrective lenses noted on medical certificate.

brake exists only when there is measurable difference in air chamber clamp sizes. • Mismatched brake adjuster length for drum and air disc brakes. • Mismatched bolt-type brake chambers. Spring brake chambers • Nonmanufactured hole/crack in spring brake housing. Trailer/breakaway/ emergency braking • Inoperable breakaway system on 25 percent or more of the brakes on a trailer. • Breakaway system not directly attached to towing vehicle. Parking brake • No brakes applied when parking brake control is actuated. Brake smoke/fire • Brake malfunction causing smoke or fire to emit from wheel end, not including overheating due to severe brake use. Drum/rotor • External crack that is visible

• Operating a passenger-carrying vehicle without possessing a valid medical certificate. • Judged unsafe due to obvious sickness or fatigue. • Unable to communicate sufficiently to understand and respond to official inquiries and directions. • Disqualified by Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulation 391.15. • Possesses or, to any degree, is under the influence of unauthorized drugs or alcohol (placed Out-of-Service for 24 hours). • Violates an Out-of-Service order related to intoxicating beverages (placed Out-ofService for 24 hours). • Driver of a property-carrying vehicle will

be put Out-of-Service until eligibility is reestablished for any of the following violations: driving more than 11 hours; driving after the 14th hour after coming on duty following 10 consecutive hours off duty; and, barring a 34-hour restart, driving after having been on duty more than 60 hours in seven consecutive days or more than 70 hours in eight consecutive days. Placed Outof-Service until eligibility to drive has been reestablished. • Falsification of required driver logs; not having logs for previous eight days. Placed Outof-Service for 10 consecutive hours. • Certain short-haul operators are allowed one or two 16-hour days per 7 or 8 days, depending on nature of the operation.

or opens upon brake application. • Rotor with a crack in length of more than 75 percent of the friction surface that passes completely through the rotor. • Rotor surface is worn to or through center vents. • Portion of drum/rotor missing or in danger of falling off. Hose/tubing • Damage through outer reinforcing ply. Rubber-impregnated fabric cover is not reinforcement ply. Thermoplastic nylon may have braid reinforcement or color difference between cover and inner tube. Exposure of second color warrants Out-of-Service judgment. • Bulge/swelling when air applied. • Audible leak at other than proper connection. • Cracked, broken or crimped and restricting air flow. • Improper splice (such as hose ends forced over piece of tubing and secured with hose clamps).

The Pennsylvania Turnpike’s East-West route (Interstates 76/276) and its Northeast Extension (I-476) intersect with the toll-free southern sections of I-476 at the Mid-County Interchange in Norristown, Pa. This is a favored location for truck inspections in Eastern Pennsylvania because of a high volume of truck traffic. Trooper David Hodges of the Pennsylvania State Police pulled this truck aside after the driver paid his toll.

Air pressure gauge • Inoperative or defective primary or secondary pressure gauge. Air loss rate • 80 to 90 psi reservoir pressure not maintained with governor cut in, engine idling and service brakes fully applied. Tractor protection system • Missing or inoperative com-

ponents, including tractorprotection valve and/or trailer supply valve. Low-air warning device • Both the audible and visual warning devices fail to operate as required. Air compressor • Loose mounting bolts. • Cracked/broken/loose pulley. • Cracked/broken mounting bracket/brace/adapter.

commercial carrier journal | april 2014


2014 OUT-OF-SERVICE CRITERIA Air reservoir tank • Separated from original attachment points. Electric • 20 percent or more of brakes on vehicle or combination don’t work. • Missing or inoperative breakaway braking device. Hydraulic • No pedal reserve, engine running. • Master cylinder below 1⁄4 full. • Inoperative power assist. • Hose seeps or swells under pressure. • Any observed brake fluid leak upon full brake application. • Missing/inoperative breakaway braking device. • Hydraulic hose/fluid line/ connection worn through outer cover to fabric layer or is broken, restricted, crimped or cracked. • Failure/low-fluid warning system is actuated or inoperative. • Hydraulic power brake inoperative. Vacuum brakes • Insufficient reserve for one full-brake application after engine stopped. • Vacuum hose/line restricted; worn through the outer cover to cord ply; crimped, cracked or broken; or collapses when vacuum is applied. Performance-based brake tests (PBBTs) • Failing to develop a total brake force as a percentage of gross vehicle or combination weight of 43.5 or more on an approved PBBT. FIFTH WHEEL Mounting to frame • More than 20 percent of fas66

teners on either side missing/ ineffective. • Any movement between mounting components. • Mounting angle iron cracked or broken. Specifically: Any crack in repair weld; welldefined crack in stressed or load-bearing areas; crack through 20 percent or more of original weld or parent metal. Mounting plates and pivot brackets • More than 20 percent of fasteners on either side missing/ ineffective. • Any welds or parent metal cracked. Specifically: Any crack in repair weld; welldefined crack in stressed/ load-bearing area; crack through 20 percent or more of original weld or parent metal. • Horizontal movement over 3⁄8 inch between pivot bracket pin and bracket. • Pivot bracket pin missing/not secured. Sliders • More than 25 percent of latching fasteners on either side ineffective. • Any fore or aft stop missing/ insecurely attached. • More than 3⁄8-inch movement between slider base and slider bracket. Operating handle • Not in locked position. Plate • Cracks in fifth wheel plate or repair weld, or cracks extending through 20 percent or more of original weld/parent metal. Exceptions: Cracks in approach ramps and castingshrinkage cracks in ribs of body of cast fifth wheel.

commercial carrier journal | april 2014

Lock • Locking mechanism parts missing, broken or deformed so kingpin isn’t securely held. UPPER COUPLER AND KINGPIN • Cracked repair weld. • Well-defined crack in stressed or load-bearing area. • Crack through 20 percent or more of original weld or parent metal. • Horizontal movement between upper and lower fifth wheel halves exceeds 1⁄2 inch. • Kingpin not properly engaged. • Insufficient number of bolts per side based on the maximum trailer GVWR, bolt grade and size of bolt. • If deemed necessary to check previously uncoupled semitrailer during terminal inspection, unit is Out-of-Service if kingpin can be moved by hand in any direction. Do not break a combination just to make this test. PINTLE HOOK • Welded repair of assembly. • Ineffective or missing fastener. A fastener isn’t missing if there’s an empty hole in the device but no corresponding hole in the frame, and vice versa. • Loose mounting. • Insecure latch. • Crack in pintle hook assembly or frame crossmember used for pintle attachment. • Section reduction visible when coupled. No part of horn may have section width reduced more than 20 percent by wear. DRAWBAR Eye • Crack in attachment weld or eye.

• Missing/ineffective fastener. • Section reduction visible when coupled. Eye must not be worn beyond 20 percent of original cross-section thickness. • Any welded repair. Tongue • Slider (power or manual) with ineffective latching mechanism, missing or ineffective stop, more than 1⁄4-inch movement between slider and housing, or leaking of air/hydraulic cylinder, hose or chamber. Exception is weeping typical of hydraulic seals. • Any cracks. • Movement of 1⁄4 inch or more between subframe and drawbar at point of attachment. SAFETY CHAINS, CABLES AND HOOKS • Safety device missing. • Safety device is damaged or defective. • Safety device detached or incapable of secure attachment. • Improper repair of chain or hook with welding, wire, bolt, rope or tape. SADDLEMOUNT (DEMOUNTABLE DEVICE SERVING AS FIFTH WHEEL IN DRIVE-AWAY/TOW-AWAY OPERATION) • Missing/ineffective fastener. • Loose mounting. • Crack/break in stressed or load-bearing member. • More than 1⁄4-inch horizontal movement between saddlemount halves. FULL TRAILER (DOUBLE RING, BALLBEARING TURNTABLE) • Top or bottom flange has fewer than six effective bolts.

2014 OUT-OF-SERVICE CRITERIA • 20 percent of original/repaired welds, or parent metal, is cracked. • Wear permits top and bottom flange to touch. • Flange is cracked. EXHAUST SYSTEMS • System layout where burning, charring or damaging of electrical wiring, fuel supply or combustible part of vehicle would be likely. FRAME • Cracked/loose/sagging/broken frame side rail permitting body to shift into moving parts, or other condition indicating imminent collapse of frame. • Cracked/loose/broken frame member adversely affecting support of steering gear, fifth wheel, engine, transmission, body parts, suspension or other component. • 1-1⁄2-inch or longer crack in frame side rail web that is directed toward bottom flange. • Crack extending from frame side rail web around the radius and into bottom flange. • 1-inch or longer crack in bottom flange of side rail. AXLES (ADJUSTABLE) • Sliding subframe with more than 25 percent of locking pins missing or disengaged. FUEL SYSTEMS Liquid fuels • Dripping leak anywhere, including reefer/heater fuel system. • Fuel tank loose due to broken or missing bolts and/or brackets. Note: Some tanks are on springs or rubber bushings. Gaseous fuels • Any fuel leakage from the

CNG or LNG system detected by smell, hearing or vision. LIGHTS (HEADLAMPS, TAIL LAMPS, LAMPS ON PROJECTING LOADS, STOP LAMPS AND TURN SIGNALS) Note: The following items only are Out-of-Service defects when lights must be illuminated. • Does not have at least one headlamp operable on low beam. • Does not have at least one, steady burning red lamp on the rear of the rearmost vehicle, visible from 500 feet. A lamp visible from 500 feet also must be affixed to rear of loads projecting more than 4 feet beyond the body. Note: The following items are Out-of-Service defects during both day and night. • Does not have at least one operative stop lamp on rear of a single vehicle (or the rearmost vehicle of a combination) visible from 500 feet. • Does not have operative turn signal on both sides of the rear of a single vehicle or the rearmost vehicle of a combination. Exception: Bobtail tractor with double-sided front signals visible to passing motorist need not have rear signals. SECUREMENT OF CARGO • Spare tire or portion of load/ dunnage could fall from vehicle. • Aggregate working load limit of securement devices is less than 1⁄2 the weight of the cargo being secured. Note: Equivalent means of securement (e.g., vehicle structures, dunnage bags, shoring bars, etc.) may be used to comply;

Safety inspections need to be carried out safely, so inspectors carry wheel chocks since service brakes must be checked with the parking brake off. Creepers allow them to move freely under tractor and trailer to check items such as brakes and suspensions.

not all cargo must be “tied down” with chains, webbing, wire rope, cordage, etc. • No edge protection. Note: Out-of-Service only when the required tiedown has evidence of damage resulting from unprotected contact with cargo. • Cargo that is likely to roll is not restrained by chocks, wedges, cradle or other equivalent means. • Articles secured by transverse tiedowns are not in direct contact with one another and are not prevented from shifting while in transit. • Articles not blocked or positioned to prevent movement in the forward direction and are not secured by one tiedown for articles up to 5 feet in length and weighing up to 1,100 pounds; two tiedowns for articles less than 5 feet in length and weighing more than 1,100 pounds or those between 5 feet and 10 feet in length regardless of weight; two tiedowns if the article is longer than 10 feet and one additional tiedown for every 10 feet or fraction thereof beyond the first 10 feet.

• Articles blocked or braced to prevent movement in the forward direction and not secured by at least one tiedown every 10 feet of length or fraction thereof. • Chain is defective if: link is broken, cracked, twisted, bent or stretched; chain contains nicks, gouges, abrasions, wear or knots causing a 20 percent or more reduction in original material thickness; chain displays weld other than original weld used to close each link. Clevis-type repair link, if strong as original link, is OK. • Wire rope is defective if working portion contains: corrosion with pitting; kinked or bird-caged section; popped core in working section; more than three broken wires in any strand; more than two broken wires at fitting; more than 11 broken wires in any length measuring six times its diameter (for example, with a 1⁄2-inch-thick rope, more than 11 broken wires in any 3-inch section); repairs other than back/eye splice; discoloration from heat or electric arc. • Fiber rope is defective if working portion contains:

commercial carrier journal | april 2014



The landing gear and reefer fuel tank and lines get a careful looksee to make sure all is secure.

burned/melted fibers except on heat-sealed ends; excessive wear; reduced diameter (20 percent or more is excessive) or other evidence of strength reduction; any repair (properly spliced lengths are not considered a repair); ineffective knot used for connection/ repair of binders. • Synthetic webbing is defective if working portion contains: knot(s); more than 25 percent of stitches separated; broken/ damaged hardware; any repair or splice; overt damage; severe abrasion; cumulatively for entire working length of one strap, cuts/burns/holes exceeding width of 3⁄4 inch for 4-inch-wide webbing, exceeding width of 5⁄8 inch for 3-inch-wide webbing or 3⁄8 inch for 1-3⁄4-inch-wide or 2-inch-wide webbing. Defects through the webbing are additive across the width of the strap face for its entire effective length, but only one defect is additive for any specific width. • Steel strapping is defective if it: fails to have at least two pair of crimps in each seal for strappings more than 1 inch; is arranged in an end-overend lap joint not sealed with at least two seals; is obviously 68

damaged or distorted. • Load binders or fittings that obviously are cracked, worn, corroded, distorted from heat or electric arc. • Evidence of wire rope slipping through cable clamp. • Anchor points on vehicle display: distorted/cracked rails or supports; cracked weld; damaged/worn floor rings. • Cargo not secured according to commodity-specific regulations in Part 393. Commodities covered are logs; dressed lumber and similar products; metal coils; paper rolls; concrete pipe; intermodal containers; automobiles, light trucks and vans; heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery; flattened or crushed vehicles; roll-on/roll-off or hook lift containers; and large boulders. STEERING General • Modification or other condition interfering with free movement of steering component. Free play • With 18-inch diameter steering wheel, MS free play arc of 4-3⁄4 inches or more. With PS,

commercial carrier journal | april 2014

free play arc of 7-1⁄8 inches or more. • With 19-inch diameter steering wheel, MS free play arc of 5 inches or more. With PS, free play arc of 7-1⁄2 inches or more. • With 20-inch diameter steering wheel, MS free play arc of 5-1⁄4 inches or more. With PS, free play arc of 7-7⁄8 inches or more. • With 21-inch diameter steering wheel, MS free play arc of 5-1⁄2 inches or more. With PS, free play arc of 8-1⁄4 inches or more. • With 22-inch diameter steering wheel, MS free play arc of 5-3⁄4 inches or more. With PS, free play arc of 8-5⁄8 inches or more. Note: For power systems (engine running), if steering wheel movement exceeds free play of 45 degrees before tires move, rock steering wheel between points of power steering valve resistance. If that movement exceeds 30 degrees or the maximum arc (in inches) for manual systems using that size of wheel, the vehicle is Out-ofService.

• Cracked box/mounting bracket. • Any obvious welded repair. • Any looseness of yoke coupling to gear input shaft.

Column • Missing/loose U-bolt or positioning part. • Worn, faulty or repair-welded universal joint. • Steering wheel not properly secured. • Telescopic steering column does not lock into position.

C-dolly • Inoperative or missing steering locks. • Not centered in the “zero” locked position.

Front axle beam and all steering components except column • Crack or welded repair. Steering gear box (including rack and pinion) • Missing/loose mounting bolt.

Pitman arm • Loose on steering gear output shaft. • Any obvious welded repair. Power assist cylinder • Loose auxiliary power assist cylinder. Ball and socket joints • Movement of stud nut under steering load. • Motion — other than rotational — between linkage member and its attachment point that exceeds 1⁄8 inch (measured by hand pressure only). • Any obvious welded repair. Tie rod and drag link • Loose clamp/bolt. • Looseness in any threaded joint. Hardware • Loose/missing nut on tie rod, pitman arm, drag link, steering arm, tie rod arm.

SUSPENSION Axle parts/members • U-bolt or other spring-to-axle clamp bolt cracked, broken, loose or missing. • Axle, axle housing, spring hanger or other axle-positioning part cracked, broke, loose or missing, resulting in shifting of axle from its normal position. Note: After a turn, lateral axle displacement is

2014 OUT-OF-SERVICE CRITERIA normal with some suspensions, including composite springs on steer axles. Composite springs • Crack, passing completely through the spring, which extends more than threequarters the length of the spring. • Intersecting cracks, of any length, which pass completely through the spring. Spring assembly • Any leaf or portion of leaf is missing or separated from assembly. • 1/4 or more leaves in one assembly are broken. • Broken coil spring or torsion bar spring. • Missing rubber spring. • Any displaced leaf that could contact a tire, rim, brake drum or frame. • Deflated air suspension. • Broken main leaf. Main leaves are those in main and, if equipped, helper spring packs that: form a spring eye at both ends; extend at both ends into spring hanger, equalizer, spring end cap or insulator box mounted on axle. Torque, radius, tracking components • Any part of above-referenced assembly (or part for attaching same to frame/ axle) that is cracked, broken, loose or missing. Includes spring leaves used as radius or torque rods and missing bushings; but not loose bushings in torque rods, track rods or sway bars. Adjustable axles/sliding trailer system • More than 1/4 of locking pins/holes missing or not en-

gaged, measure more than 1 inch larger than original size. Material from hole in use to adjacent hole or rail edge is torn or split. • More than 1/4 of sliderguide/hold-down brackets are missing or not engaged. TIRES Tire/wheel clearance • Any condition, including loading, causing body or frame to contact tire or wheel assembly at the time of inspection. Evidence of prior contact isn’t defect. Steering axle of power unit • Less than 2⁄32-inch tread depth at two, adjacent, major tread grooves anywhere on tire. • Portion of breaker strip or casing ply visible in tread. • Sidewall cut, worn or damaged, thereby exposing ply cord. • Labeled “Not For Highway Use” or other marking excluding current application (excluding farm/offroad vehicles briefly on the road). • Bump or knot suggesting tread/sidewall separation. Exception: Bulge from section repair (sometimes identified by adjacent, blue, triangular label) is not a defect unless higher than 3⁄8 inch. • Tire has leak that’s felt or heard, or has 50 percent less of the maximum inflation pressure marked on the sidewall. • Mounted/inflated so tire contacts part of vehicle at the time of inspection. • Tire overloaded, including overload resulting from underinflation. Exception: Does not apply to special-permit vehicle operated at a speed

Here, Hodges asks the driver to open the storage compartment. One part of an inspection is checking for the required onboard safety equipment, which includes items such as a fire extinguisher and reflectors.

low enough to compensate for underinflation. • If a passenger-carrying vehicle, regrooved, recapped or retreaded tires. Other than steering axle • 75 percent or more of tread width loose or missing, in excess of 12 inches of tire’s circumference. • Less than 1⁄32-inch tread depth at two, adjacent, major tread grooves at three separate locations around the circumference of the tire at least 8 inches apart. With duals, both tires must have listed defect to warrant Outof-Service judgment. • Tire has leak that can be felt or heard, or has 50 percent less of the maximum inflation pressure marked on the sidewall. • Bias-ply tire with more than one ply exposed in tread area or sidewall, and the exposed area of sidewall or top ply exceeds 2 square inches. With duals, both tires must have listed defect to warrant

Out-of-Service judgment. • Radial tire with more than one ply is exposed in the sidewall, or two or more plies are exposed in the tread area and the exposed area of sidewall or tread exceeds 2 square inches, or damaged cords are evident in the sidewall up to 2 square inches. With duals, both tires must have listed defect to warrant Out-of-Service judgment. • Bump or knot suggesting tread/sidewall separation. Exception: Bulge from section repair (sometimes identified by adjacent, blue, triangular label) is not a defect unless higher than 3⁄8 inch. • Mounted or inflated so tire contacts part of vehicle or, in the case of a dual assembly, its mate. • Tire overloaded, including overload resulting from underinflation. Exception: Does not apply to special-permit vehicle operated at a speed low enough to compensate for underinflation.

commercial carrier journal | april 2014


2014 OUT-OF-SERVICE CRITERIA VANS AND OPEN-TOP TRAILERS • Broken upper rail accompanied by complete separation of flange. • Buckled upper rail accompanied by one of the following conditions: missing or loose fasteners at adjacent roof bows and/or side posts; missing, broken or ineffective adjacent roof bows. • Broken lower rail accompanied by one of the following conditions: complete separation in the bay area plus sagging floor, rail or crossmember; missing or loose fasteners at side posts adjacent to crack. • With drop-frame trailer, any twist, bend or fatigue crack at point where frame drops. • Three or more adjacent crossmembers are broken and/or completely detached from, and sagging below, lower rail in bay area. • Broken floor accompanied by protruding freight and sagging cross-members. • Complete penetration of fiberglass-reinforced-plywood side panels in bay area, resulting in sagging lower rail. WHEELS, RIMS AND HUBS • Lock/side ring is bent, broken or cracked or improperly seated/sprung/mismatched. • Cracked rim (any circumferential crack except one intentionally made at the valve stem hole). • Disc wheel cracked between any two holes (hand hole, stud hole, center hole). • Disc wheel with two cracks. • Disc wheel with one crack extending 3 inches or more. • Disc wheel with 50 percent or more of stud holes elongated. • Spoke wheel with two or 70

more cracks (of 1 inch or greater length) across spoke or hub section. • Spoke wheel with two or more web areas cracked. • Tubeless demountable adapter crack (cracks at three or more spokes). • Fasteners loose/missing/broken/cracked or stripped on disc/spoke wheel. For a 10hole wheel assembly: three missing or defective wheel fasteners in any location, or two missing/defective adjacent fasteners. For 8-holeor-less wheel assembly: any two missing/defective wheel fasteners. Weld cracks/repairs • Crack in weld attaching disc wheel to rim. • Crack in weld attaching tubeless demountable rim to adapter. • Welded repair on aluminum wheel on steering axle. • Welded repair, other than disc-to-rim attachment, on steel disc wheel on steering axle. Hubs • Any bearing (hub) cap, plug or filler plug is missing or broken, affording view of hub assembly. • Smoking from wheel hub assembly due to bearing failure. • Any wheel seal is leaking, producing evidence of wet contamination of the brake friction material and accompanied by evidence that further leaking will occur. • Lubricant is leaking from the hub and is present on the wheel surface and is accompanied by evidence that further leakage will occur. • No visible or measurable amount of lubricant showing in hub.

commercial carrier journal | april 2014

WINDSHIELD WIPERS • Inoperative/ineffective wiper on driver’s side during weather requiring wipers. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Placarded • Shipping papers do not clearly identify the hazmat being transported. (An error in the description that will not impede emergency response does not constitute an OOSC condition.) • Half or more of placards for a hazard class are missing. • Any placard fails to represent hazmat. • When required, markings noting poison inhalation hazards for bulk or non-bulk package are missing or illegible. • Hazmat leaking from any bulk or non-bulk package. • Transporting HM/DG not blocked, braced or secured as required by the applicable regulation. • Transporting incompatible materials, such as poisons

with foodstuffs. • Transport of any forbidden material. • Radiation exceeds 200 mrem/ hr at vehicle surface. • Bulk package’s required internal valve is missing or open. • Bulk package not authorized for material being transported. • Bulk package with missing or improperly secured manhole cover, venting device, fill/inspection opening or discharge valve. • On vehicle transporting bulk package(s), half or more of required ID numbers for each material are missing. • On vehicle transporting bulk package(s), any ID number misrepresents material being transported. • In Canada, required placards and markings don’t appear on all four sides of all large means of containment. • On bulk package, more than 25 percent of anchoring mechanisms are ineffective.

HOW DO YOU QUALIFY FOR A CVSA DECAL? A commercial vehicle may qualify for a CVSA decal if it “passes” inspection. “Passes” inspection means that during a Level I or V inspection, no defects are found of critical inspection items listed in the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) Out-ofService Criteria (OOSC). Defects that are noted during Months Color a Level I or Level January, February, March Green V inspection that April, May, June Yellow are not critical July, August, September Orange inspection items October, November, December White shall not affect “Pass Inspection” or decal qualification.

Corner Removal

• If both upper corners are removed, the decal was issued in the first month of the quarter. • If the upper right corner is removed, the decal was issued in the second month of the quarter. • If no corners are removed, the decal was issued in the third month of the quarter. • The decals are honored during the month of issuance plus the following two months.

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The following is an exerpt from How to Evaluate Life Cycle Costs, a manual produced by Commercial Carrier University and sponsored by Chevron Delo. CCU is an educational program produced by Commercial Carrier Journal that includes business management manuals, seminars aimed at improving management skills and a Website. For more information, visit


lthough some fleet managers might operate with few budget constraints, most live with financial limitations that may prevent them from replacing vehicles at the most economical time. At least twice a year, assess your fleet in light of any changes in the business, resale values, manufacturer incentives, and principal and interest costs. When you make this assessment, establish a priority ranking that will guide you through the replacement cycle. Any vehicle targeted for replacement should receive a physical inspection by operating, maintenance and specification professionals to determine whether it is feasible to extend the vehicle’s life with some added investment in maintenance and repair. A vehicle assessment report will help you develop a ranking system to determine which vehicles should be replaced first. Set priorities to determine which vehicles to replace with the available funds. The following method is one possible approach. If a vehicle is due for replacement, project the total cost of the unit for the following year and compare it with the proposed replacement price.



| APRIL 2014

The price difference indicates whether the vehicle is beyond its economic point of replacement. This priority ranking approach can be developed for an entire fleet by class of vehicle. If funding is available for equipment replacement, develop a replacement priority rating list to guide replacement decisions. To maintain the lowest vehicle cost and greatest vehicle availability, consider replacing older vehicles when the cost of operating and maintaining them is higher than the price of a new vehicle. Identifying such costs requires meticulous data entry. But once you do that you have a wealth of information in various formats that you can analyze and use to make the mostinformed equipment decisions. This is a basic concept of life-cycle costing and good business sense. Broadly speaking, life-cycle costing helps you measure and compare ownership costs with operating costs. The object is to replace an old vehicle just before incurring significant maintenance costs and after amortizing a large investment. Ownership costs represent the principal and interest costs incurred on a monthly basis until the vehicle is paid off. Ownership costs can be depreciated

(reduced on a fixed period, such as five years) until full value is reached. Operating and maintenance costs are familiar expenses. Operating costs include fuel, taxes and registration fees. Maintenance costs include labor and parts. You can track vehicle costs either manually or on a computer to accumulate life-cycle costs. Ownership costs are the most predictable. Maintenance and operating costs are less predictable, showing peaks and valleys. As the vehicle ages, additional costs are incurred. Measuring these additional costs allows you to predict future performance from historical information. Vehicle costs can be scheduled or unscheduled. Scheduled component costs are preferable, because they usually are lower than their unscheduled counterparts. Brake replacement is scheduled; brake repair is unscheduled. As you record and analyze vehicle costs, you can use historical data to predict costs for a new model in the same class. By modifying vehicle specifications, you can limit or minimize unnecessary future expenses. You might require higher-capacity alternators to lengthen the service life of electrical starting and charging systems. If one brand is more successful than another, incorporate the most cost-effective

COMMERCIAL CARRIER UNIVERSITY brand into the specifications. Although identifying such costs requires lots of data entry, you can then extract the statistical data in various forms and evaluate it. Grouping similar vehicles allows you to calculate a class average and compare individual units with this average. If a vehicle is below average, its historical cost trends, compared with the average for the class, will help determine an economical replacement time. Total unit costs are affected by each of the following costs and the rates at which they rise, alone and together: • Depreciation. This is the cost you incur due to the declining value of a vehicle as it ages. Equipment depreciates fastest early in its life. A new vehicle has higher principal and interest payments based on its higher purchase price. When the cost of borrowing money is high, when vehicle trade-in incentives or resale prices are low, and when a difficult economic climate affects business growth and profitability, a strong case

can be made for extended vehicle trade cycles. Resale values, due to supply of and demand for new vehicles, affect depreciation rates. Depreciation rates must be calculated and included in the annual analysis. Federal law allows taxpayers to use an accelerated depreciation method to recover the cost of acquiring and operating an asset. The method is called the modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS). It allows an asset to be depreciated on a double-decliningbalance method over the asset’s depreciable life. Tractors are three-year property in terms of depreciable life, for example, and trucks and trailers are five-year property. • Operations. These costs tend to increase gradually due to rising fuel prices, lower miles per gallon and related costs. • Maintenance. As vehicles age, the cost of servicing and maintaining rolling stock tends to increase. Controlling these costs through effective sched-

uled maintenance — including preventive maintenance inspections, driver support and timely component replacement — can help you keep these vehicles longer, provided they don’t become obsolete. • Downtime. When a truck sits idle due to a scheduled or unscheduled repair, it costs you money. These costs should be recorded and any unacceptable variations highlighted. Servicing a vehicle during nonuse periods eliminates downtime. • Obsolescence. When the vehicle can no longer perform its job, it is obsolete. Remove it from the fleet and replace it with a usable vehicle. Use the resale revenue to offset the purchase price of the new vehicle. • Inventory. Have the necessary consumables and components available to maximize vehicle availability with minimal inventory. • Life costs. This is the sum of fixed and variable expenses over time and mileage.

Commercial Carrier University is an educational initiative for owners and managers of trucking companies that are held at select Truckload Carriers Association events. We’re certain you will find this program a valuable resource in managing your business more easily and more profitably. CCU’s goal is to provide you with an in-depth road map for success through clear advice on basic and advanced business practices. CCU Titles Available: • How to Evaluate Life Cycle Costs • How to Manage Cashflow • How To Plan For Succession • How to Use Financial Statements • How To Write A Business Plan Produced by:

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Small APU Perrin Manufacturing’s Power Slim APU is a more compact version of its PowerCube APU and is built to fit the mounting space requirements of most sleeper cabs. The APU delivers 24,000 Btus of AC cooling strength and 30,000 Btus of heating power and is designed for quiet operation. The unit uses a two-cylinder Caterpillar CO.5i diesel power plant and has an integrated condenser. Units come with mounting hardware, a wire harness system, an integrated muffler, a fuel pickup apparatus, an under-bunk HVAC unit, flexible ductwork and a handheld digital temperature control unit. The device is available in custom colors to match cab bodies and also can be fully finished in chrome. Perrin Manufacturing,, 308-762-2975, Text INFO to 205-289-3554 or visit

Jump starter Clore’s JNCAIR 1,700-amp jump starter from Jump-N-Carry features a replaceable Clore Proformer battery designed to deliver high peak amps, extended cranking power and numerous jumps per charge. Its extra heavy-duty polyethylene case helps withstand tough work environments, while its industrial-grade Hot Jaw clamps help penetrate corroded battery terminals. The JNCAIR also features an integrated air delivery system equipped with a 12-foot air hose, a built-in air pressure gauge, a built-in charger and 68-inch cables. Clore Automotive,, 800-328-2921, Text INFO to 205-289-3554 or visit

LED headlamps Federal-Mogul’s Wagner Lighting offers LED sealed beam replacement headlamps for commercial applications. The long-lasting maintenance-free lamps are designed to help improve driving visibility in a full range of operating conditions. The lamps’ bulbfree LED design helps eliminate damage caused by road shock and vibration while projecting a brighter, whiter and crisper light that helps extends the driver’s field of vision. Federal-Mogul,, 248-354-7700, Text INFO to 205-289-3554 or visit commercial carrier journal | april 2014



Spring rewind reel Hannay’s N500 Series high-pressure spring rewind reel is designed for efficient hose handling in applications such as hydraulics, air/water and chassis grease. A compact frame and narrow base helps simplify installation on a truck door, on a wall or in a compartment. The reel has a heavy-duty spring motor, self-contained rewind power, a four-way roller assembly and a declutching arbor to help prevent damage from reverse winding. A nonsparking ratchet assembly locks the reel at the desired length of hose payout, and a pull on the hose unlocks the reel for the spring motor to retract it. Hannay Reels,, 877-467-3357, Text INFO to 205-289-3554 or visit

LED light fixture Larson’s explosion-proof 4-foot 4-lamp LED light fixture is approved for paint spray booths and designed to provide improved output and durability for areas where flammable petrochemical vapors and pulverized dust exist. The lightweight fixture has a slim profile and uses the company’s LED T series 24-watt lamps that produce 15 percent more foot-candles than the previous T8 configuration and are rated at 50,000 hours of service life. The fixture is multivoltage-capable and works on 120, 220, 240 and 277 volts AC. The lamp’s solid-state design and integral spring-loaded end sockets help provided added resistance to damage from vibrations and extreme temperatures. The L-bracket mounts can be adjusted to create angle mounts, and a single throughbolt can be used to secure the light. Larson Electronics,, 800-641-4122, Text INFO to 205-289-3554 or visit

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Color trailer camera ASA Electronics’ VCMS140IB color CMOS IR LED camera is designed to provide optimal blind zone visibility and features a compact one-piece molded construction to help simplify installation on a trailer. The waterproof unit is encased in an impact-resistant aluminum housing for added durability

to withstand dust, extreme temperatures and high-pressure water. Eight high-power LEDs help assist with low-light and high-bright situations. This unit also features high performance color optics and a microphone. ASA Electronics, www.asaelectronics. com, 877-305-0445, Text INFO to 205-2893554 or visit

Mobile wheel lift Rotary Lift’s MW-500 Mobile Wheel Lift is designed to remove and position any size wheel or tire weighing up to 500 pounds. The MW-500’s arms feature rollers built to allow the wheel to be rotated 360 degrees when aligning it with the hub; the arms are mounted on an offset column to help provide unobstructed access to the lug nuts. The wheel lift, capable of holding dually wheels, is powered by air and has a rise time of six seconds; it comes equipped with an air hose and features an additional air tool connection on the column, which also includes a parts tray. A single lever is used to raise and lower the wheel lift, while needle valves allow for adjusting raising and lowering speeds and a pressure regulator helps prevent overloading. The device rolls on four casters. Rotary Lift,, 800640-5438, Text INFO to 205-289-3554 or visit


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commercial carrier journal | april 2014

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MEETING THE BUSINESS NEEDS OF FLEET EXECUTIVES The goal of COMMERICAL CARRIER UNIVERSITY is to provide you with an in-depth road map for success through clear advice on basic and advanced business practices.

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Love’s Travel Stops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-388-0983 ext . 6761 . . . . 29

American Truck Historical Society . . . . . . . . . .816-891-9900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Maxion Wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-337-0457 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

American Truckers Legal Association . . . . . . .800-525-4285 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Minimizer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-248-3855 . . . . . . . . . .74, 81

Ancra International . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-929-2627 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

MobilDelvac1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .888-mobildelvac . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Award Company Of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-633-5953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

O’Reilly Auto Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Firstcallonline .com . . . . . . . . . 53

Cat Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .877-228-7225 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

PCS Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281-419-9500 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

CCJ Spring Symposium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .888-349-4287 . . . . . . . . . .44-45

Penske Truck Leasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .888-361-8978 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

CCJ Summer Symposium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .888-349-4287 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Peterbilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-473-8372 . . . . . . 24/25, BC

CCJ’s Innovators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-633-5953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

Petro Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-668-0220 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Commercial Carrier University . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-633-5953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Phillips 66 Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .877-445-9198 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

Cummins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-343-7357 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Prestone Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-890-2075 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

CVSA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cvsa .org/store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

ProMiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-324-8588 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

Deckmate @ Gateway Supply LLC . . . . . . . . . .800-633-5953 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Radiator Works . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .877-RAD-WORK . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Direct Equipment Supply Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-992-1478 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Rig Dig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-633-5953 . . . . . . 83, 87, 92

Elite Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .EliteSupportNetwork .com . . . 8

SAF-Holland Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .888-396-6501 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Ervin Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .877-873-6863 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

Sentry Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-373-6879 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Espar Heater Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-387-4800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Shell Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-231-6950 . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC

eTrucker Store . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-633-5953 . . . . . . . . . .82, 88

Smart Truck Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .866-986-8623 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Fitzgerald Truck Sales & Glide Kits . . . . . . . . . .866-553-0369 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Stay Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .855-867-3533 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

Fleet One . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .866-517-2537 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

TA-Petro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-632-9240 . . . . . . . . . .62, 71

Fleet Soft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-980-2555 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Thermo King . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312-670-1164 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

Fuel Surcharge Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409-697-2587 ext . 231 . . . . . 78

TSI/SSG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-223-4540 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Fumoto Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .707-545-7020 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

uDrove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .888-995-3192 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Gabriel Heavy Duty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-999-3903 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

UniPart Heavy Duty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .844-UNIPART . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-321-2136 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Utility Trailer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-874-6807 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Great American Truck Show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .888-349-4287 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Vipar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-494-4731 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Great Dane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .773-254-5533 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Volvo Trucks North America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336-393-2000 . . . . . . . . . . .IFC-1

Hankook Tire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .hankooktireusa .com . . . . . . . . 13

Water Cannon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-333-9274 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Howes Lubricator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-438-4693 . . . . . . . . . .17, 33

Windshield Cam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403-616-6610 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

iiX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-683-8553 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Xtra Lease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-325-1453 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Imperial Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-558-2808 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Zamzow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .800-451-7660 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 commercial carrier journal | april 2014



Preventable or not?

Lowered dock door ruins Doe’s day


n a sunny but chilly morning, trucker John Doe arrived at the Frugal Family Grocery Store in Denver with a trailer loaded with produce. After calling upon store personnel to raise the facility’s overhead door, Doe expertly backed his vehicle until it was positioned at the dock. At that point, while the trailer was completely under cover, about half of Doe’s tractor protruded beyond the building. While manager Sid Snorkelli directed the unloading process, Doe strolled into the store and – after a slight detour to acquire a fresh bag of celery snack sticks – headed for the deli section for a Fresh Frugal Coffee and a double order of Fantastic Frugal Fajitas. He wasn’t present in the dock area when the overhead door was John Doe didn’t notice an lowered partially, just above the overhead door had been level of his tractor’s roof, to help lowered partially before he minimize loss of heat from the began to exit the dock area and damaged both the door dock area. and his exhaust stack. Was When Doe returned to the this a preventable accident? dock, burping with pleasure from his tasty breakfast, he finalized the paperwork exchange with Snorkelli, climbed back into his cab, cranked up his Cummins and began to exit the … BLAM! CEREETCH!! Fragments of overhead door rained loudly on the cab, and to Doe’s horror, his beautiful triple-chromed exhaust stack had been bent into a “C” shape! Oh no!! Doe contested the warning letter for a preventable accident, claiming that Snorkelli should have warned him about the lowered door. Asked to resolve the dispute, the National Safety Council’s Accident Review Committee upheld the preventable ruling, noting that Doe should have checked clearances before attempting to depart the dock. A simple glance skyward would have revealed the danger.


commercial carrier journal | april 2014

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